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ISSN : 2249-5762 (Online) | ISSN : 2249-5770 (Print) IJRMET Vol.

6, Issue 1, Nov 2015-April 2016

Review Paper on Wind Turbine using Magnetic Levitation


1
Ashwin P. Joseph, 2Suraj P. Chavhan, 3Pravesh K. Sahare, 4Abdul Arif, 5Tanveer A. Hussain
1,2,3,4,5
DOME, J D College of Engineering & Management, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Abstract very fast and reliable transportation on maglev trains and with
This paper presents the design component aspect of a magnetically ongoing research its popularity is increasingly attaining new
levitated vertical axis wind turbine. Using the effects of magnetic heights. Using a pair of permanent magnets like neodymium
repulsion, spiral shaped wind turbine blades will be fitted on a magnets and substantial support magnetic levitation can easily
rod for stability during rotation and suspended on magnets as be experienced. By placing these two magnets on top of each other
a replacement for ball bearings which are normally used on with like polarities facing each other, the magnetic repulsion will
conventional wind turbines. Maglev wind turbines have several be strong enough to keep both magnets at a distance away from
advantages over conventional wind turbines. For instance, theyre each other. The force created as a result of this repulsion can be
able to use winds with starting speeds as low as 1.5 meters per used for suspension purposes and is strong enough to balance the
second (m/s). Also, they could operate in winds exceeding 40 m/s. weight of an object depending on the threshold of the magnets.
This type of wind setup does not require any significant land for In this project, we expect to implement this technology form the
installation, as its can be easily incorporated in rooftop, tower, purpose of achieving vertical orientation with our rotors.
and buildings.
III. Magnetic Levitation Wind Mill
Keywords In selecting the vertical axis concept for the wind turbine that
Magnetic Levitation, Magnetic Field, Magnets is implemented as the power generation portion of this project,
certain uniqueness corresponded to it that did not pertain to the
I. Introduction other wind turbine designs. The characteristic that set this wind
Energy is important for the development of human civilization. generator apart from the others is that it is fully supported and
As conventional energy exhausts, the development of clean and rotates about a vertical axis. This axis is vertically oriented through
renewable energy, such as wind and solar becomes ever important the center of the wind sails, which allows for a different type of
to peoples live. The wind power has been harnessed by mankind rotational support rather than the conventional ball bearing system
for a long time and the associated technology is more advanced found in horizontal wind turbines.
than other clean energies. Nowadays wind power increasingly
attracts interests and its utilization has entered a rapid development
stage.
The maglev wind turbine is a vast departure from conventional
propeller design. Its main advantage is that it uses frictionless
bearing and magnetic levitation design and is does not need a vast
space required by more conventional wind turbine. It also requires
little if any maintenance. Currently the largest conventional wind
turbines in the world produce only five megawatts of power.
However, one large maglev wind turbine could generate one GW
of clean power, enough to supply energy to 750,000 homes.

II. Magnetic Levitation

Fig. 2: Basic Magnetic Placement

This support is called maglev, which is based on magnetic


levitation. Maglev offers a near frictionless substitute for ball
bearings with little to no maintenance. The four different classes
are alnico, ceramic, samarium cobalt and neodymium iron boron
also known Nd-Fe-B. Nd-Fe-B is the most recent addition to this
commercial list of materials and at room temperature exhibits the
highest properties of all of the magnetic materials.
If the magnets where ring shaped then they could easily be slide
Fig. 1: A Simple Form of Magnetic Levitation them down the shaft with the like poles facing toward each other.
This would enable the repelling force required to support the
Also known as maglev, this phenomenon operates on the repulsion weight and force of the wind turbine and minimize the amount of
characteristics of permanent magnets. This technology has been magnets needed to complete the concept. The permanent magnets
predominantly utilized in the rail industry in the Fareast to provide that were chosen for this application were the N42 magnets. These

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IJRMET Vol. 6, Issue 1, Nov 2015-April 2016 ISSN : 2249-5762 (Online) | ISSN : 2249-5770 (Print)

are Nd-Fe-B ring shaped permanent magnets that are nickel plated Neodymium magnets are metal, and they are colored silver, like
to strengthen and protect the magnet itself. most other metals. Neodymium magnets are graded according to
their maximum energy product. Higher values indicate stronger
IV. Magnetic Selection magnets and range from N35 up to N52. This is the most powerful
Certain materials found in nature exhibit a tendency to attract or permanent magnet humans have discovered so, per unit of size,
repeal each other. These materials called magnets, are also called Nd-Fe-B magnets provide the strongest magnetic field available
ferromagnetic because they include the element iron as one of without the use of an electro-magnet. A neodymium magnet can
their constituting elements. Magnets always have two poles north lift more than any other type of magnet of the same size.
& south. Like poles always repel each other. However, unlike
poles attract each other. A magnetic field is defined as a physical VI. Magnet Placement
field established between two poles. Its intensity and direction
determine the forces of attraction or repulsion existing between
the two magnets. Some factors need to be considered in choosing
the permanent magnet selection that would be best to implement
the maglev portion of the design. Understanding the characteristics
of magnet materials and the different assortment of sizes, shapes
and materials is critical.

V. Neodymium Magnet
A neodymium magnet (also known as Nd-Fe-B, Nib or Neo
magnet), the most widely used type of rare-earth magnet, is a
permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and
boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure.

Fig. 5: Magnetic Placement of Shaft

Two ring type neodymium (Nd-Fe-B) magnets of grade N42 are


placed at the center of the shaft by which the required levitation
between the stator and the rotor is obtained.

