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Pneumatic Injection molding

INTRODUCTION

An Injection molding machine, also known as an injection press, is machine for
manufacturing plastic products by the injection molding process. It consists of two
main parts, an injection unit and a clamping unit. Injection molding machines can
fasten the molds in either a horizontal or vertical position. The majority
of machines are horizontally oriented, but vertical machines are used in some niche
applications such as insert molding, allowing the machine to take advantage
of gravity. There are many ways to fasten the tools to the platens, the most
common being manual clamps (both halves are bolted to the platens); however
hydraulic clamps (chocks are used to hold the tool in place) and magnetic clamps
are also used. The magnetic and hydraulic clamps are used where fast tool changes
are required. Types of injection molding machines Machines are classified
primarily by the type of driving systems they use:hydraulic,mechanical, electric,
or hybrid. Hydraulic presses have historically been the only option available to
molders until Nissei Plastic Industrial Co.,LTD introduced the first all-electric
injection molding machine in 1983. Theelectric press, also known as Electric
Machine Technology (EMT), reduces operation costs by cutting energy
consumption and also addresses some of the environmental concerns surrounding
the hydraulic press. Electric presses have been shown to be quieter, faster, and have
a higher accuracy, however the machines are more expensive. Mechanical type
machines use the toggle system for building up tonnage on the clamp side of the
machine. Tonnage is required on all machines so that the clamp side of the
machine does not open (i.e. tool half mounted on the platen) due to the injection
pressure. If the tool half opens up it will create flash in the plastic product.
Reliability of mechanical type of machines is more as tonnage built during each

cycle is the same as compared to hydraulic machines. Hybrid injection molding
machines claim to take advantage of the best features of both hydraulic and electric
systems, but in actuality use almost the same amount of electricity to operate as a
standard hydraulic. Hydraulic machines, although not nearly as precise, are
the predominant type in most of the world, with the exception of Japan. Robotic
arm is often used to remove the molded components; either by side or top entry,
but it is more common for parts to drop out of the mold, through a chute and into a
container.

Injection molding(British English:Molding) is a manufacturing process for
producing parts from both thermoplastic and thermo setting plastic materials.
Material is fed into a heated barrel, mixed, and forced into a mold cavity where it
cools and hardens to the configuration of the mold cavity.
[1]
After a product is designed, usually by an industrial designer or an engineer,
molds are made by a
Mold maker (or toolmaker) from metal, usually either steel or aluminum, and
precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. Injection molding is
widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest component to
entire body panels of cars

Contents:-

A robotic arm is often used to remove the molded components; either byside or top
entry, but it is more common for parts to drop out of the mold,through a chute and
into a container.

 1 Process characteristics

 2 History

 3 Applications

 4 Examples of polymers best suited for the process

 5 Equipment

 5.1 Mold

 5.2 Mold design

 5.3 Effects on the material properties

 5.4 Tool materials

 5.5 Geometrical possibilities

 5.6 Machining

 5.7 Cost

 6 Injection process

 6.1 Injection molding cycle
 6.2 Different types of injection molding processes

 7 Process troubleshooting

 7.2 Molding defects

 7.3 Tolerances and surfaces

 8 Lubrication and cooling

 9 Power requirements

 10 Inserts

Process characteristics:-

 Utilizes a ram or screw-type plunger to force molten plastic materialinto a
mold cavity

 Produces a solid or open-ended shape that has conformed to thecontour of
the mold

