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Proceedings of the Tenth (2000) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Seattle, USA, May 28-June 2, 2000


Copyright 2000 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers
ISBN 1-880653-46-X (SeO; ISBN 1-880653-48-6 (Vol. H); ISSN 1098-6189 (Set)

A New Buckle Arrestor for Reeled Pipe-in-Pipe

Antoine H. Bastard
Coflexip Stena Offshore
Aberdeen, United Kingdom

Abstract od: Small Scale Flowline external diameter

A new buckle arrestor for pipe-in-pipe (PIP) was developed and Propagation pressure
tested by the Coflexip Stena Offshore Group, one of the most ?.y Cross-over pressure
experienced in rigid reeled and deepwater technologies. It allows
reeled installation, giving a time advantage over other installation wt Small Scale Carrier wall thickness
methods, and allows design against propagation buckling. wt f Small Scale Flowline wall thickness
It consists of a local injection of a material in the PIP annulus.
If not mentioned in the above nomenclature, notations in capital letters
Material injection on the vessel ramp during laying is base case.
refer to full-scale pipes.
Experiments on epoxy and full scale injections were performed to
optimize the cure time, a critical parameter. Buckle tests were
Introduction and objectives
performed and proved the high performance of the arrestor.
Comparison with Finite Element analysis is made. The effect of the
Pipelines used in deepwater are usually coated with insulation layers in
arrestor on the PIP thermal performance is detailed. Extensive
order to reduce the formation of wax due to heat loss. In some cases,
developments such as waterstop and bulkhead functions as well as
conventional coatings are replaced with PIP systems, which provide
pre-reeling installation are discussed.
higher insulation. The PIP is composed of a carrier pipe (the external
pipe) and a fiowline (the inner pipe). The carrier provides a mechanical
Key Words: Buckle arrestor; Pipe-in-Pipe; Reeling; Injection;
protection. The gap between the two pipes provides the insulation of
Deepwater; Waterstop; Bulkhead
the flowline and is filled with insulation material. Centralisers fixed on
the flowline at regular intervals are often used to maintain the flowline
Nomenclature
centrally.
Excessive loads, dents induced during laying of a pipeline or impact of
g Radial gap small scale carrier pipe / flowline an object will reduce the collapse pressure of the pipe and can lead to
h Film coefficient for the water / carrier boundary its collapse (Park and Kyriakides, 1996; Yeh and Kyriakides, 1986;
Corona and Kyriakides, 1988). The buckle will then propagate (Dyau
h, Film coefficient for the fluid / flowline boundary
and Kyriakides, 1993) at a pressure known as the propagation pressure
i4 Small Scale Carrier internal diameter until the hydrostatic pressure is lower than the propagation pressure or
until it encounters a buckle arrestor. In the case of a PIP, the collapse
id r Small Scale Flowline internal diameter
of the carrier can cause the collapse of the flowline and the buckle will
k Carrier pipe thermal conductivity propagate in the two pipes until the buckle propagation in the carrier is
k Epoxy thermal conductivity stopped. When the buckle of the carrier pipe results in wall cracking
("wet buckle"), the annulus gets flooded; this prevents the buckle
k: Flowline thermal conductivity propagation of the carrier pipe but the buckle of the flowline can
l< Small Scale Carrier length propagate if the hydrostatic pressure is sufficient. In some cases, for
high stiffness values of the flowline, the buckle will only propagate on
l: Small Scale Flowline length the carrier pipe.
L Pipe length Buckle arrestors have been studied for years and different concepts
have been proven to be efficient. Clamp-on arrestor use is limited by
L Buckle arrestor length
the confined propagation pressure (Kyriakides and Youn, 1984;
c Arrestor spacing Kyriakides, 1986), the pressure at which the buckle will take a U-shape
od Small Scale Carrier external diameter and propagate through a perfectly rigid cylinder (Langner, 1999).

