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according to Maxwell equation

However, in a few types of experiments, light

EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCES behave in ways that is not consistent with the

wave picture

FOR PARTICLE-LIKE

In these experiments, light behave like particle

PROPERTIES OF WAVES instead

So, is light particle or wave? (recall that wave

and particle are two mutually exclusive

attributes of existence)

This is a paradox that we will discuss in the rest

1 of the course wave particle duality 2

Photoelectrons are ejected from a metal

at constant f

surface when hit by radiation of

sufficiently high frequency f (usually No current flows for a

in the uv region) retarding potential more saturation photocurrent

The photoelectrons are attracted to the negative than Vs I2 at higher radiation

collecting anode (positive) by potential intensity, R2

difference applied on the anode and The photocurrent I

detected as electric current by the saturates for potentials

external circuits

A negative voltage, relative to that of near or above zero

saturation photocurrent

the emitter, can be applied to the Why does the I-V curve

collector. I1 at lower radiation

When this retarding voltage is

rises gradually from Vs intensity, R1

sufficiently large the emitted electrons towards more positive V

are repelled, and the current to the before it flat off ?

collector drops to zero (see later Kmax = eVs f constant

explanation). 3 4

1

Features of the experimental result

When the external potential difference V = 0, the On the other direction, when V becomes more

current is not zero because the photoelectrons carry negative, the photocurrent detected decreases in

some kinetic energy, K magnitude because the electrons are now moving

K range from 0 to a maximal value, Kmax against the potential

As V becomes more and more positive, there are Kmax can be measured. It is given by eVs, where Vs, is

more electrons attracted towards the anode within a the value of |V| when the current flowing in the

given time interval. Hence the pthotocurrent, I, external circuit = 0

increases with V Vs is called the stopping

stopping potential

potential

Saturation of I will be achieved when all of the When V = -Vs, e of the highest KE will be sufficiently

ejected electron are immediately attracted towards retarded by the external electric potential such that

the anode once they are kicked out from the metal they wont be able to reach the collector

plates (from the curve this happens approximately

when V 0 or larger 5 6

kicked out per unit time by radiation of intensity-independent

larger intensity, R Experimentalists observe

that for a given type of

saturation photocurrent

The photocurrent saturates at a larger value of I2 surface:

I2 at higher radiation

At constant frequency the

when it is irradiated by higher radiation intensity, R2

maximal kinetic energy of

intensity R2 the photoelectrons is

measured to be a constant

This is expected as larger R means energy are independent of the intensity

saturation photocurrent

imparted at a higher rate on the metal surface of light.

I1 at lower radiation

(this is a puzzle to those

intensity, R1

who thinks that light is

wave)

7 8

2

Kmax of photoelectrons is frequency-

dependent at constant radiation Cutoff frequency, f0

intensity From the same graph one

One can also detect the also found that there

stopping potential Vs for a exist a cut-

cut-off

given material at different frequency f0, below

frequency,

frequency (at constant which no PE effect

radiation intensity)

Kmax (=eVs) = Kmax is

occurs no matter how

measured to increase intense is the radiation

linearly in the radiation shined on the metal

frequency, surface

i.e. if f increases, Kmax too

increases

Sodium Sodium

9 10

Classical physics cant explain PE

off frequency f0

The experimental results of PE pose

difficulty to classical physicists as they

cannot explain PE effect in terms of

classical physics (Maxwell EM theory,

thermodynamics, classical mechanics etc.)

For different material, the cut-off

frequency is different

11 12

3

Puzzle one Puzzle two

If light were wave, the energy carried by the Existence of a characteristic cut-off

radiation will increases as the intensity of frequency, 0. (previously I use f0)

the monochromatic light increases

Hence we would also expect Kmax of the Wave theory predicts that photoelectric

electron to increase as the intensity of effect should occur for any frequency as

radiation increases (because K.E. of the long as the light is intense enough to give

photoelectron must come from the energy the energy to eject the photoelectrons.

of the radiation) No cut-off frequency is predicted in

YET THE OBSERVATION IS classical physics.

OTHERWISE.

13 14

the energy required to eject an photoelectron from an

No detection time lag measured. atom is analogous to filling up a tank with water from a

Classical wave theory needs a time lag between pipe until the tank is full. One must wait for certain

length of time (time lag) before the tank can be filled

the instance the light impinge on the surface with

up with water at a give rate. The total water filled is

the instance the photoelectrons being ejected. analogous to the total energy absorbed by electrons

Energy needs to be accumulated for the wave before they are ejected from the metal surface at

E

front, at a rate proportional to S = 2 c ,

0

0 Electron

before it has enough energy to eject spills out

photoelectrons. (S = energy flux of the EM from the tank

when the

radiation)

Water from the pipe water is filled

But, in the PE experiments, PE is almost fills up the tank at up gradually

immediate some constant rate after some

15 time lag 16

4

Wave theory and the time delay

Use inverse r2 lawArea of the

problem

surface

Energy from the presented by

A potassium foil is placed at a distance r = bulb, P0 = 1 W an atom, a =

3.5 m from a light source whose output (or joule per rb2, where rb =

second) 0.5 Angstrom

power P0 is 1.0 W. How long would it take

for the foil to soak up enough energy (=1.8 r=3.5m

eV) from the beam to eject an electron?

