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International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET)

Volume 8, Issue 1, January- February 2017, pp. 5256, Article ID: IJEET_08_01_007
Available online at
ISSN Print: 0976-6545 and ISSN Online: 0976-6553
Journal Impact Factor (2016): 8.1891 (Calculated by GISI)
IAEME Publication


Ashwini Thakur
M. Tech (IPS), Department of Electrical Engineering, GHRCE, Nagpur, India

Dr. S. G. Tarnekar
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, GHRCE, Nagpur, India

Fast depletion of fossil-fuels and pollution related hazards have forced scientists to think of
alternative decentralized power generations. To meet the energy demand there is need of
decentralized power generation. The decentralized power generation includes energy from
renewable sources. Electric vehicle [EV] comes as a good source for it. EV is capable of providing
electrical energy when there is high demand of electricity at peak load. It is mainly used for
transportation purpose as it creates less pollution than conventional vehicles. When it is parked at
parking lot it will be source of energy generation. The parking lot in which so many such cars are
parked will able to provide large amount of power. The paper proposes a design of a theoretical
outline for consolidation of electric vehicles to the grid which is referred as a V2G concept. Battery
of the vehicle plays a vital role in this energy exchange. There is a need of communication and
metering system for efficient working. The vehicle can be charged either from taking energy from
the grid when load on the grid is low or using renewable sources such as solar, wind, etc. Solar PV
modules are also interfaced on the rooftop which can contribute for charging of vehicles.
Key words: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), Parking lot, V2G power, Solar Panel.
Cite this Article: Ashwini Thakur and Dr. S. G. Tarnekar. Design of a Theoretical Outline for the
V2G Realization. International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, 8(1), 2017, pp.

The increasing price of oil leads to the invention of electric vehicles [EV]. The electrics vehicles can be
classified as purely battery operated vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.
They are more dominant in clean energy market. It was proved by the tremendous rise in the selling of
EVs. The other important advantage they are providing is the pollution free transportation. In initial days,
the battery is able to operate low amount of power and less energy capacity. New advancement is battery
leads to the improved performance of battery. Now, the newly launched vehicle models deal with
comparatively high amount of power and have high energy density. Amongst all the EVs Plug-in Hybrid
Electric Vehicle [PHEV] is run by battery as well as petrol or diesel. It can be charged by taking electricity
from the grid. It will be beneficial to charge the vehicle when the grid has low demand. If the vehicle is 52
Design of a Theoretical Outline for the V2G Realization

sufficiently charged then it will be able to provide power back to grid which is referred as V2G. This power
is very helpful in peak load hours. Here the battery acts as a load as well as source. The IC engine comes
into picture when the battery of the vehicle is exhausted. Now the battery will perform both the functions
i.e. to drive the vehicle and to charge the battery. When the vehicle participates in V2G, it is at stationary
hence the IC engine can used to feed the power to the grid. The tariff of V2G during peak load time will be
more than the normal tariff. This will be even more efficient when the non renewable fuel is replaced by
biofuel. This will be a way of income for car owner. The output of one vehicle is negligible when
compared with the centralized generation. But when output of hundreds of vehicles is taken into
consideration, then the there will be a significant amount of power generation. The places where hundreds
of vehicles are parked such as parking fleets can be used for this purpose.


The vehicle can be charged at home or at public charging station. If the vehicle is to be charged using grid,
it may use AC as well as DC. In case of AC, an on board battery charger is used which converts AC into
DC. They are generally employed at public charging stations or parking lots. The duration of charging can
be varied according to the voltage and current rating of charger. DC chargers are generally used at higher
voltages to reduce the duration of charging. This creates an extra load on a system. Hence the vehicle
should be charged at low load condition. The other advantage of this will be the tariff rate of charging will
be low in such condition. The battery of the vehicle can be charged using renewable sources such as solar
energy. The solar panels can be installed at the roof of the parking lot. In such case, the battery can be
charged during daytime only. Here solar energy can be efficiently used to charge the batteries of the
vehicle as well as to feed power to the grid. This will cause the installation cost of parking lot.
The other source of energy for PHEV is IC engine. This acts as secondary source of energy when the
battery of the vehicle exhausts. If the fuel is replaced by biodiesel then the pollution will reduced to zero.
The vehicle will fully run by renewable sources. The IC engine can also contribute to V2G. It can perform
both the functions to drive the vehicle as well as to charge the battery. When it participates in V2G, the
vehicle is stationary. Hence there is no need to drive the vehicle. Even though both the energy sources are
available, the first preference is always given to battery. The switching between the battery and IC engine
should be done automatically within the vehicle. When the battery of the vehicle exhausts, the command
should be given to IC engine to switch it on. The amount of power generated by the dynamo of 1 IC engine
is negligible. But when power of such 100 vehicles is combined, the amount of power generated will be
significant. When the amount of power generated by such lots is combined, the generated power will be
more than the power output of centralized generation. Hence a parking lot comes as a good source of
decentralized power generation.

