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Aptitude4yearsAgo677Comments

1. IntroductiontoSyllogism
2. Basics
3. SubjectvsPredicate
4. Classificationofstatement
5. Standardformat:conversion
6. NoconclusionCombos
7. ConclusiveCombos
8. DemoQ:CrazymenandWomen
9. DemoQ:IntelligentPoetsandsingers
10. CATlevel
DemoQ:SweetTestingApples(CAT)
DemoQ:Workingmothernurses(CAT)
DemoQ:4questionsin1!
11. SpecialConversions
12. Complimentarypairs
13. TrickySituations:Priorityorder
14. TrickySituations:1StatementConclusion
15. Summary

IntroductiontoSyllogism
TherearetwomaintypesofSyllogismquestion

2Statements 3Statements

QuestionStatement
A.Allcatsaredogs
QuestionStatement:
B.somepigsarecats
I.Allcatsaredogs
C.nodogsarebirdsConclusion
II.AlldogsarebirdsConclusion:
I.somecatsaredogs
I.Somecatsarebirds
II.nobirdsarecats
II.Somebirdsarecats.
III.somepigsarebirds
IV.somepigsarenotbirds

2StatementSyllogismquestionsareusuallyfoundinIBPS(Bank)andSSCexams.
UPSCCSAT2012examhadquiteafewquestionson3StatementSyllogism.
InCATexams,theyask2StatementSyllogismbuttheypack34such2statementsyllogism
questionsinsideonequestiontomakeitverytimeconsumingprocess.
Inthisarticle,youwilllearnhowtosolvethe2Statementsyllogismquestions.
3Statementsyllogismsyllogismisexplainedinseparatearticle(CLICKME).(Theyremere
anextensionoftheconceptsexplainedinthisarticle,sofirstmasterthe2statementtechnique
here.)

Therearethreemethodstosolve2statementSyllogismquestions.

Intheexam,HavetothinkofallpossibleVenn
1.Venn
Diagramsituationanddrawthemtocheckevery
Diagram
statement.=timeconsumingintheexamhall.

Havetomugupsomerules,andspendsomehours
2.AEIO
@hometomastertheAEIOconversioninyour
(analytical
head.Butoncedone,itiseasyasawalkinthe
Method)
park.

UsuallytaughtinCATcoachingclassesandstudy
3.Distribution material.
ofterms TechniqueisveryfastbutItexcludestheconcept
(Tick ofConversionandComplementarycases,
method) hencesometimesmakesitdifficulttosolvenon
CATquestions.

Thetechniqueexplainedinthisarticle,isamodifiedversionofAEIOmethodcombinedwiththeTick
Method.LetscallitU.P.U.N.method.

Basics

SubjectvsPredicate
Considerthisquestionstatement
1.Allcatsaredogs
2.Somedogsarebirds
3.Nobirdisapig
4.Somepigsarenotbirds.
Inallsuchstatements,firsttermiscalledsubjectandsecondiscalledpredicate.
Itdoesntmatterwhatwordisgiven:Table,Chair,Raja,Kalmadi,KanimozhiorMadhuKodafirstterm
issubjectandsecondtermispredicate.
Letsrelookatthosequestionstatements

Subject Predicate

1.Allcatsaredogs Cats Dogs

2.Somedogsarebirds Dogs Birds


4.Somepigsarenotbirds. Pigs Birds

IhopetheSubjectvs.Predicateisclearnow.Letsmovetosecondthing

Classificationofstatement
Insyllogism,eachstatementusuallyhasfollowingformat
xyzsubjectis/are(not)predicate.

Forexample,

Xyz Subject Is/are(+/not) Predicate

All Cats Are Dogs

Some Pigs Arenot birds

Basedonxyzandnot,weclassifythestatementsasfollowing

Statement Type Codename

1.Allcatsaredogs UniversalPositive UP

2.Somedogsarebirds ParticularPositive PP

3.Nobirdisapig UniversalNegative UN

4.Somepigsarenotbirds. ParticularNegative PN

Pleaserememberfollowingwords.Whenevertheycome,youclassifythestatementaccordingly.

Universal
All,every,any,none,notasingle,onlyetc. (positiveor
negative)

Particular
Some,many,afew,quiteafew,notmany,verylittle,
(positiveor
mostof,almost,generally,often,freqently,etc.
negative)

Standardformat:conversion
Thestandard2statementsyllogismquestionformatisfollowing:
1.(xyz)Ais/are(+/not)B
2.(xyz)Bis/are(+/not)C
Sobasicallyitis
1.A>B
2.B>C
(readasAtoBthenBtoC)
QuestionstatementsmusthaveONLYthreeterms.(A,BandC).