Assume that the ejected electron collected

the energy from a circular area of the foil Energy absorbed by a is

whose radius is 5.3 x 10-11 m = (a/A) x P0

Area of sphere , = ( rb2/4 r2) x 1 Watt

17 A = 4r2 18

= Watt

photoelectricity (1905)

Time taken for a to absorb 1.8 eV is simply 1.8 x A Noble-

Noble-prize winning theory

1.6 x 10-19 J / = 5000 s = 1.4 h!!! To explain PE, Einstein postulates that the radiant

energy of light is quantized into concentrated

In PE, the photoelectrons are ejected almost bundle. The discrete entity that carries the energy

immediately but not 1.4 hour later of the radiant energy is called photon

This shows that the wave model used to calculate Or, in quantum physics jargon, we say photon is

the time lag in this example fails to account for the the quantum of light

light

almost instantaneous ejection of photoelectron in Wave behaviour of light is a result of collective

the PE experiment behaviour of very large numbers of photons

19 20

5

Wave and particle carries energy

Photon is granular

differently

The way how photon carries energy is in

contrast to the way wave carries energy.

For wave the radiant energy is continuously

distributed over a region in space and not in

Flux of radiant separate bundles

energy appears

like a continuum (always recall the analogy of water in a hose

at macroscopic Granularity of light (in

scale of intensity

and a stream of ping pong ball to help

terms of photon)

becomes manifest when visualization)

magnified

21 22

Einsteins 1st postulate

A

E0 proportional constant, called the Planck constant, that is

Energy flux of the beam is S= (in unit

2 0c to be determined experimentally.

of joule per unit time per unit area),

analogous to fluid in a host With this assumption, a photon will have a momentum

given by p = E/c = h/.

A beam of light pictured in terms of photons

L = ct A This relation is obtained from SR relationship

E2 = p2c2 + (m0c2)2, for which the mass of a photon is

E=h zero.

Note that in classical physics momentum is intrinsically

Energy flux of the beam is S = N (h) /At = n0 ch (in unit of joule a particle attribute not defined for wave.

per unit time per unit area). N is obtained by counting the total By picturing light as particle (photon), the definition of

number of photons in the beam volume, N = n0V = n0 x (A ct), momentum for radiation now becomes feasible

where n0 is the photon number density of the radiation (in unit of

23 24

number per unit volume)

6

Light as photon (in Einstein theory)

Example

instead of wave (in Classical EM (a) What are the energy and momentum of a photon of red

theory) light of wavelength 650nm?

in unit of eV/c, length in nm; the combination of constants, hc,

is conveniently expressed in

1 eV = 1.6x10-19 J

= [6.62x10-34 (1.6x10-19)-1eVs](3x108 m/s)

= 1.24eV10-6m = 1240eVnm

p=h/, E=h=hc/

{,} 1 eV/c = (1.6x10-19)J/ (3x108 m/s) = 5.3x10-28 Ns

25 26

In PE one photon is completely absorbed by one atom in

the photocathode.

(a) E = hc/ Upon the absorption, one electron is kicked out by the

absorbent atom.

= 1240 eVnm /650 nm The kinetic energy for the ejected electron is

= 1.91 eV (= 3.110-19J) K = h - W

W is the work required to:-

p = E/c = 1.91 eV/c (= 1x10-27 Ns) (i) cater for losses of kinetic energy due to internal collision

of the electrons (Wi),

(b) = hc/E (ii) overcome the attraction from the atoms in the surface

= 1240eVnm /2.40 eV (W0)

When no internal kinetic energy loss (happens to electrons

= 517 nm just below the surface which suffers minimal loss in

internal collisions), K is maximum:

27

Kmax = h - W0 28

7

In general, Einstein theory manage to solve the

K = h W, where three unexplained features:

W = W0 + Wi

First feature:

KE = h Wi W0

In Einsteins theory of PE, Kmax = h - W0

W0 Both h and W0 do not depend on the radiation

intensity

W0 = work

KE loss = W0

required to Hence Kmax is independent of irradiation intensity

overcome Doubling the intensity of light will not change

KE loss = Wi

attraction from

Kmax because only depend on the energy h of

surface atoms

individual photons and W0

W0 is the intrinsic property of a given metal

KE = h - Wi

surface

KE = h

29 30

Second feature explained

function of metal surface W0 = h0

The cut-off frequency is explained A photon having the cut-off frequency 0 has just

enough energy to eject the photoelectron and none

extra to appear as kinetic energy.

Recall that in Einstein assumption, a photon is Photon of energy less than h0 has not sufficient

completely absorbed by one atom to kick out one energy to kick out any electron

electron. Approximately, electrons that are eject at the cut-off

Hence each absorption of photon by the atom transfers frequency will not leave the surface.

a discrete amount of energy by h only. This amount to saying that the have got zero kinetic

If h is not enough to provide sufficient energy to energy: Kmax = 0

overcome the required work function, W0, no Hence, from Kmax = h - W0, we find that the cut-off

photoelectrons would be ejected from the metal frequency and the work function is simply related by

surface and be detected as photocurrent W0 = h0

31

Measurement of the cut-off frequency tell us what the32

work function is for a given metal

8

Third feature explained

W0 = h0

The required energy to eject photoelectrons is

supplied in concentrated bundles of photons, not

spread uniformly over a large area in the wave

front.

Any photon absorbed by the atoms in the target

shall eject photoelectron immediately.

Absorption of photon is a discrete process at

quantum time scale (almost instantaneously

instantaneously): it

either got absorbed by the atoms, or otherwise.