Fig. 3: Neodymium Magnet Shell Structure

Fig. 6: Magnetic Placement of Disc

Similar disc type magnets are arranged as alternate poles one after
the other, along the periphery of the rotor.

VII. Levitation Between Stator & Rotor


In the designed prototype, the stator and rotor are separated in the
Fig. 4: Disc Type Neodymium Magnet air using the principle of magnetic levitation. The rotor is lifted

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ISSN : 2249-5762 (Online) | ISSN : 2249-5770 (Print) IJRMET Vol. 6, Issue 1, Nov 2015-April 2016

by a certain centimeters in the air by the magnetic pull forces up sliced by the massive blade. Apart from being environmental
created by the ring type neodymium magnets. This is the principal unfriendly, it can damage the blades.
advantage of a maglev windmill from a conventional one. That
is, as the rotor is floating in the air due to levitation, mechanical E. Turbulence
friction is totally eliminated. That makes the rotation possible in In large scale use of conventional wind turbine, planning must
very low wind speeds. be made to account of turbulence created behind the blade
otherwise the turbine behind will be affected by the air flow of
VIII. Blade Design one in front.
The blades used in this prototype are not of the conventional type.
In this prototype, as compared to the standard design model of the F. Speed
savonius, we took a bit of a different approach in our design by Higher wind speed is needed to drive the bigger turbine.
modifying it with a curvature design from the top of the sails to
the bottom. This design was attained with four tri-angular shapes X. Conclusion
cut out from aluminum sheet metal and due to the flexibility of Magnetic levitation possesses numerous applications in various
the sheet metal, we were able to spiral the sail from the top of fields of modern engineering designs and technologies. The
the shaft to the base. focus of this article is primarily to demonstrate magnetic
levitation phenomenon in a very simple way to enable science
and engineering pedagogy to experimentally realize magnetic
levitation and its potential applications. The paper also help
the pedagogy to understand various principles and concepts
of magnetism experimentally,in addition to the realization of
principles behind potential maglev applications such as maglev
trains, flying cars, maglev wind turbines and magnetic bearings,
thereby, this may hopefully actuate them to pursue research on
maglev technologies to meet the magnetic demands of the society
at present and also in the future.

XI. Acknowledgement
We would like to express special thanks of gratitude to our project
guide, Prof. Piyush S. Pande and Prof. Ambikaprasad O. Chaubey
as well as others professors from the department for their assistance
who helped us to do a lot of Research and we came to know about
so many new things. We are really thankful to them.

References
[1] Dr. Aravind CV, Dr. Rajparthiban, Prof. Rajprasad R,"A
Novel Magnetic Levitation Assisted Vertical Axis Wind
TurbineDesign Procedure and Analysis", 8th International
Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications,
(IEEE) in 2014.
Fig. 7: Wind Rotors Side View [2] Dr. Bittumon, Dr. Amith Raju, Dr. Harish Abraham Mammen,
Dr. Abhy Thamby, Dr. Aby K Abraham,"Design and Analysis
IX. Drawbacks for Traditional Wind Turbine of Maglev Vertical Axis Wind Turbine", International Journal
of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Vol. 4,
A. Noise Issue 4, April 2014.
The high bladed systems you see tending in remote places is there [3] Minu John, Rohit John, Syamily P.S, MAGLEV WINDMILL
for another reason other than wind noise. The whooshing of those International Journal of Research in Engineering and
blades can be quite loud. Technology Vol. 3, Issue 5, May 2014.
[4] Dr. Dinesh N Nagarkar, Dr. Z. J. Khan,Wind Power Plant
B. Friction Using Magnetic Levitation Wind Turbine, International
Those large blade need a lot of wind power to get started. Half Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT),
a ton of motor, gear and bearing creates a lot of friction which Vol. 3, Issue 1, July 2013.
needs considerable power to overcome. [5] Dr. Aravind CV, Dr. JagadeeswaranA, Dr. RN Firdaus,
"Design Analysis of MAGLEV-VAWT with Modified
C. Maintenance Magnetic Circuit Generator", 2nd International Conference
All those moving parts operating under considerable weight and on Electrical Energy Systems, (ASME).
friction means parts need oiling and replacement. Which is not
easy with a massive turbine on top of a 100 tower.

D. Birds
Yes thats right. Birds though they can easily spot the tower and
top housing, they cannot judge the turbine blade tips and many end

w w w. i j r m e t. c o m International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering & Technology 89


IJRMET Vol. 6, Issue 1, Nov 2015-April 2016 ISSN : 2249-5762 (Online) | ISSN : 2249-5770 (Print)

Ashwin P. Joseph received his


SSC Certificate from Maharashtra
State Board, India in 2009, the
HSSC Certificate in Science from
Maharashtra State Board, India in
2011. At Present, he is pursuing his
B.E. in Mechanical Engineering from
Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj Nagpur
University (RTMNU), India. His
research interests include production
technology & thermal engineering.

Suraj P. Chavhan pursuing his


Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical
Engineering from Rashtrasant
Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University,
India. His research interest include
non conventional sources of energy
& design.

Pravesh K. Sahare received his SSC


Certificate from Maharashtra State
Board, India in 2010, the HSSC
Certificate in Science from Maharashtra
State Board, India in 2012. At Present,
he is pursuing his B.E. in Mechanical
Engineering from Rashtrasant
Tukdoji Maharaj Nagpur University
(RTMNU), India. His research interests
include alternate source of energies,
production technology & metallurgical
instruments.

Tanveer A. Hussain pursuing his


Bachelor Degree in Mechanical
Engineering from Rashtrasant Tukdoji
Maharaj Nagpur University (RTMNU),
India. His research interests include
alternate source ofenergies Thermal
& Powerplant.

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