 Uses thermoplastic or thermoset materials

 Produces a parting line, sprue, and gate marks Ejector

which allowed much more precise control over the speed of injection and the quality of articles produced. The industry expanded rapidly in the 1940s because World War II created a huge demand for inexpensive. It was. using a plunger to inject plastic through a heated cylinder into a mold. cost. The industry progressed slowly over the years. It worked like a large hypodermic needle. The plastic injection molding industry has evolved over the years from producing combs and buttons to producing a vast . In the1970s. molded. and highly flammable. which permitted the production of complex. In 1946. producing products such as collar stays. hollow articles that cooled quickly. American inventor John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic material he named Celluloid. American inventor James Watson Hendry built the first screw injection machine. mass-produced products. This greatly improved design flexibility as well as the strength and finish of manufactured parts while reducing production time. [3] This machine was relatively simple compared to machines in use today. and retain its shape when cooled. He publicly demonstrates "Parkesine. weight and waste. This machine also allowed material to be mixed before injection. improving on Parks’ invention so that it could be processed into finished form. however. Together with his brother Isaiah. buttons. Parke sine could be heated. Hyatt patented the first injection molding machine in 1872.History The first man-made plastic was invented in Britain in 1861 by Alexander Parks. prone to cracking. In 1868. expensive to produce. and hair combs. Today screw injection machines account for the vast majority of all injection machines. so that colored or recycled plastic could be added to virgin material and mixed thoroughly before being injected." Derived from cellulose. Hendry went on to develop the first gas-assisted injection molding process.

the ability to use a wide range of materials. Examples of polymers best suited for the process:- Most polymers may be used. Applications Injection molding is used to create many things such as wire spools. packaging. one that has exactly the right properties. Some advantages of injection molding are high production rates. toys. Injection molding is the most common method of part manufacturing. In 1995 there were approximately 18. and little need to finish parts after molding. Common polymers like epoxy and phenolic care examples of thermosetting plastics while nylon. It is ideal for producing high volumes of the same object. automotive dashboards. The available materials are alloys or blends of previously developed materials meaning that product designers can choose from a vast selection of materials. minimal scrap losses. consumer products. aerospace. and construction. plumbing. and the need to design moldable parts.array of products for many industries including automotive. potentially high running costs. some thermosets. and some elastomers. low labor cost. packaging. and most other plastic products available today. pocket combs. but also each material has different parameters for molding that must be taken into account. and polystyrene are thermoplastic .000 different materials available for injection molding and that number was increasing at an average rate of 750 per year. polyethylene. including all thermoplastics. bottle caps. medical. Materials are chosen based on the strength and function required for the final part. repeatable high tolerances. Some disadvantages of this process are expensive equipment investment.

the nozzle is visible at right Main article: Injection molding machine Injection molding machines consist of a material hopper. an injection ram or screw-type plunger. If the plastic material is very stiff.Equipment:- Paper clip mold opened in molding machine. This projected area is multiplied by a clamp force of from 2 to 8 tons for each square inch of the projected areas. Tonnage can vary from less than 5 tons to 6000 tons. 4 or 5 tons/in 2 Can be used for most products. Presses are rated by tonnage. it will require more injection pressure to fill the mold. This force keeps the mold closed during the injection process. and a heating unit. The total clamp force needed is determined by the projected area of the part being molded. . which expresses the amount of clamping force that the machine can exert. they hold the molds in which the components are shaped. As a rule of thumb. larger parts require higher clamping force. They are also known as presses. thus more clamp tonnage to hold the mold closed. The required force can also be determined by the material used and the size of the part. with the higher figure issued in comparatively few manufacturing operations.

they were usually only used in mass production where thousands of parts were being produced. These are by far the superior in terms of wear resistance and lifespan. Typical molds are constructed from hardened steel. but their longer lifespan will offset the higher initial cost over a higher number of parts made before wearing out. Pre-hardened steel molds are less wear-resistant and are used for lower volume requirements or larger components. Injection molding die with side pulls . can be economical for molding tens or even hundreds of thousands of parts.Mold or die Are the common terms used to describe the tooling used to produce plastic parts in Molding Since molds have been expensive to manufacture. Beryllium copper is used in areas of the mold that require fast heat removal or areas that see the most shear heat generated. The choice of material to build a mold from is primarily one of economics. and. Typical hardness ranges between 50 and 60 Rockwell-C (HRC). Hardened steel molds are heat treated after machining. aluminum. steel molds cost more to construct. The molds can be manufactured either by CNC machining or by using Electrical Discharge Machining processes 1. The typical steel hardness is 38 – 45 on the Rockwell-C scale. pre-hardened steel. Aluminum molds can cost substantially less. when designed and machined with modern computerized equipment. in general. and/or beryllium-copper alloy.

"A" side of die for 25% glass-filled acetyl with 2 side pulls Close up of removable insert in "A" side. .

