You are on page 1of 52

Project Report on


Submitted for the Partial Fulfilment for the Degree of

Submitted By:-
Nitesh Aggarwal
Roll No. 514084
Submitted To:-
Dr. Pawan Kumar Singh
Head, Department of Geography

National P.G. College

Accredited by NAAC GRADE A
(An Autonomous college of University of Lucknow)
2,Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow
Session 2016-2017
This is certify that Nitesh Aggarwal of class BA VIth Semester

ID : 514084 has fulfilled and reported of the criteria regarding

dissertation program and submitted on time under my authority.

Head of Department
Department of Geography
National P.G. College


I hereby declare that all the work method of acts of information to be

penned in the desertification in sole effort of mine and has only been

produced after the department of Geography, N.P.G.C. for the fulfilment

of Degree of Bachelor of Arts and not been used for any other degree.

Nitesh Aggarwal
ID 514084
B.A. VIth Semester
Department of Geography
National P.G. College

Whenever a module of work is completed successfully, a source of
inspiration and guidance is always there for the student. I, hereby take the
opportunity to thank those entire people who helped us in many different

First and foremost, we are grateful to our thesis guide Dr. Ritu
Jain, Asstt. Professor, for showing faith in my capability and providing
able guidance and her generosity and advice extended to me throughout
my work.

Last, but not least I would like to thank all my faculty and my
friends for helping me in all measure of life and for their kind cooperation
and moral support.

Nitesh Aggarwal
ID 514084
B.A. VIth Semester
Department of Geography
National P.G. College


Water pollution is a major global problem. It is the leading

worldwide cause of deaths and diseases which requires lot of changes and
evaluation of water resource policy at all levels. Water pollution accounts
for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated 700 million
Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of
diarrheal sickness every day. All over the world we are seeing that drains
are the main source of water pollution especially for rivers flowing within
the city. These drains generally carry industrial effluent, domestic waste,
sewage and medicinal waste resulting in poor water quality. Gomti river
receives industrial as well as domestic wastes from various drains of
Lucknow city. The extent to which these drains pollute the water quality
of river Gomti in Lucknow city is not well documented yet. As Gomti
river is the only source of surface water for the nearby communities. Due
to increased pollution levels water quality of Gomti River is deteriorating
continuously. Increased level of turbidity makes Gomti River water
unpalatable, hence making it a matter of concern.

The anthropogenic discharges constitutes a constant polluting

source whereas surface runoff is a seasonal phenomenan, largely affected
by climate within the basin. The situation is realy harmful for those areas
where river water is the only source of drinking . About 26 drains out of
which 14 from cis side and 12 from trans side situated between
Gaughat(upstream of lucknow) and Piperaghat(downstream of lucknow)
are discharching their waste water into the river Gomti.

Gomti River is the lifeline for Lucknow and is a major source of

water for domestic use. Over the years extensive urbanization in

Lucknow city has changed the characteristics of Gomti River due to
disposal of untreated wastes, which mainly include sewage, solid sludge
and hospital wastes. This has caused the degradation of Gomti River
resulting in aquatic pollution. The river water is extensively used for
washing, bathing, recreational and religious activities.

List of Figure...............................................................................................................viii
1. Introduction 1-6
1. Source of Gomti river
2. Geological and Geomorphological setup of Gomti basin
3. Gomti in Lucknow
2. Study Area 7-8
3. Approach in the past 9-10
4. Review of literature 11-15
5. Tests performed on Gomti river water 16
6. Test procedures 17-23
1. pH testing procedure
2. Dissolved oxygen testing procedure
3. Total dissolved solids procedure
4. Total suspended solids procedure
5. Chemical oxygen demand test
6. Biological oxygen demand test
7. Results and discussion 24-32
8. Some Issues which need attention 33-37
9. Some Good News 38-40
10. Conclusion 41
11. Reference 42

List of Figures

1. Gomti in Lucknow 6

2. Sampling sites of Gomti river 8

3. General layout arrangement for Gomti pollution 9

4. Treated waste water from Bharwara STP 33

5. Gomti Barrage 34

6. BOD-DO profile in Lucknow 34

7. Algae in Gomti water 36

8. Pollution in Gomti 37

9. Cleaning of Gomti 38-40

Gomti River is an important tributary of Ganga River and a
perennial river of Awadh plain runs across the major parts of Uttar
Pradesh, India, covering nine districts and a distance of approximately
940 km. During its course, Gomti River receives huge quantities of
untreated sewage agricultural runoffs brings lot of pesticides, fertilizers,
street washouts bringing oil, asphalt, sediments; industrial wastes all of
which significantly alter the physico-chemical characteristics of its
water. Before reaching in the Lucknow city, the Gomti River receives
wastes from sugar and distillery industries of Sitapur district. In
Lucknow city, various industries like distillery, defence, milk dairy,
vegetable, oil, carbon etc are pouring effluent directly into the Gomti
River. Besides the industrial effluents, domestic wastewaters are also
discharged into the Gomti River. In Lucknow city, from Gaughat
upstream to Gomti barrage, 19 drains are discharging about 200 MLD
wastewaters into the Gomti River. Thus, the Gomti River (at Lucknow)
water gets polluted right from Gaughat to Gomti barrage (Singh, et al.,


