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Biology Midterm Exam Review Guide The TOP 100 Questions

Scientific Inquiry and Biological Principles (Chapter 1)

1. What are the steps of the scientific method? Be sure you know the definition of
2. What are the independent and dependent variables in an experiment?
3. What are the control and experimental groups in an experiment?
4. Define the differences between a hypothesis, theory, and law.
5. Bonds in which electrons are shared are called __________.
6. Bonds in which electrons are either gained or lost are called ____________.
7. Reproduction which involves only one parent? Two parents?
8. The molecule in which the hereditary information is stored is called __________.
9. Distinguish between unicellular and multi-cellular.
10. What are the characteristics of life?
11. Parts of microscope: eyepiece, diaphragm, fine and coarse adjustment, high and
low power objective, stage, stage clips
12. What is the total magnification if the eyepiece is 10x and the low power is 4x,
medium 10x, and high is 45x?
13. What is the resolution of a microscope?
14. If you move the slide to the left on the stage, in what direction does it appear to
move as you look through the eyepiece?
15. Describe what happens to the field of view as you view an object on low power
and then on high power.
16. What are the differences between a compound light microscope, dissecting
microscope, and electron microscope? (in terms of magnification and uses)

Molecular Biology (Chapter 6)

17. What is pH?

18. Give an example of an acid, an example of a base.
19. What are the four Organic Compounds? List all 4 types and give 3 examples of
20. Compare and contrast Endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions.
21. What is an enzyme? How does it functioninclude a sketch and label the
substrate, enzyme, active site, and products.
22. What is the substance that reacts with an enzyme called?
23. How does an enzyme affect the Activation energy and rate of a chemical
24. What type of organic compound is an enzyme?
25. What happens to the effectiveness of an enzyme if it is heated or subjected to
extreme changes in pH?
26. What type of bonds do carbon atoms form? Amino acids? Nitrogenous bases?
27. What is the chemical formula and molecular structure for water? (draw and label)
28. What is polarity? Adhesion vs Cohesion? Capillarity?
29. List 3 foods that provide protein to humans. Lipids? Starch? Sugar?
30. How do we test (names of tests) for starch, monosaccharides, protein and lipids?
What does positive reactions look like for each of these tests?
31. Know what carbohydrates are and the difference between mono, di, and

Cells in Living Things (Chapter 7 and 39)

32. Who were Hooke and Leeuwenhoek?

33. What is the cell theory? List the 3 parts.
34. What were the contributions of Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow?
35. Distinguish between plant and animal cells. (3 major differences)
36. Sketch the organelles of the cell: nucleus, nucleolus, ER, ribosomes,
mitochondria, lysosomes, chloroplast, Golgi body, cell membrane, cell wall,
cytosol (cytoplasm), vacuoles, cilia, flagella, pseudopod, eyespot, contractile
37. What is the function of each organelle in #36?
38. What is the cell wall made of in plant cells? Fungi Cells?
39. Compare and contrast key characteristics of Plant, Animal, Bacterial, Fungi, and
Protist cells and organelles.
40. What are the functions of the following cells: Red Blood Cells, White Blood cells,
Helper T-Cells, and B-Cells.
41. What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? What are
examples of organisms of each of these types of cells?
42. Explain how the immune system works.
43. What are stem cells and what are the two different types of stem cells.
44. What are the levels of organization in multi-cellular organisms?

Energy in Living Systems (Section 8.1 and Chapter 9)

45. Define homeostasis.

46. When the concentration of solute (not water) outside and inside the cell is equal
the solution is said to be:
47. When the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is higher than the
concentration inside the cell, the solution outside the cell is said to be:
48. When the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than the
concentration inside of the cell, the solution outside is said to be:
49. Active and passive transport- what is the difference?
50. Osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion. (Define)
51. What are the jobs of carrier proteins?
52. What part of the cell is most important in maintaining homeostasis?
53. How does glucose enter the cell most quickly?
54. In what direction do molecules move in diffusion?
55. What is turgor pressure? Plasmolysis?
56. What is the name of the energy used by cells?
57. What happens to cells if left in salt water?
58. In what organelle does photosynthesis occur?
59. What are autotrophs?
60. What is the chemical formula for photosynthesis? Circle the reactants and
underline the products.
61. What are pigments and what is their function?
62. What does the rate of photosynthesis depend on?
63. How do green plants get the energy required for photosynthesis?
64. The process of using porous paper to separate molecules based on their size and
ability to dissolve in a solvent is called _________.
65. What are accessory pigments?
66. What are the 2 types of respiration?
67. Where does aerobic respiration take place? Anaerobic?
68. What is the purpose of cell respiration?
69. What type of fermentation occurs to produce beer and wine? Cheese?
70. What would be the most significant change in a cell if the mitochondria was
71. What organisms undergo cell respiration?
72. What is the difference in the amount of ATP produced in aerobic and anaerobic
73. Your muscles produce this when there isnt enough oxygen for aerobic
74. What causes bread to rise during alcoholic fermentation?
75. What is the chemical equation for cell respiration? Circle the reactants and
underline the products.

DNA & Cell Reproduction ( Chapter 11, Section 8.2,8.3, and 10.2 )

76. What is the structure of DNA?

77. What are nucleotides made of (3 parts)?
78. What are the bases of DNA? What are their complimentary RNA bases?
79. How is DNA different from RNA?
80. RNA is made from DNA in a process called:___________________
81. Where does transcription occur in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.
82. In translation, ____________ are assembled in the ________________.
83. What are the DNA, RNA nitrogen bases?
84. Distinguish between mRNA and tRNA in terms of function and structure.
85. What is a mutation? Distinguish between a point and frameshift mutation.
86. What are codons and anticodons?
87. What is the mRNA for the following DNA: TAC-AAA-TAG-CCG
88. What are the steps of mitosis in correct order?
89. What type of cells undergo mitosis, meiosis?
90. What phase has all the chromosomes lined up in the middle?
91. What occurs in interphase?
92. What is the end result of mitosis, meiosis?
93. What are gametes?
94. What is cytokinesis?
95. How many chromosomes are in a human diploid cell? Haploid?
96. What is crossing over, where does it occur?
97. What do these represent? XX XY
98. Why is sexual reproduction important to genetic variation?
99 Where does genetic variation come from?
(Crossing over.. independent assortment...Mutation..)
100. What is special about the chromosomes of a human with Down's Syndrome?

Pictures you should familiarize yourself with:

The microscope, The Independent(x-axis) and Dependant variable (y-axis) on a
graph, Endothermic and Exothermic Reaction Graphs, prokaryotic and eukaryotic
cells, plant and animal cells, Bacteria, Fungal cells (Yeast unicellular and
multi-cellular Hyphae),Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium, T-Cells, B-Cells, Red and
White Blood Cells, enzymes and substrates, the water molecule, cells in hyper, iso,
and hypotonic solutions, lipid bi-layer of the cell membrane, The Carbon Cycle, parts
of the chromosome, karyotype, stages of mitosis, nucleotides (both DNA and RNA )
DNA molecule, mRNA, transcription, translation, tRNA, nucleotide, the codon chart,
ATP molecule, stages of meiosis, graphs the rate of photosynthesis