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**Negotiation, Valuation, and Tax Planning
**

for International Joint Ventures :

an Integrated Approach

by

Piet SERCU

Raman UPPAL

D/1993/2376/11

Sercu. We show that it is relatively straightworward to build in differential taxation. Belgium) and Raman Uppal. or a distribution network.U. Vancouver (2053 Main Mall. non-proportional profit-sharing rules. Valuation. Canada) Absctract: We propose a simple framework that integrates the negotiating. or valuation of intangible assets like know-how. BC V6T 1Z2. and tax planning aspects of a Joint Venture proposal. 3000 Leuven. heterogenous required returns reflecting capital market segmentation. evaluation. and Tax Planning for International Joint Ventures~ an Integrated Approach By P.Leuven and EIASM. . K. UBC. brand name. Negotiation. Brussels (Dekenstraat 2. Vancouver.

international capital budgeting can. We show that it is relatively straightworward to build in differential taxation. and international taxation aspects of the remittance policy. International problems give rise to many additional issues. where the tax implications and political risk aspects of various intra-company financial arrangements are considered. first focusing on the operational aspects. be implemented in three steps: (1) the "bundled" (branch) valuation. Negotiation. including interactions with the company's other businesses. etc. and the funds resulting from depreciation tax shields Joint Ventures. where the focus is on the economics (operations. whereas 'domestic' projects are typically assumed to be in-house so that the 'parent' is immediately and automatically the full owner of the project's cashflows. an unincorporated where all profits and losses are shared pro rata by the partners. we can essentially follow the three-step approach outlined for a WOS. heterogenous required returns reflecting capital market segmentation. evaluation. and finally. and Tax Planning for International Joint Ventures: an Integrated Approach Absctract: We propose a simple framework that integrates the negotiating. brand name. we can first do the NPV exercise assuming the foreign business is conducted as a joint branch. therefore. political risks. the effect of exchange risk and capital market segmentation on the required rate of return. and where the project is assumed to be carried out within a foreign branch. The standard ("domestic") investment analysis procedure is to evaluate the project in two steps. Also the financing of working capital. Brealey and Myers (1991). Refining a suggestion by Shapiro (1985). and only afterwards dealing with the financing side (see e. non- proportional profit-sharing rules.). Another complication arises from the fact that many foreign projects take the form of a joint venture (N). This last aspect is caused by the fact that most foreign ventures are carried out via a separate subsidiary. i. Valuation. Version 3/18/93. exchange and political risks. or a distribution network. or valuation of intangible assets like know-how.e. page 2 . (2) the "unbundling" stage. That is. (3) the adjustments for the effects of external financing. and tax planning aspects of an international Joint Venture proposal.g. For a JV.

*In addition. complicated step-2 NPV problems invariably require that we solve the step-1 part first. different tax rules. or because of heterogenous required returns reflecting capital market segmentation. investment analysis for a joint venture is inherently more complicated than an evaluation of a WOS project. the joint-branch case with minimal tax complications is easier to negotiate with other shareholders than a fully-fledged unbundled solution. and if there are borrowing costs and tax benefits. as it is likely to lead to joint profit- maximizing decisions) In contrast. This separation is a sound principle: the gains from fiscal hi-tech schemes may evaporate when loopholes are closed. Version 3/18/93. As we will illustrate in a number of examples. offered by a pure-equity JV. from the onset. As suggested in the last point. the joint branch's working capital needs can be financed through bank loans. or heterogenous required returns can be built in.. NPV-analysis is mixed with the issue of profit-sharing and is. In a second step. The same advantage is. such borrowing would not affect the NPV. It would therefore be unwise to accept a project purely for expected tax advantages. non-proportional sharing rules like license contracts.l Computing each partner's NPV under this simple joint-branch contract is relevant for a number of reasons. 1. In Section 3 we explain how issues like differential tax treatment. Joint Ventures. the partners can then experiment with other solutions and make sure that they are no worse off than in the joint-branch case. therefore.etc. we will discuss a framework to deal simultaneoulsy with these issues. the joint branch can invest free cash flows in the money market. these should be considered in Step 3. * Even if both partners know. In this article. and capitalisation of the value of the know-how (brought in as 'equity in kind'). To further complicate matters. 2. In Section 1 we review the basic bargaining theory. and transaction costs or tax effects should be part of Step 3. page 3 . and assumptions about dividend payout (and the corresponding advantage of tax deferral) are inevitably shaky. however. But as each parent implicitly guarantees the joint branch's loans. But in the absence of tax effects or transaction costs this does not affect the NPV. In practice. the valuation of a given cashflow by one partner may differ from the valuation by the other partner(s) because of. * The joint branch may make good economic sense. For one thing. the "joint branch" approach nevertheless helps to separate tax planning issues from economic issues. Section 6 concludes the paper. An application for the simplest possible pure-equity joint branch is provided in Section 2. If there were no costs or tax issues. management contracts. are shared. that the business will not actually be conducted in this way. Likewise. or loans may create a divergence in the N partners' interests. hard to separate from the contract negotiation itself. Sections 4 and 5 deal with two possible departures from the pure-equity framework: royalties. for instance. this is just one form of outside borrowing by the parents.