Gomti River is the only source of surface water for the nearby
communities. Due to increased pollution levels water quality of Gomti
River is deteriorating continuously. Water quality refers to the physical,
chemical and biological properties of water. It may be degraded by the
presence of wastes, nutrients, microorganisms, pesticides, heavy
metals and sediments. Different water quality standards have been

developed in order to keep check on the extent of water pollution, and in
order to maintain these quality standards. Water quality assessment and
apportionment of pollution sources of river is been done using in situ
laboratory analysis and multivariate statistical techniques. These
traditional techniques were time consuming, costly and reference to
sample site only. In contrast, using remote sensing technique is an
economical way to monitor water quality, because it can monitor large
areas in a short time on a repetitive basis. It is also easy to update water
quality parameters using remote sensing data, which allows continuous
monitoring of water quality. Several investigators have studied the
applicability of remote sensing technique in determining and
monitoring water quality (Johnson and Harriss, 1980; Khorram and
Cheshire, 1985; Verdin, 1985; Tassan, 1993; Braga and Setzer, 1993;
Arenz, et al., 1996; Dewidar and Khedr, 2005).


In the Indian sub-continent, the Indo-Gangetic Plain is one of the

largest fluvial sedimentary basins of the world. It is located between the
worlds most tectonically active regions, the Himalaya in the north and
stable Indian Craton in the south. The entire Gomti basin is underlain by
thick alluvial sediments of the Quaternary age. The alluvial sediments
consist of boulders, pebbles, gravels, sand, silt, clay and kankars.The
unconsolidated unit may be further subdivided into younger alluvium.
The younger alluvium occupies the present day flood plains while the
older group occupies elevated portions mainly the doab portions.The
older alluvium is characterized by kankar nodules at depth otherwise it is
similar to the younger alluvium.

Incision of the Gomti river and its valley has been studied using
characteristics of longitudinal profile, escarpment heights, valley
morphology and channel sediment characteristics by Thakur et al. (2009).
The tectonic-driven incision is younger and superimposed over the base
level-linked incision. The role of climate-derived factors in fluvial
incision is secondary and not easy to evaluate. The valley margins of
Gomti river show prominent bluff or escarpment and are sometimes
referred to as banks. Escarpment height is basically height of the vertical
cliff along the margin of the river channel and river valley. The
downstream increasing trend of escarpment heights of the both river
margins is primarily related to incision of the river and controlled by the
lowering of base level of the Ganga river. Longitudinal profile of the
Gomti river runs from 185 to 60 m above mean sea level and shows three

prominent breaks in slope. The conspicuous convexity in the profile is
located above the sub-surface Faizabad Ridge and may be related to the
movement along this ridge.

Downstream wave-like variation in average escarpment height

reveals undulating topography with prominent upwarps and downwarps
attributed to the compressional tectonics of the Ganga Plain. The Gomti
river provides the expression of base level linked (2 to 10 m deep) fluvial
incision associated with the Ganga river, and tectonically-driven (6 to 15
m deep) incision is connected with intra-basinal tectonics of the Ganga
Plain Foreland Basin.

Valley morphological feature of the Gomti river shows highly

sinuous active channel near Gularia in the upper segment, river valley
margins with discontinuous and dissected high escarpment in the middle
segment and the lower segment shows sinuous river valley showing 10 to
12 m deep incision on the Ganga Plain near Chandwak before merging
with Ganga at Kaithi (Thakur et al., 2009). The impact of tectonics and
climate change is noteworthy and effective, which may lead to incision of
river channel and rejuvenation of entire drainage network in the past.

Fluvial incision is the most distinctive geomorphic characteristics

shown by all active rivers of the Ganga Plain. Monsoon-controlled
climate of the Ganga Plain controls rainfall received by the Gomti river
Basin and discharge of the Gomati river. The discharge of the Gomati
river increases downstream due to contributions from surface runoff and
groundwater. In the upper segment of the Gomti river, incision is low,
although rainfall is high; on the contrary in the middle and lower
segments, incision is high, while rainfall is low. In the middle segment,

water discharge is less than in the lower segment, but it shows maximum
incision. Further, there is wave-like pattern of incision. Indicating that
rainfall alone can not explain the incision pattern of the Gomti river.

Extensive aquifers occur in the quaternary alluvium formations at

various depths. The phreatic aquifers are unconfined in nature and main
source of water from drinking purposes. These are classified as follows:

a) Phreatic aquifers up to depth of 50 m below the ground level

b) shallow aquifers between 50 m to 150 m below the ground level

c) medium depth aquifers between 150 m to 300 m below the ground


d) deep aquifers between 300 to 500 m below the ground level


Right Bank
Left Bank TRANS


Around 85% of the land area of Lucknow City is

situated on the
Central Ganga alluvial plain, and stretches across
both banks of the Gomti River

Gomti River flows from NW to SE through the heart of the city.

