3 views

Uploaded by nkumar_488121

033

- Dynamic Absolute Kinematic ViSCOSITY
- 32-46-68
- Multiphase Pipelining
- Milk Process Simulation
- Steiner's Division by planes
- AFM08 2012
- Fluid Mechanics Ppt
- Fluids Notes
- 15-1-112-1-10-20161125 (1)
- MDV3-VVUQ-v0.5
- sdfgdg
- Steady Stokes Flow
- Abstracts
- paper for boiler
- Stad en Main
- 1-407-1
- PM4
- strang linesandplanes exercises
- Hedland Variable Area Flow Meters and Flow Switches Brochure Vam-br-00714-En
- lec

You are on page 1of 7

SUNG KUK SOH a n d CHIN J U I CHANG

C h e m i c a l and P o l y m e r Engineering D e p a r t m e n t

U n i v e r s i t y of Detroit

Detroit, M i c h i g a n 48221

cavities with a power-law fluid is derived. The interaction

between upstream delivery channel flow and cavity flow

results in a continuously changing gate condition as the

total viscous dissipation of the delivery channel-cavity

assembly is minimized. Depending upon the relative mag-

nitude of pressure drops or viscous dissipation across the

channel and the cavity, the boundary conditions which

determine the cavity filling process will lie between the

following two limiting cases: a Cauchy type gate condition

such that the location of the melt front is completely

determined by the upstream flow: a Cauchy type melt front

condition in which the gate condition is controlled by the

downstream flow. For most injection molding cases this

may be manifested as equilibration of dissipation density

on the melt front. Experimentally observed melt front

locations from isothermal, Newtonian filling of a constant

gap rectangular cavity and of a bi-gap rectangular cavity

are reported and the validity of the limiting cases are

tested.

athematical modeling of the injection mold- Chung (9)assigned both pressure and flux con-

M filling process has been attempted by nu-

merous investigators, as reviewed by Gremela

ditions.

Isobars and constant flux lines on and near a

(1). Most published models ( 1 -9) deal with thin

gate may change continuously during the mold-

filling process as a result of interaction between

cavities governed by a quasi-static pressure

delivery channel and cavity fluid mechanics,

field equation, but their applicability is limited

making it difficult to develop a model which is

to flat cavities. Wang, et al. (18)extended the

applicable over a wide range of processing con-

applicability of flat cavity equations by a lay-

ditions. Two limiting cases of the delivery chan-

flat process. This may be useful when the cavity

nel-cavity interaction are discussed in this pa-

geometry is simple in the sense that only a few

per.

new cavity walls are created in the process of

laying a cavity flat, i.e., by bending and cutting

GOVERNING EQUATION

open the edges of the cavity. Otherwise the

abundance of permeable pseudo-edges may cre- A governing equation for a cavity-filling with

ate numerical and programming complications. a power-law fluid is derived. It will be assumed

A more general field equation applicable to var- that the cavity plane is curved, but is suffi-

iable-gap thin cavities lying on a curved plane ciently thin everywhere so that the usual thin

is proposed, which may be used alone or in cavity approximation (8, 9) is applicable. Con-

conjunction with the lay-flat process. sider the projection of such a curved, variable

The boundary condition at the gate of the gap, thin cavity onto a flat plane. For a simply

cavity has not been carefully studied in the connected cavity plane as shown in Fig. 1, the

literature. It appears that there is no consensus projection is straight-forward onto a Cartesian

on a suitable gate condition. For the case of a x-y plane. For a multiple connected cavity plane

side-gated rectangular cavity, Kamal, et al. (8) such as one shown in Fig. 2, the mapping onto

prescribed a flux condition, Krueger, et al. (5)a a circular cylinder followed by zipper-opening

S . S o h a n d C. C h a n g

/

G-- _ _

/PO I E L l ION I IhNI

2I

Fig. 2. Equivalent projection onto cylinder.

tained (6).

aP - aq au;

I PROJECT I ON PLANE (3)

ax; az az

where P is pressure, z the gapwise axis, and q

the viscosity. Equation 3 transforms to the local

,/ projection coordinates as,

/'

the cylinder yields a projection equivalent to one Upon double integrating Eq 4 with the bound-

which is onto a flat plane. The derivation given ary conditions,

here is in terms of the simply-connected case, dUi

and thus is applicable to a wide range of cavi- - -- 0 at z = O

dZ

(5)

ties.