Intheexam,iftheygiveyoutwoquestionstatementswithfourtermsthenyourtimeissaved!Justtick
theanswernoconclusioncanbedrawn.
Forexample

Question
Answer
statements

1.Allcatsare Noconclusioncanbedrawn.Becauseithasfour
Dogs terms(cats,dogs,birds,pigs)
2.Somebirds A>B
arepigs C>D

Anywaysbacktothetopic,
Thestandardformatforquestionstatementsis:

1.A>B 1.Firstterm>MiddleTerm
2.B>C 2.MiddleTerm>Thirdterm

Butifthegivenquestionstatementsarenotgiveninthisformat,thenwemustconvertthemintoabove
format.Otherwisewecannotproceedwithanswer.Forexample

Givenquestionstatementsare Thismustbeconvertedinto
1.A>B 1.A>B
2.C>B 2.B>C

Givenquestionstatementsare Thismustbeconvertedinto
1.B>A 1.A>B
2.B>C 2.B>C

Ok,sohowtoconvertthestatements?

UniversalPositive(UP)

Valid
GivenStatement Type
conversions

SomeCatsare ParticularPositive
dogs (PP)
GivenStatement:AllCatsare
Dogs
Somedogsare ParticularPositive
cats (PP)

ItmeansUPcanbeconvertedintoPP.
Pleasenote:ifthestatementisOnlyDogsarecats,thenbetterconvertitintoAllcatsaredogs.(Only
AisB>AllBareA)
GivenStatement Validconversions Type

Somedogsare ParticularNegative
notcats (PN)
GivenStatement:NoCats
areDogs
UniversalNegative
Nodogsarecats
(UN)

ItmeansUNcanbeconvertedintoPNorUN.

ParticularPositive(PP)

GivenStatement Validconversions Type

SomeCatsareDogs Somedogsarecats ParticularPositive(PP)

ItmeansPPcanbeconvertedintoPPonly.

ParticularNegative
Example:SomeCatsarenotDogs.InParticularnegativestatements(PN),noconversioncanbemade.
SoPN=cantconvert.
Tosumuptheconversionrules

Type ValidConversion

UniversalPositive(UP) OnlyPP

UniversalNegative(UN) PNorUN

ParticularPositive(PP) OnlyPP

ParticularNegative(PN) Notpossible.

Pleasenote:
Insomelowerlevelexams,sometimestheydirectlyaskaboutconversion.Forexample
Q.Whatcanbeconcludedfromthegivenstatement:SomePoliticiansarehonestmen.
Answerchoices

1.SomeHonestmenarenotPoliticians.
2.AllHonestmenarenotpolitician
3.SomeHonestmenarepoliticians.
4.NoneofAbove.

(Pleasedonotreadfurther,withoutsolvingabovequestion.)

Solution
well,thegivenstatementSomePoliticiansarehonestmen.isaparticularpositivestatement(PP).
Henceaccordingtoourtable,itcanbeconvertedintoPPonly.Therefore

Givenanswerchoice Thoughtprocess

1.SomeHonestmenarenot Particularnegative(PN),hence
Politicians. eliminate.

2.NoHonestmenare
UniversalNegative,henceeliminate
politicians.

3.SomeHonestmenare
PPhencethisiscorrectanswer.
politicians.

notapplicablebecauseCisthe
4.NoneofAbove.
correctanswer.

Incaseyouarewondering,
Q.Somepoliticiansarehonestmen.
Inabovecase,canttheanswerbeA:Somehonestmenarenotpoliticians?
Well,ifyougobyVennDiagrammethod,itllleadtotwocaseshenceitisdoubtful.

Case#1

Data

1.SardarPatel
2.LalBahadurShastri
Subject(Politicians)
3.Raja
4.Kalmadi

1.SardarPatel
Predicate(HonestMen)
2.LalBahadurShastri

Inabovesituation,canyousaySomehonestmenarenotpoliticians?
Wellyoucantsaythat.BecausebothHonestmen(SardarandShastri)areinpoliticianset.

Case#2

Data

1.SardarPatel
2.LalBahadurShastri
Subject(Politicians)
3.Raja
Kalmadi
Predicate(HonestMen) 1.SardarPatel
2.LalBahadurShastri
3.BhagatSingh
4.ChandraSekharAzad

Inabovesituation,canyousaySomehonestmenarenotpoliticians?
Yesyoucan.BecausetwoHonestmen(BhagatSinghandAzad)arenotinpoliticianset.
Thepointis,whenevertwocasesarepossible,youcannotsafelyconcludeonestatement.

Hence,ifthestatementis

SomeAareB>itdoesntmeanSomeBarenotA.
Theonlyvalidconclusioninabovecaseis:SomeBareA.