CisGomti side are comparatively lower than the areas on Trans

Gomti side.

26 drains join the river, 14 drains from cisGomti and 12 drains

from transGomti side.

All of the 12 TransGomti drains merge into river Gomti in the

upstream of Barrage.

The study area covers Gomti River in Lucknow district of Uttar
Pradesh.The river enters Lucknow at Gaughat and exits at Piperaghat.The
samples have been taken from 15 locations between Gaughat and
Piperaghat. The location map of study area and sample sites location is
shown in Figure 1.

The sampling sites are as follows :-

1) Gaughat
2) Hussainabad
3) Gulalaghat
4) Kudiaghat
5) Pakka Pul
6) Mohan Meakin
7) Mankameshwar
8) Daliganj
9) Hanuman Setu
10) Boat Club
11) Lakhman Mela Park
12) Parag
13) Baikund Dham
14) Gomti Barrage
15) Piperaghat

Sampling sites of Gomti river

1930s 1980s: collect the sullage / sewage through branch and
trunk sewers and carry it through pumping mains to a sewage farm
outskirts of TransGomti Area in D/S of the town.

Sewage farm has been converted into housing colonies (Gomti


2001 2010
The river is hardly able to dilute the incoming sewage/sullage of
the city by 10 times resulting in a steep rise in bacterial count
(about 2.5 x 107/ 100 ml against the maximum prescribed limits of
5000 counts per 100 ml).

Population Lucknow City

Census 2001 21.86 Lacs

Census 2011 28.13 Lacs

Design Population 42.43/64.22 Lacs
Area of the ULB 340 Sq. Km

Sewerage Generation (Yr. 344/787 MLD

2010 /2040)

Existing Sewerage System

Length of Sewer 1950 Km

SPS (Nos ) 30 Nos.

STP (Nos/Cap ) 2/401 MLD

According to study carried out by several researchers on Gomti
river, it has been observed that, the water quality has degraded rapidly in
recent years with wide encroachment of flood plains (Arora et al., 1973;
Bhaskaran et al., 1963; Bhargawa and Ram Tirath, 1982; Kuwar and
Kant, 1987; Pathak, 1991; Bhatt and Pathak, 1992; Mishra, et al., 1994;
Singh et al., 2003; Mishra and Mishra, 2008). Bhaskaran et al. (1965 in
Trivedi, 2001) carried out physico-chemical studies on the river Gomti at
Lucknow and concluded that the river water was significantly polluted
showing lower value of DO at many places. Arora et al., (1973 in Trivedi,
2001) observed that the river Gomti at Lucknow was severely polluted.
Bhargawa and Ram Tirath (1982) studied water quality of river Gomti at
Lucknow and concluded that water quality at upstream of Gaughat was
good for almost all beneficial uses, and water quality downstream of
Lucknow was heavily polluted and it was not suitable for bathing,
drinking without treatment, fishing, recreation etc. Kuwar and Kant
(1987) analyzed the water of river Gomti at Lucknow at several place for
few heavy metals and observed that it was polluted with copper (Cu),
zinc (Zn), and chromium (Cr). Pathak (1991) analysed the physico-
chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of river Gomti from
Gaughat to Malhar. The authors observed increased DO during winter
season with its drastic depletion during the summer months at all station,
except at Gaughat. The author also concludes that the cadmium (Cd) and
nickel (Ni) in Gomti river was little on the higher side respectively during
monsoon and winter.

Bhatt and Pathak (1992) concluded that river got highly polluted
downstream of Lucknow due to human interference and input of
municipal and industrial wastewater. Mishra, et al. (1994 in Trivedi,
2001) concluded that the river Gomti was highly polluted at Sahjahanpur,
Kheri and Lucknow having high value of BOD and COD during summer
seasons. Gaur et al. (2005) studied the impacts of domestic/industrial
waste on the water and sediment chemistry of river Gomti with special
references to heavy metals in different seasons (summer, winter and
rainy). High concentration of all the six heavy metals namely Cd, Cr, Cu,
Ni, Pb and Zn were noticed in water and sediments in rainy season
compared to summer and water.

Gupta and Subramanian (1994 & 1998) analyzed water and

sediment samples collected from the Gomti river during the post-
monsoon season. The results indicated almost monotonous spatial
distribution of various chemical species, especially because of uniform
presence of alluvium Dun gravels throughout the basin. The river
annually transports 0.34106 tonnes of total suspended material (TSM)
and 3.0106 tonnes of total dissolved solids (TDS), 69 percent of which
is accounted for by bicarbonate ions only.

Samples collected downstream of the city of Lucknow showed the

influence of anthropogenic loadings for a considerable distance in the
river water. The influence of chemical loads in the Gomti has been found
to be small or nonexistent on the Ganges river, perhaps because the water
discharge of the Gomti (1.57 percent) to the Ganges is quite low.