There are hundreds of vehicles are parked in the parking lot. The charging level in each vehicle will be
different as well as the amount of energy required for charging for each vehicle will be different, hence
there is a need to look after each and every vehicle. Hence there should be a system body called as
aggregator or fleet operator who takes care of all such operations. There are various parameters such as
arriving time, parking time, state of charge should be considered. Aggregator monitors all the operations
related to charging of the vehicle. There should not be any overloading on the grid during charging of the
When the vehicle is entered in the parking lot, the arrival time of the vehicle should be noted by the
aggregator. At the same time, the parking time should be confirmed by the car owner. The SOC level
should also be checked at that time. The amount of charging as well as charging level can be determined
by knowing the SOC level of the battery. If the SOC of the battery is very low, either the time of charging
will be more at low charging level or the charging level can be increased and duration of charging can be
reduced. This decision can be taken by the car owner. Whether the vehicle should participate in V2G or not 53
Ashwini Thakur and Dr. S. G. Tarnekar

is decided by the car owner. The car owner should know all the tariff rates regarding charging and
discharging. When the vehicle is fully charged, the charger should be automatically turned off. There
should not be any manual interface. The no of charging ports or charging poles are limited. Hence the
vehicle should vacant the place for next vehicle to charge. Generally level 1 charger [120V, 15A] is
associated with each vehicle. The charging tariff rate mainly depends upon charging level. The aggregator
plays an important role in V2G. It works as a mediator between the grid and the vehicle. During power
exchange, aggregator has whole information about the energy available at the parking lot. This helps to
determine how much amount of power each vehicle can contribute in V2G.
When solar panels are installed on the top of the parking lot, all the energy transactions between the
grid and vehicle from solar panel should also be taken into account by the aggregator. Solar energy can be
used to charge the vehicle. When excess energy is available after charging the vehicles, the excess energy
can be supplied to the grid. This transaction depends on the available solar energy and required charging
for vehicles. When the solar energy is supplied to the grid, the parking lot owner gets incentives for it.
Here, the parking lots besides providing parking and charging for electric vehicles, act as a source for
decentralised power generation. When the outputs of such energy sources are combined, the decentralised
generation will be even more than the centralised energy generation. Aggregator plays a vital role in V2G.

Here issues for V2G realization are solved by using techniques such as advanced communication and
control, smart metering and monitoring. Car owner plays an important role in the all this. Even though
such electric vehicles are launched, there are very few who own the electric vehicle. The selling of electric
vehicles is negligible in countries like India. The reason behind this is the prices of the electric vehicles.
The cost of the vehicles will decrease in the future as the sale of the vehicles is supposed to be increased.
In European countries, the Government provides subsidies to the car owner. This scheme should also be
implemented in India to initiate the people to buy the electric vehicles. The incentive programs should be
organised by the Government to spread awareness about the less pollutant vehicle and its benefits.
Communication and metering plays an important role in charging as well as in V2G.

4.1. Communication Network

The grid, aggregator and the parking lot are connected through the communication link. The information
flow is bidirectional. In case of peak load demand, the grid sends signal to the aggregator. The aggregator
locates nearby parking lot where is peak demand is more. The parking lot operator decides whether the
amount of power available is sufficient to provide V2G power or not and sends signal to the aggregator.
For such applications, high speed communication channels are required which should also take care of
security. Hence, private internet such as Zig Bee, Ethernet, intranet are used. In some countries, the grid
operator directly contacts with the fleet operator. In such case, the grid operator has to handle many
utilities at a time. Due to these complexities, the aggregator is specially elected to perform all such
operations. Hence reliability increases.

Figure 1 Smart metering and monitoring 54
Design of a Theoretical Outline for the V2G Realization

When the vehicle comes in the parking lot, the state of charge [SOC] should be measured so that the
amount of charging and duration of charging can be calculated for each vehicle. The tariff rate for charging
as well as during discharging depends on time duration. Hence metering is always necessary. There should
not be any wastage of energy during charging as well as discharging. The monitoring should be properly
done. The losses in the system should be as low as possible. All the metering and monitoring functions are
performed by fleet operator. Software programs are mainly used for these operations. The information
should always be updated after predetermined time period. The charging system employed may be AC or
DC. In case of AC, AC chargers are used which converts AC into DC within the vehicle. In case of DC,
the DC chargers can be used or a common DC bus can be used in which the vehicles are interfaced through
DC/DC bi-directional converters. If solar panels are used, then they are interfaced either with
unidirectional DC/DC converters or the DC output can be converted to AC with the help of inverters.


Battery in the vehicles is a distributed energy resource that acts both as supply and demand. It is able to
provide power at peak load demand. Here the power is available in small increments. The parking lots are
used to provide ancillary services also it acts as a spinning reserve. It responds fast to the signals. It should
not be used to provide base load demand. Renewable sources are used for charging of the vehicle so that
there should not be overloading on the grid.
Battery life of the vehicle can be increased using ultra capacitor. The impulses in current are looked
after by UC during charging of battery/UC and starting of motor vehicle.

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