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Procedure No.

proc/hzw/vis 01
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED, HAZIRA WORKS

STANDARD FOR
VISUAL EXAMINATION OF WELDS
Visual Examination of welds :

Definition : (B 31.3 – 344.2)

Visual examination is observation of the portion of components, joints, and other piping elements that are or can be exposed to view before, during, or
after manufacture, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, or testing.

- Is done by inspecting welds with naked eye without employing special or optical instruments. Usage of magnifying glass with a magnification of
2X.... 4X is permitted.

Quality of welding is evaluated by checking the weld and the nearby area and a distance of 25mm. on either side of edges of fusion of the weld over
the whole surface across the entire length so as to reveal the following:

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Procedure No. proc/hzw/vis 01
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED, HAZIRA WORKS

STANDARD FOR
VISUAL EXAMINATION OF WELDS
SR Description of Checks Acceptance Criteria Reference Sketch for Reference
NO.
1 Cracks in the seam & the Not acceptable. Derived by L&T CRACKS IN SEAMS AND
nearby region (Note2). NEARBY REGION

2 Incomplete penetrations. Not acceptable. Derived by L&T INCOMPLETE PENETRATIONS


AT ROOT AND SIDE WALLS

3 Burn through Not acceptable. Derived by L&T BURN THROUGH

4 Lack of fusion on Not acceptable. Derived by L&T LACK OF FUSION AT SIDES AND
sidewall and lack of BETWEEN PASSES
fusion between adjoining
passes.

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Procedure No. proc/hzw/vis 01
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED, HAZIRA WORKS

STANDARD FOR
VISUAL EXAMINATION OF WELDS
SR Description of Checks Acceptance Criteria Reference Sketch for Reference
NO.
5 High spots Not acceptable. Derived by L&T WELD LUMPS OR HIGH SPOTS

6 Slag inclusions Not acceptable. Derived by L&T SLAG ENTRAPPED ON


SURFACE OF WELD LAYERS

7 Spatters Not acceptable. Derived by L&T SPATTERS ON WELDS AND


ADJACENT AREA

8 Oxidation tints (In case of Not acceptable. Derived by L&T OXIDATION TINTS
argon arc welding).

9 Suck back Suck back at the root is acceptable Derived by L&T SUCK BACK AT ROOT
if the desired weld thickness is
achieved by means of additional
reinforcement. However
reinforcement cannot increase
beyond code specified limits.
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Procedure No. proc/hzw/vis 01
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED, HAZIRA WORKS

STANDARD FOR
VISUAL EXAMINATION OF WELDS
SR Description of Checks Acceptance Criteria Reference Sketch for Reference
NO.
10 Porosity The weld seam is to be inspected for L&T std. ASME SEC. VIII DIV.1 POROSITIES OR PIN HOLES
presence of pores. If any pores are (APPENDIX 8)
found on the surface, the same shall ASME B 31.3 (Table 341.3.2.(b) A)
be examined by DPT and accepted
by the following acceptance
criterion. The following is not
acceptable and to be repaired:-
(a) Relevant linear indication
(b) Relevant Rounded indications
greater then 3/16” (4.8mm.)
(c) 4 or more relevant rounded
indications in a line separated
edge to edge by a distance of
1/16” (1.6mm.) or less.
(d) An indication of imperfection
may be larger then the
imperfection that causes it.
However, the size of the
imperfection is the basis for
acceptance evaluation.
For piping as per B 31.3 code,
surface porosity is not
acceptable at all, hence shall
be fully repaired.

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Procedure No. proc/hzw/vis 01
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED, HAZIRA WORKS

STANDARD FOR
VISUAL EXAMINATION OF WELDS
SR Description of Checks Acceptance Criteria Reference Sketch for Reference
NO.
11 Unwelded craters & Not acceptable. Derived by L&T UNWELDED CRATERS AND
Crater Cracks (Note 2) CRATER CRACKS

12 Stray arcs and arc strikes Not acceptable and the affected area Derived by L&T STRAY ARCS AND ARC
be repaired and inspected using DPT STRIKES
to ensure the soundness of the parent
/ weld metal.