that is. nor heterogeneous discount rates.fPVB figures. The focus is on the implementation of the split-the-difference rule.what can they obtain if each works on his own? . if NPV JV > NPV A+ NPVB. NPVJv=250. see Rubinstein (1982). no party will accept a JV contract that gives it less than the NPV it can realise on its own.2 1. One partner. The usual rule of thumb in practice (which can be justified theoretically. companies not explicitly involved in the negotiations). In what follows. For instance. respectively. The next question is what the parties get if the negotiations break down. we assume equal bargaining strengths.1. As ingredients we shall need the answers to three questions: . may get offers from third parties (i. we shall consider all this later on). If the bargaining strengths are nor equal. for the time being we assume there are no differential tax effects. Sutton (1986)) is to split the gains equally) Thus synergy NPVJv. Denote the values of these alternatives as NPV A and NPVB. Since each party wants at least its 'own' NPV. Suppm. A and B should get Joint Ventures. or both of them. the synergy gain will be split differently.:-.are there any alternatives ('outside options')? The first question is what the total NPV is if the bargaining leads to a JV. The third and last ingredient of a bargaining game is provided by outside options. or one or even both of them may abandon the idea altogether. We now apply this framework to some generic cases with varying degrees of complexity. For instance. NPVB=lOO. i.(NPVA + NPVB) > 0. the discussion is about the division of these synergy gains. A Framework for Negotiations and Profit-Sharing We adopt the standard bargaining model to integrate NPV analysis with the JV negotiations between companies A and B. as suggested by Sutton (1988). In fact. bargaining must also lead to an outcome that is at least as good as the best outside option available to each player. we will not repeat the point about outside options. under which A and B agree to share both the costs and benefits on a the same prorata basis. suppose NPV A= 100. (That is. Obviously. 2.e there is a positive synergy. Denote this as NPVJv.e. it is straightforward to adjust the procedure for a different sharing rule. One immediate corollary is that JV negotiations will work only if there are synergy gains. Without outside options. NPVJv. Version 3/18/93. the outside options can be huilt into the NPV A and .e. Obviously. each company may then pursue the investment on its own. and assume initially that this is independent of how the JV splits the cashflows from the operations.what can the partners obtain if they join forces into a JV? .(NPV A+ NPVB) A gets NPV A + i = NPV A+ 2 and synergy B ge ts NPV B + 2 The simplest way to implement this is a pure-equity contract. page 4 .

