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# AIM: To Study frequency shift keying

APPARATUS; FSK Sigma kit, DSO, CRO probes patch cords

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-

THEORY :
In FSK frequency of the carrier is shifted according to the binary

1.Thus the transmitted signal will either have the frequency Fh or FL. SPECTRUM OF BFSK:- The BFSK o/p in terms of variables Ph(t) &PL(t) is VBFSK (t) = √2PsPh cos (wht+ ¢h )+ √2PsPL cos (wht+ ¢L ) Here Ph (t)= 1/2+1/2 Ph’ (t) Here PL (t)= 1/2+1/2 PL’ (t ) Where Ph’ (t) & PL’ (t ) are bipolar variables which alternate between 1& -1 therefore the spectrum equation on substitution is given as . The oscillators are applied to the I/p of multipliers (Balanced Modulators ).the other two i/p to the multiplier are the binary data i/ps Ph (t) [NRZ ] &PL (T) [ NRZ ] inverse . The BPF pass their corresponding mains lobes without much distortion the o/ps of the filters are applied to the envelope detectors are compared by the comparator is used then o/p of the comparator is the bit sequence b(t ) .SL(t) = √2Ps cos wL GENERATION OF BFSK: The block dig. The FSK Modulation and Demodulation with noise consist of following sections. thus when a binary (0 ) is transmitted NRZ= 1 &NRZ INVERSE = 0 & vice versa .the multipliers o/ps are then added together to get the BFSK signal . of BFSK consists of two oscillators which produce carrier frequency fh (640 KHz ) & fL (320 KHz ). ASK modulator using Balanced Modulator. VBSK (t) = √ Ps/2 cos (wht+ ¢h ]+ √ Ps/2 cos (wLt+ ¢L]+ √ Ps/2 wh ’ cos (wht+ ¢h ] + √ Ps/2 wL’ cos (wLt+ ¢L] BFSK RECIEVER : ‘The BFSK receiver consist of two band pass filters one with centre frequency ‘ Fh’ &‘ FL since FH-FL =2fb the o/ps of the filter do not overlap . CIRCUIT DETAILS OF FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING MODULATION AND DEMODULATION WITH NOISE. . Digital Data Generator section 2.

Power supply section Output 2K2 preset is used to vary output level. Hence output is raw data signal. Noise Adder section 7. Carrier Generator. It converts 640KHz and 320 KHz. Gaussian Noise Generator Section. (7) FSK demodulator: - This circuit is based on PLL made of 1C 4046. (4) Adder section: - This section adds two input signals with unity gain. The output is Noisy FSK signal. The outputs are two ASK Modulated signals. This signal is then given to squarer circuit. The free running frequency of PLL is set at 320 KHz value. These signal are given as carrier signal to balanced modulators as one input. 5. Comparator Section 10. it produced demodulated signal locked to 320 KHz. FSK demodulator using PLL detector 8. Integrated & Dump Filter (Matched Filter) 9. (6) Noise Adder section: - This section adds FSK modulated signal and Gaussian noise signal. 4. TTL Clock signal in to 640KHz and 320KHz. Adder section. (8) Integrated & Dump Filter (Matched Filter) . This is used to add to ASK signals to converts into FSK signal. 3) RF Carrier Generator section: - The function of this section is to generate phase synchronized carrier signal with respect to modulating digital NRZ input. 6. (5) Gaussian Noise Generator section: - Four-transistor circuit is used to generate Gaussian noise signal. The amplitude pot varies its amplitude from FSK signal.3. Hence when FSK signal having two frequency 320 KHz and 640 KHz is given to it input. Sine wave carriers signal using pie filter of lOOuH coil and two 100 Pf capacitors.

- This Section converts integrated output of Matched filter into pure recovered data using comparator 1C 311.This section integrates the noisy FSK demodulated signal and then it is dumped at bit clock interval at the output. + 5V. 1C 7805 for + 5V. 1C 7915 for-15V.C. Apply both the output of balanced modukators-1&2 to adder section &check FSK output on CRO 10. (7) Comparator section.e. observe recovered raw data signal t the o/p of Fsk demodulator 12. PROCEDURE FOR FSK 1. (6) Power supply section: The regulated power supply is used for different supply voltages. Connect CRO channel-1 at NRZ Data socket& CRO channel-2 at the output of balanced modulator-1 & observe ASK output 8. + 15V. 250mA. -15V. 250mA. Connect CRO channel-1 at RF Career socket (in career generator section) for frequency 320 kHz &640 kHz. observe received pure NRZ data at the o/p of Data squarer 13. Connect CRO channel-1 at NRZ Data socket & observe it 5. 250mA + 5V. 7905 for-5V These ICs are supplied different dc input voltages by two Bridge rectifiers consisting of D1-D4 and D5-D8 & Iwo 1000/25 EC and 1000/10 EC. The capacitors at each input & each output are for filtering purpose. Connect CRO channel-1 at NRZ Data socket& CRO channel-2 at the output of balanced modulator-2& observe ASK output 9. Following output D. 1C 7815 for + 15V. The output is maximized at bit sampling pulse. Connect CRO channel-1 at Gaussian noise output & observe it keep noise level minimum. add Gaussians noise by rotating noise level pot & observe its effect on all received signals OBSERVATION TABLE:- SRNO SIGNAL AMPLITUDE FREQUENCY . Connect CRO channel-1 at carrier clock socket & observe it 2. Connect CRO channel-1 at bit clock socket & observe it 3. 11. Connect CRO channel-1 at NRZ Data Inverse socket & observe it 6. & observe the waveform on CRO 7. 250mA Three terminal regulators are used for different output voltages i. Voltages are required to operate FSK Modulation demodulation system. Connect CRO channel-1 at word clock socket & observe it 4.

. COMP. BM-2 O/P 3V - 7.2V 41. NRZ DATA 4.66K 9.66K 2. NRZ DATA INVERSE 4. FSK DEMOD. CARRIER-1 3. ADEER O/P 3V - 8.8V 41. CARRIER-2 2V 666K 5.2 333K 4. BM-1O/P 3V - 6.66K 3.66K CONCLUSION:- Thus according to change in I/p binary data the frequency of the o/p waveform is varied between 320k &640 kHz. O/P 1.2V 41. 1. O/P 7.8 41.