205
Injected epoxy buckle arrestor time for making the buckle arrestor.

Coflexip Stena Offshore (CSO) have developed and patented a unique Testing
buckle arrestor for reelable PIP systems. The present buckle arrestor
consists of locally injecting in the annulus of a PIP a material when the Material tests. Different epoxies from different companies were
PIP is on the vessel ramp prior to immersion, using a material with a evaluated after which a two-part epoxy developed by Ciba Specialty
short cure time (short cure time is critical to minimize impact on lay Chemicals for CSO was chosen. It has a high Young's modulus in
speed). The first place where buckles can appear is during installation compression, no creep and a low thermal conductivity. Its curing time
when the pipe reaches the sagbend. At that position, the buckle arrestor and viscosity can be reduced by injecting at higher temperature and
needs to have its designed strength. For reel-lay decpwater installation because of the mass effect.
where buckle arrestors are required, the time between the pipe Tests were needed to determine the required temperature to reach
immersion and the sagbend position is estimated to be about 30 acceptable curing time and to check that no runaway of the reaction
minutes. occurs since the reaction is exothermic. The tests were performed in
The following properties are required for the material to be injected: CSO facility in Le Trait, France.
- high compressive Young's modulus It was necessary to validate the hypotheses that:
- short curing lime - the curing time decreases with initial increase of temperature
- no creep to provide long term strength - the mass effect can activate the reaction and will not lead to
- low thermal conductivity in order to limit heat loss uncontrolled exothermy
The offshore injection solution has the advantage of being suitable for - once the peak temperature is reached, the material has gained enough
reel-lay method. It allows for long and stiff arrestors to be made. There strength and can be cooled down
is no significant gap between the arrestor and the two pipes. The
arrestor gets its strength on combining the stiffness of both pipes plus S m a l l Scale tests
injected material and thus act as a composite structure. A first set of experiments were carried out to check that increased
An alternative solution consists of injecting onshore a material with a injection temperature was significantly reducing the curing time. The
long pot life which would then cure on the vessel ramp by induction resin and its hardener were heated to a certain temperature
heating for instance when the pipe is being laid. One-part epoxies with (respectively 20, 40 and 60C). They were then mixed and poured in
a cure time of about 10 min. used in induction bonding were plastic containers with a 50 mm diameter and a 50 mm height. The
considered. A problem is that when used in large quantity they develop temperature evolution with time was recorded by thermocouples
exothermy which can lead to complete deterioration of the epoxy. placed in the core of the specimens. A summary of the results is
The offshore injection of a two-part epoxy was chosen after a detailed reported in table 1. This first set of experiments showed a very
evaluation of the different solutions. Other materials such as significant decrease in time for peak apparition when the epoxy is
polyurethane and fast set concrete were considered. A problem with heated and then mixed. The peak value is also increased and a check
polyurethane was creep. Fast setting concrete are usually very viscous that the material properties are not affected was needed.
and would not be easy to inject. Concrete has a lot of shrinkage
especially with a high water content, which could affect the efficiency
of the arrestor. Material tests on epoxy are discussed in the next 'Mixing Time for Peak Peak Value
section. Temperature apparition
20C (68F) 18 rain. 153C (307F)
40C (104F) 6 rain. 30 sec. 179C (354F)
2 60C (140V) 1 min. 30 sec. 209C (408F)

3 Table 1. Time for peak temperature occurrence

Experiments were carried out to investigate the mass effect on the


reaction. Figure 2 shows the temperature history for different moulds
filled in with epoxy initially at 40C. The larger the volume, the larger
the exothermy. The time for apparition of the peak is not significantly
modified by the volume tested. The results are reported in table 2.

Figure I. Drawing of the buckle arrestor


+

The buckle arrestor (figure 1) is confined between two seals (4) placed
in the annulus of the PIP. The seals can be rubber or Nylon seals. Their
main function is to ensure that the injected material (3) will not leak
while liquid. Between the two seals, an armor (a space frame for
instance) can also be installed between the carrier (1) and the flowline
(2) to provide additional strength.
Detailed construction procedures are being developed. These include
0 ~ 10 is 2o 2s
onshore work for installing the seals at the end of the PIP and offshore Tlar,e Imlnl

work for making tapped holes for injection, injecting the epoxy, [ .?~:~m,v-oo~ ~a~m2O,,..?.'.,o.o~ .d~m,,,o.',..,.v-o.oa ,d~.~:~,O.,,,~,V-O.~ +d~:gO,,,,~.V-O~

closing the holes and allowing for cure on ramp. The offshore work
can be combined with installing anodes in order to reduce the effective Figure 2. Temperature evolution for different volumes mixed at 40C