Assuming that the tangent of the cavity plane ui= 0 at z = H(x,y) (6)

is not perpendicular to the projection plane any-

where in the cavity, it is possible to establish a one obtains a n expression for the velocity field:

local Cartesian coordinate system on each plane

with mutually orthogonal base vectors; (7)

ei.ey = hisi, 11) For a variable gap cavity, the equation of con-

where ei, and ej, are the based vectors and the tinuity must be obtained in terms of volume

primed and unprimed coordinate systems rep- flux across the half-gap H (13),

resent a cavity plane and a projection plane,

respectively. hl is a scale factor and 6, the Kro-

necker delta.

Transformation from a local projected coor-

dinate to a global projected coordinate involves Defining the conductance, A, as

a rotation of the coordinates, but will not be

pursued in detail as the observations made for (9)

one coordinate system are applicable to an-

other. the continuity equation becomes

A s only thin cavities are considered here, a

cavity volume under a projection is preserved

by assigning the identical half-gap clearance

field H(x, y) perpendicular to the local projected

plane. Then velocity and other vectors trans- Thus a curved cavity filling problem has a n

form by Eq 2, equivalent problem on a flat plane with aniso-

tropic conductance.

For the case of power-law fluid, i.e., a material

ui = hill: (2) with constitutive equation,

where u, i s the i-th component of the velocity

vector. q = KI.;.I"-'

(11)

Neglecting the effects of gravity, inertia, and where K is consistency and y the sheer rate, it

acceleration, a quasi-static momentum equa- is shown in Appendix 1 that the directional

894 POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, MIDJULY, 1986, Yo/. 26, No. 12

Boundary Conditions in Mold-Filling of Thin Cavities

conductance observed on a projected coordinate surface present as the melt front and with neg-

is ligible inertia, the melt front location and the

gate condition will be free to adjust continuously

in order to minimize the systemwide vicous dis-

sipation, or to minimize the total pressure drop

for the case of constant flow rate ( 1 5).

Two limiting cases of such interactions are

possible: In the first case, most of the pressure

drop and viscous dissipation takes place in the

It may be noted that Hieber and Shen (6)derived delivery channel. Then filling will proceed with

a similar continuity equation, one which is ap- a Cauchy type gate condition (12) where the

plicable to a flat cavity plane, but their defini- pressure and the flux of the gate will be deter-

tion of conductance appears to be incompatible mined to yield minimum dissipation in the up-

with Eq 9. stream delivery channel. Such a case may be

observed in filling a large cavity through a nar-

LIMITING BOUNDARY CONDITIONING row delivery channel, or in a n initial phase of

In the previous modeling efforts (1-9). a gate most cavity filling operations, i.e., when the

contour is assumed and either a pressure or pressure drop in the cavity is small compared

flux value on it is assigned as a boundary con- to that in the delivery channel. A conformal

dition. This is equivalent to assuming a specific mapping method first used by Ryan and Chung

influence of upstream delivery channel flow. (9) may provide a good approximation of this

Considering that pressure and its gradient case when a point source is used to model the

change rapidly near the gate, a solution thus gate (1 7). A Cauchy type gate condition leaves

obtained may well be very sensitive to the lo- no degree of freedom on the melt front, and a

cation and the assigned gate condition. There- theoretically predicted melt front location may

fore it will be worthwhile to examine the con- undergo a discontinuous jump when the direc-

sequences of the interaction between upstream tion of the side wall is suddenly changed, e.g.,

delivery channel flow and the cavity flow. I t is as in turning a sharp corner as is shown in Fig.