Hence no time lag is expected in this picture

33 34

particle collision:

Compare the particle-particle

Energy of photon is transferred during the instantaneous

collision with the electron. The electron will either get kicked collision model with the water-

up against the barrier threshold of W0 almost instantaneously,

or fall back to the bottom of the valley if h is less than W0 filling-tank model:

Initial photon

Electron

with energy h

spills out

Almost K = h W0 from the tank

instantaneously when the

h water is filled

up gradually

Water (light wave) after some

W0 from the pipe fills up time lag

Photoelectron that is the tank at some

Electron within the successfully kicked out from constant rate

metal, initially at rest the metal, moving with 35K 36

9

Experimental determination of In experiment, we can measure the slope in the graph of Vs

Planck constant from PE verses frequency for different metal surfaces. It gives a

universal value of h/e = 4.1x10-15 Vs. Hence, h = 6.626 x 10-34 Js

Experiment can measure eVs (= Kmax) for a

Vs = (h/e) -0

given metallic surface (e.g. sodium) at

different frequency of impinging radiation

We know that the work function and the

stopping potential of a given metal is given

by

eVs = h - W0

Different metal

surfaces have

different 0

37 38

PYQ 2.16, Final Exam 2003/04 PYQ 4(a,b) Final Exam 2003/04

(a) Lithium, beryllium and mercury have work

Planck constant functions of 2.9 eV, 3.9 eV and 4.5 eV,

(i) is a universal constant respectively. If a 400-nm light is incident on

(ii) is the same for all metals each of these metals, determine

(iii) is different for different metals (i) which metals exhibit the photoelectric

(iv) characterises the quantum scale effect, and

A. I,IV B. I,II, IV C. I, III,IV (ii) the maximum kinetic energy for the

photoelectron in each case (in eV)

D. I, III E. II,III

ANS: B, Machlup,

Machlup, Review question 8, pg.

496, modified

39 40

10

Solution for Q3a PYQ 4(a,b) Final Exam 2003/04

The energy of a 400 nm photon is E = hc/ = (b). Molybdenum has a work function of 4.2 eV.

3.11 eV (i). Find the cut-off wavelength (in nm)

The effect will occur only in lithium* and threshold frequency for the

Q3a(ii) photoelectric effect.

For lithium, Kmax = h W0 (ii). Calculate the stopping potential if the

= 3.11 eV 2.90 eV incident radiation has a wavelength of 180

= 0.21 eV nm.

*marks are deducted for calculating Kmax for

beryllium and mercury which is meaningless

41 42

Q3a(ii)

Known hcutoff = W0 Light of wavelength 400

Cut-off wavelength = cutoff = c/cutoff

Cut- nm is incident upon lithium

(W0 = 2.9 eV).

eV). Calculate

= hc/

hc/W0 = 1240 nm eV / 4.2 eV = 295 nm (a) the photon energy and

Cut-off frequency (or threshold frequency), cutoff

Cut- (b) the stopping potential,

Vs

= c / cutoff = 1.01 x 1015 Hz

(c) What frequency of light

Q3b(ii) is needed to produce

(hc// W0) / e = (1240

electrons of kinetic energy

Stopping potential Vstop = (hc 3 eV from illumination of

nmeV/180 nm 4.2 eV)/e

nm eV)/e = 2. 7 V lithium?

43 44

11

Solution: PYQ, 1.12 KSCP 2003/04

Which of the following statement(s)

statement(s) is (are) true?

(a) E= h = hc/ = 1240eVnm/400 nm = 3.1 eV I The energy of the quantum of light is proportional to the

(b) The stopping potentiale (eVs) = Max Kinetic frequency of the wave model of light

energy of the photon II In photoelectricity,

photoelectricity, the photoelectrons has as much

=> eVs = Kmax = h - W0 = (3.1 - 2.9) eV energy as the quantum of light which causes it to be ejected

Hence, Vs = 0.2 V III In photoelectricity,

photoelectricity, no time delay in the emission of

i.e. a retarding potential of 0.2 V will stop all photoelectrons would be expected in the quantum theory

photoelectrons A. II, III B. I, III C. I, II, III D. I

(c) h = Kmax + W0 = 3 eV + 2.9 eV = 5.9 eV. ONLY

Hence the frequency of the photon is E. Non of the above

= 5.9 x (1.6 x 10-19 J) / 6.63 x 10-34 Js Ans:

Ans: B

= 1.42 x1015 Hz Murugeshan,

Murugeshan, S. Chand & Company, New Delhi, pg. 136,

Q28 (for I), Q29, Q30 (for II,III)

45 46

Compton effect

Another experiment revealing the particle

To summerise: In nature of X-ray (radiation, with

wavelength ~ 10-10 m)

photoelectricity (PE), light Compton, Arthur Holly (1892-1962),

behaves like particle rather American physicist and Nobel laureate

whose studies of X rays led to his discovery

than like wave. in 1922 of the so-called Compton effect.

The Compton effect is the change in

wavelength of high energy electromagnetic

radiation when it scatters off electrons. The

discovery of the Compton effect confirmed

that electromagnetic radiation has both

wave and particle properties, a central

principle of quantum theory.

47 48

12

Experimental data

Comptons experimental setup

= 45

A beam of x rays of =0

wavelength 71.1 pm is Although initially the

directed onto a carbon target incident beam consists of

T.