206
As the injection tests were performed before the buckling tests, it was
Diameter(mm) Length(mm) Volume(I) Peak chosen to assume a maximum arrestor length of 4 times the carrier
Temperature external diameter. Injection tests were made with arrestor lengths
18 190 0.05 150C (300F) between 2 and 4 times the carrier external diameter.
No peak Thermocouples were mounted on the pipe surfaces and in the epoxy,
20 32 0.01
as shown in figure 4.
40 47 0.06 170C (340F)
50 55 0.11 180C (360F)
90 60 0.38 194C (380F)

Table 2. Mass effect (mixing at 40C)

A series of tests was run to investigate the effect of mixing temperature


and cooling on the material properties. The 40 mm high test samples
were made in 40 mm diameter plastic containers. Epoxy was mixed at
20, 40 and 60C. The samples were left to cure at room temperature for
10 minutes and then some were submerged in 10C water while the
rest was left to cure in air at room temperature. The samples were left
for a few hours. They were then compressed and their mechanical
properties were recorded.

~ao

~ao

120
i i.
u

4O

2O

0
_ , t _

j Figure 4. Test sample type 1


lO 15 20 zs ~
The tests with samples type 1 were made in order to study what
happens when the heat transfer only occurs radially, i.e. in the middle
length of the buckle arrestor. Three injections were made with the resin
Figure 3. Cure in air and cure in water after l0 minutes in air and hardener at temperatures of respectively 30C (90F) for injection
1, 45C (110F) for injection 2 and 35C (100F) for injection 3. The
Figure 3 compares the temperature evolution for a sample curing in air pipes were maintained in vertical position. Around 17 liters of epoxy
and one submerged in 10C water after a 10 min. cure in air (i.e. 2 were injected. The third sample was immersed in cold water after a 12
minutes after the peak temperature) for a 40C mixing temperature. minute cure in air, as would happen during laying.
Young's modulus values between 4.4 and 6.1 GPa and maximum The temperature of the epoxy did not increase at the same time
compressive strains between 13 and 17% were measured. Stress values everywhere. This can be explained by the fact that the injection was
at 5% strain between 155 and 170 MPa were measured for all relatively slow and by the way the injected material flows. In injection
specimens cooled in air whereas cooling in water led to slightly 2, it was observed that the epoxy was hard everywhere 9 minutes affter
smaller values (no more than 10 MPa difference). The samples cooled the injection was completed.
in air had an ultimate stress of 200 MPa. Ultimate stress values for The maximum temperature recorded on the carrier pipe outer surface
samples cured in air were similar to the one for samples submerged in was 80C, which should not damage any coating. In each of the tests, a
water in the 60C experiments and larger by 30 and 50 MPa for maximum temperature of 160C (320F) was measured in the epoxy.
respectively the 40C and 20C experiments. The large difference for A very small gap between the carrier pipe and the cured epoxy was
the 20C samples can be explained by the fact that the peak observed on the top of all test samples. The shrinkage varies along the
temperature was not reached before the samples were submerged. PIP and around the section (figure 5), with maximum shrinkage on the
From the results from 40 and 60C it can be stated that when peak injection side all along the carrier and no shrinkage on the opposite
temperature has been reached and the material is cooled down in cold side. No shrinkage of the epoxy was noticed at the contact with the
water, the mixing temperature and the cooling do not significantly flowline.
affect the material properties. As a result of the shrinkage, the buckle arrestor as such cannot be used
as a waterstop.
Full Scale tests The tests with samples type 2 were made in order to study what
Full scale tests on steel PIP were performed in order to measure the happens in reality when the heat generated by the reaction is conducted
temperature the epoxy would reach and how fast it would cure when radially and axially by the steel pipes. The pipes were held vertically
used in large volume. resting on the steel plate. Epoxy was then injected (resin @ 41C /
Full scale injections were performed on PIP composed of a carrier with 1060F and hardener @ 40C / 104F) on a length of 1.2 m above a seal
323.9 mm (12 3A in) external diameter, 14.3 mm (0.563 in) wall placed at 40 cm above the bottom plate. The test sample was cooled
thickness and a flowline with 219. I mm (8.626 in) external diameter, down with water after a 8 minute cure in air. The epoxy was hard 6
12.7 mm (0.5 in) wall thickness. The samples are referred as "sample minutes after the injection. The maximum temperature recorded was
type 1" (700 m m - 27.56 in long, figure 4) and "sample type 2", (2000 155C (311F).
m m - 78.74 in long).
207
od OD: oct: O0 oa
ODe .___
wl
wr C WT: wt : OD : oats
18.62 19.05 13.78 15.21 1.62 1.57

