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maximum accuracy in evaluating integrals with a

minimum of function evaluations.

When the function is given at discrete points we

use techniques like trapezoidal integration or

Simpsons rule that try to maximize accuracy

from given data.

When

Wh we can choose

h the

h points

i we evaluate

l the

h

functions we can further improve accuracy.

2

Gauss integration

Integration of a function of one variable

x2 1 n

I fdx d W ( )

x1 1 i 1

i i

achieve exact integration of any

polynomial up to order 2n-1.

3

Example

1

Integrate I e x dx

0

1 1

0 5 e

I 0.5 ( 1)/2

0 5 ( )d

d 0.5

1 1

n2

I 0.5 1/ 3 1/ 3 0.5 e0.2113 e0.7887 1.7179

Exact integral 1

I e dx e e 1 1.7183

x x 1

0

0

4

In two dimensions

Integrate sequentially

1 1 1

I , d d W , d WW ,

1 1 1 i

i i

j i

i j i j

Can similarly extend to three dimensions

Specialized formulas available for

triangular domains

5

Displacement field

u a1 a2 a3 a4 2 a5 a6 2 a7 2 a8 2

v a9 a10 a11 a12 2 a13 a14 2 a15 2 a16 2

6

Shape functions

1 1 1

N 1 ( 1 )( 1 ) (N 8 N 5) N 5 (1 2

)( 1 )

4 2 2

1 1 1

N 2 ( 1 )( 1 ) (N 5 N 6 ) N 6 ( 1 )( 1 2

)

4 2 2

1 1 1

N 3 ( 1 )( 1 ) (N 6 N 7 ) N 7 (1 2

)( 1 )

4 2 2

1 1 1

N 4 ( 1 )( 1 ) (N 7 N8) N 8 ( 1 )( 1 2

)

4 2 2

R.T. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida

7

Nine node Q9

Bubble

ubb e mode

ode N 9 (1 2

)(1 2

)makes

a es into

to Lagrange

ag a ge e

element

e e t

Modify other shape functions

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

N1 (1 )(1 ) (1 )(1 ) N9 (1 )(1 ) N9 N9

2 2

4 2 2 2 2 2 2 4

Transition elements with 5-7 nodes also possible, see Table 6.4-1

8

See L.-X. Li, , , S. Kunimatsu, X.-P. Han and S.-Q. Xu The

analysis of interpolation precision of quadrilateral elements

elements Finite

Elements in Analysis and Design Volume 41, Issue 1, October

2004, Pages 91-108

Q9 supposedly much less sensitive to

geometry.

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