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# SPATIAL REASONING

## With support from Ms. Heather Jelly, YRDSBs Early Years

Math Consultant, our children have been exploring the
Geometry & Spatial Sense strand more deeply through the
use of games and puzzles. Games and puzzles are just one
component of YRDSBs Comprehensive Math Program and
are considered an essential component in fostering
mathematics learning.
SPATIAL REASONING
GEOMETRY IS THE FOUNDATION OF MATHEMATICS AS WE KNOW IT TODAY

## According to Paying Attention to Spatial Reasoning, The

Ontario curriculum combines spatial sense and geometry
into one strand because spatial sense and geometry are
inherently linked (Paying Attention to Spatial Reasoning,
pg. 3). With that, the educator team decided to explore
spatial reasoning with our childrens love for pattern blocks.
SPATIAL REASONING
THE VAN HIELE LEVELS OF GEOMETRIC THOUGHT
Within our classroom, children have been exploring with different shapes
including triangles, hexagons, squares, rhombus, trapezoids and
rectangles. The purpose behind working with these kinds of materials is to
build and scaffold geometric thinking. According to van Hiele, there are 3
levels of geometric thought.

## The Visual Level Where figures are

judged by their appearance. We often
hear our children say This is the same. I
know that this is because I see it.

## The Descriptive Level Where figures are

determined by their properties. For
example, we may hear our children say
I know this is a triangle because it has
three sides and three corners. At this
level, properties are not logically
ordered. So children may identify
equilateral triangles as triangles" but
when shown an isosceles or scalene
triangle, they will tell us that those shapes
are not triangles.

## The Informal Deduction Level Properties

of shapes are logically ordered. One
property precedes or follows another
property. Children are able to apply
what they already know to explain
relationships between shapes. For
example, a child may say I know that
two trapezoids make up one hexagon.
SPATIAL REASONING
EXPLORING WITH INVITATIONS FOR LEARNING
In order help children move from one
level of geometry thinking, to another,
educators must provide instruction that
includes sequencing activities,
beginning with an exploratory phase,
related language and culminating in
summary activities that help students
integrate what they have learned into
what they already know. (van Hiele,
pg 311, 1999).

## In order to facilitate this in our

classroom, educators scaffolded the
learning to ensure that children had
the opportunity to explore geometry;
using pattern blocks in different ways.
Over time, the learning experiences
were designed to extend the
childrens learning. For example,
children first began exploring with
pattern blocks by building tall towers.
Educators then placed out templates
for children to match pattern blocks.
Learning was then scaffolded as
children were asked to produce their
own creations without templates and
finally they were prompted to re-
create their creations by tracing
pattern blocks.
SPATIAL REASONING
SHAPE HEARTS
Shape Hearts is a combination of Sharpie Markers, Oil Pastel
Crayons and Liquid Watercolour Paints. They are used in together as a
way to show how different mediums and textures can be used to
create designs. These pieces of our childrens art work fostered
thinking and learning in all four frames of the Kindergarten Program;
beginning with exploring geometry and spatial reasoning and ending
with lovely Shape Hearts.
SPATIAL REASONING
LEARNING ACROSS THE FOUR FRAMES
Over time, the educator team noticed that learning was occurring
in many different ways. They referred to the 2016 Kindergarten
Program Document to identify the learning in The Four Frames of the
Kindergarten Program.

## Belonging and Contributing Self Regulation and Well Being

1.6 Use language to communicate their thinking, to reflect
1.6 Use language to communicate their thinking, to reflect and to solve problems.
and to solve problems.
2.2 Demonstrate a willingness to try new experiences

22.1 Communicate their ideas about something through visual 2.3 Demonstrate self-motivation, initiative and confidence
arts in their approach to learning by selecting and completing
25.1 Recognize their personal interests, strengths and
accomplishments 4.1 Use a variety o strategies to solve problems, including
problems that arise during social situations
30.1 demonstrate an awareness of personal interest and a
sense of accomplishments in visual arts 8.4 demonstrate control of small muscles while working in
a variety of learning areas and when using a variety of
material or equipment

## 8.5 Demonstrate spatial awareness by doing activities that

Demonstrating Literacy and require the use of small muscles

## Mathematics Behaviours 22.1 Communicate their ideas about something through

visual arts
1.2 Listen and respond to others, both verbally and non-
verbally in a variety of contexts

## 1.4 Sustain interactions in different contexts Problem Solving and Innovating

1.5 Use language (veral and non-verbal communication) in 1.2 Listen and respond to others, both verbally and non-
various context to connect new experiences with what they verbally in a variety of contexts
1.4 Sustain interactions in different contexts
1.8 Ask questions for a variety of purposes
1.8 Ask questions for a variety of purposes
16.1 select an attribute to measure (area), determine an
appropriate non-standard unit of measure 4.1 Use a variety o strategies to solve problems, including
problems that arise during social situations
17.1 explore the attributes and properties of traditional two
dimensional shapes 13.2 Make predictions and observations before and during
investigations
18.1 Identify and describe informally the repeating nature of
patterns in everyday contexts using appropriate terminology 14.3 Recognize, explore and describe com patterns in the
and gestures. natural and built environment

18.2 explore and extend patterns 20.3 compose designs using two-dimensional shapes,
explore reflective symmetry in two-dimensional shapes and
18.4 create and translate patterns decompose two-dimensional shapes into smaller shapes
and rearrange the pieces into other shapes, using various
20.3 compose designs using two-dimensional shapes, explore tools and materials
reflective symmetry in two-dimensional shapes and
decompose two-dimensional shapes into smaller shapes and 20.5 investigate how objects can be collected, grouped
rearrange the pieces into other shapes, using various tools and and organized into similarities and differences
materials
22.1 Communicate their ideas about something through
20.5 investigate how objects can be collected, grouped and visual arts
organized into similarities and differences
23.2 Use problem solving skills and their imagination to
22.1 Communicate their ideas about something through visual create visual art forms
arts