ThereforeParticularPositive(PP)statementcanbeconvertedintoParticularPositive(PP)statement
only.
Similarly

TypeofStatement ValidConversion Path

Ato
UniversalPositive(UP)All OnlyPPSomeCats(A)aredogs.
BBto
cats(A)aredogs(B) (B)Somedogs(B)arecats.(A)
A

PN:SomeDogs(B)arenotCats
UniversalNegative
(A). Bto
(UN)NoCats(A)aredogs
A
(B)
UN:NoDogs(B)arecats.(A)

ParticularPositive
OnlyPP:Somedogs(B)are Bto
(PP)Somecats(A)are
cats(A) A
dogs(B)

ParticularNegative(PN) Notpossible.

Anywaysbacktothetopic,whatarewediscussing?

1.Topicofdiscussionis:Howtosolve2statementsyllogismquestion
2.Subjectvspredicate
3.Typeofstatements(UP,UN,PP,PN)
4.Standardformatandconversion.

Thestandardquestionformatis
A>B
B>C
intostandardformat.Onlythenwecanproceedfurther.

Sofar,Weconstructedourshortcuttableonhowtoconvertthestatements.Now

letstrysomeexamples

Question
Conversion?
statements

1.AllCatsare
Alreadyinstandardformat(AtoBandthenBto
dogs(B)
C)
2.Somedogs(B)
hencenoneedtoconvert.
arenotpigs.

Noneedtoconvertanystatement.
1.Somedogs(B)
Justexchangethepositionoffirstandsecond
arenotpigs.
statement.
2.AllCatsare
1.AllCatsaredogs(B)
dogs(B)
2.Somedogs(B)arenotpigs.

1.AllCatsaredogs
Havetoconvert,becausenotinstandard
(B)
format.1.Allcats(A)aredogs(B)
2.Allpigsare
2.Somedogs(B)arepigs(C).(RuleUP>onlyPP)
dogs(B)

Nowcomingtotheheartofthematter:howtosolvethe(stupid)2statementsyllogismquestion?

NoconclusionCombos
Herearethenonconclusioncomboswhentwoquestionstatementsareinfollowingformat.

Firststatement(AtoB) Secondstatement(BtoC) Answer

ParticularPositive(PP) Noconclusion
UniversalPositive(UP)
ParticularNegative(PN) Noconclusion

UniversalNegative(UN) Noconclusion
UniversalNegative(UN)
ParticularNegative(PN) Noconclusion

ParticularPositive(PP) Noconclusion
ParticularPositive(PP)
ParticularNegative(PN) Noconclusion

ParticularNegative(PN) Anyother(UP,UN,PP,PN) Noconclusion

^doesitlookdifficult?
Notreally.Letscondensethistableintomuguprules.
1.UPspoliticianshategivingparticularstatements(bothpositiveandnegative).E.g.theydonotreveal
theirclearpositiononFDIinretailuntilthe11thhour.
2.UnitedNationshatesnegativity.(bothUniversalandparticular)
3.PritishNandyhateseverybody.
4.Twonegatives=noconclusion.(althoughimplicitin2+3)
5.Twoparticulars=noconclusion.(althoughimplicitin1+3)

Pleasenote:in^abovesituationsdefiniteconclusionisimpossible.However,sometimestwoanswer
choicesarestillpossibleeitheraorb.
ThatconceptiscalledComplimentarypairs.Welllearnaboutitatthebottomofthisarticle.
Forthemoment,letsnotcomplicatethematterswithcomplimentarypairs.
Okbacktotopic,whenyoufaceaTwostatementsyllogismquestion?youllfollowthesesteps:

1.first,makesureitcontainsonlythreeterms(ABC)(elsenoconclusion.)
2.Makesurequestionstatementsareinstandardformat(AtoBthenBtoC).Ifnotinstandardformat,
thenrearrange.
3.Classifythequestionstatements.(UP,UN,PP,PN)
4.Checkifthequestionstatementshavenoconclusioncombos(^Aboverules)

ifabovethingsdonotyieldananswer,thenwevetothinkaboutwhatwillbetheconclusion(s)?

ConclusiveCombos
Ifyouvefollowedabovesteps,thenquestionstatementsintheformatAtoBandthenBtoC.

Firststatement(A Secondstatement(B
Conclusion
toB) toC)

UniversalPositive UniversalPositive(UP)(A
(UP) toC)
UniversalPositive
(UP)
UniversalNegative UniversalNegative(UN)(A
(UN) toC)

Universalpositive
(UP)
UniversalNegative ParticularNegative(PN).
(UN) (CtoA)
ParticularPositive
(PP)

UniversalPositive ParticularPositive(PP)(A
(UP) toC)
ParticularPositive
(PP)
UniversalNegative ParticularNegative(PN)(A
(UN) toC)

Asyoucanseefromabovetable,
UniversalNegative(UN).

