Government of Peru

Peru
Coca Cultivation Survey

June 2006

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

Abbreviations ENACO GIS GPS ICMP DIRANDRO OFECOD NAS UNODC CONTRADROGAS DEVIDA CORAH Acknowledgements The following organizations and individuals contributed to the implementation of the 2005 coca cultivation survey in Peru, and to the preparation of the present report: Government of Peru: National Commission for Development and Life without Drugs (DEVIDA) National Coca Enterprise Geographical Information Systems Global Positioning System UNODC Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme Anti-Drugs Directorate, Peruvian National Police Drug Control Office, Peruvian Ministry of Interior Narcotics Affairs Section, United States Embassy United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Committee for the Fight Against Drug Consumption National Commission for Development and Life without Drugs Control and Reduction of Coca Leaf in Upper Huallaga

UNODC: Humberto Chirinos, Project Coordinator, Peru Paloma Lumbre, Digital Classification, Cartography and GIS Specialist, Peru Aldo Gutarra, Multi-spectral Analysis Specialist, Peru Germán Galvez, Surveying, Cartography and GIS Specialist, Peru Lorenzo Vallejos, Digital Classification, Cartography and GIS Specialist, Peru Victor Rojas, Photo-Interpretation and Cartography Specialist, Peru Carlos Coello, Cartographic Technician, Peru Aldo Lale-Demoz, UNODC Representative for Peru and Ecuador Coen Bussink, Remote Sensing and GIS expert (UNODC – Research and Analysis Section - ICMP) Denis Destrebecq, Regional Illicit Crop Monitoring Expert (UNODC – Research and Analysis Section - ICMP) Anja Korenblik, Programme Manager (UNODC – Research and Analysis Section - ICMP) Thibault le Pichon, Chief (UNODC – Research and Analysis Section) Thomas Pietschmann, Research Officer (UNODC-Research and Analysis Section) Martin Raithelhuber, Programme Officer (UNODC-Research and Analysis Section) Javier Teran, Statistician (UNODC – Research and Analysis Section – ICMP) The implementation of UNODC’s Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme in the Andean countries and the Peru survey in 2005 was made possible thanks to financial contributions from the Governments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, France and Austria.

This report and other ICMP survey reports can be downloaded from: www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop_monitoring.html

2

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

PREFACE

The total surface of coca cultivation in Peru in 2005 was estimated at 48,200 hectares, a 4% decrease compared to 2004 (50,300 ha). This assuages concerns of the disturbing rise surveyed in 2004, which provoked fears of a possible return to the 1990s when Peru was the world’s leading coca producer. Indeed, it suggests that 2004 was an exception in a steady downward trend that has cut coca cultivation by more than half in the past decade. The downward trend is mainly due to resolute eradication campaigns in the Alto Huallaga region (San Martin) and in the San Gaban valley. At the same time, as in other Andean countries, the sustainability of positive trends and social progress cannot be assured in the absence of viable alternatives. Peru – in partnership with key donors and UNODC– has many commercially viable examples of alternative development products. This is not aid. Coffee, cocoa, palm hearts, organic cotton, rice and other products are sold successfully in international and national markets. The farmers enterprises supported by UNODC alone sold nearly US$ 40 million worth of products in 2005, mostly in sophisticated export markets. However, the number of farmers being assisted through such programmes is limited, probably to only ten percent of those who need it. It is essential to expand these activities. Otherwise farmers will not break their dependence on illicit crops and coca will remain economically attractive for families in regions where poverty is very high and where there are no alternative livelihoods. A word of caution. We know there have been improvements in techniques to increase coca leaf and cocaine production yields. This means that reductions in coca surface could be undone by an increase in yields. UNODC will soon be in a position to apply updated indicators to measure yields more accurately. UNODC calls on donors and international financial institutions to support Peru in the delivery of integrated drug control actions. This includes increasing and expanding the opportunities which alternative development creates in coca growing areas to reduce supply and increase the development prospects of Peru’s impoverished farmers. It is equally important for the main cocaine consuming markets in the Americas and Europe to strengthen their demand reduction efforts.

Antonio Maria Costa Executive Director United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

3

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

4

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

TABLE OF CONTENT
1 2 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 8 FINDINGS.................................................................................................................................................. 9 2.1 COCA CULTIVATION .............................................................................................................................. 9 2.1.1 Regional analysis......................................................................................................................... 14 2.1.1.1 Coca cultivation in Alto Huallaga ......................................................................................... 16 2.1.1.2 Coca cultivation in Apurimac-Ene........................................................................................ 24 2.1.1.3 Coca cultivation in La Convencion y Lares.......................................................................... 30 2.1.1.4 Coca cultivation in Inambari-Tambopata ............................................................................. 34 2.1.1.5 Coca cultivation in San Gaban ............................................................................................ 35 2.1.1.6 Coca cultivation in Marañon, PutumayoHuallaga Central and Bajo Huallaga ................... 36 . 2.1.1.7 Coca cultivation in Aguaytia................................................................................................. .38 2.1.1.8 Coca cultivation in Palcazu-Pichis-Pachitea....................................................................... 39 . 2.1.2 Production coca leaf and derivatives........................................................................................... 43 2.2 PRICES OF COCA LEAF AND ITS DERIVATIVES ....................................................................................... 45 2.3 REPORTED OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION .............................................................................................. 48 2.4 REPORTED ERADICATION ................................................................................................................... 49 2.5 REPORTED SEIZURE........................................................................................................................... 51 3 METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................................... 52 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 COCA CULTIVATION ............................................................................................................................ 52 OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION ................................................................................................................ 57 PRICES .............................................................................................................................................. 57

ANNEX .................................................................................................................................................... 58

Index of maps
Map 1: Map 2: Map 3: Map 4: Map 5: Map 6: Map 7: Map 8: Map 9: Map 10: Map 11: Map 12: Map 13: Map 14: Coca cultivation density in Peru, 2005 ............................................................................................ 10 Coca cultivation density in the Andean region, 2005 ...................................................................... 11 Coca cultivation by region in Peru, 2001 – 2005 ............................................................................. 13 Coca cultivation density in Alto Huallaga, 2005............................................................................... 15 Verification overflight with GeoVideo, Alto Huallaga ....................................................................... 22 Coca cultivation density in Apurimac-Ene, 2005 ............................................................................. 23 Verification overflight with GeoVideo, Apurimac.............................................................................. 28 Coca cultivation density in La Convención y Lares, 2005 ............................................................... 29 Coca cultivation density in Inambari-Tembopata – San Gaban, 2005 ............................................ 33 Coca cultivation density in Aguaytia and Palcazu-Pichis-Pichitea, 2005 ........................................ 37 Verification overflight with GeoVideo, Aguyatia, Palcazu – Pichis – Pachitea ................................ 42 Potential opium poppy cultivation(DIRANDRO)............................................................................... 47 Reported eradication of coca cultivation, Peru, 2005 ...................................................................... 50 Satellite images used for the coca survey, Peru 2005..................................................................... 54

5

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

FACT SHEET – PERU COCA SURVEY FOR 2005

2004
Coca cultivation Of which in Alto Huallaga Apurimac-Ene La Convencion y Lares Elsewhere Weighted average sun-dried coca leaf yield Potential production of sun-dried coca leaf Potential production of cocaine hydrochloride in percent of world illicit cocaine production Average farm-gate price of sun-dried coca leaf Potential farm-gate value of sun-dried coca leaf Farm-gate value of coca leaf production as percentage of 2004 GDP (US$ 68.5 billion) Average price of cocaine paste Average price of cocaine hydrochloride Reported eradication of coca cultivation Reported seizure of cocaine paste Reported seizure of cocaine hydrochloride Reported opium poppy cultivation Reported seizure of opium latex 50,300 ha 16,900 ha 14,700 ha 12,700 ha 6,000 ha 2,200 kg/ha 110,000 mt 190 mt 20 % US$ 2.8/kg US$ 304 million 0.4% US$ 640/kg US$ 890/kg 10,257 ha 6,330 kg 7,303 kg 1,447 ha 451 kg

Variation on 2004
- 4% -5% + 6% - 2% - 30%

2005
48,200 ha 16,000 ha 15,500 ha 12,500 ha 4,200 ha 2,200 kg/ha

- 4% - 5%

106,000 mt 180 mt 20 % US$ 2.9 /kg US$ 307 million 0.4% US$ 640/kg US$ 890/kg

+ 19% - 49% - 70%

12,232 ha 3,199 kg 2,199 kg n.a.

+ 12%

505 kg

6

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In 2005, the total area under coca cultivation in Peru was estimated at 48,200 ha. This represents a decrease of 4% over 2004 (50,300 ha). The decrease was mainly due to the eradication campaigns implemented in the department of San Martin in Alto Huallaga region and in the San Gaban valley. In these two regions alone, coca cultivation decreased from 4,000 ha in 2004 to 670 ha in 2005. This decrease was slightly offset by increases in others regions of Atlo Huallaga, and by relatively small increases in Apurimac-Ene and Aguaytia. In 2005, the insecurity prevailing in the coca growing areas prevented further work on coca leaf yields. Assuming an average sun-dried coca leaf yield of 2,200 kg/ha similar to the average yield obtained in 2004, the total sun-dried coca leaf production in Peru was estimated at 106,000 metric tons for 2005. Of this amount, a study of the National Institute of Statistics and Computer Science (INEI) estimated that about 9,000 metric tons corresponded to the annual demand for coca leaves for traditional, commercial or industrial uses. The balance is used for cocaine production. Assuming a cocaine yield per hectare of 4.1 kg/ha – similar to the average yield obtained in 2004 -, the total potential cocaine production in Peru was estimated at 180 metric tons. Thus, potential cocaine production in Peru decreased by 5% compared to 190 metric tons estimated for 2004. Potential Peruvian cocaine production represents 20% of world potential cocaine production. The potential farm-gate value of the sun-dried coca leaf production amounted to about US$ 307 million, estimated from the sale of 106,000 metric tons of coca leaf at 2.9 US$/kg in 2005. This represents about 0.4% of the 2004 GDP estimated at US$ 68.6 billion1. The Peruvian government reported the eradication of 12,232 ha of coca fields in 2005, of which 8,966 ha were eradicated by CORAH as part of its forced eradication programme and 3,266 ha were voluntary eradicated as part of DEVIDA-CADA’s programme of voluntary eradication. This corresponds to an increase of 19% compared to the 10,257 ha eradicated in 2004. Between 2004 and 2005, according to the Peruvian anti-narcotics police (DIRANDRO), seizures of cocaine paste and cocaine hydrochloride decreased. However, destruction and seizures of coca leaves increased. Seizures of cocaine hydrochloride decreased from 7,3 mt in 2004 to 2,1 mt in 2005, while seizures and destruction of coca leaves increased from 916 mt to 1,525 mt. The monitoring system in Peru is part of UNODC global Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme. This programme has been assisting the Peruvian Government in the implementation and refinement of a national coca monitoring system since 1998.