Mishra and Mishra (2008) carried out physico-chemical studies on

the river Gomti and observed that the high concentration of all metals like

Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were noticed in water and concentration of these
metals increased from 2006 to 2008, while Cd was found below the
detectable limit. COD and TDS value were also observed to increase day
by day due to increase in quantity of industrial effluents and sewage
being discharged in the river, the level of DO also falling rapidly due to
increase in BOD and COD.

The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead,

manganese, nickel, and zinc in water and bed sediments of river Gomti
have been studied in a fairly long stretch of 500 km from Neemsar to
Jaunpur by Singh et al. (2005a). Based on the geoaccumulation indices,
the Gomti river sediments from Neemsar to Jaunpur are considered to be
unpolluted with respect to Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. It is unpolluted to
moderately polluted with Pb. In case of Cd it varies from moderately
polluted to highly polluted. As far as Ni is concerned the sediment is very
highly polluted at Barabanki and Jaunpur downstream. No correlation
was found between enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index. Grab
samples of water (October 2002March 2003) and bed sediments
(December 2002 and March 2003) were collected from 10 different
locations following the standard methods. Profiles of the heavy metals
across the Lucknow urban stretch showed a progressive downstream
increase due to additions from 4 major drainage networks discharging the
urban effluents into the river. The study revealed that the urbanization
process is associated with higher concentrations of heavy metals such as
Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn in the Gomti river sediments. To keep the river
clean for the future, it is strongly recommended that urban effluents
should not be overlooked before their discharge into the river.

Assessment of water quality of river Suheli and Gomti is carried
out by Singh and Tandon (2010) in May and august in 2007 and in
January 2008. In the month of January the sites of Suheli river and
Basantpur village showed the values for conductivity whereas the site of
Gomti river from Gaughat to Pipraghat Showed increasing trend in
turbidity. In the month of January, May and August the site of Suheli river
and road bridge showed maximum dissolved oxygen and the Basantpur
region showed the lowest dissolved oxygen value in the year 2007 but in
the year 2008 the Kaima region showed the highest dissolved oxygen and
the tiger haven showed the lowest dissolved oxygen value whereas the
site of Gomti river showed the significantly decrease in the dissolved
oxygen in Gaughat to Pipraghat in both of the years. In the month of
January, May and August the site of Suheli river and Basantpur village
showed the maximum B.O.D. value and the Kaima region showed the
minimum B.O.D value whereas the sites of Gomti river showed the
increasing trend of B.O.D from Gaughat to Pipraghat.

A combined study of Gomti river and Varuna river is done by

Srivastava, et al. (2010) on water characteristics and Algal biodiversity in
river Varuna and Gomti. The studies have been carried out in relation to
diversity and pollution. The members of Bacillariophyceae were most
dominant and Cyanophyceae dominated in winter months.
Euglenophyceae members were poorly represented but members of
Chlorophyceae comparative study of physico-chemical factors indicate
that river Varuna is more polluted in comparison to river Gomti, as
Varuna is although facing anthropogenic activities along river course in
Varanasi. The algal population was also higher in the river Varuna as
compared to river Gomti.

Singh et al. (2005b) carried out a study on a 630 km stretch of river
Gomti, to study the distribution of heavy metals in sediments and the
partitioning of their chemical species between five geochemical phases
(exchangeable fraction, carbonate fraction, Fe/Mn oxide fraction, and
organic fraction) using Tessiers analytical sequential extraction
technique. Most fractions in the sediments associated with the carbonate
and the exchangeable fractions were between 11 and 30% except in a few
cases where it was more than 50%. According to the Risk Assessment
Code (RAC), the sediments having 1130% carbonate and exchangeable
fractions are at medium risk. The concentrations of cadmium and lead at
mid Lucknow, Pipraghat, Sultanpur U/S and Sulthanpur D/S are between
31 and 50%. They thus pose a high risk to the environment. Since the
concentrations of cadmium and lead at Neemsar (Cd 56.79%; Pb 51%)
are higher than 50%, the RAC as very high. In most cases, the average
metal concentrations were lower than the standard shale values.

Extensive surveys were conducted to explore the diversity of

fishes, distribution patterns, abundance, threat, and habitat status in the
upper, middle, and lower stretch of river by Sarkar et al. (2010).
Altogether 56 fish species belonging to 20 families and 42 genera were
collected from various sampling sites. Of the 56 species, five belonged to
the endangered (EN) category and 11 belonged to the vulnerable (VU)
category. Six major categories of habitat were identified and pattern of
fish assemblage and dominant genera in each habitat studied.
Considerable differences were observed in the fish species richness and
relative abundance (RA) of the species in the different sampling sites of
river Gomti.