Letscondensethistableintomuguprulesaswell.

ConclusiveCombos Inyourhead,visualize

IfUttarPradeshmeetsUttarPradesh,thenits
1.UP+UP=UP
sizedoesntincrease.

IfUttarPradeshmeetsUnitedNationsthenits
2.UP+UN=UN
sizeincreasesanditbecomesUnitedNations.

UnitedNationsSecretaryBanKiMoonisinvery
3.UN+ positivemood.Buthemeetsanotherpositive
person,andhisattitudeistotallyreversedhe
(UP/PP)=PN becomesparticularlynegative!(reversed=Cto
A)

WhenMr.PPobservestheuniverseviaNASA
4.PP+
telescope,hismoodbecomespositiveor
(UP/UN)=PP/PN
negativedependingonthemoodofuniverse.

TryaquestionfromSSCCGL(TierI,2010)exam,

DemoQ:CrazymenandWomen
QuestionStatements

1.Allmenarewomen.
2.Allwomenarecrazy.

Conclusion

1.AllMenarecrazy
2.Allthecrazyaremen
3.Someofthecrazyaremen
4.Someofthecrazyarewomen

Answer

a.Noneoftheconclusionfollows
b.Allconclusionsfollow
c.Only1,3and4follow
d.Only2and3follow

(Isuggestyoupausehere.Firsttrytosolveitonyourown,withoutdirectlyreadingthesolution.Ifyouve
difficulty,rereadrulesgivenabove)
Solution
Ourstandardoperatingprocedure(SOP)
QuestionStatements

1.Allmenarewomen.
2.Allwomenarecrazy.

Firststep:makesurefourtermsarenotgiven=check.Onlythreeterms(men,women,crazy)
Secondstep,makesuretheyreinstandardformat(AtoBandthenBtoC):Checkyestheyre.
Henceconversionisnotrequired.

1.Allmen(A)arewomen.(B)(UP)

2.Allwomen(B)arecrazy.(C)(UP)

Thirdstep,classifythestatements.

1.Allmenarewomen. UniversalPositive(UP)

2.Allwomenarecrazy. UniversalPositive(UP)

Fourthstep:checkthecomboforquestionstatements.

Well,sinceitisUP+UP=itssizedoesntincrease.HenceconclusionshouldbeUP.(AtoC)meaning
Allmen(A)arecrazy.(C)

Checktheanswerstatements.

1.All
Men
Correct.
are
crazy

Recallthatconversiontable.UniversalPositive(UP)can
beconvertedonlyintoParticularPositive(PP).
2.Allthe
SinceAllmenarecrazy=>SomeCrazyaremen.
crazy ButwecannotsayAllcrazyaremen.Sothisoptionis
are false.
Ifyouapplycommonsenseatthisstage:well,1ststatement
men
correct,and2ndstatementisfalse,henceansweris(C):
only1,3and4follow!

3.Some Correctbecauseofconversiontable
crazy
are
men

4.Some
ofthe Givenquestionstatement:Allwomenarecrazy.(Universal
positive).Ifweapplyconversiontable(UP=>PP)then
crazy
SomeCrazyarewomen.Hencethisstatementisalso
are correct.
women

Finalanswer(C):only1,3and4follow
Ifyourestillstaggering,Isuggestyougothroughthoserulesagain,notethemdowninadiaryinyour
ownwordsandlanguage,reviseafewtimes.Thentrynextquestion

DemoQ:IntelligentPoetsandsingers
QuestionStatements(SSCCPOexam)

1.Allpoetsareintelligent
2.Allsingersareintelligent.

Conclusion

1.allsingersarepoets
2.someintelligentpersonsarenotsingers

Answerchoices

a.onlyconclusiononefollows
b.onlyconclusiontwofollows
c.eitherconclusiononeorconclusiontwofollows
d.neitherfollows

solution
firststep:doesthequestionstatementshaveonlythreeterms?Check:Yes.Singers,poets,intelligent.
Good,proceedwithnextstep.
Secondstep:Arethequestionstatementsgiveninstandardformat(AtoBthenBtoC)?
Check.Nope

1.Allpoets(A)areintelligent(B)
2.Allsingers(C)areintelligent.(B)

Thenwehavetoconvertitintostandardformat.Andsincebothstatementsareuniversalpositive,we
dontneedtoworryaboutwhichstatementtoconvertfirst?(thatpriorityorder,moreaboutit,explained
Secondstatementisuniversalpositive(UP),accordingtoourtable,wecanonlyconvertitintoparticular
positive(PP)therefore