1

World Bank, latest available estimate as of May 2006

7

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

1

INTRODUCTION

In response to the decisions of the 1998 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Drugs, UNODC developed and implemented a global Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme (ICMP). Through this programme, UNODC supports member states in establishing a crop monitoring system to monitor illicit cultivation of coca and opium poppy. The Programme is currently operating in Afghanistan, Myanmar, Laos, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Morocco. In 1998, UNODC started working with DEVIDA to develop a national coca monitoring system in Peru. Using aerial photography, the project produced a detailed mapping (at 1/20,000 scale) of all the coca cultivation areas in 2000. Every year since then, satellite images were used to update the estimates. This report presents the findings of the 2005 Survey. In Peru, the General Law on Drugs enacted in 1978 prohibits the cultivation of coca and seedlings in new areas within the national territory. This reference to “cultivation” includes the grafting and renovation of existing coca bushes. In 1978, another law established the National Coca Enterprise (ENACO), which has a monopoly on the commercialization and industrialization of the coca leaves. Therefore, the selling of coca leaves to any party other than ENACO is considered illicit by national law. The Government also established in 1996 a Committee for the Fight Against Drug Consumption (CONTRADROGAS), renamed National Commission for Development and Life without Drugs (DEVIDA) in 2002. DEVIDA’s objectives are to design, coordinate and implement policies and activities aimed at national drug control. Until the mid-1990’s, Peru was the world’s main coca cultivating country. Today, it is the second major producer of coca far behind Colombia. The reduction in coca cultivation in Peru in the mid-1990’s was linked to the sharp decline in both the coca leaf prices and the demand for Peruvian coca leaf. In 1995, trade in coca leaf on the local market ceased and, from 1995 to 1998, the prices of coca leaf remained lower than its production costs. Farmers abandoned their coca fields and coca cultivation dropped from 115,300 ha to 38,700 ha, or 66%, between 1995 and 1999. After 1999, coca prices increased slowly while the prices of licit crops (coffee and cacao) decreased. Farmers started to re-activate their abandoned coca fields and coca cultivation rose again in Peru. To some extent, the increase has been contained by the presence of alternative development projects, as well as the introduction of eradication measures, which include both forced eradication conducted by CORAH (Ministry of Interior) and voluntary eradication schemes conducted by DEVIDA.

8

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2
2.1

FINDINGS COCA CULTIVATION

In 2005, the total area under productive coca cultivation in Peru was estimated at 48,200 ha. This represented a decrease of 4 % over the estimate for 2004 of 50,300 ha. Figure 1. Coca cultivation in Peru, 1995 – 2005 (ha)
130,000 120,000 110,000 100,000 90,000 80,000 Hectares 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 Hectares 1995 115,300 1996 94,400 1997 68,800 1998 51,000 1999 38,700 2000 43,400 2001 46,200 2002 46,700 2003 44,200 2004 50,300 2005 48,200

Sources

United States Department of States

National Monitoring System Supported by UNODC

The decrease in coca cultivation observed in 2005 was the results of the eradication campaigns implemented by CORAH during that year. Eradication efforts were particularly important in two departments: the department of Puno in San Gabán’s valley, and the department of San Martin in Alto Huallaga region. As a result, in San Gaban’s valley, coca cultivation decreased from 2,700 ha as of September 2004 to 300 ha as of July 2005, corresponding to a reduction of 91%. In the department of San Martin, coca cultivation in the valleys of Mishollo and the region of PizanaPolvora, where most the eradication campaign took place, totalled 1,316 ha in 2004, but only 369 ha in 2005, corresponding to a decrease of 72%. The decrease in coca cultivation in San Gaban and Mishollo/Pizano-Polvara was offset by small increases in others regions of Atlo Huallaga, and by increases in Apurimac-Ene and Aguaytia.

9

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

Despite the decrease between 2004 and 2005, coca cultivation in Peru remained the second largest after Colombia. It represented 30% of the 2005 global coca cultivation, compared to 33% in 2004. A percentage that remained much lower than ten years ago, when coca cultivation in Peru accounted for 54% of the cultivation in the world. The decreases in Peru and Bolivia were offset by the increase in coca cultivation in Colombia, and the global level of coca cultivation remained unchanged between 2004 and 2005. Figure 2. Coca cultivation in the Andean region, 1995 – 2005 (ha)
250,000

200,000

150,000 hectares 100,000 50,000

0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Bolivia

2000
Colombia

2001
Peru

2002

2003

2004

2005

Table 1:

Coca cultivation in the Andean region, 1995- 2005 (ha)
1995 1996 48,100 94,400 67,200 209,700 1997 45,800 68,800 79,400 194,000 1998 38,000 51,000 101,800 190,800 1999 21,800 38,700 160,100 220,600 2000 14,600 43,400 163,300 221,300 2001 19,900 46,200 144,800 210,900 2002 21,600 46,700 102,000 170,300 2003 23,600 44,200 86,000 153,800 2004 27,700 50,300 80,000 158,000 2005 25,400 48,200 86,000 159,600 % change 20042005 -8% -4% +8% + 1%

Bolivia Peru Colombia Total Sources

48,600 115,300 50,900 214,800

United States Department of States

National Monitoring Systems Supported by UNODC

12

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.1.1

REGIONAL ANALYSIS

In Peru, most coca cultivation is concentrated in 14 large valleys and 8 smaller valleys. These valleys can be grouped in three main regions, making up 91% of the total cultivation in 2005: Alto Huallaga, Apurimac-Ene and La Convención y Lares. Each region has its own characteristics: While La Convención y Lares is the main supplier of the domestic consumption of coca leaf, coca cultivation in Apurimac-Ene and Alto-Huallaga are almost exclusively oriented for the production of cocaine for domestic and international markets. Coca cultivation in others areas like San Gaban and Inambari-Tambopata at the border with Bolivia, Aguaytía and Palcazu- Pichis- -Pachitea in the central part of the country, Marañon in the northern area close to the border with Ecuador and Putumayo of Loreto department close to Colombia, only accounted for 9% of the 2005 total. Coca cultivation in these areas has mainly been oriented towards the production of cocaine. Altogether, in 2005 coca cultivation could be found at various levels in 12 out of the 24 departments of Peru (Cajamarca, Amazonas, La Libertad, San Martín, Loreto, Huanuco, Ucayali, Pasco, Junin, Ayacucho, Cusco and Puno). Figure 3. Coca cultivation estimates by region, 2001 – 2005 (ha)
18,000

16,000

14,000 2001 12,000 2002 2003 2004 2005

hectares

10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

Alto Huallaga Apurimac-Ene La Convención Lares Inambari Tambopata Aguaytía Marañon, Putumayo San Gaban Palcazu Pichis Pachitea

Table 2:

Coca cultivation estimates by region, 2001 – 2005 (ha)
Region 2001 2002 2003 2004 16,900 14,700 12,700 2,000 500 500 2,700 300 50,300 2005 16,039 15,530 12,503 2,250 917 500 292 211 48,200 Change 2004 – 2005 -861 830 -197 250 417 0 -2,408 -89 -2,100 % of 2005 total 33% 32% 26% 5% 2% 1% 1% 0% 100%

Alto Huallaga 14,481 15,286 13,646 Apurimac-Ene 12,600 14,170 14,300 La Convención - Lares 13,980 12,170 12,340 Inambari - Tambopata 2,520 2,430 2,260 Aguaytía 1,051 1,070 510 Marañon, Putumayo 1,250 1,250 450 San Gaban n.a. n.a. 470 Palcazu - Pichis -Pachitea 350 350 250 Rounded Total 46,200 46,700 44,200 Source: National monitoring system supported by UNODC

14

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.1.1.1 Coca cultivation in Alto Huallaga The Alto Huallaga region is located on the Eastern side of the Andes mountain range, in the high tropical or subtropical forests of the departments of San Martin and Huamuco. In this region, coca bush is cultivated between 400 and 1,400 meters above sea level. Deforestation is important in the region and mostly due to agricultural exploitation of land that should rather be protected or devoted to forest or forestry activities. The Alto Huallaga is one of the three main coca growing regions of Peru where coca cultivation has long been established. The 16,039 ha estimated in 2005 accounted for 33% of the national total. It represented a 5% decrease compared to 2004, but despite this decrease, Alto Huallaga remained in 2005 the main centre of coca cultivation in Peru, ahead of Apurimac and La Convención y Lares. Between 2004 and 2005, a decrease of 5% was noted in Alto Huallaga. The decrease is mostly the result of intense eradication campaigns implemented by CORAH and that took place throughout 2005. The eradication campaigns targeted in particular the lower valley of the Mishollo river, the coca fields around the villages of Pizana, Yanjanca and Huamuco, as well as the lower valley of the Tocache river (on the left bank). The eradication implemented by CORAH eliminated seedbeds, new fields that had not yet been harvested, as well as coca fields in full production.

Eradicated coca fields, sector Mishollo, March 2006

Eradicated coca fields, sector Pizana, March 2006

Table 3:

Coca cultivation in the valleys of the Alto Huallaga region, 2002 – 2005 (ha)
Coca growing areas 2002 2003 2004 11,325 1,507 711 335 1,080 677 408 908 16,900 2005 11,230 1,507 632 469 1,278 554 187 182 16,039 % change 2004-2005 -1% 0% -11% 40% 18% -18% -54% -80% -5% % of 2005 total 70% 9% 4% 3% 8% 3% 1% 1% 100%

Monzon 10,935 10,659 Tulumayo 1,438 1,188 Pendencia – Aucayacu 1,147 560 Aspuzana 488 373 Cuchara - Madgalena - S. Marta 587 510 Camote – Frijol – Yanajanca – Huamuco Tocache – Chontayacu 691 356 Mishollo Puerto Pizana Rounded total for Alto Huallaga 15,300 13,600 Source: National monitoring system supported by UNODC

16

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

Figure 4. Coca cultivation in the valleys of the Alto Huallaga region, 2002 – 2005 (ha)
12,000

10,000 2002 8,000 hectare 2003 2004 2005

6,000

4,000

2,000

0 Monzon Tulumayo Pendencia Aucayacu Aspuzana Cuchara Madgalena S. Marta Comote Frijol Tocache Chontayacu Mishollo Puerto Pizano

Beside the decrease in coca cultivation in the areas mentioned above, coca cultivation actually increase in other areas like in the small valleys of the Aspuzana, Cuchara, Magdalena, Santa Martha, Camote, Frijol, Huamuco and on the leaf bank of the Huallaga river. In these areas, coca cultivation increased by about 13% between 2004 and 2005. During the verification over flight, it was also noted that farmers were preparing new fields, of the size and in environment usually suitable for coca cultivation. This could be an indication that there could be more coca cultivation in these areas in 2006. As was the case in previous years, most of Alto Huallaga’s coca cultivation took place in the Monzon valley. Monzon accounted for 70% of the coca cultivation of the Alto Huallaga, and 23% of the national total with 11,230 ha. This amount of coca cultivation was roughly similar to the 11, 325 ha registered in 2004. As there were no eradication efforts conducted in this valley in 2005, nor any alternative development activities, and that prices of coca leaf and its derivatives remained high, the difference between 2004 and 2005 was mainly attributed to the different type of satellite images used for both years. Indeed, in 2005, it was not possible to cover the whole Alto Huallaga with SPOT5 images like in 2004 because of intense cloud cover and it was therefore decided to use a combination of IKONOS (more precise but smaller than SPOT images) and Landsat5 images (less precise but larger than SPOT images).