it should get at least 130. they each shoulder the corresponding fraction of the investment. available on request. 125 each. Joint Ventures. If company A has an outside option worth 130. These assumptions guarantee that both partners value the (entire) JV in the same way. and likewise share all cashflows on a 35/65 basis. For example.(130+100))/2 = 140. In such a case the value of the JV is higher the higher B's stake. Assume that both partners are subject to the same tax rules and use the same discount rate. A may be taxed more heavily than B. The local parent. has detailed cash-flow examples and details about working-capital adjustments. For instance. So A and B agree to split the synergy gain: B gets a NPV of 341/2 = 170. and A obtains 152 + 341. In this case. Assume the following figures: 1 NPVJv = 493 . in segmented capital markets. the value of the JV is higher the higher the share that accrues to A. has a well-established brand name and distribution network. and possesses. an outsider like A is likely to require lower returns than B's shareholders. A similar problem arises if. Case I: A Pure-Equity Joint-Branch where the JV's value zs Independent of the Profit-Sharing Agreement. because this reduces the overall tax burden.5 (or 35% of the total NPV). Sutton compute B's share as 130 + (250. because of a higher domestic tax rate and a credit tax system. A will never accept a deal where its share in the JV's NPV would be below NPV A= 152. Partner A is the foreign parent. company B. because otherwise it would prefer the wholly-owned subsidiary (WOS) alternative. Consider a joint-branch contract where both the initial investment and later cashflows are shared on the basis of an initially agreed-upon percentage. The synergy gain equals an impressive 493 . at which time A would already be firmly established. A fuller version of this paper. Case II: A Joint Branch where the JV's value Depends on the Profit-Sharing Agreement. 1. NPVA = 152 . Version 3/18/93. NPVs = 0 Clearly.5 (or 65% of the total NPV).(152 + 0) = 341. page 5 . 3.5/2 = 322. because many risks that cannot be diversified away by A's shareholders are undiversifiable from the point of view of B's shareholders. if the host country has a closed capital market.2. proprietary know-how that may lead to positive a NPV. the two prospective parents use different discount rates. The analysis becomes somewhat more involved if the value of the JV depends on the contract itself. say. but has no option to go it alone: without A's know-how it would take years to get the product ready. Under the pure-equity solution. But all this detracts from the main analysis.

operating expenses)). but. and minus A's share in the initial investment: PV(<j> x (revenue.PV(<j> x taxable profit x 40%).NPVJV.35% . multiplied by the current spot rate. The aggregate NPV value then is NPVJv = <j> NPVJV.40% = 465 NPVJv = 493.2~ <j>]. So the valuation currency is not an issue.(NPVA + NPVs) A's share= <j> NPVJV. In integrated capital markets.! We still have NPVs = 0.35% = NPVJV.28 <j> We can insert these into the split-the-difference rule NPVJv. in view of B's higher tax rate. Let us denote this figure by NPVJV. Recall that we are considering a joint branch where all partners fully share pre-set fractions of all cashflows. NPVJV.40%) In our numerical example.<1> Io This is just <1> times the NPV JV computed as if there were a 40% tax rate.35% all taxes are computed using a 35% tax rate. NPVs = 0 . where in NPVJV.35% = 493 NPVJV. page 6 . minus the taxes paid by A. the numbers are NPVA = 135 . we now have NPVs = 135. Version 3/18/93. Both companies use the same discount rate for profits after taxes (integrated capital markets). Joint Ventures.35%. We now modify the scenario. the present value of a cashflow in A's currency (using currency-A expected cashflows and a currency-A discount rate) must be the same as the present value of the cashflow expressed in currency B and discounted at a currency-B discount rate. B gets (1-<j>) times NPVJV.40% + (1-<j>) NPVJV.Suppose that our base case (Section 2) assumed a 35% common tax rate.35%.40%· By a similar argument.<j> (NPVJV.5% 1. with A paying 40% on its share in the branch's profit and B being subject to a 359c tax rate. the NPV realized by A equals its share in the before-tax operating cashflows. Denoting A's share in the investment and cashflows by <j>.135 or <1> (465 + 228 ) = 135 + 493 2135 314 =314 =><1>=465+14=65. The new issue is how to correct the overall joint venture's NPV for A's tax disadvantage.40% = NPV A+ 2 This yields <j> X 465 = 135 + (493.