Allsingers(C)areintelligent.(B)==>Someintelligentpersons(B)aresingers.(C)
Nowthenewquestionstatements,inthestandardformat(AtoBthenBtoC)are
1.Allpoetsareintelligent(B)

2.Someintelligentpersons(B)aresingers.
Thirdstep,classifythequestionstatements

questionstatement type

1.Allpoets(A)areintelligent(B) Universalpositive(UP)

2.Someintelligentpersons(B)aresingers.(C) Particularpositive(PP)

Fourthstep,applythecomborules.
SinceUPspoliticianshateparticularstatements(bothpositiveandnegative),hencenoconclusioncan
bedrawn.ThatmeanswecannotconnectAtoCorCtoA.
NowchecktheAnswerstatements

i.all
singers(C)
False.UP+PP=noconclusion,asexplainedabove.
arepoets
(A)

Checkthesecondoriginalquestionstatement:All
singersareintelligent.(UniversalpositiveUP).
ii.some
intelligent Accordingtoourconversiontable,UPcanbe
personsare convertedintoparticularpositive(PP)only.Butthis
notsingers
answerstatement(II)isaparticularnegative
statement.Hencethisisalsofalse.

Finalanswer:(D)neitherfollows.

CATlevel
SameUPUNConceptbuttheypack34ormoresyllogismquestionsintoonequestiontotestyour
speed,notjustyourunderstanding.forexample:

DemoQ:SweetTestingApples(CAT)
givenquestionhasfivestatementsfollowedbyoptionscontainingthreestatementsputtogetherina
specificorder.Choosetheoptionwhichindicatesavalidargument,wherethethirdstatementisa
conclusiondrawnfromtheprecedingtwostatements.
Questionstatements(CAT1999)

a.Applesarenotsweet
b.Someapplesaresweet
c.Allsweetsaretasty
d.Someapplesarenottasty
e.Noappleistasty

answerchoices

1.cea
2.bdc
3.cbd
4.eac

solutionandapproach
wevetocheckthegivenoptionsonebyone.
Option(i).CEA.MeaningwevetotakeCasourstatement(I),EasourStatement(II)andthenobserve,
ifstatement(A)canbeconcludedfromCandE.

C Allsweetsaretasty Universalpositive

E Noappleistasty. Universalnegative

A Applesarenotsweet Universalnegative

IntheactualCATexam,wecannotaffordtowastetimeinactuallyconvertingallstatementsand
checkingthem.
Hereisthefastapproach
1.threeterms?=yes
2.instandardformat?No.butwecanconvertsecond(UN)intoanotherUNandthencomboruleis
UP+UN=UN.
Hencethisanswerchoice(CEA)iscorrect.
Finalanswer(i)CEA

DemoQ:Workingmothernurses(CAT)

questionstatement answerchoices

a.Nomotherisanurse.
b.SomeNursesliketowork 1.ABE
c.Nowomanisprude 2.CED
d.Someprudearealsonurses 3.FEB
e.Somenursesarewomen 4.BEF
f.Allwomenliketowork

Checktheanswerchoicesonebyone.

i.ABE
A(StatementI) Nomotherisanurse.(UN)

B(StatementII) SomeNursesliketowork

E(Conclusion) SomeNursesarewomen.

Thisisinvalid.BecauseStatementIandIIhavethreeterms(Mother,Nurseandwork)whilegiven
conclusionstatementaddsfourthnewtermwomen

Movetonextchoice.

ii.CED

Statement Type

C(StatementI) Nowomanisprude Universalnegative

Somenursesare
E(StatementII) Particularpositive
women

Someprudearealso
D(conclusion) Particularpositive
nurses

Questionstatementshavethreeterms?Yes(women,prude,nurses)
Aretheyinstandardformat(AtoBthenBtoC?)nope.

Nowoman(B)isprude Universalnegative

Somenursesarewomen(B) Particularpositive

changepositionoffirstandsecondstatement.
1.Somenurses(A)arewomen(B)
2.Nowoman(B)isprude(C)

questionstatement type

1.Somenurses(A)arewomen(B) Particularpositive(PP)

2.Nowoman(B)isprude(C) Universalnegative(UN)

Applythecomborules
PP+UN=??

WhenMr.PPobservestheuniverseviaNASAtelescope,hismoodbecomesparticularlynegativeor
positivedependingonthemoodofuniverse.HencePP+UN=PN.(AtoC)
SolegitimateconclusionisSomePrunearenotnurses.
ButCheckthegivenconclusionstatement:Someprudearealsonurses.ItisParticularpositive
(PP).
ButAccordingtoconversiontable,PNcannotbeconverted.SowecannotsaythatsinceSome
prunearenotnurses,thatmeanssomeprunesarenurses!
Thereforegivenanswerchoice(ii)CEDisfalsebecauseDcannotbeconcludedfromC+E.
Movetothenextanswerchoice.