17

Per C oca Sur u vey f 2005 or

C om parson ofLandsat SPO T5,and I N O S sat lt i ages overcoca gr i ar i 5, KO elie m ow ng eas ofPer u.

18

Per C oca Sur u vey f 2005 or

Alhough coca culi i r ai t tvaton em ned r atvel st e bet een 2004 and 2005 i M onzon ar el i y abl w n ea, i t w as not durng t verfcaton fi s t f m er w er pr ed i he ii i lght hat ar s e eparng new fel suiabl f coca i i ds t e or culi i and even new fel of l tvaton, i ds ess t han one year ol w hi w er not count i t 2005 d ch e ed n he census,butt w ilbe pr hat l oductve i 2006. i n C oca fel have l i ds ong been est i ablshed i M onzón valey and m ostoft n l hem ar over 20 year ol e s d. Typi l coca fel i M onzón valey ar l caly, i ds n l e ess pr oductve t i han i ot n her pars of Alo H ualaga. t t l H ow ever t e w er r , her e ecent r epors over t past t ee year of f m er i er t he hr s ar s nt sper ng new coca si he t her hei eaf el pl s am ong ol coca pl s t i ease t densiy and t eby t rcoca l yi d. ant der ant o ncr The econom y ofM onzón valey i al ostexcl vel dependenton coca culi i f t cocai l s m usi y tvaton or he ne m ar . U p-o- e dat on t num ber of per ket t dat a he sons lvi i t s valey does not exi . H ow ever i ng n hi l st l hi l ocalaut ii usualy m entoned about 35, hortes l i 000 i nhabiant lvi i t valey, but t s does not t s i ng n he t ake i o account t ext nall nt he er abour r uied f har ecr t or vestng of coca l and pr i eaf ocessi of coca ng past The coca f m er or e. ar s gani i zatons ofM onzón stongl opposed t efors oft gover ent r y he f t he nm t r o educe coca culi i and t i tvaton, he nsecurt and vi ence br iy ol ought by t hese or gani i zatons w er e ch evaied f t pastt ee year have pr l or he hr s, event ed const i 2005.These t ant n ense condii tons,w hi pr t l he ocalaut ii and t per hortes he sonnelofaler i devel t natve opm entpr ect fom ent i t valey oj s r erng he l oj s and w or ng w ih t 1, ki t he 200 peopl r st ed as benefci i ofAler i D evel e egi er i ares t natve opm entpr ect i M onzón. n Alhough t e w as no er caton ofcoca fel i M onzon valey i 2005,t ant- cotc polce, t her adi i i ds n l n he inar i i D I AN D R O , conduct a num ber of oper i R ed atons ai ed at t destucton of m acer i pis, m he r i aton t sei es ofm at i s and destucton ofcl zur eral r i andestne l i abor ores. at i

H i densiy ofcoca fel and def est i gh t i ds or aton, C uyacu -M onzon,M ar 2006 ch

C oca fel i varous devel i ds n i opm entst ages C ashapam pa -M onzon,M ar 2006 ch

H i densiy ofcoca fel i stong sl gh t i ds n r ope, C aunar apa -M onzon,M ar 2006 ch

Panor i vi ofa sm al valey w ih coca fel am c ew l l t i ds, Shi paco-M onzon, M ar 2006 ch

19

Per C oca Sur u vey f 2005 or

R ecenty pl ed coca fel C oca pl s ar gr l ant i ds. ant e ouped and puti sm al hol n l es C aunar apa - M onzon,M ar 2006 ch

The second m osti porantar m t eas ofcoca culi i i Alo H ualaga,butf behi M onzon valey, tvaton n t l ar nd l i t valey of Tul ayo. I 2005, coca culi i i t s r on r esent 9% of t coca s he l um n tvaton n hi egi epr ed he he evelof culi i i Alo H ualaga,butonl 3% oft natonall .Bet een 2004 and 2005,t l tvaton n t l y he i evel w coca culi i r ai tvaton em ned st e at 1, abl 507 ha. H ow ever i w as not durng fel vi t and , t ed i i d sis overlght t f m er w er pr fi s hat ar s e eparng new fel suiabl f coca culi i an i caton t i i ds, t e or tvaton, ndi i hat coca culi i coul i ease. tvaton d ncr

H i densiy ofcoca fel i pr gh t i ds n oducton and r i ecenty l har vest M ar ed, onas,M ar 2006 ch

C oca fel i pr i ds n oducton and r i ecenty pl ed, l ant Supt M ar 2006 e, ch

20

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

Snapshots of the video taken during the verification flights. A camera video linked to a GPS was used to verify the initial interpretation of the satellite images. The yellow dots represent the flight path, the blue arrow the position of the plane when the video was paused. The white line matches a coca field spotted on the video and the corresponding field on the satellite image. The verification flights were conducted jointly by UNODC and CADA.

Snapshot of the video taken over Monzon region

Snapshot of the video taken over Tulumayo, Alto Huallaga.

Snapshot of the video taken over Aucayacu, Alto Huallaga. 21

Verification overflight wiht geovide in Alto Huallaga
76°30'W 76°0'W

Peru

Puerto Pizana
8°0'S
Polvora

Alto Biavo

Alto Huallaga

Pto. Pizana

SAN MARTIN
T AL
ollo Mish

Bambamarca

Pucayacu
To ca ch e

Tocache

Uchiza

Tocache - Chontayacu
Shunte Tocache

Santa Lucia

LORETO
Uc hiz

8°30'S

Cam o

Uchiza

te

Nuevo Progreso

Aspuzana
C
Fri jol

acu tay hon

Camote - Frijol
Yanajanca
u z an a
na Ya j an ca

Huamuco
Cholon

Asp

Aspuzana
Jose Crespo y Castillo

UCAYALI

Sta. M artha

Santa Martha
9°0'S
M ag da
Huavaybamba

Aucayac u

Pendencia - Aucayacu

Aucayacu

HUANUCO

len a

Magdalena
Cochabamba

ra Cucha

Arancay

ANCASH

Cuchara
Jircan

cia en nd Pe Pendencia Hermilio Valdizan

Taz o
M on zo

Rupa-Rupa

Cultivation density
(ha/km 2 ) 0.1 - 1.0 1.1 - 2.0 2.1 - 4.0 Singa Tantamayo 4.1 - 8.0 > 8.0 Overflight MirafloresPunchao wiht geovideo Department boundaries District boundaries Puños River Village center

n

Monzon

Cachicoto
zo on M

Luyando

Tulumayo
lum Tu

Monzon
Monzon

Tingo Maria

Mariano Damaso Beraun

9°30'S

Geographic coordinates WGS 84
Marias

76°30'W

76°0'W

Source: Govemment of Peru - National monitoring system supported by UNODC The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations

9°30'S

0

20

40 km

9°0'S
n

8°30'S
GA
o ay

a

8°0'S
A AG LL UA OH

Mishollo

A HU TO AL A LL

Coca cultivation density in Apurimac - Ene, 2005
74°0'W Masamari 73°30'W

Peru
An ati ap

Quempiri
Apurimac Ene

Ene
12°0'S 12°0'S
Qu em piri

Pangoa

JUNIN

Rio Tambo

i ro Yav

Valle Esmeralda
ENE

Ma

nta r

o

Canayre

Villa Virgen
IM UR AP

Chuimacota

Llochegua
Pi ch ar i

AC

Pichari

12°30'S

Sivia

Ac on

Echarate

Sivia Pichari

CUSCO
Pien e

iri imb Qu

San Francisco

Quimbiri
Quimbiri

AYACUCHO

Apurimac
Santillana Ayna
os a Sta .R

Sta. Rosa
I UR AP M AC

Palmapampa
Santa Rosa

Huanta

Monterrico

Cultivation density
(ha/km2) 0.1 - 1.0 1.1 - 2.0 Huamanguilla 2.1 - 4.0 4.1 - 8.0 Quinua > 8.0 Department boundaries District boundaries Major roadAcos Vinchos River Village center 74°0'W

Tambo

c un Ch

b hu

am

ba

San Antonio Villa Virgen
13°0'S Vilcabamba

uain

13°0'S

San Miguel Anco

Pacaycasa

0

15 Geographic coordinates WGS84
Chilcas

30 km

acucho

73°30'W

San Juan Bautista

Source: Government of Peru - National monitoring system supported by UNODC The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or aceptance by the United Nations

12°30'S

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.1.1.2 Coca cultivation in Apurimac-Ene The region is situated in the central part of the country extending over 12,000 sq km in the valleys of the rivers Apurimac and Ene, among the departments of Ayacucho, Cusco and Junín. The relief is uneven, and coca cultivation takes place at altitudes ranging between 550 and 2,000 meters above sea level. Coca cultivation has long been established in Apurimac-Ene, predominantly on the steep slopes areas where the only other crops that can be grown are coffee and a few leguminous. To a lesser extent coca is also grown in areas of lower slopes, sharing the land with annual crops like maize, yucca, beans, sesame and permanent crops like cacao and fruit trees. Apurimac-Ene is the second largest coca growing region of Peru, and with 15,530 ha in 2005, it represented 32% of the national total. This represented an increase of 6% compared to 2004. The increase was distributed over the valley, and it was not possible to identify a particular region where an increase took place. The main centers of coca cultivation continued to be around the villages of Santa Rosa, Palmapampa, Llochegua, Monterrico, Catarata and Alto Pichari.