Following tests have been performed in order to check the water

quality of river Gomti:-

1) Colour

2) Odour

3) pH Test

4) Turbidity

5) Dissolved Oxygen(DO)

6) Total Solids(Suspended and Dissolved)

7) Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD)

8) Chemical Oxyen Demand(COD)

9) Permanent Hardness

10) VSS and NVSS


1. Rinse each test tube with the water sample. Gloves should be worn
to avoid skin contact with the water.

2. Fill the tube to the 5mL line with sample water.

3. While holding a dropper bottle vertically, add 10 drops of Wide

Range Indicator Solution.

4. Cap and invert several times to mix.

5. Insert the tube into the Wide Range pH Comparator. Hold the
comparator up to a light source. Match the sample color to a color

6. Record the pH value.

7. Wash your hands.


1. If you have a barometer, record the atmospheric pressure. Remove
the cap and immerse the DO bottle beneath the rivers surface. Use
gloves to avoid contact with the river.

2. Allow the water to overflow for two to three minutes (This will
ensure the elimination of bubbles).

3. Make sure no air bubbles are present when you take the bottle from
the river.

4. Add 8 drops of Manganous Sulfate Solution and 8 drops of
Alkaline Potassium Iodide Azide.

5. Cap the bottle, making sure no air is trapped inside, and invert
repeatedly to fully mix. Be very careful not to splash the chemical-
laden water. Wash your hands if you contact this water. If oxygen is
present in the sample, a brownish-orange precipitate will form
(floc). The first two reagents "fix" the available oxygen.

6. Allow the sample to stand until the precipitate settles halfway.

When the top half of the sample turnS clear, shake again, and wait
for the same changes.

7. Add 8 drops of Sulfuric Acid 1:1 Reagent. Cap and invert

repeatedly until the reagent and the precipitate have dissolved. A
clear yellow to brown-orange color will develop depending on the
oxygen content of the sample.

8. Fill the titration tube to the 20 mL line with the "fixed": sample and

9. Fill the Direct Reading Titrator with Sodium Thiosulfate 0.025 N

Reagent. Insert the Titrator into the center hole of the titration tube
cap. While gently swirling the tube, slowly press the plunger to
titrate until the yellow-brown color is reduced to a very faint
If the color of the fixed sample is already a faint yellow, skip to
step 10.

10. Remove the cap and Tritrator. Be careful not to disturb the Titrator
plunger, as the tiration begun in step 8 will continue in step 11. Add
8 drops of Starch Indicator Solution. The sample should turn blue.

11. Replace the cap and Titrator. Continue titrating until the sample
changes from blue to a colorless solution. Read the test result
where the plunger top meets the scale. Record as mg/L (ppm)
dissolved oxygen.


In a laboratory setting, the total dissolved solids is determined by
filtering a measured volume of sample through a standard glass fiber
filter. The filtrate (i.e., filtered liquid) is then added to a preweighed
ceramic dish that is placed in a drying oven at a temperature of 103 C.
After the sample dries, the temperature is increase to 180 C to remove an
occluded water, i.e., water molecules trapped in mineral matrix. Total
dissolved solids means the total dissolved (filterable) solids as determined
by use of the method specified in Title 40 of the Code of Federal
Regulations (40 CFR) Part 136.

High total dissolved solids may effect the aesthetic quality of the
water, interfere with washing clothes and corroding plumbing fixtures.
For aesthetic reasons, a limit of 500 mg/l (milligrams per liter) has been
established as part of the Secondary Drinking Water Standards.



1. Preparation of glass-fiber filter disk: If pre-prepared glass fiber

filter disks are used, eliminate this step. Insert disk with wrinkled
side up in filtration apparatus. Apply vacuum and wash disk with
three successive 20-mL portions of reagent-grade water. Continue

suction to remove all traces of water, turn vacuum off, and discard
washings. Remove filter from filtration apparatus and transfer to an
inert aluminum weighing dish. If a Gooch crucible is used, remove
crucible and filter combination. Dry in an oven at 103 to 105C for
1 h. If volatile solids are to be measured, ignite at 550C for 15 min
in a muffle furnace. Cool in desiccator to balance temperature and
weigh. Repeat cycle of drying or igniting, cooling, desiccating, and
weighing until a constant weight is obtained or until weight change
is less than 4% of the previous weighing or 0.5 mg, whichever is
less. Store in desiccator until needed.

2. Selection of filter and sample sizes: Choose sample volume to

yield between 2.5 and 200 mg dried residue. If volume filtered fails
to meet minimum yield, increase sample volume up to 1 L. If
complete filtration takes more than 10 min, increase filter diameter
or decrease sample volume.