Actualthoughtprocess:threeterms=yes.Standardform=no.rearrange.ButPP+UN=PN,cantbe
convertedtoPP.Hencefalse.

iii.FEB

Statement Type

Universalpositive
F(StatementI) Allwomenliketowork
UP

Somenursesare Particularpositive
E(StatementII)
women PP

Somenursesliketo Particularpositive
B(conclusion)
work PP

threeterms=yes.Standardform=no.butnoneedtoconvert,justexchangepositionofstatementIand
II.

Somenurses(A)arewomen(B) ParticularpositivePP

Allwomen(B)liketowork(C) UniversalpositiveUP

Applycomborule,againsamesituation
WhenMr.PPobservestheuniverseviaNASAtelescope,hismoodbecomesparticularlypositiveor
negativedependingonthemoodofuniverse.HencePP+UP=PP.(AtoC).
Somenurses(A)liketowork(C).Done!Thisissameasthegivenconclusion(B)
Therefore,finalansweris(iii)FEB.

DemoQ:4questionsin1!
ThisoneisfromCAT1999.
Eachofthegivenquestionstatementasthreesegments.Choosethealternativewherethirdsegmentof
thestatementcanbelogicallybeusedusingthebothprecedingtwobutnotjustfromoneofthem
Questionstatements

a.alldinosaursareprehistoriccreatures.Waterbuffaloesarenotdinosaurs.Waterbuffaloesarenot
prehistoriccreatures
b.allpoliticiansarefrank.Nofrankpeoplearecrocodiles.Nocrocodilesarepoliticians
c.nodiamondisquartz.Noopalisquartz.Diamondsareopals.
d.Allmonkeyslikebananas.SomeJoeslikebananas.SomeJoesaremonkeys.

Answerchoice

i.OnlyC
ii.OnlyB
iii.OnlyAandD
iv.OnlyBandC

Approach

Threetermsyes.Standardformat=No.Bothquestion
statementsareUniversalnegative.Wecanconvert
C.Diamonds,
eitherofthem,intoUNorPN.Butinanycase,both
Quartz,
questionstatementswillremainnegative.AndTwo
Opals.
negatives=noconclusion.SoCisnotpossible.Hence
answerchoice(i)and(iv)eliminated.

B.Frank Alreadyinthreetermsstandardformat.UP+UN=size
politicians enlargedandbecomesUN.
and SoconclusionshouldbeNocrocodileispoliticianso
crocodiles thisstatementiscorrect.Henceanswerchoice(ii).

Finalanswer:(ii)onlyB.
TheEnd?
No.Pictureabhibaakihaimeredost:justthreemoreconceptsbeforeconcludingtheTwoStatement
Syllogism

SpecialConversions
Recallthatwhenquestionstatementsarenotinstandardformat(AtoBthenBtoC),inthatcaseweve
toconvertthemaccordingtoconversiontable.Herearesomespecialcases.

Conversion(allapplicabletoall
GivenQuestionstatement Type
givenquestionstatements)

NonebutPoliticians 1.Allhonest(people)arepoliticians UP
arehonest.
Nooneelsebut
2.Nononpoliticianishonest.
Politiciansarehonest.
3.Nohonest(people)arenon UN
Onlypoliticiansare
politicians.
honest.
Politiciansaloneare
honest 4.Somepoliticiansarehonest PP
Secondconcept:

Complimentarypairs
Earlierwesawtherearefivenoconclusioncombos

1.UPspoliticianshategivingparticularstatements(bothpositiveandnegative).E.g.theydonotreveal
theirclearpositiononFDIinretailuntilthe11thhour.
2.UnitedNationshatesnegativityofanytype.(bothUniversalandparticular)
3.PritishNandyhateseverybody.
4.Twonegatives=noconclusion.
5.Twoparticulars=noconclusion.

Forexample

Question 1.SomePoliticiansaremale.2.Somemalesare
statement honest.

1.SomePoliticiansarehonest.2.NoPoliticiansare
Conclusion
honest.

Answerchoice

a.Only1follows
b.Only2follows
c.Either1or2follows
d.Neitherfollows

Applythestandardoperatingprocedure:
Threeterms?Check:yes
Aretheyinstandardformat?AtoBthenBtoC?check.Yes
Thenclassifythestatements

1.SomePoliticians(A)aremales(B) Particularpositive.

2.Somemales(B)arehonest(C) Particularpositive.