quite possible that the actual gate condition 5 for the case of a point source gate in a uniform

may change during filling, so that a n originally gap rectangular cavity ( 17).

assigned boundary condition which adequately In the second limiting case the pressure drop

described the initial phase of filling may fail to across the cavity is much larger than through

represent the filling condition at a later stage, the delivery channel. This may be observed for

as shown schematically in Fig. 3. a thin cavity filling through a runnerless injec-

In a n assembly consisting of a delivery chan- tion mold, or in the final phase of filling for

nel and a cavity region being filled by a fluid,

as shown in Fig. 4, the rate of mechanical

energy dissipation will be the sum of contribu-

tions from the delivery channel dissipation and

that of the cavity. With the usual quasi-static

assumption, the kinetic and the potential en-

ergy of the filling fluid are considered negligible

and the pressure drop is always balanced by

viscous dissipation, or Fig. 4. Interaction between delivery channel and cavity

flow.

A = QAP(13)

where Q is the pumping rate of the plunger and

C F N I I H I.!

AP is the systemwide pressure drop. With a free

\ I . I

i

WFORC W L r i i ~ t ,LIIRNI it

:.IELT FRONT nr r i x T

ISOBAR A l I l l l E I l.-==dc-

--A- .~

Fig. 3. Change of gate condition duringfilling. ping solution.

POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, MID-JULY, 1986, Vol. 26, No. 12 895

S . Soh and C. Chang

4

ergy dissipation in a filled region of a thin cavity

is expressed by Eq 14 as derived in Appendix

local dissipation density, and d A is a differen-

tial cavity area.

Hieber and Shen (6) reported a melt front

locating algorithm based on extrapolating the

velocity on the melt front. Such a method ig-

SPACER AT\

nores the forces of constraint imposed by solid

walls and may show poor numerical stability.

In fact, melt front location predictions using

this algorithm are observed to cross over im-

permeable side walls, the cross-over flow being

returned to the cavity region arbitrarily (6).

Whether such manual adjustments to the solu-

tion produces a numerically stable algorithm is

at best unclear. It should be noted that accord-

ing to dAlemberts principle (14) the forces of

constraint do not perform any work on the sys- FROil SYRINGL IllllP

tem so that they do not influence the rate of

dissipation. For the special cases occurring Fig. 6. Construction of cavity.

when the dissipation density is kept constant

at the gate, the minimum dissipation occurs

when the dissipation density is also constant was 3 / 3 ~inches and made of a Luer syringe lock,

along the melt front (11 ) . This additional bound- flush mounted to the steel plate. The diameter

ary condition on the melt front will be referred of the syringe was 1 inch I.D. Compared to the

to as equilibration of dissipation density. In the cavity gap of 116 and 132 inches, the syringe

authors opinion, it is quite possible that the diameter was much larger and the pressure

variation of the dissipation density for filling drop in the delivery channel was considered to

according to the second limiting case may be be negligible for the entire filling process. Two

small for most thin cavity filling processes even cavities were used. One was a 4 by 8 inches,

when constancy of the dissipation density is side gated rectangle. The thickness was deter-

not rigorously obeyed on the gate contour. If mined by the thickness of the gasket and data

this is true then the equilibration principle may were collected for thicknesses of % 6 and /32

be applied to most case 2 type fillings as a n inches. Different runs with different injection

approximation. The experimental data pre- rates or different thicknesses did not produce

sented in this paper seem to support the equil- different melt front locations at the identical

ibration principle although more data may be extent of filling. This was regarded as evidence

necessary to obtain a definitive conclusion. that effects due to nonisothermalty, inertia, and

acceleration were negligible. The other cavity

EXPERIMENTS was a 2 by 8 inches side gated rectangle with

% 6 inch thickness, but contained a region of 132

The objective of experiments was to test the

validity of the proposed principle of equilibra- inch thickness. The geometry of the two cavities

tion of dissipation density for the limiting case. are shown in the Fig. 7.

