You are on page 1of 9


Canarium Ovatum,commonly known as pili is a species of

tropical tree belonging to the Genus Canarium. It is one of
approximately 600 species in the family Bursenaceae.Pili are
native to maritime Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea, and
Northern Australia. They are commercially cultivated in the
Philippines for their edible nuts.
The Pili Tree is an attractive symmetrically shaped
evergreen, averaging 20 m (66 ft.) tall with resinous wood
and resistance to strong winds. It is dioecious, with
flowers born on cymose inflorescence at the leaf axils of
young shoots. As in papaya and rambutan, functional
hermaphrodites exist in pili. Pollination is by insects.
Flowering of pili is frequent and fruits ripens through a
prolonged period of time. The ovary contains three locules,
each with two ovules, most of the time only one ovule
develops (Chandler 1958).
The Pili Fruit is a drupe, 4 to 7 m (1.6 to 2.8 in)
long, 2.3 to 3.8 cm (0.91 to 1.50 in)in diameter and weighs
15.7 to 45.7 g (0.035 to 0.101 lbs.). The skin (exocarp) is
smooth, thin, shiny, and turns purplish black when the fruit
ripens; the pulp (mesocarp) is fibrous, fleshy,andgreenish
yellow in color, and the hard shell (endocarp) within
protects a normally dicotyledonous embryo. The basal end of
the shell (endocarp)is pointed and the apical end is more or
less blunt; between the seed and the hard shell (endocarp)is
a thin, brownish,fibrous seed coat developed from the inner
layer of the endocarp. This thin coat usually adheres
tightly to the shell and lor seed. Much of the kernel weight
is made up of the cotyledons, which are about 4.1 to 16.6%
of the whole fruit, it is composed of 8% carbohydrate, 11.5
to 13.9% protein and 70% fat. Kernels from some trees maybe
bitter, fibrous or have a turpentine odor.

As early as the biblical times, the presence of candles
is already mentioned. First candle were made of flax thread
coated with wax and pitch. Palm oil, bee wax, coconut oil,
and olive oil are also used to produce these candles during
the olden times. But as the time passes by, there were
changes that took place in candles. Not only on its
appearance, but also in the materials being used to produce
one. Up to the present, candles are still being used by
every household and can be consider as a necessity.
Cndle is an important material and is sometimes used in
our community. Candles are also essential especially during
power failures and emergencies. In our modern times it is
used mainly for its aesthetic purposes and scent. Candles
have been used for light and to illuminate mans
celebrations for more than 5,000 years, yet little is known
about their origin. It is often written that the first
candles were developed by the Ancient Egyptians, who used
rushlights or torches made by soaking the pithy core of
reeds in melted animal fat. However, the rushlights had no
wick like a true candle. The Egyptians were using wicked
candles in 3,000 B.C.but the ancient Romans are generally
credited with developing the wicked candle before that time
by dippig rolled papyrus repeatedly in melted tallow or
beeswax. The resulting candles were used to light their
homes, to aid travellers at night and in religious
Historians have found evidence that many other early
civilizations developed wicked candles using waxes made from
available plants and insects. Early Chinese candles are said
to have been molded in paper tubes, using rolled rice paper
for the wick and wax from an indigenous insect that was
combined with seeds. In Japan, candles were made of wax
extracted from tree nuts, while in India, candle wax was
made by boiling the fruit of the cinnamon tree.
It is also known that candles played an important role in
early religious ceremonies. Hanukkah, the Jewish Festival Of
Lights which centers on the Lightning of candles, dates back
to 165 B.C. There several biblical references to candles and
the Emperor Constantine is reported to have called for the
use of candles during an Easter service in the 4th century.
This study will be conducted in order to know the
capabilities of the candle with used pili sap and learn the
difference of it from the commercially producted candles.
This study arms to develop a better product that the
commercial candles. By doing this we could refrain from
throwing pili sap. The researchers wanted to develop a
cheaper and recycled candle that can be easily made at home
and with materials that are eco-friendly, recycled and can
be commonly seen. It is easy to make candle and is a good


This study generally aims to produce scented candle
from Pili Sap.

1.Test if pili sap can be a component in making scented

2.Test if there is a significant difference between the pili
sap scented candle and the commercially available scented


The following are the possible outcomes of the study:

1.) Pili sap can be a good source in making scented candles.

2.) Pili sap cannot be a good source in making scented

Pili is native to regions which includes Maritime
Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia and the
Philippines)Papua New Guinea and Northern Australia.
Pili is a tropical tree preferring deep, fertile, well-
drained soil, warm temperatures and well-distributed
rainfall. It cannot tolerate the slightest frost or low
temperature. Refrigeration of seeds at 4 to 13 degree
celcius (39 t0 55 F)resulted in loss of viability after 5
days. Seed germination is highly recalcitrant, reduced from
98 to 19% after 12 weeks of storage at room temperature;
seeds stored for more than 137 days did not germinate. A
sexual Propagations using marcotting, budding, and grafting
were too inconsistent to be used in commercial production.
Young shoots of pili were believed to have functional
internal phloems, which rendered bark ringing ineffective as
a way of building up carbohydrate levels in the wood.
Success in marcottage maybe cultivar dependent. Production
standards for a mature pili tree is between 100 to 150 kg
(220 to 330 lb) of in shell nut with the harvest season from
May to October and peaking between June and August.
There are high variations in kernel qualities and
production between seedling trees. Most pili kernels tend to
stick to the shell when fresh, but come off easily after
being dried to 3 to 5% moisture (30 C)(86 F) for 27 to 28 h,
shelled nuts with a moisture content of 2.5 to 4.6 %, can be
stored in the shade for one year without deterioration of
quality (Coronel et al 1983).


This study is limited for the investigation of Pili Sap
used as an alternative source for making scented candle.
This study will focus on the effectiveness of scented
candles made from pili sap.


Scented candles made by pili sap will be very useful
during blackout and occasions like All Souls Day. This study
can be used by anyone.
This scented candle made by pili sap is natural and has
no harmful effects. This candle is not definitely perfect
but it can help us during blackout. This study will undergo
many process just to make sure that it will be safe to use.

In this study, the pili sap will be used to make
scented candle. Pili sap is obtained from the trunk of a
pili tree. Depending on how much pili sap will you used and
how many candles are you going to make.
The pili sap will be heated for 1 minute then if it is
already soft, put it in a molder then mold it after you mold
it put the wick or the mitsa then put it in one place
wherein it cannot be tumbled and wait it until it become
cold then when it is already cold take it out from the
The pili sap will be heated over low fire for 1 minute
then if it is already soft, it will be removed from fire and
transferred to a desired molder. While still hot the wick
(mitsa) will be added to it. After putting the wick it will
be allowed to cool and will be ready for testing.