Fromthegivenrules,Twoparticulars=Noconclusion!
Butpleaseobserveoneoftheanswerchoice(C)=Either1or2follows.
Considerthesecases

Case#2

Politicians Males honest


6.LalBahadur 2.LalBahadur 2.LalBahadur
Shastri Shastri Shastri
7.Raja 3.Raja 3.BhagatSingh
8.Kalmadi 4.Kalmadi 4.ChandraSekhar
9.Sheila 5.BhagatSingh Azad
6.ChandraSekhar 5.SarojiniNaidu
Azad 6.MotherTeresa

Inthiscase#1:somepoliticians(SardarandShastri)arehonest.
Soconclusion(1)maybepossible.

Case#2

Politicians Males honest

1.Raja 1.BhagatSingh
1.Raja
2.Kalmadi 2.ChandraSekharAzad
2.Kalmadi
3.BhagatSingh 3.SarojiniNaidu
3.Sheila
4.ChandraSekharAzad 4.MotherTeresa

Inthiscase,Nopoliticianishonest.
Soconclusion(2)maybepossible.
ThereforeanswerbecomesEither1or2follows
Suchsyllogismsituationsarecalledcomplementary.
Youvetocheckfollowingthings,beforethinkingaboutcomplementarycases.

1.Twostatementswiththreeterms?Yes
2.Questionstatementsaregiveninstandardformat(AtoBThenBtoC).ifnot,thenrearrangeor
convertthem.
3.Classifythestatements(UP,UN,PP,PN)
4.Applytherules.Gettheanswer.
5.IfStep#4givesNoconclusionANDoneoftheanswerchoiceisintheformatofEitherIorII
follows,onlythencheckforcomplemantarycase.

Checklist:complementarycase

1.Twoanswerchoiceshavesamesubjectandpredicate.

Applicable Notapplicable

1.SomePoliticiansare 1.SomePoliticiansarehonest.2.No
honest.2.NoPoliticiansare HonestarePoliticians.Infirststatement,
honestBecausebothhave subject=Politicianbutinsecond
andcommonpredicate statement,subject=Honest.Hence
(honest) complemantarycasenotpossible.

2).Theanswerchoicecombomustbeeitherofthesethree

Answerchoicecombo example

1.AllPoliticiansarehonest.
UttarPradesh(UP)+PritishNandy
2.SomePoliticiansarenot
(PN)
honest

1.SomePoliticiansarehonest.
PP+PritishNandy(PN) 2.SomePoliticiansarenot
honest

1.SomePoliticiansarehonest.
PP+UnitedNations(UN)
2.NoPoliticiansarehonest

Whenthesetwoconditionsaremet,thenanswerwouldbeEither(I)or(II)follows.

Priorityorder
YouknowthatwhenQuestionstatementsarenotinstandardformat(AtoBThenBtoC),wemust
convertthem.Buthereisathingtokeepinmind.Considerthesestatements

Questionstatements:
1.AllDogsareCats.
2.SomeDogsarePigs.
CommontermormiddletermisDogs.SothatsourB.
1.AllDogs(B)areCats.
2.SomeDogs(B)arePigs.
Wecanconvertitviatworoutes

Route#1 Route#2

Wellreorderthestatements.(thatis
Justconvertthefirst
interchangetheepositionofbothstatements)
statement.
1.Somedogs(B)arepigs
1.SomeCatsare
2.AllDogs(B)areCats
dogs.(Rule:UPtoPP)
Nowwellconvertthefirststatement.
2.SomeDogsare
1.SomepigsareDogs(B)(Rule:PPtoPP)
pigs.
2.Alldogs(B)arecats.

Bothroutesarevalid.
Nowthequestionis,whichrouteshouldbepreferred?
Thepriorityorderis:
1)Particularpositive(PP)>>2)UniversalNegative(UN)>>3)UniversalPositive(UP)
Note:wevenotincludedParticularNegative(PN)inthisorderbecausePNcannotbeconverted.So
accordingtothispriorityorderPP>UN>UP,route#2isthemoresuitableapproach.(althoughsuch
complicationsdontusuallyariseinmostofthequestions).
TrickySituations:Priorityorder
Considerthisscenario

Questionstatements Conclusion

1.Allwomen(B)arebirds 1.Somebirdsaretree
2.Somewomen(B)aretree 2.Alltreesarebird.

Asyoucansee,thequestionstatementsarenotinstandardformat(AtoBthenBtoC).

So,whichquestionstatementtoconvert?

Firstthewrongapproach.

