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21.6.

1 Overview of Beam post-processing


Beam stresses vary both over the length of the beam element and across the cross section. You can display beam stresses in two ways:

By creating a deformed line display of stress at a defined stress recovery point as it varies along the length of a beam.

By creating a contour display of stresses across beam sections at the fore or aft end of the beam.

Note When defining the solution for models containing beams, be sure to request element force output in your solution. To display complete stresses and to
create beam section displays, the software needs to calculate the stress components from beam element forces and section geometry. For more
information, see:

Requesting output for Nastran analyses

Requesting output for Abaqus analyses

By default, beam stress and strain results are displayed in the beam element coordinate system, even if results for other element types are in the absolute
or work coordinate systems. To display beam results in the same coordinate system as the rest of the model, on the Set Result dialog box , clear the Display
Beam Results in Local Coordinate Systems check box. Beam resultants are always shown in the local (element) coordinate system. See Beam resultants for
more information.

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21.6.2 Beam stresses
Structural FE solvers do not output a complete stress tensor for beam elements. This means that stress displays using solver stress output are incomplete,
and derived results such as von Mises stress may be inaccurate.

When you first open your results in the Post Processing Navigator, if you expand the Stress Element-Nodal or Strain Element-Nodal nodes in the solution,
all component and derived stresses are listed. This is to ensure consistent presentation of results across element types. Many components are empty; the
mapping of solver stress output to Post Processing Navigator components may vary depending on the solver and element formulation. For complete and
accurate stress tensor components, the software can calculate stress tensors from element forces and beam geometry.

To verify your model prior to calculating complete beam stresses, examine your model's Beam Resultants.

To calculate stress tensor components, on the Set Result dialog box, select Calculate Beam Results from Forces and Beam Geometry. You can then use the
Post Processing Navigator or the Set Result dialog box to navigate among complete and accurate stress or strain components and derived results. Beam
stresses are also calculated automatically when you create a cross-section view.

Example: Comparing CBEAM .op2 stress results to calculated stresses


For example, the following table summarizes the stress components available for beam components for NX Nastran output and stresses calculated in NX
post-processing. All components are in the element (local) coordinate system.

Displayed in Description .op2 results Calculated stresses


navigator
XX X normal stress Axial plus bending stress; the stress in Axial plus bending stress; the stress in
the axial direction. the axial direction.
YY Y normal stress No result No result
ZZ Z normal stress No result No result
XY Shear stress on the X face in the Y direction, or shear on No result Calculated results

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the Y face in the X direction
YZ Shear stress on the Y face in the Z direction, or shear on No result Calculated results
the Z face in the Y direction
ZX Shear stress on the Z face in the X direction, or shear on No result Calculated results
the X face in the Z direction
Stress calculation process
When you request calculated beam stresses, the software:

1. Queries the results file for material properties (Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio) and section definition.

If that information is not available in the results file, and the associated Simulation is loaded, the software queries the model for that information.

If either property is temperature-dependent, it is evaluated at the ambient temperature.

2. Retrieves element force results from the current load case or iteration.

3. Generates an adaptive mesh on each section, and then computes the stress tensor at each node in the mesh. Derived components such as von Mises are
also calculated for each node.

For more information about how derived components for tensor data are calculated, see Data components.

4. Retains tensors at nodes closest to the original stress recovery points.

A progress bar is displayed in the Status line while the calculation takes place. For large models containing many section definitions, the calculation may
take a few moments.

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21.6.3 Calculate beam stresses from element forces and geometry
1. Create a post view showing contours on beam results, if necessary.

2. In the Post-Processing Navigator, right-click the post view and choose Set Result.

3. Select Stress Element-nodal or Strain Element-nodal results.

4. In the Set Result dialog box, select Calculate Beam Results from Forces and Beam Geometry.

5. (Optional) Click Add Fillets and specify a Fillet Radius Scale Factor to include fillets on the interior corners of your beam sections.

Include fillets to avoid artificially high stresses at sharp corners. The scale factor is multiplied by the beam wall thickness to determine the fillet radius.
Specify a value between 0 and 1.

6. Click OK, or click Apply and continue to refine your results display.

21.6.4 Specify a stress recovery point


Stress recovery points for standard cross sections are displayed in the Beam Section dialog box. Stress recovery points for user-defined beam sections are
assigned when you define the beam section.

1. Create a post view showing contours on beam results, if necessary.

2. In the Post-Processing Navigator, right-click the post view and choose Set Result.

3. Select Stress Element-nodal or Strain Element-nodal results.

4. In the Location group, select a recovery point from the Beam list. Or choose the Minimum or Maximum value for all stress recovery points.