The x rays scattered from only a single well-defined

the target are observed at wavelength ( ) the

various angle to the = 90 = 135

direction of the incident scattered x-rays at a given

beam. angle have intensity

The detector measures both peaks at two wavelength

the intensity of the scattered

x rays and their wavelength ( in addition), where >

49 50

to classical wave theory of light particle-particle collision

Unexplained by classical wave theory for Compton (and independently by Debye)

radiation explains this in terms of collision between

collections of (particle-like) photon, each

No shift of wavelength is predicted in

with energy E = h = pc, with the free

wave theory of light electrons in the target graphite (imagine

billard balls collision)

E2=(mc2)2+c2p2

E2=(mc2)2+c2p2=c2p2

51 52

13

Photographic picture of a Compton Two particle collision in 2D

Scattered photon,

electron E=hc/,

Initial photon, p=h/

Part of a bubble chamber Initial electron, y

picture (Fermilab'15 foot E=hc/, at rest,

Bubble Chamber', found p=h/ Eei=mec2,

at the University of pei=0

Birmingham). An

electron was knocked out x

of an atom by a high

energy photon.

Photon is not shown as the 1: Conservation of E:

photographic plate only

cp + mec2 = cp + Ee

captures the track of Scattered

charged particle, not light. electron, Ee,pe

2: Conservation of momentum:p

53 54

= p + pe (vector sum)

Some algebra

Conservation of momentum in 2-D Mom conservation in y : psin = pesin

(PY)

p = p + pe (vector sum) actually comprised of

two equation for both conservation of Mom conservation in x : p - p cos = pecos

momentum in x- and y- directions (PX)

Conservation cp + mec2 = cp + Ee

of l.mom in y- (RE)

direction

(PY)2 + (PX)2, substitute into (RE)2 to eliminate , pe

psin = pesin

and Ee (and using Ee2 = c2pe2 + me2c4 ):

p = pcos + pecos

55 - = (h/mec)(1 cos ) 56

Conservation of l.mom in x-direction

14

X-ray scattering from an electron

Compton wavelength

(Compton scattering): classical

e = h/mec = 0.0243 Angstrom, is the Compton

wavelength (for electron) versus quantum picture

Note that the wavelength of the x-ray used in the

scattering is of the similar length scale to the Compton

wavelength of electron

perfectly explained by the Compton shift relationship

= e(1 - cos)

as a function of the photon scattered angle

Be reminded that the relationship is derived by assuming

light behave like particle (photon)

57 58

Notice that depend on only,

not on the incident wavelength, ..

=> = max

Consider some limiting 1800 photon being reversed in direction

behaviour of the Compton shift:

max =max =(h/mec)(1 cos 180)

= 2e =2( 0.00243nm)

For = 00 grazing

collision => = 0

initially

=0.1795 nm

=180o

0

After collision

59 max = + max 60

15

PYQ 2.2 Final Exam 2003/04 Solution

First calculate the wavelength of a 0.2 MeV photon:

Suppose that a beam of 0.2-MeV photon is E = hc/= 1240 eVnm/ = 0.2 MeV

scattered by the electrons in a carbon target. What is =1240 nm / 0.2 x 106 = 0.062 nm

the wavelength of those photon scattered through an

angle of 90o? From Compton scattering formula, the shift is

A. 0.00620 nm = = e (1 cos 90 ) = e

B. 0.00863 nm Hence, the final wavelength is simply

C. 0.01106 nm = + = e + = 0.00243nm + 0.062 nm = 0.00863

nm

D. 0.00243 nm

E. Non of the above

ANS: B, Schaums 3000 solved problems, Q38.31,

61 pg. 712 62

Example solution

= + e (1 - cos )

X-rays of wavelength 0.2400 nm are Compton = 0.2400nm+0.00243nm(1cos60o)

scattered and the scattered beam is observed at

an angle of 60 degree relative to the incident = 0.2412 nm

beam.

Find (a) the wave length of the scattered x- = hc/

rays, (b) the energy of the scattered x-ray

photons, (c) the kinetic energy of the scattered = 1240 eVnm /0.2412 nm

electrons, and (d) the direction of travel of the = 5141 eV

scattered electrons

63 64

16

p p p p

E < E E < E

Initial me Initial me

photon

E photon

E

K pe K pe

kinetic energy gained by the scattered electron

By conservation of momentum in the x- and y-direction:

= energy transferred by the incident photon during the

scattering: p= p cos + pe cos; p sin = pe sin ;

K = hc/ - hc/=(51675141)eV = 26 eV tan = pe sin / pe cos = (p sin)/ (p - p cos)

=(E sin)/ (E - E cos)

= (5141 sin 600 / [51675141 (cos 600] = 0.43 = 1.71

Note that we ignore SR effect here because K << rest mass of electron, me = 0.5

MeV Hence, = 59.7 degree

65 66

The energy of the incoming photon is

Ei = hc/ = 0.775 MeV

(c) A 0.0016-nm photon scatters from a free Since the outgoing photon and the electron each have

electron. For what scattering angle of the half of this energy in kinetic form,

photon do the recoiling electron and the Ef = hc/ = 0.775 MeV / 2 = 0.388 MeV and

scattered photon have the same kinetic = hc/Ef = 1240 eV nm / 0.388 MeV = 0.0032 nm

energy? The Compton shift is

= - = (0.0032 0.0016) nm = 0.0016 nm

Serway solution manual 2, Q35, pg. 358

By = c (1 cos )

= (h/mec) (1 cos ) 0.0016 nm

= 0.00243 nm (1 cos )

67

= 70o 68

17

X-ray:

PYQ 1.10 KSCP 2003/04

Which of the following statements is (are) true?

