You are on page 1of 7


LFB Three Set Equations

Line-flow-based (LFB) power-flow model equations are derived using graph

theory. If A is incidence matrix, real and reactive power balance equations at all
busbars, except slack bus can be written using the incidence matrix. As all shunt
connections are excluded in the incidence matrix, their real- and reactive power
contributions are accounted for separately in the power balance equations. Real-
and reactive power loads, shunt capacitors and line charging susceptances can be
treated as shunt branches. Following the traditional classification of slack, voltage
controlled and load busses, the LFB equations are formulated as three sets of

2.3.1. General Power Balance Equations

A. p PGL A'.l 0
Using a bus incidence matrix A with rows corresponding to all
busses other than the slack, the bus real and reactive power balance in matrix
equation form.


A.q QGL A'.m H .V 2 0


A Incidence matrix
A1 Incidence matrix with out slack bus

p Real line flow vector

q Reactive line flow vector

A1 Modified incidence matrix with all -1 in A set zero.

A11 Incedenc ematrix with out slack bus and -1 elements of A set to zero

Active power losses

Reactive power loss

H A diagonal matrix, whose diagonal elements are sums of charging and

compensating susceptances at each bus.

V2 The unknown voltage square vector except at the slack bus is the square

PGL = PGi-PLi Net active power at bus i = generation - load

QGL = QGi-QLi Net reactive power at bus i = generation - load

If dispersed generators exist in the distribution system, the corresponding

generator buses are classified into two kinds

a)constant injected power PQ buses or

b)voltage-controlled PV buses.

Let n be the total number of buses and n pv and npq the number of voltage-
controlled and load buses, respectively. Allowing for one slack bus, the total number
of various buses is

n = n pv+npq+1 (2.3)

The no of unknown equations are n pq = n-npv-1.So equation (2.2) rewritten

A1 .q QGL1 A1 '.m H 1 .V1 0


2.3.2. Branch Equations

The Branch voltage drop equations

Vi ( p jql )
i V j j l (rl jxl )
tl V j ( j )

ViV j ( pl jql )
( i j ) (rl jxl ) V j2
tl V j ( j )

Squaring on both sides, we get

V12V22 ( 2 1 ) V j4 ( pl rl ql xl ) 2 2V22 ( pl rl ql xl ) ( pl xl ql rl ) 2
V j4 ( pl rl ql xl ) 2 2V22 ( pl rl ql xl ) ( pl xl ql rl ) 2 V12V22 ( 2 1 ) 0

Vi 2V j2
V 2V [rl pl xl ql ]
( pl2 ql2 )( rl 2 xl2 ) 0
t l

Vi 2
V 2[rl p l xl ql ] 2 k l


sl2 (rl 2 xl2 )

V j2 sl2 pl2 ql2

Bus phase angles across a branch may be described as

pl xl ql rl
sin( i j l )
ViV j

The denominator part of (2.9) may be assumed as unity and (2.9) approximated as

( i j l ) pl xl q l rl

The phase angle difference of a branch is

i j pl xl ql rl l

If Vi and Vj are known, equation 2.9 can be used to calculate accurately.

There are a total of line voltage equations. The total number of unknown
voltage magnitudes will drop to n-n pv-1. When dispersed generators are specified as
voltage-controlled buses. Because the voltage of a PV bus is known, the value is
shifted to the right-hand side of (2.8) .This equation can be written in a matrix form

2 RP 2 Xq A1T V 2 k AcT Vslack



R, X Vectors of line Resistance and Reactance

Vslack p, q
Real and reactive line flow vectors at receiving end

Slack bus voltage

Bus incidence matrix corresponding to the slack bus.

A and A' are defined a incidence matrix and a modified incidence matrix with
all +1 in A set to zero, then it is easy to include the relevant branch losses in the

balance equation equations by using the vectors of branch real and reactive power
losses l and m.

H is an n-1 diagonal matrix with the sum of charging and compensating

susceptances at each bus as the diagonal element except the slack bus.
and are the injection power vectors defined as and



p and q are real and reactive line flow vectors at receiving buses of the
branches in the network. The reactive mismatch equations should be deleted at the
PV buses.

V2 , the unknown voltage vector which contains the voltages at the PQ buses,

n npv -1 dimension. npv is the number of PV buses.

2.3.3. LFB Power Flow Equations

LFB power flow equations are given by

A 0 0 p PGL A' l
0 2
A1 0 q QGL A'1 m H 1V
2 R 2 X (A1 A1 ) V 2
T T AcT V pv2 k


The total number of unknowns is: (p & q on lines)+( V 2 at load buses)

N 2(n 1) ( n n pv 1) 3(n 1) n pv

The matrix in (2.13) has a linear form in the (k+1) th iteration as follows:
A pqv2 x ( k 1) y1 y 2( k )

The coefficient matrix is a constant matrix that needs to be factorized
only once during the solution process. The coefficient matrix is nonsingular since
the radial network is of tree structure with all the branches connected, and the rows

corresponding to tree branches in a network graph are independent. is the

p q
variable vector of active, reactive line flows , and square of bus voltage

V2 y1
magnitudes ; is a constant vector of the injection powers and PV bus voltages;

is a variable vector of branch losses and charging and compensating powers. An

iterative power flow analysis is started with the vector set to zero. Using the
solution vector in an iteration, the right-hand side of (12) is updated by calculating

y1 x
vector and adding to vector . calculate all values of unknowns vector .