Table 5. Comparison

ODe OD: WT: G Scale


factor
od e wto od: wt f g
3.11 3.18 3.00 3.31 3.35 1/3.2

Table 6. Scale factor

soo

4oo MoLl

Figure 5. Shrinkage (sample 3, epoxy depth 300mm)


i
300 EKt:~,,~ t

The injection tests have shown that it was possible to get a short cure
time of the epoxy by increasing the initial temperature of the resin and
hardener. This did not lead to uncontrolled exothermy and did not
affect the material properties.
The tests were limited by the flow rate of the injection machine (the
00.0 19 20 30 4,0 s.O 60 70
maximum flow rate was 2.6 l/min.). The injection temperature had to stmJ. ( ~ )
be relatively low in order to allow for a complete injection before the
epoxy cures. In production, high flow rate injection machines
(typically 10 1/min.) could be used as the epoxy is less viscous at high Figure 6. Material stress-strain curves
temperature. They would allow for higher initial temperatures and
therefore much shorter cure times. The tests were conducted at the University of Texas at Austin. The
For a specific project (pipe sizes, environment, arrestor length), it is pressure vessel had a 7 in (178 mm) internal diameter, a 13 ft (4 m)
recommended to perform injection tests to find the highest temperature working length and a maximum pressure of 9,000 psi (62 MPa).
that would lead to the peak of temperature appearing just after the The test preparation was as follows. The carrier pipes and flowlines
injection is completed. were cut in length of respectively 114 in and 101 in. Tensile tests were
made on strips. The pipe dimensions were measured. End plugs were
Buckle arrestor tests. Tables 3 to 6 compare the different dimensions glued to the flowline. A Nylon seal and two Nylon spacers were fitted
and parameters between the small scale model and the full scale PIP. on the flowline. The flowline was placed inside the carrier pipe and the
The carrier pipe material was X52, the flowline material was SS-304. position of the seal was adjusted and measured through holes made in
The stress-strain curves are shown in figure 6. the spacers. One 1/8" NPT hole was made on the carrier pipe close to
the seal. One end plug was fitted to one extremity of the carrier so that
when the assembly was placed vertical on it the injection hole is above
od wt od: wt : I g the seal. The assembly was secured. The epoxy was weighted, mixed
mm 114.3 6 73 4.8 14.65 and poured into the cylinder tank for injection. The injection was
In 4.5 0.237 2 7/8 0.188 0.577 performed using a manual pump. When the cylinder was empty, the
plastic hose was clamped and the epoxy left for cure. The length of the
buckle arrestor was measured. The end plugs were glued to the carrier
Table 3. Small scale tests dimensions
and one dent was made on the carrier pipe between the seal and the end
plug prior to pressure test.
The tests were quasi static. The PIP system was placed inside the
OD WT OD : WT: G pressure vessel. The pressure was increased until it reached the
mm 355.6 19.1 219.1 15.9 49.15 collapse pressure of the dented section. The pressure then dropped to
I
in !14 0.752 8 0.626 !.935 the propagation pressure of the PIP ( Pe )" When the buckle reached the
arrestor, the pressure was increased until the buckle crossed the
Table 4. PIP being modelled arrestor. This pressure is known as the cross-over pressure ( Pv )-
Table 7 details the results of the four tests.