If you calculate beam stresses from element forces, Minimum and Maximum return the minimum and maximum stresses for the complete section,
regardless of recovery points.

5. Click OK, or click Apply and continue to refine your results display.

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21.6.5 Displaying results on beam sections
You can display stress and strain contours on selected beam cross sections.

Note To display stress contours on beam sections, you must have beam resultants in your results file. To calculate beam resultants, be sure to include an
element force request in your solution output requests. For more information, see:

Requesting output for Nastran analyses

Requesting output for Abaqus analyses

Before you can create a cross-section view, you must create a contour display of your beam model. You then select an element end from this post view to
generate the cross-section view.

Tip As a best practice when creating beam section displays, you should set up a layout of multiple viewports, with a standard post view of your beam model
in one viewport and your cross section display in another. In this way, you can interactively select different beam elements to update the cross-section
view. If you have multiple post views of your model display, you select elements for cross-section displays from the Master post view. For more
information, see Layouts and viewports.

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You can select element ends graphically or by specifying an element ID and the fore or aft end. If your beam model contour display is of a stress or strain
component, that component is used to generate the cross-section view. Otherwise, you can specify the stress or strain component using the Set Result
dialog box.

Tip When selecting element ends graphically, use Preview before generating the cross-section view to quickly and efficiently interrogate your model. You
can resize the Preview window as needed, and the displayed preview updates automatically as you select different locations in your model.

To generate the cross-section view, the software automatically generates an adaptive mesh on the beam section geometry and calculates stresses from
element forces, material properties, and beam geometry. For more information, see Beam stresses.

The beam section mesh is displayed in the selected viewport with a standard contour display of the calculated results in the element (local) coordinate
system.

Tip By default, the edge display in the cross-section view is set to Feature. To examine the automatically generated mesh on your beam section, in the
Cross-Section View dialog box, click Edges & Faces. From the Edges list, choose Wireframe.

Adding fillets to the beam section


On the Set Result dialog box for your cross-section view, you can select Add Fillets to add fillets to interior corners of your beam section geometry. To
determine the fillet radius, the software multiplies the Fillet Radius Scale Factor by the minimum beam wall thickness. For example, consider the following
beam section:

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The minimum beam wall thickness at the interior corner is 10 mm. If the Fillet Radius Scale Factor is 0.5, the resulting fillet will have a radius of 5 mm.

The software then modifies the section geometry and remeshes the section. Adding fillets can reduce artificial stress concentrations at interior corners.

Top: Section view without fillets. Note stress concentrations at arrows. Bottom: Section view with added fillets. Artificial stresses are reduced.
Where do I find it?
Application Advanced Simulation

A structural analysis of a model containing beam elements.

Prerequisites A force output request in your structural beam solution.

Toolbar Post-Processing Cross-Section View

Menu Tools Result Cross-Section View

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21.6.6 Set up a cross-section view
You can click Apply at any time during the following procedure to view your current settings.

1. Create a post view.

The Cross-Section view command is not available until you create a post view. Your model must contain beam elements.

Tip You may find it useful to define multiple viewports, so that you can view beam section contours in one viewport and interactively modify your
element selection in another. See Layouts and viewports.

2. On the Post Processing toolbar, click Cross-Section View .

The Cross-Section View dialog box is displayed.

3. On the Selection tab, specify a selection mode and select an element:

o If you choose From Model, select an element in the Graphics window. Choose a location near the fore or aft end of the element.

o If you choose By Element ID, enter the element ID in the Element field click and click or press Enter. From the At End list, select Fore or

Aft.

4. (Optional) Click Preview to display a preview of the cross-section contour display in the Cross-Section Preview window.

While the preview window is displayed, you can use the selection options to refine your selection.

5. Click Apply.

If necessary, select a viewport when prompted.

A default contour display of the specified beam element section is displayed in the Graphics window, and the remaining tabs in the Cross-Section
View dialog box become available.

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6. On the Display tab, select Color Display, and select from Smooth, Banded, Element, or Iso-line.

7. Click Result.

8. In the Set Result dialog box, specify the mode/iteration/load case, Stress or Strain, and data component as needed.

9. (Optional) Select Add Fillets and specify a Fillet Radius Scale Factor to consider the effect of fillets at interior corners of your section.

10. Click OK to return to the Cross-Section View dialog box.

11. (Optional) Complete the cross-section view definition as desired:

o On the Color Bar tab, specify the results range, color spectrum, and color bar scale.

o On the Edges & Faces tab, specify the display of element and feature edges and element faces.

12. When you are satisfied with your cross-section view, click OK.

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