Sincequestionstatementsarenotinstandardformat(AtoB
thenBtoC),hencewellconvertfirststatement.(UPto
PP)Afterconversion

WRON
1.Somebirds(A)arewomen(B)
2.Somewomen(B)aretree
G

Bothquestionstatementsareparticular,hencefinal
answer=Noconclusion.(pleasenote:thisapproachiswrong,
becausewevenotfollowedthepriorityorder).

Nowthecorrectapproach

CORR ThepriorityorderforStatementconversionis
PP>UN>UP.Meaning,iftherearetwoquestionstatements,and
E wevetoconvertoneofthemtomakeitastandardformat=>
thenwellconvertParticularpositivestatementfirst.Sointhe
C givencase

T 1.Allwomen(B)arebirds
2.Somewomen(B)aretree

Convertsecondstatement.(PPtoPP)

1.Allwomen(B)arebirds.
2.Sometreesarewomen(B).

Nowexchangepositionsofquestionstatements
1.Sometreesarewomen(B).(PP)
2.Allwomen(B)arebirds.(UP)

Nowtheyreinstandardformat,applycomborule:PP+UP=PP
(Nasatelescoperule!)

Henceconclusionis

Sometreesarebirds.(PP)

WecanalsosaythatSomebirdsaretrees.(PPtoPP
conversion).Thereforeansweris(1)

Moralofthestory:Conversionpriority:PP>UN>UP.EspeciallywhenyouregettingPP+PP=no
conclusionafterconversion.

TrickySituations:1StatementConclusion

Questionstatements Conclusion

1.Alltheflowersareleaves.(B)(UP) 1.Somebirdsareflowers
2.Someleaves(B)arebirds(PP) 2.Someleavesareflowers

Questionstatementcontainsonlythreeterms=yes.

Aretheyinstandardformat?(AToBthenBtoC?)=Yes.

Applycomborules:UP+PP=NoconclusionbecauseUttarPradeshspoliticianshateparticular
statements.

Butheresthecatch.Observetheconclusionstatementscarefully

Conclusion
Thoughtprocess
statement

1.Some
birds
Notpossiblebecausecomborule.
are
flowers

2.Some firstquestionstatementsaysAllflowersareleaves.Ifyou
applytheconversionruleUP>PP,thenAllflowersare
leaves
leaves=>Someleavesareflowers.Hencethisconclusion
are
iscorrect,althoughitdidnotemploybothquestion
flowers statements.
Moralofthestory:Readterms(subjectpredicate)ofconclusionstatements.

Summary
Whattodowhen2statementsyllogismquestionisgiven?

1.Theymusthaveonlythreeterms(A,BandC)
2.Arethequestionstatementsinstandardformat(AtoBthenBtoC)?ifno,thenrefertofollowing
conversiontable.(important:priorityorderforconversionisPP>UN>UP.)

Type ValidConversion

UniversalPositive(UP) OnlyPP

UniversalNegative(UN) PNorUN

ParticularPositive(PP) OnlyPP

ParticularNegative(PN) Cantdo.

3.ClassifytheQuestionstatement(UP,UN,PP,PN)
4.ApplythecomborulesonQuestionstatements.

Noconclusion Yesconclusion

1.UPspoliticianshategiving 1.IfUttarPradeshmeetsUttar
particularstatements(both Pradesh,thenitssizedoesnt
positiveandnegative).E.g. increase.(UP+UP=UP)
theydonotrevealtheir 2.IfUttarPradeshmeetsUnited
clearpositiononFDIin Nationsthensizeincreasesandit
retailuntilthe11thhour. becomesUnitedNations.
(UP+PP/PN=NO) (UP+UN=UN)
2.UnitedNationshates 3.UnitedNationsSecretaryBanKi
negativity.(bothUniversal Moonisinverypositivemood.But
andparticular) hemeetsanotherpositiveperson,
(UN+UN/PN=NO) andhisattitudeistotallyreversed
3.PritishNandyhates hebecomesparticularlynegative!
everybody.(firststatement (reversed=CtoA).
isPN=NO,Irrespectiveof (UN+UP/PP=PN)
secondstatement.) 4.WhenMr.PPobservesthe
4.Twonegatives=no universeviaNASAtelescope,his
5.Twoparticulars=no positiveornegativedependingon
conclusion. themoodofuniverse.
(PP+UP/UN=PP/PN)

5.(rarelyrequired):ifnoconclusionandeitherorgiveninanswer,thencheckforComplimentarycase.

Thisconcludesthediscussionon2statementSyllogismquestion.
Inlaterarticle,wellseethe3statementsyllogism.ItisbasicallyextentionofthesameUPUNmethod
thatwelearnedhere.However,toquicklysolve3statements,firstyoumustbecomeamasterof2
statement.So,practiceasmanysumsasyoucan,fromanyofthefollowingbooks.