."B" side of die with side pulls actuators. Insert removed from die.

Plastic resin enters the mold through a sprue in the injection mold. The amount of resin required to fill the sprue. These channels allow plastic to run along them. so they are referred to as runners. [12] The sprue bushing directs the molten plastic to the cavity images through channels that are machined into the faces of the A and B plates.Mold design Standard two plates tooling – core and cavity are inserts in a mold base – "Family mold" of five different parts The mold consists of two primary components. also known as the cavity . the sprue bushing is to seal tightly against the nozzle of the injection barrel of the molding machine and to allow molten plastic to flow from the barrel into the mold. the injection mold (A plate)and the ejector mold (B plate). [13] The molten plastic flows through the runner and enters one or more specialized gates and into the cavity [14] geometry to form the desired part. Trapped air in the mold can escape . runner and cavities of a mold is a shot.

and cling to those cores or part may warp. are located below the parting line or mold surface. [15] To allow for removal of the molded part from the mold. the mold features must not overhang one another in the direction that the mold opens.through air vents that are ground into the parting line of the mold. also known as submarine or mold gate. If the trapped air is not allowed to escape. The air can become so compressed that it ignites and burns the surrounding plastic material.Sides of the part that appear parallel with the direction of draw (The axis of the cored position (hole) or insert is parallel to the up and down movement of the mold as it opens and closes) [16] are typically angled slightly with(draft) to ease release of the part from the mold. [18] The mold is usually designed so that the molded part reliably remains on the ejector (B) side of the mold when it opens. twist. where it prevents filling and causes other defects as well. The part then falls freely when ejected from the (B) side. Insufficient draft can cause formation or damage. Tunnel gates. The draft required for mold release is primarily dependent on the depth of the cavity: the deeper the cavity. Shrinkage must also be taken into account when determining the draft required. unless parts of the mold are designed to move from between such overhangs when the mold opens (utilizing components called Lifters). the more draft necessary. and draws the runner and the sprue out of the (A) side along with the parts. then the molded part will tend to shrink onto the cores that form them while cooling. The opening is machined into the surface of the . it is compressed by the pressure of the incoming material and is squeezed into the corners of the cavity. blister or crack when the cavity is pulled away. [17] If the skin is too thin.

Effects on the material properties The mechanical properties of a part are usually little affected. [21] To ease maintenance and venting. also called Inserts . The coolant absorbs heat from the mold (which has absorbed heat from the hot plastic) and keeps the mold at a proper temperature to solidify the plastic at the most efficient rate. which pushes the finished molded product. called Inserts . Some parts can have internal stresses in them. or runner system out of a mold [20] The standard method of cooling is passing a coolant (usually water) through a series of holes drilled through the mold plates and connected by hoses to form a continuous pathway. or Chase blocks . Blocks . This is one of the reasons why it is desirable to have . one mold may make severalvariations of the same part. cavities and cores are divided into pieces. is a circular pin placed in either half of the mold (usually the ejector half).mold on the parting line. The molded part is cut (by the mold) from the runner system on ejection from the mold. and sub-assemblies. also known as knockout pin. By substituting interchangeable inserts. [19] Ejector pins.

Modern hard aluminum (7075 and 2024 alloys) with proper mold design.). in its conventional form.000 or more part life.Less than 1oz. process etc. pellets. can easily make molds capable of 100. powders200 oz. pellets. wall thickness. Mild steel.Less than 1oz. Here are some ranges of the sizes: [28] Method Raw materials Maximum size Minimum size Injection molding(thermo-plastic)Granules. Machining Molds are built through two main methods: standard machining and EDM. aluminum. One of the physical property changes is shrinkage. which can't be re melted to be injected again. The electrical discharge machining (EDM) or spark erosion process . The initial raw material required may be measured in the form of granules. has historically been the method of building injection molds. CNC machining became the predominant means of making more complex molds with more accurate mold details in less time than traditional methods. A permanent chemical property change is the material thermoset.Injection molding(thermo-setting)Granules. powders700 oz.uniform wall thickness when molding. shape. Standard machining. The size of a part will depend on a number of factors (material. nickel or epoxy is suitable only for prototype or very short production runs. pellets or powders. [27] Tool materials Tool steel or beryllium-copper are often used. With technological development.