To avoid complicating effects of nonisother- The contours of isobars or constant flux lines

malty and non-Newtonian behavior, glycerin for filling these cavities are not obvious, and

was used as the filling fluid. Experimental ap- thus provide a test of the usefulness of the

pratus consisted of cavities made by tightening equilibration principle for a constant gap cavity

together a plexiglass plate and a polished steel filling and a variable gap cavity filling, respec-

plate with a polypropylene gasket in between, a tively.

syringe pump powered by a variable speed DC Snapshots of melt fronts a t various stages of

motor through a 1: 18 reduction gear, and a slide filling were taken by a Kodak Litagraphic Visual

table. The slide table pushes the syringe by Maker which was slide mounted to the top plex-

linear motion. A schematic of the cavity appra- iglass plate at a focusing distance of 12 inches

tus is found in Fig. 6. Experiments were per- above the top plate. Photographs of melt fronts

formed at a room temperature of about 78F. were digitized manually using a ruler and scaled

The pumping rate was kept constant by run- graph paper. The pressure distribution of the

ning the motor at constant speed. The gate I.D. digitized melt front was calculated by a finite

896 POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, MID-JULY, 1986, VOI. 26, NO. 12

Boundary Conditions in Mold-Filling of Thin Cavities

try requirement. The experimental melt front

;1 3/32

I

I

4;

shown in the figure closely follows this theoret-

ical prediction, except that the contact angle

between melt and side wall deviates from the

theoretical value of 90. Yet calculated gradients

along the melt front calculated by a 19 by 16

I 1/16 GAP

Ili/ polar mesh were within 5 percent of the aver-

age, as expected.

i- 8 I

In the second stage shown in Fig. 9, the melt

front has already turned a corner. Calculated

isobars are shown in the figure. The longest

(A) U N I F O R M GAP R E C T A N G U L A R C A V I T Y and the shortest distances along hand-drawn

streamlines between a melt front and a n isobar

of 0.01 of the gate pressure were within 15

percent of the average. The calculation was

done on a 32 by 36 sq mesh. The deviation

seems within experimental and computational

error.

For the third stage shown in Fig. 10, melt

I 1/16 G A P

! front flattens and the pressure gradients cal-

culated were within 5 percent. Thus it is con-

cluded that the equilibration principle is valid

within experimental and numerical error for

(B) BI-GP..P R E C T A N G U L A R C A V I T Y the filling of constant gap cavity.

Fig. 7. D i m e n s i o n s of c a v i t i e s . For the case of a split-level cavity of Fig. I I ,

it can be clearly seen from the shape of the melt

difference numerical solution of Eq 10 with

successive overrelaxation, the details of which

are found elsewhere ( 1 0). The boundary condi-

tions used were:

ap

-= 0 along the side wall ( 1 5)

dn

where n is a line segment normal to the side

boundary,

P =0 along melt front (16)

and -

Fig. 8. R a d i a l f l o w s t a g e of r e c t a n g u l a r c a v i t y f i l l i n g .

P =1 along tip of gate (17)

where P is the ratio of pressure to the gate

pressure.

The variation of the dissipation density as

calculated from the experimental melt front po-

sition and the conventional boundary condi-

tions of E q s 15-1 7 provides a test of compati-

bility between previous models and the pro-

posed equilibration principle. A s calculated dis-

sipation densities tend to fluctuate, partially

due to the relatively coarse meshes used, and

partially due to experimental and digitization Fig. 9. T r a n s i t i o n s t a g e of r e c t a n g u l a r c a v i t y f i l l i n g .

errors incurred in representing the melt front,

the dissipation densities along the melt front

were estimated from the distances connecting

melt fronts and suitably selected isobars close

to melt fronts, measured along reasonable

streamlines hand-drawn perpendicular to both

the melt fronts and the isobars.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Filling of a constant gap, slide-gated rectan-

gular cavity proceeds in three distinct stages. In

the first stage, as shown in Fig. 8,the melt I -

POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, MID-JULY, 7986, Vol. 26, NO. 72 a97

S. Soh a n d C . Chang

Greek

i. = Rate of shear.