208
Test number I L (in) ' Pe (psi) P (psi)
ode
l 4.5 1,700 5,600 1
2 10.25 1,770 5,470 2.3
3 3.25 1,700 4,960 0.7
4 2.75 1,740 5,400 0.6

Table 7. Summary of test results

In test 1 (figure 7) and in test 3, the buckle crossed the buckle arrestor
with a flip-flop mode, making a 90 degree angle with the upstream
buckle, whereas in test 4 it crossed with a fiat mode (same orientation
as the upstream buckle). In test 2 (figure 8), the buckle crossed with an
angle of about 40 degree with the upstream buckle. With integral
buckle arrestors, crossing with an angle different from 0 or 90 degrees
means that the pressure reached the collapse pressure of the pipe. In
the present case, the collapse pressure of the carrier pipe is estimated to
be in the neighborhood of 6,700 psi. Possible reasons for this crossing
are the deformation of the epoxy, the small gap due to shrinkage and
thickness variations around the pipe section.
In the small scale buckling tests performed, the injection hole was
placed with an angle of 45 degrees with the buckle, i.e. at the place
where the strain is minimal. However, no large strains were achieved
on the buckle arrestor, i.e. the portion of carrier pipe above the epoxy
did not have obvious deformations. Therefore, crack occurrence on the
carrier pipe should be a very unlikely event.
One arrestor was cut longitudinally in order to inspect the epoxy. No Figure 8. Buckle test 2
crack was observed.
The tests showed that there was no need for having arrestors longer Finite Element Analysis
than 1 0 D . If such small arrestors can be reeled, this will negate the
Abaqus finite element software was used to model the PIP collapse,
need for offshore injection. A study on onshore injection of epoxy, propagation buckling (Park and Kyriakides, 1997) and arrestor
including bending tests and Finite Element Analysis, is ongoing. crossing.
The pipes were discretized by three-dimensional, 27 node, quadratic
brick elements (C3D27). In the axial direction, 20 elements were used.
Element length was equal to the arrestor length. Eight elements were
used in the circumferential direction to discretize the 90 degree sector
analyzed, each of them representing a 11.25 degree portion. One
element was used in the thickness of the pipes sections.
The arrestor was discretized by three-dimensional, 8 node, linear brick
elements (C3D8), connecting the carrier and the flowline, 16 elements
were used in the circumferential direction, and 2 in the axial direction.
The contact between the carrier inner surface and the fiowline outer
surface was modelled. A rigid surface (R3D4 elements) was
introduced to model the contact between the walls when the flowline is
collapsed.
Because of symmetry, no axial movement of the model end where the
dent was made was allowed. The other end radial and circumferential
displacements were fixed but axial displacement was allowed.
Symmetry conditions were applied to the 90 degrees section.
Figure 6 compares experimental data and Abaqus models for the steel
materials. Non-linear material model was also used for the epoxy.
The model assumes that the filling material nodes remain connected to
the pipes. No initial ovality nor thickness variation were modelled. The
Poisson's ratio of the epoxy was not measured. It was assumed to be
0.3.
The finite element model was run for the 3.25 in long arrestor. A dent
was made to the carrier pipe at the end where axial movement was
fixed by prescribing a 5 mm vertical displacement of the top node and
then relaxing the displacement constraint. The pressure was then
applied until it reached the collapse pressure of the dented carrier,
which was the pressure at which the equilibrium equations could no
Figure 7. Buckle test 1 longer converge.

