You are on page 1of 46

Present perfect tense

Usage: The present perfect tense


puts emphasis on the result
Ex: She has written five letters.
expresses an action that is still going on.

Ex: School has not started yet.


expresses an action that stopped recently

Ex: She has cooked dinner.


expresses a finished action that has an influence on the present

Ex: I have lost my key.


expresses an action that has taken place once, never or several

times before the moment of speaking


Ex: I have never been to Australia.
The Present Perfect Tense
Connecting past and present

We use this tense to show a


connection between past
and present situations.
The Present Perfect Tense
Like a bridge between the past and the present

Past Present
I arrived in Seattle It is 2009.
in 2000.

Present I have lived in I have lived in


Seattle for nine Seattle since
Perfect years. 2000.
I have studied English since

2000 I came to the U.S.

this morning
yesterday
:To form the present perfect
HAVE/HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE
Statement Negative Question
I I I
You You You
have have not gone
(ve) We We We Have
(havent) ?
gone They gone They They

She She She


has not gone
Has ('s) He Has
He (hasnt) He ?
gone
It gone It it
Questions
They have studied English since 2000
Have they studied English since 2000

Short Answer:
Yes, they have.
No, they havent (=have
not).
She has lived in Seattle since last year.

Has she lived in Seattle since last year?

Yes, she has.


No, she hasnt.
How long have you owned this car?
I have owned this car since 2002.
I have owned this car for two years.
The adverbs are frequently used in the
present perfect
For: When talking about the length of time (duration), we use the present perfect with for
+ a period of time.
Ex: I have worked here for five years. She has lived here for twenty years. They have been
married for six months.
Since: When talking about a starting point, we use the present perfect with since + a
point in time.
Ex: I have lived here since 1998. They have been married since June. We have been at this
school since last year.
adverbs (ever, never, already, yet, still)
'Ever' and 'never' are always placed before the past participle.
Ex: Has she ever met someone famous?
I have never visited London. Ive never been so sick.

Already, yet and still: It can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end
.of the sentence
Present Perfect Tense
The autumn has
already arrived

How do you
know?
Present Perfect Tense
FORM: have / has + past participle

Affirmative: I have seen the film before.


She has seen the film before.

Interrogative: Have you seen the film before?


Has she seen the film before?

Negative: They havent seen the film before.


He hasnt seen the film before.
Present Perfect Tense
Uses of the present perfect
1- Recent events: It is used to describe recent events without
a definite time. The idea of time or place in the speakers
mind makes the event recent. A time expression may
emphasize recentness: just, recently, lately

Why are they so happy?

They have just won a prize so


they are really pleased
Present Perfect Tense
2- Personal experiences: It is used to express personal
experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time
expressions ever and never are very often used with this
meaning

I have never been to Japan.


Have you ever been there?
Present Perfect Tense
It is used to express actions that started in the past and- 3
continue to the present, the time period is not finished. We
use for and since with this meaning. We use for with
.periods of time and since with points of time

I havent eaten since yesterday


morning. I am really hungry

I havent drunk anything for


two days. I am terribly thirsty
Contrast between Present Perfect and
Past Simple
We use definite expressions with the Past simple tense:
yesterday, last week, ago etc, while we dont use definite
.time expressions with the Present perfect tense
I have been to France three times

? When did you go there last


I went there last Summer
Contrast between Present
Perfect and Past Simple
Gerald has bought a new car. He bought it last
week.
Have you met Ray? Yes, I met him when we were
students.
My parents have been to India. In fact, they went
there twice last year.
Has anybody phoned me? Yes, Joyce phoned an
hour ago.
Ive seen that man before. Really? When did you
see him?
Note the difference
He has been to London.
Now he is here. He can tell
you wonderful stories about
London.
He has been in London for
two weeks. He is still in
London.
Wheres Peter? He has gone
to London. He is in Italy or
on his way to London.
Helen/finish /yet/her work

Helen hasnt finished her


work yet.
Ali/back/just/from Italy/come

Ali has just come back from Italy.


Kamal /a camel/never/ride

Kamal has never ridden


a camel.
Kevin /just/his house/sell

Kevin has just sold his house.


Adam/ in hospital/a week/be

Adam has been in hospital


for a week.
Adam/ in hospital/a week/be

Adam has been in hospital


for a week.
Akram /homework/do/his/already/math

Akram has already done his


homework.
Pelin/yet/homework/do/her?

Has Pelin done her homework yet?


Selim /already/his milk/drink

Selim has already drunk his milk.


Omar /fall asleep/in class/just

Omar has just fallen asleep in class.


I/never/a big fish/catch/

Ive never caught a big fish.


I/not fly /I was 7 years old/a kite

I havent flown a kite since I


was 7 years old.
yet
The train hasnt arrived
in Brisbane yet
already
Ive already visited
Ayers Rock
just
Ive just seen
a very original
advertisement
ever
Have you ever seen a kangaroo?
How long
How long have you
stayed in Melbourne?
for
Present perfect continuous
USAGE: The present perfect continuous
tense
puts emphasis on the duration or course of an
action (not the result)
Example: She has been writing for two hours.
action that is still going on Example: I have
been living here since 2001.
finished action that influenced the present
Example: I have been working all afternoon.
Form of present perfect
:continuous
Question Negative Positive

Have I been I have not been I have been I/we/you/they


?speaking .speaking .speaking

Has he been He has not been He has been He/she/it


?speaking .speaking .speaking

Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive: all day, for 4 years,


since 1993, how long?, the whole week
Reminder
Verbs with stative meanings are not used in
the progressive. The present perfect, NOT the
present perfect continuous, is used with
stative verbs to describe the duration of a
state that began in the past and continue to
the present.

Ex: I have known Alice since he was a child.


Incorrect: I have been knowing Alice since he was a
child.
Present perfect simple vs.
Present perfect continuous
Present perfect Present perfect simple
Present perfect Present perfect simple
continuous
Have/has + been + V-ed/V3 Have/has + V-ed/ V3 Form
The present perfect The present perfect simple Usage
progressive expresses an expresses an action that is still
action that is still going on. It going on or that stopped recently,
puts emphasis on the but has an influence on the
duration or course of the present. It puts emphasis on the
.action .result

all day, for 4 years, since For, since, already, ever, never, Adverbs
1993, how long?, the .yet, still, etc
.whole week, etc frequently
used
I have been playing football .I have written five letters Example
.since 3 oclock
We can use both the present perfect simple and the present perfect
continuous to describe an activity that started in the past and
continues up to the present and possibly into the future.
Ex: They have been studying English for three years.
Theyve studied English for three years.
We can use the present perfect simple and the present perfect
continuous with lately and recently.
Ex: Ive been working hard lately.
Ive done a lot of work lately.