The inverse of photoelectricity

I. Photoelectric effect arises due to the absorption of X-ray, discovered by

electrons by photons Wilhelm Konrad

II. Compton effect arises due to the scattering of Roentgen (1845-1923).

photons by free electrons

III. In the photoelectric effect, only part of the energy of He won the first Nobel

the incident photon is lost in the process prize in 1902. He refused

IV.I

IV.Inn the Compton effect, the photon completely to benefit financially

disappears and all of its energy is given to the Compton from his work and died

electron

A. I,II B. II,III,IV C. I, II, III in poverty in the German

D. III,IV Ans:

Ans : E inflation that followed

[I = false; II = true; III = false; IV = false] the end of World War 1.

Murugeshan,

Murugeshan, S. Chand & Company, New Delhi, pg. 134,

Q13, 69 70

photoelectricity, energy is transferred

from photons to kinetic energy of

very short wavelength, electrons. The inverse of this process

~ 0.01 nm 10 nm produces x-

x-rays

P.E: x-ray:

Some properties:

electron (Ke=0) + photon (hc/) electron (Ke)

hc/ 0.1 100 keV

energetic, according to E = hc/

electron (Ke) + W0 heat + photon (hc/)

(c.f. E ~ a few eV for visible light)

Ke = 0

travels in straight lines

is unaffected by electric and magnetic fields

(E = hc/) W0 0 compared

passes readily through opaque materials highly to Ke, hence

W0

penetrative ignored

e

causes phosphorescent substances to glow e

exposes photographic plates (Ee = K) (Ee = Ke >> W0)

71 72

18

PE and x-rays production happen at

X-ray production

different energy scale X-rays is produced

when electrons,

However, both process occur at disparately accelerated by an

electric field in a E

different energy scale vacuum cathode-

cathode-ray

Roughly, for PE, it occurs at eV scale with tube, are impacted on

the glass end of the

ultraviolet radiation tube

For x-ray production, the energy scale e

involved is much higher - at the order of Part or all of the kinetic

energy of a moving Ke

100 eV - 100 keV electron is converted

into a x-

x-ray photon

73 74

The x-ray tube

ray tube

`pole that emits negative charge) is heated by means

of electric current to produce thermionic emission of the electrons

electrons min

from the target

A high potential difference V is maintained between the cathode and

a metallic target

The thermionic electrons will get accelerated toward the latter

The higher the accelerating potential V, the faster the electron and

the shorter the wavelengths of the x-x-rays 75 76

19

min 1/V, the same for all material

Important features of the x-ray

surface

spectrum

At a particular V, min is

1. The spectrum is continuous approximately the same

2. The existence of a minimum wavelength for different target

min for a given V, below which no x- materials.

ray is observed Experimentally one finds

3. Increasing V decreases min . that min is inversely

proportional to V,

1.24 10 6

min = m V

V

The peaks in the spectrum are due to the electronic transition occurring

77

between the adjacent shells (orbit) in the atom. We would not discuss them

78

further here.

X-ray production heats up the target

ray spectrum:

material The continuous X- X-ray spectrum is explained in terms of

Bremsstrahlung:

Bremsstrahlung: radiation emitted when a moving electron

Due to conversion of energy from the tekan brake

rake

impacting electrons to x-ray photons is not According to classical EM theory, an accelerating or decelerating

decelerating

efficient, the difference between input electric charge will radiate EM radiation

energy, Ke and the output x-ray energy E Electrons striking the target get slowed down and brought to

eventual rest because of collisions with the atoms of the target

becomes heat material

Hence the target materials have to be made Within the target, many electrons collides with many atoms for

from metal that can stand heat and must many times before they are brought to rest

have high melting point (such as Tungsten Each collision causes some non-

non-unique losses to the kinetic energy

of the Bremsstrahlung electron

and Molybdenum) As a net effect of the collective behavior by many individual

collisions, the radiation emitted (a result due to the lost of KE

KE of

79 80

the electron) forms a continuous spectrum

20

Bremsstrahlung Bremsstrahlung, simulation

E = K - K

electron

Target atom

81

K < K

82

min quantum picture

Notice that in the classical Bremsstrahlung According to Einstein assumption on the energy of a

process the x-

x-ray radiated is continuous and photon, the energy of the photon emitted in the

Bremsstrahlung is simply the difference between the

there is no lower limit on the value of the initial and final kinetic energy of the electron:

wavelength emitted (because

(because classical h = K K

physics does not relate energy with The shortest wavelength of the emitted photon gains

wavelength). Hence, the existence of min is

wavelength). its energy, E = hmax = hc/

hc/min corresponds to the

not explained with the classical maximal loss of the K.E. of an electron in a single

Bremsstrahlung mechanism. All range of collision (happen when K = 0 in a single collision)

from 0 to a maximum should be possible in This (i.e.

(i.e. the maximal lose on KE) only happens to a

small sample of collisions. Most of the other

this classical picture. collisions loss their KE gradually in smaller amount

min can only be explained by assuming light in an almost continuous manner.

as photons but not as EM wave 83 84

21

Theoretical explanation of the Why is min the same for different

experimental Value of min material?