Recently planted coca fields with high density of plants/ha, Palmapampa, March 2006

Recently planted coca fields on small terraces Santa Rosa, March 2006

Table 4:

Distribution of coca cultivation in Apurimac-Ene,2001 – 2005 (ha)
2001 2002 2003 2004 13,382 1,319 14,700 2005 14,125 1,405 15,500 % change 2004 2005 6% 7% 5% % of 2005 total 91% 9% 100%

Region

Apurimac 12,600 13,283 13,777 Ene 0 887 923 Rounded total 12,600 14,170 14,300 Source: National monitoring system supported by UNODC

Figure 5. Distribution of coca cultivation in Apurimac-Ene,2001 – 2005 (ha)
16,000 14,000 12,000 hectare 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 2001 2002 2003 Apurimac Ene 2004 2005

24

Per C oca Sur u vey f 2005 or

C oca culi i i Apurm actvaton n i Ene i not i y m or sophi i ed t s orousl e stcat han i ot n her valeys, l char erzed by a hi densiy of t coca pl s ( t 100, act i gh t he ant up o 000 pl s/ ant ha) com bi ned w ih an t i ense use of f tlzer and pestci nt erii s i des. N ew pl s ar r ant e eadiy avaiabl fom exi i seedbeds, l l e r stng eiher t be pl ed on new fel or t i ease t pl densiy of ol fel Ther w er al t o ant i ds o ncr he ant t d i ds. e e so r epor off m er bei advi t ar s ng sed by expers t i pr t o m ove t r coca yi ds.For t hei el hese r easons,i i i ts n Apurm aci Ene t t hi hat he ghestcoca yi ds ar obt ned.R epors ofannualyi d above 4, el e ai t el 000 kg/ ha . ar m or and m or ofen fequent e e e t r Accor ng t t popul i st i i of I EI i 1994 t e w er 93, di o he aton atstcs N , n her e 800 i nhabiant ( 500 t s 18, f ii i Apurm acam les) n i Ene. Si nce t hen, t popul i has nat aly i eased, but i i al lkel he aton ur l ncr t s so i y t i count now w ih new m i ant fom t poor ar hat t s t gr s r he est eas of t Andean r on w ho ar i he egi rved i n or abour i t coca fel A l ge m aj iy of t n he i ds. ar ort he Apurm aci Ene, atr ed by t dem and f l tact he popul i i Apurm acaton n i Ene beneft diecty ori r l fom coca culi i is r l ndiecty r tvaton. I 2005,no f ced er caton w as i pl ent i t r on,m ai y due t t stong opposii n or adi i m em ed n he egi nl o he r ton zatons.The soci t al ensi ons sur oundi t i r ng he ssue ofcoca culi i w er tvaton e fom t f m er or r he ar s gani i notceabl f t past t ee year and i peded t w or of varous or i e or he hr s m he k i gani i zatons w or ng i ki n aler i devel t natve opm ent pr ect Si oj s. nce 1995, U N O D C has been i pl entng Aler i m em i t natve oducton,beneftng about1, i ii 100 per sons. D evel opm entpr ect t i pr oj s o m ove cofee and pal tees pr f m r The sam e soci t al ensi ons al pr so event t i pl ent i of vol ar er caton pr am m e ed he m em aton unt y adi i ogr ( 4 ha vol arl er cat i 2005) Ther w er how everr 4. unt iy adi ed n . e e egul oper i ar atons oft ant- cotcs he inar i andestne l i abor ores. at i polce t destoy coca m acer i pis and cl i o r aton t

C oca fel Sant Rsa,M ar 2006 i ds, ao ch

25

Per C oca Sur u vey f 2005 or

C oca seed beds and r ecenty pl ed fel Pr eso,M ar 2006 l ant i ds, ogr ch

C oca seed beds,Si a,O ct vi ober2005

26

Per C oca Sur u vey f 2005 or

Snapshot oft vi s he deo t aken durng t verfcaton fi s. i he ii i lght A cam er vi a deo lnked t a G PS w as used t verf t i tali er et i oft sat lt i ages. i o o iy he nii nt pr aton he elie m The yelow dot r esent t fi pat t bl ar ow t posii oft pl l s epr he lght h, he ue r he ton he ane w hen t vi he deo w as paused.The w hie lne m at t i ches a coca fel spoted on t vi i d t he deo and t cor espondi fel he r ng i d on t sat lt i age.The verfcaton fi s w er conduct j nty by U N O D C and C AD A. he elie m ii i lght e ed oi l

Snapshotoft vi he deo overApurm ac i

i Snapshotoft vi he deo overApurm ac

27

Verification overflight with geovideo in Apurimac - Ene
74°0'W Masamari 73°30'W

Peru
An ati ap

Quempiri
Apurimac Ene

Ene
12°0'S 12°0'S
Qu em piri

Pangoa

JUNIN

Rio Tambo

i ro Yav

Valle Esmeralda
ENE

Ma

nta r

o

Canayre

Villa Virgen
IM UR AP

Chuimacota

Llochegua
Pi ch ar i

AC

Pichari

12°30'S

Sivia

Ac on

Sivia Pichari

Echarate

CUSCO
Pien e

iri imb Qu

San Francisco

Quimbiri
Quimbiri

AYACUCHO

Apurimac
Santillana Ayna
os a Sta .R

Sta. Rosa
I UR AP M AC

Palmapampa
Santa Rosa

Huanta

Monterrico

Cultivation density
(ha/km2) 0.1 - 1.0 1.1 - 2.0 Huamanguilla 2.1 - 4.0 4.1 - 8.0 Quinua > 8.0 Overflight with geovideo Department boundaries Acos Vinchos District boundaries River Village center 74°0'W

Tambo

c un Ch

b hu

am

ba

San Antonio Villa Virgen
13°0'S Vilcabamba

uain

13°0'S

San Miguel Anco

Pacaycasa

0

15 Geographic coordinates WGS84
Chilcas

30 km

acucho

73°30'W

San Juan Bautista

Source: Government of Peru - National monitoring system supported by UNODC The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or aceptance by the United Nations

12°30'S

Coca cultivation density in La Convencion - Lares, 2005
72°30'W

Peru

Yavero

La Convencion and Lares

12°30'S

Quellouno

Lares
Palma Real
Ur u bam b a

Quellouno

Yanati

le

Quebrada Honda
Ya na til e

La Convención
Vi lca n ota

Echarate
rsa lle s

Yanatile

ba

Quillabamba
Santa Ana
ota c an Vi l

Kquellccaybamba
Ocobamba

Maranura

Maranura
13°0'S

Ocoba m

Ve

Huayopata
CUSCO
V mba ilcaba

Huayopata

Luc u

ma

Cultivation density
(ha/km ) 0.1 - 1.0 1.1 - 2.0 2.1 SANTA TERESA- 4.0 4.1 - 8.0 > 8.0 District boundaries Major road River Village Center
0
Vilcanota

2

Machupicchu Ollantaytambo Urubamba

15 Geographic coordinates WGS 84

30 km
Y Maras

72°30'W

Source: Government of Peru - National of monitoring system supported by UNODC The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations

13°0'S

12°30'S

ro ve Ya

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.1.1.3 Coca cultivation in La Convencion y Lares The region is situated in the province of La Convencion in the department of Cusco. The natural vegetation is made of subtropical forests. Due to intense deforestation, the primary forest is nowadays only found in the higher parts of the region. Coca is mostly cultivated between 800 and 2,000 meter above sea, in the valleys of the rivers Urubamba and Yanatile. In 2005, coca cultivation reached 12,503 ha, representing 26% of the national total, which ranked the region third in terms of coca cultivation, behind Alto Huallaga and Apurimac. Compared to 2004 there was a slight decrease of 2% in coca cultivation. This small difference was mainly attributed to the farmers’ practice of cutting their coca fields after three or four year of continuous production.

Coca fields on steep slopes (typical of La Convencion) Echarate, March 2006

Sprouting coca fields (after pruning) Huayanay, February 2005

Table 5:

Distribution of coca cultivation in La Convencion y Lares, 2001 – 2005 (ha)
2001 2002 2003 2004 5,339 7,361 12,700 2005 5,481 7,022 12,500 % change 2004 – 2005 3% -5% -2% % of 2005 regional total 44% 56% 100%

Region

La Convención 8,455 6,086 5,476 Lares 5,525 6,084 6,864 Rounded total 13,980 12,170 12,340 Source: National monitoring system supported by UNODC

Figure 6. Distribution of coca cultivation in La Convencion y Lares, 2001 – 2005 (ha
9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 hectare 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 2001 2002 2003 La convencion 2004 Lares 2005

30

Per C oca Sur u vey f 2005 or

H i orcaly,t r on has been consi ed as t coca culi i cente f t tadii st i l he egi der he tvaton r or he r tonaluse of coca l eaves.I 1978,t st e com pany EN AC O r st ed 12, n he at egi er 685 coca f m er f t culi i ar s or he tvaton of10, 670 ha ofcoca bush.I w as estm at att tm e t t coca l pr t i ed hat i hat he eaf oducton am ount t i ed o 7, 400 m eti t rc ons per year ofw hi 3, , ch 764 m eti t rc ons ( 51% ) w er destned t EN AC O ,t r or e i o he est bei sm uggl out de t contolof EN AC O . Si ng ed si he r nce t hen, t di si of coca l i ensii he ver on eaf nt fed t i f ed or eaf si s ket n tcul , n he ew due t t beter prce ofer f coca l out de EN AC O ’ m ar .I pari ar i t pastf o he year i w as not t f m er i pr s, t ed hat ar s m oved t rcoca l yi ds by i easi t coca pl densiy hei eaf el ncr ng he ant t i de. and t use off tlzer and pestci he erii s H ow ever coca l , eaf pr oducton fom t r on i supposed t be m ai y orent t ar i r he egi s o nl i ed ow ds tadii r tonaluses lke chew i and nott ar nar tafi ng.Ther w as no r i ng, ow ds co-r fcki e epor ofer caton t adi i nordestucton ofm acer i pis orcl r i aton t andestne l i abor ores. at i I 2005, a r onal decr aut i n egi ee horzed coca culi i tvaton, t eby r her ecogni ng t r on as a zi he egi tadii r tonal cent of coca culi i The decr gave t t coca pl t st us of R egi er tvaton. ee o he ant he at onal N at al Bi ogi and C ulur H ert ur , ol cal t al iage ofC usco,as w el as bot calr l ani esour i egr ed t t ce nt at o he t e si he l o he ci om r tons. I t culur and cosm ovi on of t Andean w ord and t t m edi nal cust s and tadii r ecogni zed t r on as tadii he egi r tonal coca pr oduci ar and l ng ea egalzed coca culi i i t i tvaton n he valeys ofLa C onvenci ie.t valeys ofYanatl i t pr nce ofC al and Q osñi a i t l on, . he l ie n he ovi ca pat n he l n he t , he ee nvaldat pr nce ofPaucaram bo,al i t deparm entofC usco.H ow ever t decr w as i i ed by ovi t t C onstt i he iutonalC our. t

O l coca fel r ant w ih young pl s,Vicanot N ovem ber2005 d i ds epl ed t ant l a,

31

Per C oca Sur u vey f 2005 or

C oca fel associ ed w ih papaya tees,Sam bar Febr y 2005 i ds at t r ay, uar

C oca seed beds undershadow ,Vicanot Febr y 2005 l a uar

32

Coca cultivation density in San Gaban and Inambari - Tambopata, 2005
Peru
Laberinto 12°30'S
La nza