3. Sample analysis: Assemble filtering apparatus and filter and begin

suction. Wet filter with a small volume of reagent-grade water to
seat it. Stir sample with a magnetic stirrer at a speed to shear larger
particles, if practical, to obtain a more uniform (preferably
homogeneous) particle size. Centrifugal force may separate
particles by size and density, resulting in poor precision when point
of sample withdrawal is varied. While stirring, pipet a measured
volume onto the seated glass-fiber filter. For homogeneous
samples, pipet from the approximate midpoint of container but not
in vortex. Choose a point both middepth and midway between wall
and vortex. Wash filter with three successive 10-mL volumes of
reagent-grade water, allowing complete drainage between

washings, and continue suction for about 3 min after filtration is
complete. Samples with high dissolved solids may require
additional washings. Carefully remove filter from filtration
apparatus and transfer to an aluminum weighing dish as a support.
Alternatively, remove the crucible and filter combination from the
crucible adapter if a Gooch crucible is used. Dry for at least 1 h at
103 to 105C in an oven, cool in a desiccator to balance
temperature, and weigh. Repeat the cycle of drying, cooling,
desiccating, and weighing until a constant weight is obtained or
until the weight change is less than 4% of the previous weight or
0.5 mg, whichever is less.


The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) test measures the oxygen
equivalent consumed by organic matter in a sample during strong
chemical oxidation. The strong chemical oxidation conditions are
provided by the reagents used in the analysis. Potassium dichromate is
used as the oxygen source with concentrated sulfuric acid added to yield a
strong acid medium. Several reagents are added during the set up of the
analysis to drive the oxidation reaction to completion and also to remove
any possible interferences. Specifically, these reagents are mercuric
sulfate, silver sulfate and sulfamic acid. Mercuric sulfate is added to
remove complex chloride ions present in the sample. Without the
mercuric sulfate the chloride ions would form chlorine compounds in the
strong acid media used in the procedure. These chlorine compounds
would oxidize the organic matter in the sample, resulting in a COD value
lower than the actual value. Silver sulfate is added as a catalyst for the

oxidation of short, straight chain organics and alcohols. Again, without
the silver sulfate the COD of the sample would be lower than the actual
value. Sulfamic acid is added to remove interferences caused by nitrite
ions. Without sulfamic acid the COD of the sample would measure higher
than the actual value.

Even with the use of these additional reagents the oxidation of the
organic matter is not always 100% complete. Volatile organics, ammonia
and aromatic hydrocarbon are not oxidized to any great degree during the


A sample is pipetted into a BOD bottle containing dilution water. The
dissolved oxygen content is determined and recorded and the bottle is
incubated in the dark for 5 days at 20C. At the end of five days, the final
dissolved oxygen content is determined and the difference between the
initial D.O. is calculated and used to calculate the biochemical oxygen
demand of the sample.


The BOD test must rely on a measurable depletion of dissolved

oxygen over a specified period of time. Because most samples of wastewater
will have a BOD higher than the amount of oxygen available in the BOD
bottle during the incubation period, the samples must be diluted. This
dilution is done by adding the dilution water to the sample in the BOD
bottle. If the sample is not diluted, the biological activity of the
microorganisms will use up the D.O. in the BOD bottle before the five-day
incubation time is up. If the final D.O. is zero, the BOD cannot be

determined because there is no way of telling at what point during the five
days the D.O. reached zero.

One of the most difficult steps in the BOD procedure is deciding how
much sample to place in the BOD bottles for incubation. Some plants have
influent and effluent BOD's that do not vary greatly over time, while others
fluctuate greatly from day to day. In all cases, several different dilutions of
each sample should be prepared to obtain the desired dissolved oxygen

If you have a general range for the BOD of your sample, you can
estimate the dilutions needed to insure that at least one dilution will meet the
criteria for most valid BOD results. The following procedure can be used to
calculate volumes for sample dilution from the estimated BOD.


Sampling TS DS SS pH COD BOD DO Chlorid TH
Point No.

1 264 250 14 8.41 14.9 3.8 7.2 9 182

2 282 274 8 8.48 15.6 3.9 7.1 8 190
3 274 260 14 8.45 16.4 4.2 6.9 8 184
4 286 260 26 8.47 13.6 3.1 7.2 9 196
5 292 270 22 8.54 13.2 3 7.3 10 198
6 306 282 24 8.54 14 3.4 7.1 7 198
7 312 284 28 8.39 24 13 2 14 204
8 318 294 24 8.33 20.8 11.5 2.8 13 194
9 324 304 20 8.27 22.4 12 2.4 15 200
10 366 338 28 8.19 27.2 16 1.8 20 212
11 380 344 36 8.17 25.6 14.5 1.7 20 212
12 374 350 24 8.16 28 16.5 1.3 21 208
13 282 264 18 8.16 18.4 9.5 4.6 17 178
14 298 272 26 8.15 19.2 10 4.5 18 170
15 294 270 24 8.14 20.9 11 4.3 19 170

The laboratory analysis of the water quality samples of the 15

sample sites was done from 10th March 2015 to 30th April 2015. The
results of water quality parameters of each sample points are represented
in the above table. The range for these parameters is given in the next


For any water body to function adequately in satisfying the desired

use, it must have corresponding degree of purity. Drinking water should
be of highest purity. As the magnitude of demand for water is fast
approaching the available supply, the concept of management of the
quality of water is becoming as important as its quantity.