The production of the x-x-ray can be considered as an inverse

K (of the Bremsstrahlung electron) is converted into the process of PE

hc/min

photon with E = hc/ Hence, to be more rigorous, the conservation of energy should taketake

Experimentally K is caused by the external potential V that into account the effects due to the work potential of the target

material during the emission of x-x-ray process, W0

accelerates the electron before it bombards with the target,

hence However, so far we have ignored the effect of W0 when we were

calculating the relationship between min and K

K = eV

This approximation is justified because of the following reason:

Conservation of energy requires The accelerating potentials that is used to produce x-

x-ray in a x-

x-ray

hc/min

K = eV = hc/ vacuum tube, V, is in the range of 10,000 V

or, min = hc/ nmeV)

hc/eV = (1240 nm eV)/eV = (1240V/V

(1240V/V) nm Whereas the work function W0 is only of a few eV

which is the value measured in x-

x-ray experiments Hence, in comparison, W0 is ignored wrp to eV

This explains why min is the same for different target materials

85 86

Find the shortest wavelength present in the To produce an x- x-ray quantum energy of 10-15 J

electrons must be accelerated through a potential

radiation from an x-ray machine whose difference of about

accelerating potential is 50,000 V Solution:

A. 4 kV The energy of the x-rays photon comes from the

Solution: 6 B. 6 kV external accelerating potential,V

hc 1.24 10 V m

min = = = 2.48 10 11 m = 0.0248nm C. 8 kV E = eV

eV 5.00 10 4 V D. 9 kV 1 1015

This wavelength corresponds to the frequency V = E / e = 1 1015 J/e= 19

eV/e = 6250V

E. 10 kV 1.6 10

c 3 108 m / s ANS: B, OCR ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY

max = = = 1.211019 Hz GCE PHYSICS B (PDF), Q10, pg. 36

min 11

2.48 10 m 87 88

22

PYQ 1.9 KSCP 2003/04 X-ray diffraction

Which of the following statement(s)

statement(s) is (are) true?

I. -rays have much shorter wavelength than x-rays X-ray wavelengths can be determined through

II. The wavelength of x-rays in a x-ray tube can be diffraction in which the x-x-ray is diffracted by the

controlled by varying the accelerating potential crystal planes that are of the order of the

III.

III. x-

x-rays are electromagnetic waves wavelength of the x- x-ray, ~ 0.1 nm

IV. x-rays show diffraction pattern when passing

through crystals

The diffraction of x-x-ray by crystal lattice is called

Bragg

Braggs diffraction

diffraction

A. I,II B. I,II,III,IV C. I, II, III

D. III.IV E. Non of the above It is also used to study crystal lattice structure (by

Ans:

Ans: B Murugeshan,

Murugeshan, S. Chand & Company, New Delhi, analysing the diffraction pattern)

pg. 132, Q1.(for I), pg. 132, Q3 (for II), pg. 132, Q4 (for

III,IV)

89 90

Condition for diffraction

diffract X-rays

Note that as a general Since wavelength of x-rays is very small,

rule in wave optics, what kind of scatterer has sufficiently tiny

diffraction effect is separation to produce diffraction for x-rays?

prominent only when

the wavelength and the ANS: Atoms in a crystal lattice. Only the

hole/obstacle are atomic separation in a crystal lattice is small

comparable in their enough (~ nm) to diffract X-rays which are

length scale of the similar order of length scale.

91 92

23

Experimental setup of Braggs Experimental setup of Braggs

diffraction diffraction

93 94

Braggs law for x-rays diffraction

crystal

Adjacent parallel

crystal planes

rays that are parallel and whose paths differ by exactly , 2, 3 and

The bright spots correspond to the directions where x-rays so on (beam I, II):

(full ranges of wavelengths) scattered from various layers

95

(different Braggs planes) in the crystal interfere constructively. 2d sin = n, n = 1, 2, 3 Braggs law for x-ray diffraction 96

24

An X-rays can be reflected from

Example

many different crystal planes

A single crystal of table salt (NaCl) is

irradiated with a beam of x-rays of

unknown wavelength. The first Braggs

reflection is observed at an angle of 26.3

degree. Given that the spacing between

the interatomic planes in the NaCl crystal

to be 0.282 nm, what is the wavelength of

the x-ray?

97 98

Solution

of single crystal)

Solving Braggs law for the n = 1 order, We get diffraction ring

due to the large

= 2d sin = 2 0.282 nm sin (26.3o) randomness in the

Constructive

= 0.25 nm inteference of n=1 orientation of the

order: planes of scattering in

the power specimen

2dsin =

d

99 100

25

Why ring for powdered sample? X-rays finger print of crystals

101 102

crystal of d-spacing 4.4 Angstrom. Where does

the diffraction angle of the second order occur?

A.16 B. 33 C.55

D. 90 E. Non of the above

Solution: n = 2d sin

sin = n/2d = 2 x 1.2 / (2 x 4.4) = 0. 5

= 33

ANS: B, Schaums 3000 solved problems,

Q38.46, pg. 715

103 104

26

Pictorial visualisation of pair

Pair Production: Energy into matter

In photoelectric effect, a photon gives an electron all of

production

its energy. In Compton effect, a photon give parts of its In the process of pair production, a photon of

energy to an electron sufficient energy is converted into electron-

electron-positron

A photon can also materialize into an electron and a pair. The conversion process must occur only in the

positron presence of some external EM field (such as near the

vicinity of a nucleus)