A = Rate of viscous dissipation.

6 = Kronecker delta.

A = Conductance.

17 = Apparent viscosity.

REFERENCES

Fig. 11. Filling of bi-gap cavity.

1. M. Gremela, Polyrn. Eng. Sci., 2 , 673 (1984).

2. J. L. White and W. Dietz, Polyrn. Eng. Sci., 19, 1081

front that the thicker region fills faster than ( 1975).

the thinner region of the cavity. From a finite 3. Y . Kuo and M. R. Kamal, AICHE J.,22,661 (1976).

4. E. Broyer, C. Gutfinger, and 2. Tadmor, Trans. SOC.

difference solution, using a n 18 by 28 rectan- Rheol., 19, 423 (1975).

gular mesh, an isobar of 0.001 of the gate pres- 5. W. L. Krueger and Z . Tadmor, Polyrn. Eng. Sci., 20.

sure was used to estimate the pressure gradient. 426 (1980).

Except near the edge where cavity thickness 6. C. A. Hieber and S. F. Shen, J . Non-Newt. Fluid Mech.,

7 , 1 (1980).

changes abruptly, the estimated values were 7. C. A. Hieber, L. S. Socha, S. F. Shen. K. K. Wang, and

within t-10 percent of the average in each gap A. 1. Isayev, Polyrn. Eng. Sci., 23,20 (1983).

region, but the averages of the two thickness 8. M. R. Kamal, Y. Kuo, and P. H. Doan, PoIyrn. Eng. Sci.,

regions differed only 5 percent. 15. 863 (1975).

It appears that when cavity pressure drop 9. M. E. Ryan and T. S. Chung, Polym. Eng. Sci., 20, 642

(1980).

dominates the total pressure drop, dissipation 10. C. J. Chang, M. S. thesis, Univ. Detroit (1985).

density equilibrates along the melt front at least 11. S. Bergen and M. R. Schiffer, Kernal Functions and

approximately even when the exact gate condi- Differential Equations, pp 58-71, Academic Press,

tion is not known. It is admitted that the limited New York (1953).

12. P. M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical

experiments presented here do not prove the Physics, Part I, pp 676-706, McGraw-Hill, New York

proposed equilibration principle. But the au- (1953).

thors do feel that the proposed melt front con- 13. Sung K. Soh, submitted to AIChE J . (1985).

dition may be tentatively accepted in the ab- 14. A. L. Fetter and J. D. Walecka, Theoretical Mechanics

sence of contradictory theory or experiments. of Particles and Continua, McGraw-Hill, New York

(1980).

We welcome more debate and testing of the 15. H. Lamb, Hydrodynamics, p. 568, Dover (1932).

proposed condition. 16. K. H. Huebner, The Finite Element Method for Engi-

neers, pp 1 13- 117, McGraw-Hill, New York (1975).

17. Sung K. Soh, unpublished results.

CONCLUSIONS 18. V. W. Wang, C. A. Hieber, and K. K. Wang, presented

1 . A new field equation for variable gap, in SPE ANTEC (1985).

curved cavities is derived based on the thin

cavity approximation. APPENDIX I

2. Two limiting cases of the interaction be-

tween delivery channel flow and cavity flow Directional Conductance

have been discussed. When the pressure drop The shear rate li.1 in Eq 11 is expressed on

in the cavity exceeds that of the upstream deliv- the cavity plane as

ery channel, dissipation density on the melt

front equilibrates.