allowing it to . granular plastic is fed by gravity from a hopper into a heated barrel. is very slowly lowered onto the mold surface (over a period of many hours). usually made of copper or graphite. Changes to a hardened mold by conventional drilling and milling normally require annealing to soften the mold. the melted plastic is forced through a nozzle that rests against the mold.has become widely used in mold making. As well as allowing the formation of shapes that are difficult to machine. the process allows pre-hardened molds to be shaped so that no heat treatment is required. nozzle and die area With injection molding. EDM is as impel process in which a shaped electrode. followed by heat treatment to harden it again. A voltage applied between tool and mold causes spark erosion of the mold surface in the inverse shape of the electrode. As the plunger advances. As the granules are slowly moved forward by a screw-type plunger. [29] Injection process:- Small injection molder showing hopper. which is immersed in paraffin oil. the plastic is forced into a heated chamber. where it is melted.

The cycle begins when the mold closes. the mold opens and the part is ejected Different types of injection molding processes:- . a holding pressure is maintained to compensate for material shrinkage. Once the part is sufficiently cool. Once the cavity is filled. [30] Injection molding cycle The sequence of events during the injection mold of a plastic part is called the injection molding cycle. In the next step. followed by the injection of the polymer into the mold cavity. feeding the next shot to the front screw. the screw turns. The mold remains cold so the plastic solidifies almost as soon as the mold is filled.enter the mold cavity through a gate and runner system. This causes the screw to retract as the next shot is prepared.

soluble) core injection molding  Gas-assisted injection molding  In-mold decoration and in mold lamination  Injection-compression molding  Insert and outsert molding  Lamellar (microlayer) injection molding  Low-pressure injection molding  Metal injection molding  Microinjection molding  Microcellular molding  Multicomponent injection molding  Multiple live-feed injection molding  Powder injection molding  Push-Pull injection molding  Reaction injection molding  Resin transfer molding  Remolding  Structural foam injection molding  Structural reaction injection molding . there are several important molding variations including:  Co-injection (sandwich) molding  Fusible (lost.sandwich molded toothbrush handle Although most injection molding processes are covered by the conventional process description above.

and productivity of plastic injection molding. The main trouble in injection molding is to have a box of good plastics parts contaminated with scrap. First article inspection of internal and external geometry including imperfections such as porosity can be completed using ndustrial CT Scanning a 3D x-ray technology. To have a constant filling rate in the cavity the switch over from injection phase to the holding phase can be made based on a cavity pressure level.  Thin-wall molding  Vibration gas injection molding  Water assisted injection molding  Rubber injection  Injection molding of liquid silicone rubber For more details about the different types injection processes Process troubleshooting Optimal process settings are critical to influencing the cost. quality. For external geometry verification only a Coordinate- measuring machine or white light scanner can be used. Injection speed . Having a stable production window the following issues are worth to investigate: The Metering phase Can be optimized by varying screw turns per minute and backpressure. For that reason process optimization studies have to be done and process monitoring has to take place. Variation of time needed to reload the screw gives an indication of the stability of this phase.

The manifold is connected to the levers in the operator's cabin which the operator uses to achieve the desired manifold behavior. Pay attention increasing the mold and melt temperature lowers the viscosity but lowers the shear rate too. Melted material with a lower viscosity has less pressure loss from nozzle to cavity than material with a higher viscosity. in a backhoe loader a manifold turns on or shuts off or diverts flow to the telescopic arms of the front bucket and the back bucket. Optimizing the high and duration of applied holding pressure based on cavity pressure curves is the appropriate way to go. The thicker the part the longer the holding pressure applied.Can be optimized by pressure drop studies between pressure measured in the Nozzle (alternatively hydraulic pressure) and pressure measured in the cavity. The thinner the part the shorter the holding pressure applied. It is . Higher speed = higher shear rate = lower viscosity. The hotter the melted plastics the longer the cooling time the thicker the part produced the longer the cooling time MANIFOLD Hydraulic manifold Are a component which regulates fluid flow between pumps and actuators and other components in a hydraulic system. Varying the Injection speed changes the shear rate. It is like a switchboard in an electrical circuit because it lets the operator control how much fluid flows between which components of a hydraulic machinery. For example. Cooling time Starts once the injection phase is finished. Gate seal or gate freeze / sink mark / weight and geometry studies Have the approach to prevent sink marks and geometrical faults. A manifold is composed of assorted hydraulic valves connected to each other.