Positron = anti-

anti-electron, positively charged electron

with the exactly same physical characteristics as

electron except opposite in charge and spin

In this process, called pair production, electromagnetic

energy is converted into matter

Creation of something (electron-

(electron-positron pair) out of

nothing (pure EM energy) triggered by strong external

EM field

105 106

production

The pair-

pair-production must not violate some very

fundamental laws in physics:

An electron (blue) enters the laser beam from the Charge conservation, total linear momentum, total

left, and collides with a laser photon to produce a

high-energy gamma ray (wiggly yellow line). The relativistic energy are to be obeyed in the process

electron is deflected downwards. The gamma ray Due to kinematical consideration (energy and

then collides with four or more laser photons to

produce an electron-positron pair linear momentum conservations) pair production

cannot occur in empty space

Must occur in the proximity of a nucleus

Will see this in an example

107 108

27

Energy threshold Example

production can only occur if E is larger than 2 radiation to pair-

pair-produce an electron-

electron-positron

me = 2 0.51 MeV = 1.02 MeV pair?

Any additional photon energy becomes kinetic Solutions: minimal photon energy occurs if the

energy of the electron and positron, K pair have no kinetic energy after being created,

hc

E = = 2 me c 2 + K K = 0. Hence,

PP hc 1240 nm eV

min = = = 1.21 10 12 m

2 me c 2

2 0.51MeV

These are very energetic EM radiation called gamma

nucleus rays and are found in nature as one of the emissions

109 110

from radioactive nuclei and in cosmic rays.

Electron-positron creation space

2mc2

Conservation of energy must me fulfilled, hf = 2mc

Conservation of linear momentum must be fulfilled:

Part of a bubble chamber

picture (Fermilab'15 foot p

Bubble Chamber', found

at the University of E=hf e+

Birmingham). The curly

line which turns to the

2p cos

p=hf /c = 2p

p

e-

left is an electron. Since p = mv for electron and positron,

Positron looks similar but hf = 2c mv) cos = 2mc

2c(mv) 2mc2 (v/c) cos

turn to the right The Because v/c < 1 and cos 1, hf < 2mc

2mc2

magnetic field is

perpendicular to the

2mc2. Hence it is

But conservation of energy requires hf = 2mc

picture plan impossible for pair production to conserve both energy and

momentum unless some other object (such as a nucleus) in

involved in the process to carry away part of the initial of the

111

photon momentum 112

28

Pair-annihilation Pair annihilation

The inverse of pair production occurs when a

positron is near an electron and the two come Part of a bubble-

bubble-chamber

together under the influence of their opposite picture from a neutrino

electric charges experiment performed at

the Fermilab (found at the

e+ + e- + University of

Birmingham). A positron

Both particles vanish simultaneously, with the lost in flight annihilate with an

masses becoming energies in the form of two electron. The photon that

is produced materializes at

gamma-

gamma-ray photons a certain distance, along

Positron and electron annihilate because they are the line of flight, resulting

a new electron-

electron-positron

anti particles to each other pair (marked with green)

113 114

Initial energy = 2mec2 +K conserved in pair annihilation

The total relativistic energy of the e--e+ pair is

E = 2m2mec2 + K = 1.02 MeV + K

where K the total kinetic energy of the electron-

electron-positron pair before annihilation

Each resultant gamma ray photon has an energy

hf = 0.51 MeV + K/2

Both energy and linear momentum are automatically conserved in pair pair

annihilation (else it wont occur at all)

Final energy = hc/1 + hc/2 For e--e+ pair annihilation in which each particle collide in a head-

head-on manner with

same magnitude of momentum, i.e., p+ = - p- , the gamma photons are always

emitted in a back-

back-to-

to-back manner due to kinematical reasons (conservation of

linear momentum). (see explanation below and figure next page)

In such a momentum-

momentum-symmetric collision, the sum of momentum of the system is

zero. Hence, after the photon pair is created, the sum their momentum

momentum must also

Conservation of relativistic energy: be zero. Such kinematical reason demands that the photon pair be emitted back-back-

to-

to-back.

2mec2 + K = hc/1 + hc/2 No nucleus or other particle is needed for pair annihilation to take place

Pair annihilation always occurs whenever a matter comes into contact

contact with its

antimatter

115 116

29

Collision of e+-e- pair in a center of

As a tool to observe anti-world

momentum (CM) frame

What is the characteristic energy of a gamma-

gamma-ray

G

p that is produced in a pair-

pair-annihilation production

G G process? What is its wavelength?

p p+

G MeV, annih = hc / 0.51 MeV =

Answer: 0.51 MeV,

p Back-to-back photon

p+ = - p-

pair 0.0243 nm

G G The detection of such characteristic gamma ray in

Sum of momentum before annihilation = p +p

G+ G astrophysics indicates the annihilation of matter-

matter-

= Sum of momentum after annihilation = p p

antimatter in deep space

= 0

117 118

An electron and a positron collide and Total energy before and after anniliation

undergo pair-annihilation. If each particle is must remain the same: i.e. the energy of each

moving at a speed of 0.8c relative to the electron is converted into the energy of each photon.

laboratory before the collision, determine the Hence the energy of each photon is simple equal

energy of each of the resultant photon. to the total relativistic energy of each electron

A. 0.85MeV B. 1.67 MeV travelling at 0.8c :

E = Ee = me c 2

C. 0.51 MeV D. 0.72MeV

where = 1/ 1 ( 0.8 ) = 1.678

2

E. Non of the above

Hence E = 1.678 0.51 MeV = 0.85 MeV

Cutnell, Q17, pg. 878, modified 120

30

Photon absorption

Three chief channels photons interact with matter are:

Photoelectric effect, Compton scattering effect and Pair-

production

In all of these process, photon energy is transferred to electrons

which in turn lose energy to atoms in the absorbing material

121 122

Photon absorption

absorption channels

The probability (cross section) of a photon undergoes a given For a fixed atomic number (say Carbon, A = 12)

channel of interaction with matter depends on At low energy photoelectric effect dominates. It diminishes fast when E

approaches tens of keV

(1) Photon energy, and

At E = a few tens of keV,

keV, Compton scattering start to take over

(2) Atomic number of the absorbing material 2mec2 = 1.02 MeV,

Once E exceeds the threshold of 2m MeV, pair production becomes

more likely. Compton scattering diminishes as energy increases from

from 1 MeV.