3. Experimental melt front shapes from iso-

thermal filling of a Newtonian fluid were found

to be compatible with the proposed equilibration Using the coordinate transform of Eqs 2 and 7,

principle. the shear rate is expressed on the projection

NOMENCLATURE plane as

Alphabetical

ei = Unit base vector.

H = Half-gap thickness. (1-2)

hi = Scale factors.

i, j = Coordinate direction, 1 , 2 or x, y. + h;

K = Power law consistency.

n = Power-law exponent, or line seg-

ment perpendicular to side wall. Combining Eq 1 1 and Eq 1-2 yields a n expres-

= Pressure. sion for the apparent viscosity,

(m) + hz (5)1

P

= Volume feed rate at the gate. 2 (n-l)/2n

Q

Ui = Velocity component. 17 = K 1 / n ~ - l / n[h: (1-3)

xi,x, z j = Coordinates on the projected plane.

z = Gapwise coordinate. Substituting Eq 1-3 into Eq 9 produces Eq 12.

898 POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, MID-JULY, 1986, Vol. 26, NO. 12

e)

B o u n d a r y Conditions i n Mold-Filling of Thin Cavities

APPENDIX I1

dQ = A, dn (11-2)

Viscous Dissipation in Thin Cavity

Equation 16 may be derived from the varia-

Combining Eqs IZ-1 and 11-2 and integrating

tional calculus (16)or as follows:

over the filled region gives

Consider the integration of the pressure gra-

dient along a streamline on the projection plane,

-[APdQ

which will yield the cavity pressure drop.

AP = sgate

(g)

melt front

ds (11-1)

APQ =

= JJ ( E) A, rz)

along a n isobar

dsdn

(11-3)

The volumetric flow rate passing through con- Equation 11-3 along with the definition of the

tour d n , an isobar, is given by Eq 10, directional conductance, Eq 1, gives Eq 16.

POLYMER ENGINEERlNG AND SCIENCE, MID-JULY, 1986, YO/. 26, NO. 12 899

- Dynamic Absolute Kinematic ViSCOSITYUploaded byzfrl
- 32-46-68Uploaded byMaintenance Circle
- Multiphase PipeliningUploaded byHoustonAbductee
- Milk Process SimulationUploaded byClaudia Ramirez
- Steiner's Division by planesUploaded byAshu1803
- AFM08 2012Uploaded byDhiraj Shinde
- Fluid Mechanics PptUploaded byI Anonymous
- Fluids NotesUploaded byseanpetley
- 15-1-112-1-10-20161125 (1)Uploaded byManishMokal
- MDV3-VVUQ-v0.5Uploaded byDawei Wang
- sdfgdgUploaded byMurali Shan
- Steady Stokes FlowUploaded bykevin ostos julca
- AbstractsUploaded byLuis Eduardo Segura
- paper for boilerUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- Stad en MainUploaded bym_moreira1974
- 1-407-1Uploaded byRoberto Torres Arancibia
- PM4Uploaded byMuhammad Jahanzaib
- strang linesandplanes exercisesUploaded byapi-261282952
- Hedland Variable Area Flow Meters and Flow Switches Brochure Vam-br-00714-EnUploaded byRosendo Rizo
- lecUploaded byaaaaaaabbsaq
- AMOT Datasheet R Temp Control Valves 0514 Rev1Uploaded byPungkas Nisworo
- Permeability Test for Fine-Grained and Granular SoilUploaded byEdeouz Esmille
- J3. Aisladores elastometicosUploaded byDaisy' Ruiz
- Derivation of the Navier PrintUploaded byrmsh_deva
- Fluid MechanicsUploaded byMauris Belmonte
- harini ppt.pptxUploaded byMushini Nagabhushan
- Linear Algebra: Chapter 1Uploaded bysaraleeman
- Lectures-on-CFD-Multiphase-Flow.pdfUploaded byPhilippe LAVOISIER
- Chapter 1Uploaded byHarsh Chandak
- [International Centre for Mechanical Sciences 255] Giovanni Manfré (auth.) - Limit of the Spinning Process in Manufacturing Synthetic Fibers_ Course Held at the Department of General Mechanics (1975, S.pdfUploaded byashik1111007