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Procedure No. proc/hzw/vis 01
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED, HAZIRA WORKS

STANDARD FOR
VISUAL EXAMINATION OF WELDS
SR Description of Checks Acceptance Criteria Reference Sketch for Reference
NO.
13 Parent metal Ripping / Not acceptable. Derived by L&T PARENT METAL RIPPING
Hot take aways while
removal of temporary Temporary
Cleat
attachments.

14 Undercuts Undercuts in the main metal shall ASME SEC. VIII DIV.1 (UW-35) & UNDERCUTS IN WELDS
not exceed 0.8mm or 10% of nom. Derived by L&T
thickness of the adjoining surface,
whichever is less.
The reduction in thickness shall not
reduce the material of the adjoining
surfaces below the min. required
thickness at any point.
The sum of the individually accepted
undercuts shall not exceed 20% of
the length of a seam.

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Procedure No. proc/hzw/vis 01
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED, HAZIRA WORKS

STANDARD FOR
VISUAL EXAMINATION OF WELDS
SR Description of Checks Acceptance Criteria Reference Sketch for Reference
NO.
15 Bead overlap on bead. Inter bead valleys are measured Derived by L&T INTER BEAD VALLEYS OR
(Inter bead valleys) between the peaks of adjacent weld BEAD OVERLAP
beads. Inter bead valley shall not be Inter bead
more than 1.5mm. valley
The specified value is given only for
the seams that are not subjected to
grinding.
For seams that are finished by
grinding, a smooth transition taper
shall be made between the seam and
the main metal.
Inter Bead Valleys

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Procedure No. proc/hzw/vis 01
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED, HAZIRA WORKS

STANDARD FOR
VISUAL EXAMINATION OF WELDS
SR Description of Checks Acceptance Criteria Reference Sketch for Reference
NO.
16 Concavities Concavities more than 2 mm shall be Derived by L&T CONCAVITIES OF WELD
fully repaired & rewelded as LAYERS
required. The concavities shall be
measured between the peaks of the
beads & not from the ends of the
SCALE
seams.

SCALE

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Procedure No. proc/hzw/vis 01
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED, HAZIRA WORKS

STANDARD FOR
VISUAL EXAMINATION OF WELDS
SR Description of Checks Acceptance Criteria Reference Sketch for Reference
NO.
17 Size of weld joints: Check the leg length with the help of Derived by L&T & ASME MEASUREMENTS OF WELDS
Leg length of welds Max. and Min. templates prepared SEC. VIII DIV.1 (UW-35), USING TEMPLATES
(Note 4) for the purpose. Check the ASME B 31.3 (Table 341.3.2.(b) L)
Reinforcement and width reinforcement size and width of the
weld using dimension limiting
templates and confirm it as per
drawing / Code requirements.

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Procedure No. proc/hzw/vis 01
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED, HAZIRA WORKS

STANDARD FOR
VISUAL EXAMINATION OF WELDS
SR Description of Checks Acceptance Criteria Reference Sketch for Reference
NO.
18 Presence of temper bead A temper bead is the top most bead ASME SEC. VIII DIV.1 (UW-35) & TEMPER B
welded on a seam in such a way that i Derived by L&T
covers 2 or more beads beneath it.
The size of the temper bead is EAD IN A WELD
generally bigger than the normal
welding bead. The existence of
temper bead is to be checked as & TEMPER BEAD
when applicable by the specification
or the code requirement. The temper
bead should not touch the parent
metal and shall be removed in order
to maintain the reinforcement within
limits of code.

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Procedure No. proc/hzw/vis 01
LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED, HAZIRA WORKS

STANDARD FOR
VISUAL EXAMINATION OF WELDS

Notes:
1. All repairs shall be done using appropriate Shop Repair Weld Plan or Weld Plan issued by Welding Engineering Department.
2. Cracks shall never be repaired without involving the concerned inspector and the welding engineer.
3. Code Values are not specified in this document, as the same are subjected to revision. However, the users shall ensure that the correct /
applicable code sections are referred.
4. Tolerances on Leg length of fillets and width of butt joints shall be as specified in the manufacturing drawings.

Document Revision Status


Rev. Prep. by Apvd. by Date Remarks
No.
0 KSS SPG/PR 7/5/2001 First Issue

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