70°30'W

70°0'W

69°30'W

69°0'W

San Gaban and Inambari - Tambotapa

RI BA AM IN

13°0'S

Inambari

Masuco
Araza

MADRE DE DIOS

Loro Mayo

Chaspa

San Gaban
CUSCO
San Gaban
13°30'S
Yah uarm a yo

TA MB

aban

Coasa
IN AM BA RI

San G

San Gaban

Ayapata Limbani

San Juan del Oro

Ollachea

Ituata
INA

PUNO
14°0'S

MB AR I

Isilluma

Az

Alto Inambari Macusani

San Ignacio

Inambari
Usicayos Ajoyani Phara

Masiapo
San d ia

Putinapunco

Sandia Patambuco Antauta Crucero

Cultivation density
2
14°30'S

Potoni 14°30'S Quiaca Cuyocuyo Sina

(ha/km ) 0.1 - 1.0 San 2.0 1.1 - Anton 2.1 - 4.0 4.1 - 8.0 > 8.0 ORURILLO San Jose International boundaries Department boundaries Asillo District boundaries Major road River Azangaro Tirapata I 70°30'W Village center

TA

Yanahuaya

Muñani Putina 0 20 Geographic coordinates WGS 84 Quilcapunco 70°0'W 40 km

Bolivia
Ananea

69°30'W

Pablob amba

Huari H

MB OP AT

San Juan del Oro

uari

Tambopata
A

69°0'W

Source: Government of Peru - National monitoring system supported by UNODC The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations

14°0'S

ata

13°30'S

OP AT A

13°0'S

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.1.1.4 Coca cultivation in Inambari-Tambopata The rivers Inambari and Tambopata constitute the two main valleys for coca cultivation in the province of Macusani in Puno department. According to the National System of Land Classification, only 1% of the land would be suitable for agricultural activities while 99% of the land is on steep slopes considered protected areas because of their vulnerability to erosion. Coca cultivation mainly takes place on these steep slopes, between 800 and 1,800 meter above sea. In 2005, coca cultivation was estimated at 2,250 ha, representing 5% of the national total. This corresponded to a slight increase compared to the level of coca cultivation in 2004 estimated at 2,000 ha. In this region, coca cultivation is concentrated in the small valley of the river Inambari. Table 6: Distribution of coca cultivation in Inambari-Tambopata, 2001 – 2005 (ha)
2001 2002 2003 2004 1,913 87 2,000 2005 1,997 253 2,300 % Change 2004 – 2005 17% -12% 15% % of 2005 regional total 87% 11% 100%

Region

Inambari 1,903 1,761 1,441 Tambopata 617 669 819 Rounded total 2,520 2,430 2,260 Source: National monitoring system supported by UNODC

In the 80’s, this area was considered as a traditional coca growing region. ENACO in 1988 registered 1,778 coca farmers for a declared area of coca cultivation of 783 ha. In the 90’s, the production increased and was apparently more and more oriented towards narco-trafficking. Recently, there were reports of production and marketing of cocaine paste. There were also reports of illegal smuggling of inputs necessary for the production of cocaine paste or hydrochloride, like kerosene, sulfuric acid and chalk among others. During the field verification process, it was noted that in this region coca cultivation was often interspersed or associated with other crops or bushes, which makes the detection of coca cultivation more difficult. It was also noticeable that farmers tended to improve the management of their coca fields to increase their yields, in particular an increase in plant density and use of fertilizers. In general, coca farmers living in this region do not depend exclusively from coca cultivation, but also have other crops like coffees, or have developed activities in neighboring areas. It is rare to find farmers who only cultivate coca bush. In 2005, there was no report of eradication or auto-eradication in the valley. It should be noted that access to this valley is increasingly difficult and risky because of the coca production destined for narco-trafficking.

34

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.1.1.5 Coca cultivation in San Gaban San Gaban region is presented on the same map as Inambari-Tambopata region. The valley of the San Gaban river is part of the larger watershed of the Inambari river. It is situated in the northwestern part of the department of Puno bordering Bolivia. The relief is uneven and covered by high altitude tropical forest. Coca cultivation mostly takes place between 400 and 1,200 meter above sea level, on the high slope areas situated in the middle and low parts of the San Gaban valley, up to its connection with the Inambari river. The area includes by the localities of Juliaca, Puerto Maldonado and Iñapari at the border with Brazil. The analysis of the SPOT5 image acquired in July 2005 over that area, showed that there were 292 ha of coca cultivation in this region. This corresponded to a decrease of 90% compared to the 2,700 ha registered in 2004, and only 0.6% of the national total. This spectacular decrease followed intense eradication efforts by CORAH, that reported the eradication of 1,900 ha of coca cultivation between October and December 2005. The decrease in coca cultivation and its replacement by grasses and shrubs, can be noted in the following snapshots of satellite images taken in 2004 and 2005.

35

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.1.1.6 Coca cultivation in Marañon, Putumayo, Huallaga Central and Bajo Huallaga There were marginal levels of coca cultivation in the higher areas of the Marañon valley, situated in the northern part of the Andean region, as well as in the Putumayo region close to the border with Colombia in the north-eastern part of the country. Coca cultivation was estimated at only 350 ha for these two regions. In Marañon, in 1978, ENACO registered 900 coca farmers in the areas of Huayobamba and Balzas, for a total of about 300 ha. The Putumayo region is situated along the Putumayo river that makes the border with Colombia. Although close to the important coca cultivation of Putumayo on the Colombian side of the river, coca cultivation on the Peruvian side was considered very low in 2005. Coca cultivation was estimated at about 100 ha in 2005. For the past three years, various eradication campaigns have been conducted in the regions of Huallaga Central and Bajo Huallaga. In 2005, only about 150 ha of coca cultivation were detected on the satellite images.

36

Coca cultivation density in Aguaytia and Palcazu-Pichis-Pachitea, 2005
75°30'W 75°0'W

AG U

AY TI A

Peru
Ale jan dro

UCAYALI

Aguaytia

San

Aguaytia and Palcazu-Pichis-Pachitea

Von Humbolth
Honoria

San Alejandro
Padre Abad Irazola

9°0'S

Huipoca
Tornavista

Boqueron

Aguaytia

Puerto Inca

Daniel Alomias Robles 9°30'S

HUANUCO

Yanayacu

Yuyapichis Codo del Pozuzo

Yuyapichis

Pachitea
EA PACHIT

Po zu zo

Santa Isab

Sta. Isabel
el

Cultivation density
(ha/km 2 ) 0.1 - 1.0 1.1 - 2.0 2.1 - 4.0 4.1 - 8.0 > 8.0 Department boundaries District boundaries Major road River Village center 75°30'W

Palcazu
PALCAZU

Ciudad Constitucion

PICHIS

PASCO

Pichis
10°0'S 0 15 Geographic coordinates WGS84 75°0'W 30 km

Source: Government of Peru - National monitoring system supported by UNODC The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or aceptance by the United Nations

10°0'S

9°30'S

9°0'S

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.1.1.7 Coca cultivation in Aguaytia Aguaytia is a valley situated in Aguaytia province in the department of Ucayali. The region is made flat alluvial land and hills where coca cultivation takes place between 300 and 600 meters above sea level. Coca cultivation increased from 500 ha in 2004 to 917 ha in 2005, representing a 74% increase. During the verification overflight, many new coca fields and recently prepared fields were noted. This would mean that coca cultivation might continue to increase in 2006. However, coca cultivation in Aguaytia only represented 2% of the national total. Table 7: Coca cultivation in Aguaytia region(ha)
Region 2001 2002 2003 2004 500 2005 917 Change 2004 – 2005 417 % of 2005 total 2%

Aguaytía 1,051 1,070 510 Source: National monitoring system supported by UNODC

Most of the coca cultivation was concentrated around the locality of Huipoca, and small patches of coca cultivation could also be found along the Shambillo river. Coca fields were relatively less dense and productive then in other regions. It could be found mixed with other crops and under trees canopy. In these cases, the yield was probably even lower then on pure coca fields. There were little reports on the use of agrochemicals in the coca fields in this region.

Coca fields in production and others recently planted Huipoca, March 2006

Coca fields (note the spot where coca leaves are being dried) Huipoca, March 2006

Although coca cultivation from Aguaytia was destined for the cocaine market, coca cultivation did not represent any longer the basis of the agricultural economy of the region. Most of the crops were banana, pineapple, cotton, and recently palm oil plantation supported by UNODC. The palm oil plantation of 2000 ha benefited to 400 persons, most of them former coca growers. There were a few operations of voluntary eradication conducted in the area of Campo Verde (451 ha) and in Aguaytia (1,001 ha). In 2005, DIRANDRO also reported the seizure of 393 kg of cocaine paste and 500 kg of cocaine hydrochloride.

38

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.1.1.8 Coca cultivation in Palcazu – Pichis - Pachitea The valleys of the rivers Palcazu, Pichis and Pachitea are situated in the province of Oxapampa in the department of Pasco, and the region is often referred to as ‘Selva Central’, the country central forest. The landscape is predominantly hilly, alternating with flat areas. Coca cultivation is found between 300 and 500 meters above sea level. In 2005, coca cultivation was estimated at about 211 ha, representing only 0.4% of the national total, and a decrease of 17% compared to the 300 ha found in 2004. As there was no eradication in the region in 2005, the decrease was attributed to the limitation of the satellite images to detect coca cultivation below tree canopy. Table 8: Distribution of coca cultivation in Palcazu-Pichis-Pachitea, 2001 – 2005 (ha)
2001 100 100 150 350 2002 150 98 102 350 2003 102 73 75 250 2004 161 96 43 300 2005 151 43 17 200 Change 2004 – 2005 -6% -55% -60% -33% % of 2005 total 76% 22% 9% 100%

Region Palcazu Pichis Pachitea Rounded total

The presence of coca cultivation in this region has been attested since 1986. In the early 1990s, coca cultivation in this region reached up to 12,000 ha for a production of coca leaves oriented towards cocaine production. The prices fall of the mid-nineties caused the end of coca cultivation in the region. In 2004, coca cultivation often took place below tree canopy to avoid detection, which resulted in very low coca leaf yield. In 2000, UNODC launched an alternative development project mainly oriented towards the genetic improvement of cattle, and the training of native communities in the extraction of latex from Hevea trees. During the verification overflight in the north-western part of the region (between San Matias, and the rivers Santa Isabel and Yanayacu in the district of Yuyapichis), a considerable amount of new coca fields were spotted, along with coca seedbeds and newly prepared fields.

Coca fields under shadow,Santa Isable, March 2006

39

Per C oca Sur u vey f 2005 or

R ecenty pl ed coca fel Sant I l ant i ds, a sabel M ar 2006 , ch

C oca seed beds and r ecenty pl ed coca fel Sant I l ant i ds, a sabel M ar 2006 , ch

R ecenty pl ed coca fel Sant I l ant i ds, a sabel M ar 2006 , ch

40

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

Snapshots of the video taken during the verification flights. A camera video linked to a GPS was used to verify the initial interpretation of the satellite images. The yellow dots represent the flight path, the blue arrow the position of the plane when the video was paused. The white line matches a coca field spotted on the video and the corresponding field on the satellite image. The verification flights were conducted jointly by UNODC and CADA.

