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You are on page 1of 49

Space

By

S. Ziaei Rad

Distributed Load

Uniformly distributed axial load q (N/mm, N/m, lb/in) can

be converted to two equivalent nodal forces of magnitude qL/2.

We verify this by considering the work done by the load q,

=

Distributed Load

Distributed Load

In an assembly of bars,

=

Bar Elements in 2-D

does not contribute to the

stretch of the bar, within the

linear theory.

Transformation

In matrix form,

Transformation

For the two nodes of the bar element, we have

or,

Stiffness Matrix in the 2-D

Space

In the local coordinate system, we have

or

,

Stiffness Matrix in the 2-D

Space

Using transformations given in previous slides, we obtain

, We obtain

system is

which is a 4

4 symmetric matrix.

Stiffness Matrix in the 2-D

Space

Explicit form

Note:The structure stiffness

matrix is assembled by

(*) using the Element stiffness

matrices in the usual way a

in the 1-D case.

Assembly Rules

1. Compatibility: The joint displacements of all

members meeting at a joint must be the same.

members that meet at a joint must balance the

external force applied to that joint.

Element Stress

The Direct Stiffness Method (DSM)

Steps

Example 2.3

of two identical bars (with E, A, and L),

and loaded as shown in the figure. Find

1) displacement of node 2;

2) stress in each bar.

Example 2.3 (Member formation)

Solution: This simple structure is used here to

demonstrate the assembly and solution process using

the bar element in 2-D space.

are in different coordinate systems. We need to convert them to

global coordinate system OXY.

Example 2.3 (Globalization)

Element 1:

global system

Example 2.3 (Globalization)

Element 2:

global system

Example 2.3 (Merge or Assembly)

Assemble the structure FE equation,

Example 2.3 (Application of BCs and

Solution)

Load and boundary conditions (BC):

Condensed FE equation,

Example 2.3 (Recovery)

Using formula for stress, we calculate the stresses in the two bars

Example 2.4

Problem: For the plane truss shown ,

reaction forces.

at node 3, which needs special attention in the FE solution.

We first assemble the global FE equation for the truss.

Example 2.4

Element 1:

Example 2.4

Element 2:

Example 2.4

Element 3:

Example 2.4

The global FE equation is,

Example 2.4

Load and boundary conditions (BC):

Example 2.4

Similarly, we have a relation for the force at node 3,

that is,

Example 2.4

Applying the load and BCs in the structure FE equation

by deleting1st , 2nd and 4th rows and columns, we have

Further, from the MPC and the force relation at node 3, the

equation becomes,

Example 2.4

which is

Substituting this into the 2nd equation and rearranging, we have

Example 2.4

Solving this, we obtain the displacements,

forces,

Example 2.4

A general multipoint constraint (MPC) can be described as,

displacement

components. In the FE software, such as ANSYS or

MSC/NASTRAN, users only need to specify this relation

to the software. The software will take care of the

solution.

THERMOMECHANICAL EFFECTS

result in zero external forces under zero displacements. This is

implicit in the linear-homogeneous expression of the master stiffness

equation f = Ku.

If u vanishes, so does f. This behavior does not apply, however,

if there are initial force effects.

If those effects are present, there can be displacements without

external forces, and internal forces without displacements.

THERMOMECHANICAL EFFECTS

Imagine that a plane truss structure is unloaded (that is, not

subjected to external forces) and is held at a uniform reference

temperature. External displacements are measured from this

environment, which is technically called a reference state. Now

suppose that the temperature of some members changes with respect

to the reference temperature while the applied external forces

remain zero. Because the length of members changes on account of

thermal expansion or contraction, the joints will displace.

Initial Force Effects (also called Initial

Strain

& Initial Stress Effects by FEM authors)

Thermomechanical effects

Moisture effects

Prestress effects

Lack of fit

Residual stresses

Thermomechanical Effects on Bar

Element

Thermomechanical Effects on Bar

Element

Axial strain is sum of mechanical and thermal:

Incorporating Thermomechanical

Effects into the Element Stiffness

Equations

Generalization: Initial Force

Effects

prestress, lack of fit, residual stresses, some nonlinearities.

Common property: if displacements u vanish

fM + fI = 0 fM = fI

There are (self-equilibrating) mechanical forces in the

absence of displacements

Suppose that the example truss is now unloaded. However the

temperature of members (1) (2) and (3) changes by T ,T and 3T ,

respectively, with respect to Tref .

The thermal expansion coefficient of all three members is assumed

to be .

Because the prescribed displacements are zero, the reduced system

is simply

Solving

Treating Initial Force Effects

How to Write a Simple MATLAB Program for 2D bar

Preprocessor

Nodes, Elements ,Members Properties (Geometry, Material)

(Local Coordinates)

(Global Coordinates)

Solution Phase

Postprocessing

A MATLAB Program

Clear

Node=[

node_no1 x1 y1

node_no2 x2 y2

];

Element=[

elem_no node_no1 node_no2 length theta E A

];

BCdof=[];

F_global=[ fx1 fy1 fx2 fy2 ];

Connectivity=[

elem_no Dof1 Dof2 Dof3 Dof4

];

(NN,MN)=size(Node) ;

(NE,ME=size(Element);

K_global=zeros(NN*2,NN*2);

A MATLAB Program

for i=1:NE

Ke_local=Kelocal (Element(i,4), Element(i,6), Element(i,7)); % Kelocal is a Matlab function

Te_rotatoin=T_rotation(Element(i,5)); % T_rotation is a Matlab function

Ke_global==Te_rotation'*ke_local*Te_rotation;

ke_assemble=Assemble(Ke_global,Connectivity(i,:),NN); % Assemble is a Matlab function

K_global= K_global+ke_assemble

end

% Assume that the external forces are in global coordinates

% If they are in local coordinates then they have to transfer using

% F_global=Te_rotation*Fe_local

K_globalBC=Boundry_conditionK(K_global,BCdof)

F_globalBC=Boundry_conditionF(F_global, BCdof)

% Solution Phase

U=inv(K_globalBC)*F_globalBC;

A MATLAB Program

% Postprocessing Phase

for i=1:NE

stress(i)=Stress_calc(U, Element(i,2), Element(i,3),Element(i,4), Element(i,5) );

end

end

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