Material Specific gravity Melting point (°F) Material Specific gravity Melting point Epoxy 1. low cost. [30] Power requirements The power required for this process of injection molding depends on manythings and varies between materials used.the various combinations of states of these valves that allow complex control behavior in a manifold MANIFOLD DEFECTS Lubrication and cooling Obviously. water is used as the primary cooling agent. and moldingrate. this is not always true because crystalline materials require the opposite: a warmer mold and lengthier cycle time. Because of the heat capacity. and availability of water. However.12 to 1.24 248 . the mold must be cooled in order for the production to take place. To cool the mold." Below is a table from page 243 of the same reference as previouslymentioned that best illustrates the characteristics relevant to the power required for the most commonly used materials. Usually a colder mold is more efficient because this allows for faster cycle times. Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide states that the power requirements depend on "a material'sspecific gravity. water can be channeled through the mold to account for quick cooling times. melting point. thermal conductivity. part size.

In addition to mounting inspection systems on automated components. Visions systems mounted on robots are also an advancement that has greatly changed the way that quality control is performed in insert molded parts.Phenolic 1. The removal of parts is achieved by using robots to grip the part once it has become free from the mold after in ejector pins have been raised.10 to 1.15 381 to 509 Polyethylene 0. multiple axial robots are also capable of removing parts from the mold and place them in latter systems that can be used to ensure quality of multiple parameters.965 230 to 243 Polystyrene 1. The robot then moves these parts into either a holding location or directly onto an inspection system. Specific instances of this increased efficiency include the removal of parts from the mold immediately after the parts are created and use in conjunction with vision systems.07 338 Inserts Metal inserts can also be injection molded into the workpiece.95 248 Nylon 1.04 to 1. The ability of automated components to decrease the cycle time of the processes allows for a greater output of quality parts.34 to 1. depending on the type of product and the general layout of the rest of the manufacturer's production facility.91 to 0. For largevolume parts the inserts are placed in the mold using automated machinery. An advantage of using automated components is that the smaller size of parts allows a mobile inspection system that can be used to examine multiple parts in a decreased amount of time. Mobile robot is able to more precisely determine the accuracy of the metal component and inspect more locations in the same amount of time as a human inspector Gallery .

Lego injection mold. lower side .

Lego injection mold. detail of lower side .

Current equipment capability requires processing to stay limited to products that can be molded using typical volumes of 100 grams or less per "shot" into the mold. Rheology does allow this "shot" to be distributed into multiple cavities. The molding process allows complex parts to be shaped in a single operation and in high volume. detail of upper side Metal injection molding Metal injection molding (MIM) is a metalworking process where finely.Lego injection mold. The nature of MIM feedstock flow is defined bay physics called rheology. End products are commonly component items used in various industries and applications. intricate. thus becoming cost-effective for small.powdered metal is mixed with a measured amount of binder material to comprise a 'feedstock' capable of being handled by plastic processing equipment through a process known as injection mold forming. high-volume products .

The 'green part' iscooled and de-molded in the plastic molding machine. carburizing. nitriding. The variety of metals capable of implementation within MIM feedstock are referred to as powder metallurgy. The end-product MIM metal hascomparable mechanical and physical properties with parts made usingclassic metalworking methods.annealing. passivity.which would otherwise be quite expensive to produce by alternate or classic methods. and MIM materials are compatible with thesame subsequent metal conditioning treatments such as plating. where the binder material is removed and the metal particles are coalesced into thedesired state for the metal alloy. a portion of the binder material is removed using solvent. fragile and porous (2-4% "air") part. requires the metal to becondensed in a furnace process called Sintering. in a condition called "brown" stage. Process The process steps involve combining metal powders with wax and plastic binders to produce the 'feedstock' mix that is injected as a liquid into ahollow mold using plastic injection molding machines. MIM parts are sintered attemperatures nearly high enough to melt the entire metal part outright (up to1450 degrees Celsius). catalytic process. and precipitation hardening. and these contain the same alloying constiuents found inindustry standards for common and exotic metal applications. 96-99% solid density. The resulting. MIM materials are comparableto metal formed by competing methods. thermal furnaces. at which the metal particle surfaces bind together toresult in a final. Subsequentconditioning operations are performed on the molded shape. or a combination of methods. Applications The window of economic advantage in metal injection molded parts lies incomplexity and volume for small-size parts. and final products are used in a broad range . Next.