Company A should get NPV tt-. where profits and other cashflows are shared pro rata of the fractions in the investments. With our numbers. the latter effect dominates marginally..2o. B's share goes up from 35% (base case) to 40%.20 + (1-<j>) x NPYJV. the joint operation becomes an incorporated business. .NPVJV. Denote by NPV JV. In addition. we find (j} X 493 = 152 + (360 + 1~3 (j}] . and partner B a 25% rate. Joint Ventures. A similar approach can be adopted if the partners use different required returns. we just consider arrangements betwen the parents and the JV. which would have attenuated the compensation effect. In Step 2. B's starting position would simultaneously have been weakened by its higher discount rate.. NPVJV. But this is part of Step 3.25 = 360.20 . In Step 2 of the NPV-procedure.152 or <P = 4932~~ 6 . it gets a compensation from B for its higher tax burden. * * * Thus far. and by NPV JV. and NPVB = 0. so that the NPV of its part equals (1-$) x NPVJv. if NPVJV... likewise.25 + <j> (NPVJV. '!'X JV. and non-proportional sharing arrangements become possible. Thus.20 the NPV of the entire cashlow discounted at 20%. company A's position is weakened by its lowered NPV A.20 = NPV A+ NPVJv. Suppose that partner A requires a 20% return.. If company A gets a fraction <P of the cashflows in return for a fraction <P of the investment. NPVA = 152. This is the result of its compensation for its lack of diversification opportunities.. On the one hand. there may 1.25) We just bring in this formula into the sharing rule.. I The JV's NPV can now be shared in various ways: for instance.25 = NPVJV. in a linear way: NPVJv = $ NPVJV. page 7 . it can compute the NPV of its share in the benefits and costs as <P x NPVJV.25 the result if discounting is at 25%.20 = 493. we only considered pure-equity joint-branches. on the other hand. If NPVB had not been equal to zero. the JV can now borrow from outside sources... the solution is virtually unaffected relative to the base case (<j> = 65 % ).25· The total value again depends on (j). 5 = 60%.. Version 3/18/93..In this example.(NPV A+ NPVB) 2 For instance. B's share in the benefits and costs is (1-<j>).

and non-proportional sharing arrangements become possible.. NPVA = 152. But this is part of Step 3. With our numbers.25) We just bring in this formula into the sharing rule.. the latter effect dominates marginally. it gets a compensation from B for its higher tax burden..20 = NPV A + NPVJv . If company A gets a fraction <1> of the cashflows in return for a fraction <1> of the investment.20 = 493.(NPV A+ NPVB) 2 For instance. A similar approach can be adopted if the partners use different required returns. and NPVB = 0.. On the one hand. company A's position is weakened by its lowered NPV A.. the solution is virtually unaffected relative to the base case <<I>= 65% ).In this example.25 +<I> (NPVJV. we only considered pure-equity joint-branches. In addition. This is the result of its compensation for its lack of diversification opportunities. it can compute the NPV of its share in the benefits and costs as <1> x NPVJV. B's starting position would simultaneously have been weakened by its higher discount rate. Suppose that partner A requires a 20% return. B's share in the benefits and costs is (1-<!>). Denote by NPV JV. where profits and other cashflows are shared pro rata of the fractions in the investments.20 the NPV of the entire cashlow discounted at 20%.20 . which would have attenuated the compensation effect * * * Thus far..25 the result if discounting is at 25%.25 = NPVJV.2o.256 2 or <I>= 493 ~~ 6 . so that the NPV of its part equals (1-<1>) x NPVJv.152 = 152 + --=----=-----'-"-. and by NPVJV. Thus. 5 = 60%. In Step 2. NPVJV. -. Joint Ventures... If NPVB had not been equal to zero. I The N's NPV can now be shared in various ways: for instance.NPVJV. Version 3/18/93. in a linear way: NPVJv =<I> NPVJV.25 = 360. Company A should get NPV Jt. we find <!> X 493 [360 + 1233 <!>] .. 'i' X JV . likewise. if NPVJV. and partner B a 25% rate. In Step 2 of the NPV -procedure. the joint operation becomes an incorporated business. page 7 . the JV can now borrow from outside sources. B's share goes up from 35% (base case) to 40%..25· The total value again depends on <j>.20 + (1-<j>) x NPVJV. on the other hand... we just consider arrangements betwen the parents and the JV. there may 1.