MeV.

123 124

31

Relative probabilities between Relative probabilities between

Compare with Lead absorber (much

different absorbers different

higher A: ): The energy at which pair

Photoelectric effect remains dominant production takes over as the

up to a higher energy of a few

hundreds of keV (c.f. Carbon of a few principle mechanism of energy

tens of keV) loss is called the crossover

This is because the heavier the nucleus energy

the better it is in absorbing the

momentum transfer that occurs when The crossover energy is 10

the energetic photon imparts its MeV for Carbon, 4 for Lead

momentum to the atom The greater atomic number,

Compton scattering starts to appears the lower the crossover energy

after a much higher energy of 1 MeV

(c.f. a few tens of keV for Carbon). This is because nuclear with

This is because a larger atomic number larger atomic number has

binds an electron stronger, rendering stronger electric field that is

the electron less free. In this case, to

Compton scatter off an free electron necessary to trigger pair-

the photon has to be more energetic creation

The relative probabilities of the photoelectric effect,

(recall that in Compton scattering, only Compton scattering, and pair production as

free electrons are scattered by photon). 125and

functions of energy in carbon (a light element) 126

lead (a heavy element).

In Photoelectric effect, Compton scatterings,

Like an EM wave, photons move with speed of inverse photoelectric effect, pair

light c creation/annihilation, light behaves as

They have zero mass and rest energy particle. The energy of the EM radiation is

The carry energy and momentum, which are

related to the frequency and wavelength of the EM confined to localised bundles

wave by E=hf and p = h/ In Youngs Double slit interference,

They can be created or destroyed when radiation is diffraction, Braggs diffraction of X-ray,

emitted or absorbed light behave as waves. In the wave picture

They can have particle-

particle-like collisions with other of EM radiation, the energy of wave is

particles such as electrons

spread smoothly and continuously over the

wavefronts.

127 128

32

Is light particle? Or is it wave?

EM radiation are obviously mutually

exclusive

So how could we reconcile these seemingly

contradictory characteristics of light?

The way out to the conundrum:

WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY

129 130

Gedanken experiment with remote So, (asking for the second time) is

light source

The same remote light source is used to simultaneously go through two

light wave of particle?

experimental set up separated at a huge distance of say 100 M light years

away.

So, it is not either particle or wave but both

In the left experiment, the EM radiation behaves as wave; the right one

behave like particle particles and waves

This is weird: the light source from 100 M light years away seems to However, both typed of nature cannot be

know in which direction to aim the waves and in which direction to aim

the particles simultaneously measured in a single experiment

Light source is 100 M light years away

from the detection sites

The light only shows one or the other aspect,

depending on the kind of experiment we are doing

Double slit Photoelectric

experiment experiment

Particle experiments show the particle nature,

while a wave-

wave-type experiment shows the wave

nature

Interference pattern

observed Photoelectron observed

131 132

33

The identity of photon depends on Coin a simile of wave-particle

how the experimenter decide to look duality

at it It

Its like a coin with two

faces. One can only sees one

side of the coin but not the

other at any instance

This is the so-

so-called wave-

wave-

photon as

particle duality particle

Neither the wave nor the

particle picture is wholly

correct all of the time, that

both are needed for a Photon as

complete description pf wave

Is this a rabbit or a duck? physical phenomena

The face of a young or an old woman?

The two are complementary

133 to another 134

single photon (1) single photon (2)

In between (e.g. between emission and detection), we

Consider an double slit experiment using an must interpret the light as electromagnetic energy

extremely weak source (say, a black body filament) that propagates smoothly and continuously as a wave

that emits only one photon a time through the double However, the wave nature between the emission and

slit and then detected on a photographic plate by detection is not directly detected. Only the particle

darkening individual grains. nature are detected in this procedure.

When one follows the time evolution of the pattern The correct explanation of the origin and appearance

created by these individual photons, interference of the interference pattern comes from the wave

pattern is observed picture, and the correct interpretation of the evolution

of the pattern on the screen comes from the particle

At the source the light is being emitted as photon picture;

(radiated from a dark body) and is experimentally Hence to completely explain the experiment, the two

detected as a photon which is absorbed by an pictures must somehow be taken together this is an

individual atom on the photographic plate to form a example for which both pictures are complimentary

grain. to each other

135 136

34

Both light and material particle

display wave-particle duality

Not only light manifest such wave-

wave-particle duality,

but other microscopic material particles (e.g.

electrons, atoms, muons,

muons, pions well).

In other words:

Light, as initially thought to be wave, turns out to

have particle nature;

Material particles, which are initially thought to be

corpuscular, also turns out to have wave nature

(next topic)

137 138

35

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