Snapshot of the video over Aguaytia

Snapshot of the video over Aguaytia

Snapshot of the video over Pichis-Pacazu-Pachitea

41

Verification overflight with geovideo in Aguaytia and Palcazu-Pichis-Pachitea
75°30'W 75°0'W

AG U

AY TI A

Peru
Ale jan dro

UCAYALI

Aguaytia

San

Aguaytia and Palcazu-Pichis-Pachitea

Von Humbolth
Honoria

San Alejandro
Padre Abad Irazola

9°0'S

Huipoca
Tornavista

Boqueron

Aguaytia

Puerto Inca

Daniel Alomias Robles 9°30'S

HUANUCO

Yanayacu

Yuyapichis Codo del Pozuzo

Yuyapichis

Pachitea
EA PACHIT

Po zu zo

Santa Isab

Sta. Isabel
el

Cultivation density
(ha/km 2 ) 0.1 - 1.0 1.1 - 2.0 2.1 - 4.0 4.1 - 8.0 > 8.0 Overflight with geovideo Department boundaries District boundaries River Village center 75°30'W

Palcazu
PALCAZU

Ciudad Constitucion

PICHIS

PASCO

Pichis
10°0'S 0 15 Geographic coordinates WGS84 75°0'W 30 km

Source: Government of Peru - National monitoring system supported by UNODC The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or aceptance by the United Nations

10°0'S

9°30'S

9°0'S

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.1.2

PRODUCTION COCA LEAF AND DERIVATIVES

UNODC continuously endeavours to refine its estimation of coca leaf and cocaine production. In 2004, a coca leaf yield survey was initiated. As coca leaves are harvested several times during the year, it is important that such yield survey spanned over a year or more. However, the field activities planned in 2005 and that should have validated the results obtained in 2004 could not be implemented because of the insecurity for staff prevailing in the main coca growing regions. The results obtained in 2004 thus continued to be used, but further work on the topic is needed to refine and complement these results in particular the conversion rate from coca leaf to cocaine. In 2005, assuming an average sun-dried coca leaf yield of 2,200 kg/ha, the total sun-dried coca leaf production in Peru was estimated at 106,000 metric tons. Of this amount, a study2 of the National Institute of Statistics and Computer Science (INEI) estimated that about 9,000 metric tons corresponded to the annual demand for coca leaves for traditional, commercial or industrial uses. The rest being destined for narco-trafficking. Assuming a cocaine yield per hectare of 4.1 kg/ha – similar to the average yield obtained in 20043 -, the total rounded cocaine production in Peru was estimated at 180 metric tons. Thus, cocaine production in Peru decreased by 5% compared to 190 metric tons produced in 2004. Figure 7. Peru potential cocaine production 1995 – 2005 (in metric tons)
500 450 400 350 300
Metric ton

250 200 150 100 50 Metric tons

1995 460

1996 435

1997 325

1998 240

1999 175

2000 141

2001 150

2002 165

2003 155

2004 190

2005 180

In 2005, potential cocaine production in Peru accounted for 20% of the global potential cocaine production of 910 metric tons. This was a much lower percentage than ten years ago, when potential cocaine production in Peru represented about 49% of the global potential cocaine production.

“Encuesta Nacional sobre consumo tradicional de hoja de coca en los hogares”, INEI – DEVIDA, November 2004 After deduction of 4,100 ha of coca cultivation corresponding to the production of 9,000 mt of coca leaf for traditional demand
3

2

43

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

Table 9:

Potential cocaine production in the Andean region 1995 - 2005 (in mt)
% change 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 20042005 % of 2005 total
10% 20% 70% 100%

Bolivia Peru Colombia Total

240 460 230 930

215 435 300 950

200 325 350 875

150 240 435 825

70 175 680 925

43 141 695 879

60 150 617 827

60 165 580 805

79 155 550 784

107 190 640 937

90 180 640 910

-16% -5% 0% -3%

Source: UNODC World Drug Report

Figure 8. Potential cocaine production in the Andean region 1995 - 2005 (in mt)

44

Per C oca Sur u vey f 2005 or

2. 2

P R I ES O F C O C A LEA F A N D I D ER I TI C TS VA VES

I Per t annualaver n u, he age prce of coca l i 2005 ( L 9. kg or U S$ 2. kg) w as ver si iar t t i eaf n SO 4/ 9/ y m l o he annualaver age of2004 t est i hat ablshed atSO L 9. / ( S$ 2. kg) il r i t st lt oft coca l 4 kg U 8/ , lustatng he abiiy he eaf prces. Even t i hough a decr ease coul be not f t prces of coca l d ed or he i eaf bet een Sept ber and w em D ecem ber a decr , ease al not f t cocai past prces bet een t sam e perod, t s tend m i so ed or he ne e i w he i hi r ght have been seasonal cor espondi i a peak of har , r ng n vest of coca l durng t r ny season. I addii eaf i he ai n ton, prces usualy f lt ar t end oft year as f m er t i l el ow ds he he , ar s end t har o vestj bef e C hrst as t covert r ust or im o hei expenses durng t f i perod.Att r onall ,prces ofcoca l r ai i he estve i he egi evel i eaf em ned t hi he ghesti M onzon n r on,w her coca culi i i w i egi e tvaton s despr ead and t dem and hi he gh. R egi onalprces ofcoca l i Per 2005 i eaf n u, R egi on Alo H ualaga:M onzon t l Alo H ualaga:Sout t l h Alo H ualaga:N orh t l t Apurm ac i I nam bar i Aguayta i Al r ons l egi

SO L/ kg 12. 0 10. 4 8. 5 7. 0 9. 8 8. 4 9. 4

U S$/ kg 3. 7 3. 2 2. 6 2. 2 2. 9 2. 6 2. 9

The det l m ont y prces perr on f 2005 and 2004 ar annexed. aied hl i egi or e C oca l ,2004eaf 2005 m ont y aver hl age prces,Per ( S$/ i u U kg)
2004
3. 6

2005
12. 0

3. 4 11. 0 3. 2 10. 0 3. 0 SO L/ kg U S$/ kg

2. 8

9. 0

2. 6 8. 0 2. 4 7. 0 2. 2

2. 0 J04 F- M 04 04 A04 M04 J04 J04 A04 S04 O04 N- D04 04 US$ / kg J05 F- M 05 05 SO L / kg A- M05 05 J05 J05 A05 S- O 05 05 N05 D05

6. 0

I 2005, t pot i f m - e val of t sun- i coca l pr n he ental ar gat ue he dred eaf oducton am ount t about i ed o U S$ 307 m ilon, estm at fom t sal of 106, li i ed r he e 000 m eti t rc ons of coca l at 2. U S$/ Thi eaf 9 kg. s r esent about0. oft 2004 G D P estm at atU S$ 68. bilon4. epr ed 4% he i ed 6 li The st lt of t prces of coca l w as r l ed i t st lt of t prce of cocai past abiiy he i eaf efect n he abiiy he i ne e. Prces ofcocai past r ai i ne e em ned unchanged bet een 2004 and 2005 atU S$640 / Li f t w kg. ke or he prces of coca l , prces of cocai base have been decr i eaf i ne easi bet een Sept ber and ng w em i i D ecem ber2005,butt s decr hi ease m i have onl r l ed a seasonalvaraton. ght y efect

4

W ord Bank,l estavaiabl estm at as ofM ay 2006 l at l e i e

45

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

Prices for cocaine paste are usually highest in Monzon and Apurimac regions, the two main centers of illicit cultivation which represented respectively 23% and 32% of the national coca cultivation in 2005.
Regional prices of cocaine paste in, 2005 Region Alto Huallaga: Monzon Alto Huallaga: South Alto Huallaga: North Apurimac Aguaytia All regions US$/kg 680 640 580 690 680 640

Cocaine paste, 2004-2005 average prices for Alto Huallaga North, Monzon and Apurimac (US$/kg)
750 700

650 600 550 500

US$/kg

450 400 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 Alto Huallaga: North Alto Huallaga: Monzon Apurimac

Like the prices of coca leaf and cocaine paste, prices of cocaine remained virtually unchanged in Peru between 2004 and 2005, at US$890 /kg. The annual average cocaine prices recorded in Peru is much lower then the average prices in Colombia (US$ 1,860/kg) and Bolivia (US$ 1,800/kg). The difference might be due to the fact that the price in Peru refers to the price in the producing region, close to its processing, whereas prices in Colombia and Bolivia refer to whole sale prices in the main cities.
Regional prices of cocaine in Peru, 2005 Region Alto Huallaga: Monzon Alto Huallaga: South Alto Huallaga: North Aguaytia All regions US$/kg 970 890 830 1,080 890

46

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.3

REPORTED OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION

The UNODC-supported national illicit crop monitoring system has not yet established a reliable methodology for the detection of opium poppy in Peru. However, opium poppy cultivation was considered negligible in 2005. Opium poppy was mainly cultivation in the mountain range. A report of August 2004 of CADA (Alternative Development Assistance Body) mentioned that there would be 223 districts with potential land for opium poppy cultivation in the departments of Amazonas, Piura, Cajamarca, La Libertad and San Martín. There was also evidence of opium poppy cultivation in Pasco, Huánuco, Ayacucho and Huancavelica. Table 10: Reported opium poppy cultivation in Peru, 1995 – 2005 (ha)
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 599 649 720 652 873 Source: DIRANDRO, n.a. = not available 2000 748 2001 1,361 2002 n.a. 2003 n.a. 2004 1,447 2005 n.a.

DIRANDRO reported annual opium latex yield of about 8 kg/ha, and a conversion rate of 10 kg of opium latex for 1 kg of heroin. Based on this estimates, heroin production would have been around around 1 metric tons in 2004. A relatively small production compared to neighbouring Colombia where heroin production is estimated at 2.5 metric tons in 2005. In 2005, DIRANDRO reported the eradication of about 95.5 ha of opium poppy cultivation. Table 11: Reported opium poppy eradication in Peru, 1998 – 2005 (ha)
1998 1999 18 2000 26 4 Source: DIRANDRO 2001 155 2002 14 2003 57 2004 98 2005 95.5

DIRANDRO reported that most of the opium latex production was transported by land in direction of Ecuador and by river towards Colombia. Seizure of opium latex increased by 12% between 2004 and 2005 to reach 505 kg. Heroin seizures also increased, from 1 kg reported in 2004 to 8.2 kg reported in 2005. Table 12: Reported seizure of opium latex, morphine and heroin, Peru, 1995-2005 (kg)
Opium latex Morphine Heroin Source: DIRANDRO 1995 24 1996 37 1997 7 1998 12 1999 66 1 2000 508 15 2001 244 11 2002 234 6 16 2003 433 0 4
2004 2005

451 0 1

505 0 8.2

48

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.4

REPORTED ERADICATION

In 2005, the Peruvian government reported the eradication of 12,232 ha of coca fields, of which 8,966 ha eradicated by CORAH as part of its programme of forced eradication and 3,266 ha eradicated by CADA as part of its programme of voluntary eradication. This corresponded to an increase of 19% compared to the 10,257 ha of eradicated coca cultivation reported in 2004.