Case III: An Unbundled ]oint-Venture with a Pure Royalty Suppose. i. page 8 . Version 3/18/93. we can set some of thesP.35) PV(royalties) = 322.49 x [OldGPV.49.35) PV(royalties)] + p (1-. while B gets 51% of the JV's cashflows after royalties. etc .51 x (1-.. A loan at commercial rates is not a way to transfer NPV. What A gets is the after-tax royalties. A and B prefer a 49/51 incorporated joint venture company rather than a 65/35 joint branch.35) PV(royalties) . are the prime vehicles we should look at in Step 2. the royalty p.(1-. that both companies face the same 35% tax rate.49 xI . If. and use the remaining parameter to achieve the desired division of the synergy gains.e.35) PV(royalties)] + (1-. and will receive a royalty of p% on sales.5 or . taxes are fully neutral.I . Our approach is to chose p such that. synergy company A should get 322. Company A will bring in 49% of the cash needed.51 x [OldGPV. as disguised dividends. as before. the upfront payment K for the know-how.49 x [OldGPV. We now have more degrees of freedom: the profit share<!>..(1-. payable at the end of each trimester.51 xI Total: OldGPV . or other ways to compensate for the know-how. However.= OldNPV We now set p such that each partner gets the same NPV as under the joint-branch solution. parameters on the basis of other considerations (like restrictions on foreign equity ownership.35). p x salest x (1-.B gets ..35) PV(royalties) . B brings in 51% of the required cash.5 (= NPV A+ = 152 + 341/2): 2 . or political risks). 4. though. for public relations reasons (the local image) or because of restrictions on foreign ownership. company A still gets half of the synergy gains. the total Gross PV (GPV) is unaffected: -A gets . So license deals.be an licensing deal with a royalty tied to sales and possibly a fee independent of sales. as we are assuming. faced with the exogenously fixed <!>=. or loans between a parent and the JV. The issue is what p should be.5 Joint Ventures.35) PV(royalties)] -. and 'abnormal' interest rates are likely to be treated.49 x NPVJv +. Thus. for tax purposes.(1-.49 xI = 322. Let us first discuss an example with royalties. plus 49% of whatever is left after paying out the royalty. Thus.

e.93 p =. A can bring in its know-how as equity 'in kind'. so that A wants another form of compensation. Partner A. And even if there is no corporate tax advantage for company A. and solve for the upfront compensation for know-how K that achieves the desired division of the synergy gain. In the next example. there may be an advantage in terms of withholding taxes because.35) X 2962 = 981. there is a tax advantage relative to the ftrst variant. K. First.49 X 493 89. it could be stuctured as part of a licensing contract: the amount K is paid out to one of the partners as an upfront licensing fee. This is lower than the 8. let us ftx p at 5%. no income is paid out. But company A may be able to book K as an unrealised capital gain. plus possibly some cash.9 = 8. Total cash injections (I) are the same Joint Ventures.49. On the liability side of the balance sheet. denoted as CashA + Cashs. we set K equal to 0). To illustrate aN contract of this type. who brings in the know-how. Version 3/18/93. so the free parameter was the royalty percentage. Such an upfront compensation can come in at least two guises.. we fixed <1> at . would then get a part of the profits equal to <1> = (K + CashA)I(K + CashA + Cashs). A brings in know-how valued at K. Under the proposed scheme. p. and find PV(royalties) = PV(p x sales) = p x 2962 We can now solve for pas 322. and list it as a non-tangible. and B brings in some cash. that is. the prospective partners agree to discount royalties at a lower rate than the overall cost of capital. and get the corresponding tax shield. formally. Case IV: Know-How Partly Valued as an Equity Contribution 'In Kind' In the above example. depreciable asset on the balance sheet. page 9 .25% that achieves the desired division of the JV's NPV.51 X (1. Alternatively. and did not use any upfront payment for the knowhow (i. 25% · 5.5 . and the part brought in in kind. This structure means that K is surely taxable income to the recipient (company A).In view of the lower risk of sales. for instance because any amount higher than that would be deemed "not at arms' length" by the host country taxman.. both partners agree that the knowhow is worth K. we shall set <1> and p on the basis of exogenous considerations. equity consists of the part put up in cash. in which case it would escape taxation for the time being. The JV can depreciate the intangible asset. Thus.

