Lecture 4 Dispersion and Distributions

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Lecture 4 Dispersion and Distributions

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Proportion

f

p

n

Population Mean

(X )

Sample Mean

(X )

X

n

variable or element in a list. b) a single number summary of a distribution. c) examples

are mean, median, and mode.

difference from the location. b) examples are range, variance, standard deviation.

Sample Standard Deviation the average deviation of the observed values of a random

variable (X) from the mean of the variable (X-bar).

Total Sum of Square Deviations (Variation, TSS) The sum of squared deviations of

the individual observations of a variable from the mean.

TSS ( X X ) 2

(X X )

2

var

n 1

(X X )

2

sd

n 1

Standard deviation of a Sample Proportion the square root of the variance but

calculated as the square root of the probability (p) times the inverse of the probability

(q=1-p).

sd pq

random variable (X) from the mean of the variable (). b)like other population

parameters is generally not known or observable. c) symoblied as sigma, like other

population parameters a Greek letter.

( X )

2

a) a bell shaped continuous probability distribution that describes data that cluster around

the mean. b) is used as a simple model of complex phenomenon and is the basis of many

inferential statistics. c) 68% of the observations are within one standard deviation of the

mean, 5% of the observations are more than 1.96 standard deviations from the mean and

10% are more than 1.64 standard deviations from the mean. d) was formalized by Johann

Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), a German mathematician, although he was not the first

to conceptualize it.

x N ( , )

Law of Large Numbers a) in probability theory, a theorem that states that the average

of the results obtained from a large number of trials should be close to the expected value.

b) the mean from a large number of samples should be close to the population mean. c)

the first fundamental theorem of probability.

Central Limit Theorem a) in probability theory, a theorem that states that the mean of

a sufficiently large number of independent random trials, under certain common

conditions, will be approximately normally distributed. b) as the sample size increases

the distribution of the sample means approaches the normal distribution irrespective of

the shape of the distribution of the variable. c) from a practical standpoint, many

distributions can be approximated by the normal distribution, including the binomial

(coin toss), Poisson (event counts), and Chi-Squared. d) justifies the approximation of

large-sample statistics to the normal distribution. e) the first fundamental theorem of

probability.

Sampling Distribution a) the distribution of a statistic, like a mean, for all possible

samples of a given size. b) based on the law of large numbers and the central limit

theorem, the sampling distribution will have a mean equal to the population mean and

will be normally distributed.

distribution with mean 0 and variance/standard deviation 1. b) any other normal

distribution can be regarded as a version of the standard normal distribution that has been

shifted rightward or leftward to center on the actual mean and then stretched horizontally

by a factor the standard deviation.

x N (0,1)

Z-Scores (Normal Deviates) a standardized score that converts a variable (x) into a

standard normal distribution with mean = 0 and sd =1 and a metric of standard deviations

from the mean.

X X

z X ( z * sd ) X

sd

normally distributed population when the sample size is small, that is 50 or less. b) the

overall shape of the t-distribution resembles the bell shape of the z-distribution with a

mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1, except that it is a bit lower at the peak with fatter

tails. c) as the sample size increases, that is the number of degrees of freedom increase,

the t-distribution more and more closely approximates the normal distribution, that is it

asymptotically approaches normality. d) can be thought of not as a single distribution,

like the z-distribution, but a family of distributions that vary according to the sample size,

that is degrees of freedom. e) at a sample size of 50 (that is 49 degrees of freedom), 5%

of the observations are more than 2.009 standard deviations from the mean (compared to

1.96 in the normal distribution) and 10% are more than 1.676 standard deviations from

the mean (compared to 1.64 in the normal distribution).f) is generally the distribution

used in estimating confidence intervals and inferential tests of the difference between

sample means and sample means and hypothesized population means, instead of the z-

distribution. g) was developed by William Sealy Gosset in his research aimed at

selecting the most productive and consistent varieties of barley for brewing beer and was

first published in 1908 using the pseudonym Student because his employer, the

Guinness Brewery in Dublin, Ireland, prohibited its employees from publishing scientific

research due to a previous disclosure of trade secrets by another employee.

estimate of the sampling error representing the spread or dispersion of the sample

estimates. c) the part of the standard deviation of a variable that can be attributed to

sampling variability, that is sampling error.

sd

se

n

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