209
The modified Riks method as implemented in Abaqus (Hibbitt,
Karlsson and Sorensen) combined with the Restart option was then
used to follow the loading history.
Figure 9 details the pressure evolution versus increment number in the
quasi-static analysis simulating the third buckle test. The collapse
pressure of the dented section was found to be slightly above 35 MPa.
When the collapse started, the pressure dropped to the propagation
pressure which is the plateau in figure 9, The propagation pressure of
the PIP system was found to be 13.5 MPa (1,960 psi) which is ! 1%
higher than the highest propagation pressure measured in the tests.
When the buckle reached the arrestor (figure 10 (a)), the pressure was
increased until it crossed the arrestor (figure 10 (b)). The buckle
crossed the arrestor at a pressure of 43.0 MPa (6,200 psi), which is (a) o)
25% higher than the measured cross-over pressure. However, the
cross-over pressure in the 3 rd test should have been higher than in the Figure 10. Deformed shape : (a) buckle stopped, (b) buckle crossed
4 th test and therefore the difference between the test results and the
model less than 15%. Thermal Analysis
The error on propagation pressure value is due partly to wall thickness
variation which was not included in the model. The experiments also The effect of the epoxy arrestor on the thermal performance of the
showed a variation in the propagation pressure measurements (Table pipe-on-pipe was studied.
7). Thermal conductivity tests on the epoxy were made, and a value of
The relatively large difference in the cross-over pressure is in part due 0.879 W/m-K was measured at 23C.
to the way the epoxy was modelled. The nodes of the solid elements A PIP with a fluid in the flowline at a temperature T~ is submerged in
used to model the epoxy are common to the steel pipes, assuming that water at a temperature T~. Because of heat loss due to the presence of
the epoxy always remains stitched to the pipes. The length of carrier
epoxy in the annulus, the temperature of the inner surface of the
pipe downstream the buckle arrestor was small (6.5 oat c) and the
fiowline is locally at a temperature T2 colder than the rest of the
effect of the end plug has contributed to the increase of cross-over
flowline. For a PIP with the annulus completely filled with epoxy, the
pressure, Also the material model used for the epoxy might not be very
accurate as variation in the compressive tests were observed. The temperature T2 can be determined by combining the following
Nylon seal was not modelled. However, when the test specimen was equations (Chapman):
cut, it was obvious that the Nylon seal had an influence on the results. q = n" L I O f h i (T~ - T 2) (Eq. I)
It allowed for a smooth transition, allowing the buckle to cross more
easily than in the case the Nylon was not there and the buckle would 2 z c L (T~ - T,)
q=
have tended to get a sharp angle with the epoxy (figure 10 (a)). ODe
In( O o f ) ln( I / 9 _)
2 ID s ODj ln( - I- D ) 2
"4 + + +
~c o
I D r tl k/ ke kc OlD h
a~ o (Eq. 2)
ao o

350 For a 12"-15.9 mm wt steel carrier, a 8"-15.9 mm wt steel flowline, for


ioo! Tt = 1 0 0 C and T ~ = 5 C , assuming h i = 1 0 0 0 W/m-C (hot oil)
250

20e
and h e = 100 W/m-C (water), T2 = 97.5 C.
150
A simple finite element model was made to evaluate the temperature
T2 in the case of a 2 0 D long arrestor. The temperature was found
eo . . . . to be the same as the one for the annulus completely filled with epoxy.
co,
50
.

~00
.

1"~
. .

2~0
.

~
. .

~m 3~o
The same finite element model was used to evaluate the temperature
I n o ~
T2 in the case of a steel bulkhead with a length of 0 . 5 0 D and the
temperature was found to be very similar to the one determined with
eq. l, 87.9C. The epoxy arrestor leads to a higher T2 value than a
Figure 9. Pressure history (Abaqus model)
steel bulkhead.
A tool was developed to model and predict the behavior of the epoxy The total rate of heat flow for a length L of PIP can be estimated as :
arrestor. Further improvements should lead to more accurate results.
q,o,~l Jq dr Lo qo L ~
=' L =q.(1-~+~-~) (Eq. 3)

Where qo and q. are the rate of heat flow o f respectively a L. long


PIP with annulus filled with arrestor material (epoxy) and a L,~ - L .
long PIP with empty annulus (filled with air), and are determined from
eq. 2. The arrestor will be placed at large intervals, typically 300-500
m. L = 3 0 0 m a n d L = 2 0 D leadto q,o,oJq, = 0 . 9 9 8 .