Figure 9. Coca cultivation and eradication of coca fields in Peru, 1995 - 2005
140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 Eradication

hectare

1995

1996 1,259

1997 3,462 68,800

1998 7,834 51,000

1999 14,733 38,700

2000 6,206 43,400

2001 6,436 46,200

2002 7,134 46,700

2003 11,312 44,200

2004 10,257 50,300

2005 12,232 48,200

Coca cultivation 115,300 94,400

Eradication

Coca cultivation

Sources: Coca cultivation USG 1995-1999 and National Monitoring System Supported by UNODC 2000-2005 Eradication: DEVIDA, CORAH

49

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

2.5

REPORTED SEIZURE

Between 2004 and 2005, according to the reported data of the Peruvian anti-narcotics police, DIRANDRO, seizures of cocaine paste and cocaine hydrochloride decreased but destruction and seizures of coca leaves increased. Seizures of cocaine hydrochloride decreased from 7,3 mt in 2004 to 2,1 mt kg in 2005, while seizures and destruction of coca leaves increased from 916 mt to 1,525 mt. Table 13: Drug seized in Peru, 2003 – 2005 (kg or otherwise specified)
Item seized Destruction and seizure of coca leaf Cocaine paste Cocaine hydrochloride Source: DIRANDRO 2003 1,328,347 4,366 3,574 2004 916,024 6,330 7,303 2005 1,525,739 3,199 2,119

51

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

3 METHODOLOGY
3.1 COCA CULTIVATION

The monitoring of coca cultivation in Peru is based on the interpretation of various types of satellite images. For the 2005 census, a 29 satellite images were used, of which 15 IKONOS multi-spectral (ground resolution of 4 sq meter), 13 SPOT 5 (ground resolution of 10 sq meter) and one Landsat5 (ground resolution of 30 sq meter).
Region Rio Monzon Rio Rondos Tulumayo Tulumayo2 Nuevo Progreso Yanajanca Aspuzana Pizana Pizana2 Uchiza Uchiza2 Aucayacu Aucayacu2 Aucayacu3 Tingo Maria Pizana Monzon alto La Convencion y Lares La Convencion y Lares Apurimac Apurimac Aguaytia Inambari San Gaban Marañon Marañon Pichis Pichis Satellite IKONOS IKONOS IKONOS IKONOS IKONOS IKONOS IKONOS IKONOS IKONOS IKONOS IKONOS IKONOS IKONOS IKONOS LANDSAT 5 SPOT 5 SPOT 5 SPOT 5 SPOT 5 SPOT 5 SPOT 5 SPOT 5 SPOT 5 SPOT 5 SPOT 5 SPOT 5 SPOT 5 SPOT 5 Acquisition date 19/9/2005 19/9/2005 13/10/2005 31/7/2005 19/9/2005 19/9/2005 19/9/2005 27/12/2005 17/8/2005 29/11/2005 29/11/2005 16/9/2005 19/9/2005 19/9/2005 28/7/2005 28/11/2005 23/11/2005 11/6/2005 28/7/2005 28/7/2005 23/7/2005 1/8/2005 4/9/2005 29/7/2005 6/9/2005 31/7/2005 12/7/2005 11/7/2005 Area covered (Sq km) 223 138 223 163 183 256 266 200 154 300 180 203 263 262 34225 1800 1800 3600 1800 3600 3600 1800 1800 3600 3600 900 900 3600

52

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

1) Identification and acquisition of the image The 2005 Peru coca survey relied mostly on SPOT5 images, and to a lesser extent on IKONOS and Landsat5 images. In 2005, the cloud cover did not permit to acquire SPOT images over the whole Alto Huallaga, and alternatives censors like IKONOS and Landsat5 were used.

Quick Look SPOT 5: sector Monzon - Alto Huallaga, November 2005

Quick Look SPOT 5: sector Uchiza - Alto Huallaga, June 2005

SPOT5 possesses very good characteristics for crop monitoring. In combination with the older SPOT4 satellite, the chances of acquisition of cloud free images are higher than with other sensors. In addition, due to an off-nadir viewing capability an area can be monitored more frequently. With a spectral sensitivity from the visible to the medium infrared and a spatial resolution from 2.5 meter (panchromatic) to 10 meter (multispectral), SPOT fulfils the requirements for vegetation monitoring. The main disadvantage of this sensor is its relatively high price, which impedes the coverage of large areas on a regular basis. With a swath width is of 60 km, about 300 SPOT images would be necessary to cover the entire country. However, SPOT offers the possibility to purchase half or quarter of images. This option enabled to reduce the cost to cover the area of interest. 2) Image pre-processing The SPOT 5 images are received at the level 1A. Depending on the cloud covers and haze present on the image, the images are filtered with an convolution algorithm. If the study area is made of several images, the contrasts are levelled out. The images were geo-referenced on the basis of ground control points from maps at the 1/50,000 scale and the 2001, 2004 ortho-rectified images.

53

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

3) Definition of interpretation keys The appearance of the coca fields on the satellite images depends on the field slope, the sun exposure (shaded or sunny areas of the satellite images) and the stage of development of the vegetation. First the remote sensing experts defined the interpretation patterns of the different categories and stage of coca fields. Their experience enabled them to distinguish the following five patterns of coca cultivation: a) Young coca field This category corresponds to coca fields of about 12 months old. The coverage of coca foliage accounts for 20% to 40% of the spectral characteristics of these fields, while the remaining spectral characteristics come from the soil. Ground information and previous year’s mapping information are a crucial help for the interpretation the coca fields.

b) Mature coca field This category corresponds to coca fields from 12 to 24 months old and older. Three or four months after the harvest, these coca fields have a high coca foliage density and show a high level of contrast on the satellite images.

Generally speaking, the higher the density of coca plants, the higher the reflectance on the satellite image. It is therefore easier to identify coca fields in areas where density is high, like in Apurimac, than in areas where it is lower, like in Monzon and La Convencion-Lares. c) Harvested coca field This category corresponds to coca fields on which the leaves have been harvested and only nude plants and stems remain. Most of the spectral characteristics of these fields come from the colour of the soil. The identification and mapping of these fields therefore requires the use of additional information, such as the 2001 census, as well as field data on the surrounding environment.

55

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

d) Rehabilitated coca field This category corresponds to abandoned coca fields recently rehabilitated. The rehabilitation process includes weeding and planting of new coca plants in addition to old coca plants. These coca fields can be productive in a very short time. The first harvest can take place as early as 3 to 4 months after the rehabilitation.

The spectral characteristics of these fields are the same as for mature coca, but the use of the 2001 coca mapping enables the identification of these rehabilitated coca fields. e) Mixed crops This category includes parcels where the coca crop, while maintaining its structure in the field (furrows and/or alternating lines), shares the ground with licit crops. Associated crops are generally annual agricultural products, such as maize and cassava.

The spectral characteristics of these fields are the combination of the spectral characteristics of the coca foliage, the associated crop and of the soil. Once these patterns had been defined, coca fields were visually interpreted and their borders digitized on screen on a few sample areas. The resulting classification was printed at the scale 1/50,000 for field verification. 4) Field verification and correction of the interpretation key The field work enabled to refine the interpretation key, and to improve the characterization of confusing land use, mostly shrubby areas (‘purma’), annual crops with short vegetation period, small pastures and small cleared areas. 5) Visual interpretation of coca fields After the interpretation key had been corrected and refined, coca fields were classified visually on screen for the entire area of interest. The experts have acquired a good knowledge of the areas of interest during the field verification process and have long experience with the project. They also relied on the aerial photography at the 1/20,000 scale acquired in 1999 and 2000, as well as the previous year satellite images, to facilitate their interpretation.

56

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

6) Verification flights Like in previous years, the results of the visual interpretation was checked during over-flight. In 2005, the project used during these overflights a video camera linked to a GPS. With this new device, it was possible to replay the video on the computer and track the flight path on the satellite image using the software GeoVideo. A total of 15 hours of overflights were performed over the regions of Alto Huallaga (including Monzon), Apurimac, Pichis-Palcazu-Pachitea and Aguaytia. Snapshots of the video and the corresponding satellite images are in the chapter presenting the regional findings. The overfligths and the video recording was implemented in cooperation with CADA, the government body for Alternative Development. 7) Correction for slope In Peru, 90% of the coca fields are on slope steeper than 20 degrees. To improve the overall results, a digital elevation model based on 1/50,000 contour lines is used to correct the initial area with the inclination of the underlying slope. Table 14: Correction for slope Area (ha) Initial interpretation 42,000 After slope correction 48,200 3.2 OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION

The UNODC-supported national illicit crop monitoring system has not yet established a reliable methodology for the detection of opium poppy in Peru and no data was available for 2005. Nevertheless, the level of opium poppy cultivation is considered negligible in Peru. 3.3 PRICES

Prices of sun-dried coca leaf and other commodities are collected through a network of 13 collection points located in the following areas: Aguaytia (1), Apurimac (3), Inambari (3), Monzon (2), Tocache (1), and Uchiza (3). Prices are collected once a month by project staff through semi-structured interviews of key informants selected among farmers, storekeepers and people who participate in the production and distribution of illicit drugs.

57

Peru Coca Survey for 2005

4 ANNEX

58

PRICES MONITORING: Algo Huallaga: South SOL /kg n 35 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 7.0 7.0 70 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 7.0 5.2 4.3 7.4 7.4 7.0 7.0 6.1 7.0 7.0 7.8 9.6 8.7 8.2 7.8 10.4 11.3 10.4 2.2 1.6 1.4 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 1.9 2.2 2.2 2.5 2.9 2.6 2.3 2.4 3.1 3.3 3.0 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9.8 8.8 12.5 10.1 10.0 11.3 9.1 8.7 8.7 7.8 8.6 10.1 11.6 9.9 10.3 10.3 11.2 10.4 12.2 9.6 8.3 7.4 9.6 2.7 2.3 2.1 2.7 8.5 6.7 7.1 9.5 10.5 9.0 9.3 9.0 9.0 7.1 5.8 9.9 8.9 7.7 6.3 8.4 9.0 8.7 8.7 7.4 6.1 7.4 7.0 9.1 8.5 5.6 6.5 7.4 6.5 6.5 7.8 7.0 1.8 2.1 1.8 1.8 2.2 1.9 2.6 2.0 2.1 2.9 3.3 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.2 1.8 3.1 2.8 2.2 1.9 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.1 1.7 2.0 1.9 2.5 2.4 1.6 2.9 2.6 3.7 3.0 2.9 3.3 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.5 3.0 3.4 2.8 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.5 36 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 8.4 8.7 8.7 8.7 10.4 7.8 7.8 8.5 7.8 7.8 7.4 8.7 8.7 8.1 7.8 7.8 7.8 10.1 8.7 8.7 7.0 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 3.2 2.4 2.4 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.7 2.7 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.9 2.5 2.4 1.9 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 n n n n n 10.4 8.4 9.1 11.7 11.3 9.9 10.6 11.2 11.8 8.9 7.1 11.7 13.6 12.3 8.7 15.3 13.5 13.0 13.9 12.2 11.3 12.2 10.7 12.2 12.6 11.7 3.2 2.5 2.7 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.6 2.7 2.2 3.6 4.2 3.5 2.6 4.6 4.0 3.8 4.0 3.4 3.1 3.4 3.0 3.4 3.5 3.3 US$ /kg SOL /kg US$ /kg SOL /kg US$ /kg SOL /kg US$ /kg SOL /kg US$ /kg SOL /kg SOL /kg n Alto Huallaga: North Apurimac Inambari Aguaytia Selva Central La ConvenciónLares