Each water use has specific quality need. Therefore, to set the
standard for the desire quality of a water body, it is essential to identify the
uses of water in that water body. In India, the Central Pollution Control
Board (CPCB) has developed a concept of designated best use. According
to this, out of the several uses of water of a particular body, the use which
demands highest quality is termed itsdesignated best use. Five designated
best uses have been identified. This classification helps the water quality
managers and planners to set water quality targets and design suitable
restoration programs for various water bodies.

Designated Best Class Criteria
Drinking Water A 1.Total Coliforms Organism
Source without MPN/100ml shall be 50 or less
conventional 2. pH between 6.5 and 8.5
treatment but 3. Dissolved Oxygen 6mg/l or more
after 4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5
disinfection days 20 C, 2mg/l or less
Outdoor bathing B 1.Total Coliforms Organism
(Organised) MPN/100ml shall be 500 or less
2. pH between 6.5 and 8.5
3. Dissolved Oxygen 5mg/l or more
4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5
days 20 C, 3mg/l or less
Drinking water C 1. Total Coliforms Organism
source after MPN/100ml shall be 5000 or less
conventional 2. pH between 6 and 9
treatment and 3. Dissolved Oxygen 4mg/l or more
disinfection 4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5
days 20 C, 3mg/l or less
Propagation of D 1. pH between 6.5 and 8.5
Wild life and 2. Dissolved Oxygen 4mg/l or more
Fisheries 3. Free Ammonia (as N)
4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5
days 20 C, 2mg/l or less
Irrigation, E 1. pH between 6.0 and 8.5
Industrial 2. Electrical Conductivity at 25 C
Cooling, micro mhos/cm, maximum 2250
Controlled 3. Sodium absorption Ratio Max. 26
Waste disposal 4. Boron Max. 2mg/l
Below Not meeting any of the A, B, C, D &
-E E criteria

This water can be directly used for
Blue water
drinking, industrial use, etc.
Water contained in soil and plants is
Green water
termed as green water
White water Atmospheric moisture is white water
Brown or grey Various grades of wastewater are shown by
water brown or grey colour

In India, CPCB has identified water quality requirements in terms

of a few chemical characteristics, known as primary water quality criteria.
Further, Bureau of Indian Standards has also recommended water
quality parameters for different uses in the standard IS 2296:1992.


Characteristics Designated best use

Dissolved Oxygen 6 5 4 4 -
(DO)mg/l, min
Biochemical Oxygen 2 3 3 - -
demand (BOD)mg/l, max
Total coliform organisms 50 500 5,000 - -
MPN/100ml, max
pH value 6.5-8.5 6.5- 6.0- 6.5- 6.0-8.5
8.5 9.0 8.5
Colour, Hazen units, max. 10 300 300 - -
Odour Un- - -
Taste Tasteles - - - -
Total dissolved solids, 500 - 1,500 - 2,100
mg/l, max.
Total hardness (as 200 - - - -
CaCO3), mg/l, max.
Calcium hardness (as 200 - - - -
CaCO3), mg/l, max.
Magnesium hardness (as 200 - - - -
CaCO3), mg/l, max.
Copper (as Cu), mg/l, 1.5 - 1.5 - -
Iron (as Fe), mg/l, max. 0.3 - 0.5 - -
Manganese (as Mn), mg/l, 0.5 - - - -
Cholorides (as Cu), mg/l, 250 - 600 - 600

Sulphates (as SO4), mg/l, 400 - 400 - 1,000
Nitrates (as NO3), mg/l, 20 - 50 - -
Fluorides (as F), mg/l, 1.5 1.5 1.5 - -
Phenolic compounds (as 0.002 0.005 0.005 - -
C2H5OH), mg/l, max.
Mercury (as Hg), mg/l, 0.001 - - - -
Cadmium (as Cd), mg/l, 0.01 - 0.01 - -
Salenium (as Se), mg/l, 0.01 - 0.05 - -
Arsenic (as As), mg/l, 0.05 0.2 0.2 - -
Cyanide (as Pb), mg/l, 0.05 0.05 0.05 - -
Lead (as Pb), mg/l, max. 0.1 - 0.1 - -
Zinc (as Zn), mg/l, max. 15 - 15 - -
Chromium (as Cr6+), mg/l, 0.05 - 0.05 - -
Anionic detergents (as 0.2 1 1 - -
MBAS), mg/l, max.
Barium (as Ba), mg/l, 1 - - - -
Free Ammonia (as N), - - - 1.2 -
mg/l, max
Electrical - - - - 2,250
conductivity, micromhos/c
m, max

Sodium absorption ratio, - - - - 26
Boron, mg/l, max - - - - 2

Guidelines are available to evaluate quality of water for irrigation.

For irrigation, water can be classified in five classes depending upon its
chemical properties.