210
As the OHTC is proportional to q,o,o~, the arrestor does not have a Conclusions
significant effect on the PIP OHTC.
The following conclusions can be drawn:
As a conclusion of this thermal study, it can be stated that the presence
of an epoxy arrestor does not have a significant effect on the PIP Clamp-on arrestors are usually the solution for installing buckle
thermal performance. arrestors in the reeling method. However, this solution is limited
by the confined propagation pressure, i.e. the pressure at which a
Unique advantages buckle will propagate through a perfectly rigid pipe. The injected
buckle arrestor is a solution for extending the arrestor use range
for PIP systems.
Deepwater applications
The propagation pressure of the carrier pipe alone was measured to be Injection trials have shown that it was possible to reach
1,240 psi. Design codes are based on the carrier propagation pressure acceptable cure time without affecting the material properties.
and do not take into account of increase of propagation pressure for Buckle tests proved that very high cross-over pressure could be
PIP. Clamp designs based on codes and experimental results obtained reached for relatively small arrestor length.
with the injected buckle arrestor and with a clamp are compared. The epoxy arrestor can be used in combination with seals to
Recommendations from Langner (1999) would give a propagation provide a deepwater waterstop. Development is ongoing.
pressure of 1,058 psi for the carrier pipe and a limitation of the clamp Further developments include reelability of small epoxy arrestors
use to 2,540 psi, which is 2.2 times lower than the cross-over pressure injected and cured onshore as this would not involve offshore
obtained with the injected buckle arrestor. A clamp-on arrestor was work and would allow for inspection. Finite element analysis and
tested on the PIP assembly and the cross-over pressure was measured full scale bending tests have shown that this solution was feasible
to be 4,380 psi, the buckle crossing with a U-shape. The epoxy buckle but the results were not presented in this paper.
arrestor can lead to higher cross-over pressure than clamps (therefore
higher water depth). Acknowledgements
Waterstopfunction
Because of the shrinkage of the epoxy during curing, the arrestor by The author would like to acknowledge Dr S. Kyriakides of The
itself can not be used as a waterstop. However, it can be used as a University of Texas at Austin, A. Dujarric of Ciba Specialty Chemicals
support for seals, preventing seal extrusions. V-shape seals such as and the personnel of CSO in Aberdeen, Le Trait and Evanton for their
chevron seals could be fitted in the PIP annulus, against the epoxy. input in this paper.
Load Transfer
The arrestor will transfer load from the carrier to the flowline, acting as References
a bulkhead.
Cost saving Chapman, A.J. "Heat transfer", Maxwell Macmillan international
Designing against collapse rather than propagation buckling leads to editions, Fourth edition, pp 51-52.
important savings on steel cost. The time required for the injection in
the reeled PIP is negligible compared to welding of an integral buckle Corona, E. and Kyriakides, S. (1988). "On the Collapse of inelastic
arrestor. Fitting of a ring (slip-on arrestor) and then welding on other Tubes under Combined Bending and Pressure", Int. J. Solids
installation methods is also time consuming. The cost of the epoxy Structures, Vol. 24, No 5, pp 505-535.
material needed for the buckle arrestor is cheap compared to other
solutions such as clamp-on or tapers. Dyau, J.Y. and Kyriakides, S. (1993). "On the propagation pressure of
Buckle arrestor for both carrier andflowline long cylindrical shells under external pressure", Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol
Another advantage is that the epoxy can be considered as a buckle 35, No 8, pp. 675-713.
arrestor for both the carrier and the flowline.
Pre-reeling installation Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen, Abaqus Theory Manual, Version 5.7,
This aspect is discussed in the conclusion and although not further 2.3-2
addressed in this paper, work on this option is ongoing at present.
Kyriakides, S. and Youn, S.K. (1984). "On the Collapse of Circular
Design recommendations Confined Rings under External Pressure", Int. J. Solids Structures,
Vol. 20, No 7, pp 699-713.
The following procedure is recommended:
Kyriakides, S. (1986). "Propagating Buckles in Long Confined
Determine the arrestor length needed with finite element
Cylindrical Shells", Int. J. Solids Structures, Vol. 22, No 12, pp 1579-
simulation and validate with small scale testing
1597.
Optimize injection temperature and flow rate in order to minimize
the stop on the ramp.
Langner, C (1999). "Buckle Arrestors for deepwater pipelines", OTC
It is important to know if the buckle arrestor was properly installed.
10711.
Relatively easy inspection checks can be made. Temperature rise on
the carrier outside surface means that the seal did not leak and that the
Park, T-D and Kyriakides, S (1997). "On the performance of integral
epoxy is curing. Epoxy samples should be taken before or after each
buckle arrestors for offshore pipelines", International Journal of
injection, left for cure and then mechanically tested to check that the
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