- Ocr GCSE Vocab List German Print 14 to EndUploaded bywilliamack3611
- hamilton_jordan_d_201105_mast.pdfUploaded byDanistergladwin
- byg_r070 (1)Uploaded bynkumar_488121
- Ref ChaptersUploaded byARUL
- 1-s2.0-S2352152X1630130X-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 331-1209-1-PBUploaded byamol
- Manual de Plásticos Ensinger.pdfUploaded byWesley Fernandes
- 1-s2.0-S0927025617304275-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S0956053X17305354-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S1350453317301492-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S0001868617301811-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S1359835X17302944-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S1751616117300863-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 2152301.pdfUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S095006181730884X-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S235243161730072X-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S0257897217307867-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S0921509317311218-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S1877056817301998-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S2352847817300564-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S1959031817300908-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- 1-s2.0-S0167577X1731282X-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- Part and Mold Design GuideUploaded byminhtintin
- Overmold Design GuideUploaded byCuco Martinez
- MoldingUploaded byAnurag Srivastava
- Chapter_7_1.pdfUploaded bynkumar_488121
- Fakuma Exhibitor Index 20170908 163909Uploaded bynkumar_488121

- NGL Fractionation TrainUploaded byRick
- Why is Thymine Replaced by Uracil in RNAUploaded bymanju09535
- a project on job satisfactisfactonUploaded byNagireddy Kalluri
- 5. MBSO805D_Understanding_petrochemical_business.pdfUploaded byAnaruzzaman Sheikh
- Fillcrete c v01 EngUploaded byAnonymous M4BGwOkIp
- TD_OPTISWIRL4070C_en_150501_4000165506_R08Uploaded bymullerbarbosa
- 03 Secondary ReformingUploaded byAnonymous yfGM1rkpWT
- Ultradisperse W30 TIUploaded bykishanptl
- Symbols and TerminologyUploaded byniantons
- Hogan S. 2009 Antioxidant Properties and Bioactive Components of Norton (Vitis Aestivalis) and Cabernet Franc (Vitis Vinifera) Wine GrapesUploaded bygatocolorido
- Walter Sneader (2000) Controversies regarding the discovery of AspirinUploaded bycogida
- Big Data in Agriculture Property Rights, Privacy and Competition in Ag Data ServicesUploaded byJanuar_Khaerul
- Dispersed Systems Consist of Two PhaseUploaded byMeera Patel
- Histological evaluation of direct pulp capping with novel nanostructural materials based on active silicate cements and Biodentine® on pulp tissueUploaded byCHOUCHOU12485
- Op2 Simplified Aggregate Example SandUploaded byPetrolab
- In Situ-丁玉强Uploaded byapi-3701422
- Articulo Antibiotico 2011Uploaded byjeissonq
- ASTM E747Uploaded byAmith
- Calculation PackageUploaded byKen Ng
- 5.4 - ASME B16.48 LineBlanksUploaded bynaveenbaskaran1989
- 1 3 f Calculations Involving Gas VolumesUploaded byForm 4B
- Kingpin Mounting InstructionsUploaded byPablo César Suárez Nogales
- Project Wearing Surface TechnoloigyUploaded bySajeer Sayedali
- ubd science 9 unit b - matter and chemical changeUploaded byapi-427321002
- Aws d1.1 2010 Table 6.1 Vt Pt MtUploaded byRonel Custodio
- Alloy Zn NiUploaded byFabiola Pinillos
- Dichloromethane (Non Flammable Journal)Uploaded byBigbearBigbear
- Environmental ProtectionUploaded bydanajia_soriano
- Drug Info SheetUploaded byjunejuly123
- Simple and Fractional DistillationUploaded byralph_ong23