PERU, SUN-DRIED COCA LEAF

Simple average of regional averages n 16 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

Alto Huallaga: Monzon

Period

SOL /kg

US$ /kg

n

Exchange rate

SOL /kg

US$ /kg

2005 12.0 9.4 2.9 181 3.27 Dec-05 7.8 2.3 15 3.35 8.7 Nov-05 8.5 2.6 14 3.32 9.4 Oct-05 9.9 3.0 16 3.27 11.8 Sep-05 10.6 3.3 16 3.25 14.1 Aug-05 9.7 3.0 16 3.25 13.2 Jul-05 9.8 3.0 16 3.23 15.0 Jun-05 9.6 3.0 15 3.24 14.1 May-05 9.5 2.9 15 3.26 12.8 Apr-05 8.4 2.6 15 3.26 11.9 Mar-05 8.0 2.5 15 3.24 11.3 Feb-05 10.1 3.1 15 3.27 10.8 Jan-05 10.5 3.2 13 3.28 11.4 2004 9.8 2.8 3.51 12.6 Dec-04 8.8 2.7 3.28 14.0 Nov-04 11.5 3.5 3.33 16.8 Oct-04 11.0 3.2 3.40 13.3 Sep-04 10.9 3.1 3.48 12.7 Aug-04 11.1 3.2 3.51 12.2 Jul-04 10.2 2.9 3.56 12.4 Jun-04 8.9 2.5 3.59 12.8 May-04 9.3 2.6 3.60 12.5 Apr-04 8.5 2.4 3.58 11.4 Mar-04 9.3 2.6 3.58 10.6 Feb-04 9.4 2.6 3.59 10.1 Jan-04 9.0 2.5 3.58 12.8 Source: National Monitoring System Supported by UNODC

3.7 2.6 2.8 3.7 4.4 4.1 4.7 4.3 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.6 4.3 5.0 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.0 2.8 3.6

Coca leaf, 2004-2005 monthly average prices, Peru (US$/kg)

Peru, coca leaf
12.0

3.6

3.4 11.0

3.2 10.0

3.0

In Peru, the annual average price of coca leaf for 2004 (SOL 9.8/kg) was very similar to the annual average of 2005 of SOL 9.4/kg, illustrating the stability of the coca leaf prices. Even though a decrease could be noted between September and December (also reflected in a decrease for coca paste price between the same period), this trend might well be seasonal, corresponding in a peak of harvest of coca leaf during the rainy season. In addition, prices usually fell at the end of the year, as farmers tend to harvest just before Christmas to cover their expenses during this festive period.
SOL/kg

US$/kg

2.8 9.0

2.6 8.0

At the regional level, prices of coca leaf remained the highest in Monzon region. Coca cultivation is widespread in Monzon region, with coca cultivation in this vallay accounting to 23% of the total coca cultivation of the country in 2004.

2.4 7.0

2.2

2.0

6.0

J-04 F-04 M-04 A-04 M-04 J-04 J-04 A-04 S-04 O-04 N-04 D-04 J-05 F-05 M-05 A-05 M-05 J-05 J-05 A-05 S-05 O-05 N-05 D-05

US$ /kg

SOL /kg

PRICES MONITORING: Apurimac n 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 650 700 560 650 650 1 1 US$/kg 690 600 650 720 650 650 700 700 720 720 720 720 720 590 700 700 700 600 600 530 520 530 530 520 520 600 500 500 500 500 US$/kg n US$/kg 680 n 2 US$/kg Inambari Aguaytia Selva Central

PERU, COCAINE PASTE ("Pasta de cocaína lavada")

Alto Huallaga: Simple average of Algo Huallaga: Monzon regional averages South US$/kg n US$/kg n US$/kg n 6 640 36 2005 640 84 680 Dec-05 562 600 1 587 3 Nov-05 608 620 1 607 3 Oct-05 692 720 1 693 3 Sep-05 686 10 730 1 693 3 Aug-05 641 10 700 1 633 3 Jul-05 654 10 700 1 633 3 Jun-05 630 9 613 3 May-05 636 9 613 3 Apr-05 637 9 607 3 Mar-05 580 9 497 3 Feb-05 660 10 647 3 8 803 3 Jan-05 718 2004 640 720 Dec-04 590 647 Nov-04 730 833 Oct-04 690 713 Sep-04 700 727 Aug-04 700 733 Jul-04 520 593 Jun-04 610 733 May-04 670 780 Apr-04 580 683 Mar-04 670 787 Feb-04 640 723 Jan-04 570 717 Source: National Monitoring System Supported by UNODC Alto Huallaga: North US$/kg n 580 58 459 5 556 5 634 5 672 5 580 5 584 5 576 5 576 5 584 5 522 5 622 5 650 3 600 500 657 673 663 700 593 513 607 527 660 630 493 La ConvenciónLares n US$/kg n

Period

Cocaine paste, 2004-2005 average prices for Alto Huallaga North, Monzon and Apurimac (US$/kg)

Peru, prices of cocaine paste

750

700

650

US$/kg

600

The stable trend in the prices of coca paste is similar to the trend of the prices of coca leaf. Prices remained practically unchanged between 2004 and 2005. Like for the price of coca leaf, prices have been decreasing between September and December 2005, but this decrease might just reflect a seasonal variation.

550

500

450

Prices for cocaine paste are usually highest in Monzón and Apurimac regions, the two main centres of illicit coca cultivation which represented respectively 23% and 29% of the national coca cultivation in 2004.

400

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 Apurimac

Alto Huallaga: North

Alto Huallaga: Monzon

PRICES MONITORING: Apurimac US$/kg n US$/kg n US$/kg 1,080 1,300 n 4 1 US$/kg n Inambari Aguaytia Selva Central

PERU, COCAINE

Period

La ConvenciónLares US$/kg n

1,000

1

1,000 1,000 870 700 800 800 800 1,000

1 1

Simple average of Alto Huallaga: Algo Huallaga: regional averages Monzon South US$/kg n US$/kg n US$/kg n 2005 890 103 970 6 890 36 Dec-05 920 10 820 1 807 3 Nov-05 810 9 850 1 817 3 Oct-05 1,012 9 1,100 1 1,017 3 Sep-05 1,012 9 1,050 1 993 3 Aug-05 918 9 1,000 1 933 3 Jul-05 921 9 1,000 1 933 3 Jun-05 910 9 900 3 May-05 863 7 900 3 Apr-05 804 8 810 3 Mar-05 712 8 693 3 Feb-05 892 9 847 3 Jan-05 941 7 1,000 3 2004 890 960 Dec-04 789 917 Nov-04 900 1,027 Oct-04 897 967 Sep-04 811 900 Aug-04 900 983 Jul-04 821 867 Jun-04 867 940 May-04 933 967 Apr-04 978 1,033 Mar-04 979 1,000 Feb-04 1,017 1,083 Jan-04 773 847 Source: National Monitoring System Supported by UNODC 1,000 1,000

Alto Huallaga: North US$/kg n 830 57 754 5 764 5 920 5 992 5 820 5 830 5 830 5 825 4 798 5 730 5 830 5 823 3 820 690 807 860 727 817 717 793 900 923 950 957 700

Cocaine, 2004-2005 average prices for Alto Huallaga South and North, (US$/kg) 2005

1,200

2004

Peru, prices of cocaine

1,100

Like the prices of coca leaf and coca paste, prices of cocaine remained virtually unchanged in Peru between 2004 and 2005.

1,000

US$/kg

900

800

The annual average cocaine price recorded in Peru is much lower than the average prices in Colombia (US$1,860/kg) and Bolivia (US$ 1,800/kg). The difference might be due to the fact that the price in Peru refers to the price in the producing region, close to its processing, while in Colombia and Bolivia prices refer to whole sale prices in the main cities.

700

600

J- F- M- A- M- J- J- A- S- O- N- D- J- F- M- A- M- J- J- A- S- O- N- D04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 Alto Huallaga: North

Algo Huallaga: South

NATIONAL COCA ENTERPRICE
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION - 1978
OFICCE NORTH REGION TRUJILLO SIMBAL CASCAS RANCHO GRANDE COMPIN HUAYOBAMBA Sub-Total CAJAMARCA BALZAS Sub- Total CHACHAPOYAS TINGO LUYA Sub-Total HUAMACHUCO SALTIBAMBA CHAGUAL Sub-Total PALLASCA Sub-Total TOTAL OF REGION CENTRE REGION AYACUCHO SIVIA LLOCHEGUA SAN FRANCISCO SANTA ROSA Sub-Total HUANUCO TINGO MARIA Sub-Total TOTAL OF REGION SOUTH REGION JULIACA SANDIA Sub-Total QUILLABAMBA LA QUEBRADA QUELLOUNO SANTA MARIA PALMA REAL COLCA SAN LORENZO KITENI PUTUCUSI MARANURA Sub-Total TOTAL OF REGION Nº Farmers EXTENSION ha 2.74 50.70 30.75 29.14 9.77 196.78 319.88 16.73 107.08 123.81 42.22 44.59 5.14 91.95 85.27 197.35 246.88 529.49 50.13 50.13 1,115.27 YIELD TM 1.918 35.491 21.527 20.394 6.841 137.744 223.915 11.714 74.952 86.666 29.557 31.209 3.600 64.366 59.689 138.143 172.812 370.644 35.091 35.091 780.682

22 126 143 105 499 704 1,599 23 219 242 116 121 14 251 237 384 1,067 1,688 315 315 4,095

622 731 1,416 814 3,583

70.34 200.35 421.13 317.99 1,009.81

49.238 140.245 294.791 222.593 706.867

4,783 4,783 8,366

5,321.55 5,321.55 6,331.36

3,725.085 3,725.085 4,431.952

1,778 1,778 5,000 815 2,000 2,047 1,064 461 200 56 267 785 12,695 14,473

783.00 783.00 4,001.03 1,050.00 1,281.00 1,751.78 614.69 495.57 193.00 83.00 500.00 700.00 10,670.07 11,453.07

551.054 551.054 2,800.721 735.000 826.700 1,226.246 430.283 346.899 135.100 58.100 350.000 490.000 7,399.049 7,950.103

NATIONAL TOTAL
Note: Yield average 700kg/ha

26,934

18,899.70

13,162.737