Water Sodium Electrical SAR RSC meq/l
class (Na) % conductivity
Excellent < 20 < 250 < 10 < 1.25
Good 20 - 40 250 750 10 18 1.25 2.0
Medium 40 - 60 750 2,250 18 26 2.0 2.5
Bad 60 80 2,250 4,000 > 26 2.5 3.0
Very bad > 80 > 4,000 > 26 > 3.0


Characteristics Desirable Permissible limit
Essential Characteristics
Colour, Hazen Units, Max 5 25
Odour Unobjectiona -
Taste Agreeable -
Turbidity, NTU, Max 5 10
PH value 6.5 to 8.5 -
Total Hardness (as CaCo3), 300 600
mg/l, Max
Iron (as Fe), mg/l, Max 0.3 1.0
Chlorides (as Cl), mg/l, 250 1,000
Residual free chlorine, 0.2 -
mg/l, Max
Desirable Characteristics

Dissolved solids, mg/l, 500 2,000
Calcium as (Ca), mg/l, 75 200
Magnesium (as Mg), mg/l, 30 75
Copper (as Cu), mg/l, Max 0.05 1.5
Manganese (as Mn), mg/l, 0.1 0.3
Sulphate (as So4), mg/l, 200 400
Nitrate (as No3), mg/l, Max 45 100
Flouride (as F0, mg/l, Max 1.0 1.5
Phenolic compounds (as 0.001 0.002
C6H5OH), mg/l, Max
Mercury (as Hg), mg/l, 0.001 -
Cadmium (as Cd), mg/l, 0.01 -
Selenium (as Se), mg/l, 0.01 -
Arsenic (as As), mg/l, Max 0.05 -
Cyanide (as CN), mg/l, 0.05
Lead (as Pb), mg/l, Max 0.05 -
Anionic detergents (as 0.02 1.0
MBAS), mg/l, Max
Chromium (as Cr6+), mg/l, 0.05 -
PAH, mg/l, Max - -
MineralOIL , mg/l, Max 0.01 0.03

Pesticides, mg/l, MAX Absent 0.001
Alkalinity, mg/l, Max 200 600
Aluminum (as Al), mg/l, 0.03 0.2
Boron, mg/l, Max 1 5



Parameters Values Obtained Values Required

DS 520 500

SS 24 20

TS 544 520

pH 8.31 6.5-8.5

BOD 9.5 2

DO 5 6

TH 208 200

The values given in Values Obtained column are the average
values of all the sampling sites. The values in the Values Required
column are the Indian Standard Values.

Here we can see that except pH value all the values are above the
standard limits which shows that water of River Gomti is not fit for any
use and it needs immense treatment.

To minimize the contamination of Gomti water at Lucknow city

the values obtained had their significance level which help in selecting
the proper methods for treatment of water because drinking water varies
from place to place depending on the condition of the source from which
it is drawn and the treatment done. The present study may prove to be
useful to get pure water.


Treated wastewater from Bharwara STP is disposed into
river Gomti. It can be disposed into Indira canal for


The Gomti barrage constructed at downstream end of the town

impounds most of the sewage entering the river. This also stops the
river from flowing.


400 m /hr of methane production at Bharwara STP:
still not a reality!

Algae in Gomti Water

Pollution in River Gomti In Lucknow


On April 8, 2015, Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav laid foundation stone
for Gomti River Front Project.

Cleaning Of River Gomti

Students Of A City School In A Cleaning Campaign
Of River Gomti

Cleaning Of River Gomti


The DO, TSS, TDS and other parameters at some of the sites were
beyond permissible limit, water was polluted and is not suitable for
beneficial uses without conventional treatments. The river is highly
polluted due to discharge of domestic and industrial waste through
several drains. The increase in value of chloride, nitrate and total
hardness were also due domestic discharges. Increased concentration of
heavy metal in water at Parag, Daligaj, Mohan meakin and Monkey
Bridge area could be due to high discharge of water from catchment area,
industries and various drains.

With the increasing awareness in the field of water pollution

control and the desire to maintain rivers at their highest quality levels, it
is expected that the approach described in this paper will prove a useful
tool in evaluating the quality of the river to be utilized for various
beneficial uses.


1. Singh K.P., Mohan D., Singh V.K. and Malik A.

(2005) Studies on distribution and fractionation of
heavy metals in Gomti river sedimentsa tributary of
the Ganges, India, journal of hydrology, Vol 312, pp 14
2. Singh K.P., Malik A. and Sinha S. (2005) Water quality
assessment and apportionment of pollution sources of
Gomti river (India) using multivariate statistical
techniquesa case study, Analytica chimica Acta, Vol
538, pp 14 27.
3. Gomti alarmingly polluted: IITR report Neha Shukla,
TNN Jun 7, 2009, 03.50am IST
4. "Aiming for a scrubbed clean look". The Times Of
India . 2014-01-28.
5. Engineering Chemistry, Shashi Chawla. 2014-2015
6. Ritchie, J. C. & Schiebe, F. R. (1986) Monitoring
suspended sediments with remote sensing techniques.
In: Hydrologie Application of Space Technology, (Proc.
Cocoa Beach Workshop, Florida, August 1985), 233-
242. IAHS Pubf. no. 160
7. Environmental Engineering vol(i) S K GARG
8. Envirnmental Engineering vol(ii) S K GARG