51.-ar..51 K The amount K is capitalized.51 X K = 152 + 2 [493 + K X .49 I . Taxes are assumed to be paid in the middle of the year following the reporting .075 From A's point of view.35) 2962 +.05) (1-.CashA = 152 + 21 [NPVJv. with CashA + CashB =I = the required amount. For political or legal reasons. taxes are postponed rather than avoided.I= NewNPV = 493 + K x .K/5 x .5 .51) (.17)7 = K x .as before. using NewGPV.17t+1 = K x . and PV(sales) = 2962 1 .152] or .51) (. Thus.49 x [NewGPV] +(. and depreciated linearly over five years by the JV.35) X 2962 = 62 .152] or.49 I. but the book value of equity is now CashA + CashB + K. K).49) 493.05 (1-..50 -.075.1 On the other hand.49) X . So CashA + K = .[. This is obviously interesting from a tax point of view: there is a tax shield.(. hence the "t+ 1" exponent in the discounting.49 x (I + K) => CashA =. the amount K is not paid up in cash.152] which yields K = 152/2 +(.· . Joint Ventures.35) PV(sales). NPV1v = 493 + .191. by implication.5 (. The basic principle is the same as before: B and A still split the synergy gains. NPVB = 0 . and the net saving is reduced tp K x (.49 x [NewGPV..191. discounted at the JV's borrowing rate (say 17%) and worth Lt=1.51 K] = 152 + 21 [NPV1v.35/(1.35) x 2962 + K x .075.51 .35) PV(sales)] .05) (1-.50. with NPVA = 152 . such that its share in the NPV satisfies the split-the-difference rule: .49.(.05 (1-. page 10 .075 1. so at time 7 (when the JV is liquidated) there will be a tax when K is paid out as part of the liquidation dividend.49 X 493 +.075. . Our problem now is to find a fair value for K. but by assumption A is not taxed on K as there is no realised capital gain.05 (1-.35) PV(sales)] + . Version 3/18/93. we have to identify CashA (and. A's share in the capital is still fixed at .35)/1.05 x (1-.. say 300.

page 11 . Still. or political risks. as soon as there is agreement on sales and cost projections with and without the JV.In short. Some iterations may be needed if the pre-set parameters imply unexpected solutions for the residual parameter-like a value for <1> that is not between 0 and 1.6 X . in return for the 5% royalty plus 49% of the residual cashflows. or international taxation issues. Joint Ventures. The priciples used in these simple examples allow one to tackle problems where many complications arise simultaneously.075 = 62. plus its knowhow valued at 62. Conclusions and Summary Relative to 'domestic' NPV problems. and in addition this total NPV may depend on how the contract is written. and finally add the effects of external financing. 6. International Capital Budgeting is more complicated because there are often interactions with other parts of the firm's business. Version 3/18/93.49 x 300 .51 x 62. The extra tax shield equals K x . then value the tax effects of creating a subsidiary and unbundling the remittances. the solutions follows almost mechanically. Always start from the split-the-difference rule.075 = 4. We propose to evaluate WOS-projects in three steps: first consider an all-equity branch mode of operating. in return for 51% of the residual cashflows..7. NPV-analysis is intimately related to the issue of how to share the total NPV.5. and B brings in 300 - 115 = 185 in cash. write the N's NPV and the partners' shares as a function of the predetermined parameters and the free parameter to be identified. A brings in cash worth .6 = 115. For JV projects.

----------. Truitt. 261-275." Journal of International Business Studies. Fall1970. R. C. Lessard (ed). "Debt and Taxes. and S. v32(2). Allyn and Bacon.and Alan Shapiro. 21-34. Wiley. p. Principles of Corporate Finance. Sloan School of Management. Michael and Bernard Dumas. 97-109 Joint Ventures." Financial Management. Wiley. "Expropriation of Private Foreign Investment: Summary of the Post- World War II Experience of American and British Investors in the Less Developed Countries. -----------. 7-16. Rubinstein. Lexington Books. 1985. 709-724. Alan C. " A Framework for Global Financing Choices.. Version 3/18/93. 17.. October 1982. Shapiro. page 12 . 925-984. Brealey. Perfect Equilibrium in a Bargaining Model. 1986.International Capital Budgeting. Myers. Merton H. J.. J. "Capital Budgeting for the Multinational Corporation. Miller. Non-Cooperative Bargaining Theory: An Introduction. Frederick. -----------. 1981 Lessard." Journal of Finance. Needham Heights. 1991 Contractor.." working paper. Multinational Financial Management. J. MIT. "International Portfolio Choice and Corporation Finance: A Synthesis. Bibliography Adler. International Financial Management." Journal of Finance. A. Theory and Application." in Donald R.. Review of Economic Studies. Theory and Application. Mass. Lessard (ed). Spring 1978. 1991. Econometrica 50(1). in Donald R.. Sutton. 1982. 1985. June 1983. D. "Evaluating Foreign Projects: An Adjusted Present Value Approach. International Technology Licensing. 1977. International Financial Management. McGraw-Hill.

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