aerospace.For best results.of industrial. and plates. Dimensional tolerances of +/-.The illustration shows the complexity of a hot- runner mold design. This information is crucial for proper melt-channel sizing. to efficiently manufacture anitem through other means of fabrication. firearms. The manifold's primary function isdoing this without changing the condition of the melt through shear action or excessive heating. commercial. Increased costs for traditionalmanufacturing methods inherent to part complexity. color-change time. manifold design. The manifold is a heated melt-distribution block with channels that deliver the plastic from the injection-molding machine to the mold cavities. or even impossible.003" per linear inch can be commonly held. manifold design should include a detailed analysis of theapplication that includes factors such as part mass. or into the plate. and processexpectations including pressure requirements. typically do not increasethe cost in a MIM operation due to the flexibility of injection molding. medical. miniaturization. nozzles. such as internal/externalthreads. MIM can produce parts where it is difficult. and choice of heater technology differ from supplier to supplier. dental.Melt-channel layout. Heaters are then mounted on. . Manifolds for plastic melt A hot runner consists of a manifold. A temperaturecontroller is also integral to the system. or brand identity marking. and far closer restrictions on tolerance are possible with expert knowledge of molding and sintering. and targetcycle time. Most suppliers manufacture manifolds by milling meltchannels into steel plates. resin type. and automotive applications.

causing weak parts and discoloration. Additionally. A poor manifold design.Hot runners are necessary for stack molds . More-complex manifolds allow for special applications such as multi-shot molds. stack molding. and family molding. such as a toothbrush handle withsoft-touch features. heat and shear forces can degrade the polymer. Hot-runner technology accommodates multi-shot partswith up to four different colors or materials.Manifolds should be designed for each application for optimal processing and part quality. with different flow lengths to each nozzle. causes cavity-to-cavity imbalance and dimensional differences in parts. Multi-shot molding produces asingle part with more than one material. for example.

Stack molds allow a molder to double.As the name implies. molder. the plastic part can be ejectedfrom the cavity. Sizes (diameters and lengths) and technology (heaters and sensors)used in hot runner nozzles vary widely. Parts in the mold usually have different masses. and hot-runner supplier to work closely to ensuresuccessful integration of the hot runner and mold. the plastic coolsin the gate area and hardens. terminating at the ―gate‖ or the hole where the plastic melt enters the cavity. There are two classes of nozzles:thermal gate and valve gate. A typical nozzle Hot-runner nozzles connect the manifold and mold cavities. Stack molds arethicker than conventional molds and require a machine clamp that canaccommodate the additional stack height. In these cases.with two or even four partinglines. leaving only a relatively small gate vestige on the part.Many thermal- gate nozzles are made from several grades of steel to control .A family mold is often used to produce two or more components of anassembly for every shot. and best cycletime. it's best for the mold maker. At this point. withoutrequiring a larger machine with more clamp tonnage. A typical nozzle is tubular with precise temperature control along its length. sohot-runner suppliers must ensure the manifolds are balanced with in-depthanalysis and mechanical-balancing technology. After injecting the melt into the cavity. comparedto a single face mold (a standard mold with one parting line). or quadruple output. Nozzledesign and selection is important for part aesthetics. filling. a thermal-gate nozzle relies on thermal cycling duringeach molding cycle.

thermal-gate nozzles are a less expensiveoption per nozzle than valve gating. Husky performed adetailed application review. The open-gate design of a thermal-gate nozzle is morelikely to have material vestige sticking up from the part. which included a resin test and a mold fillinganalysis.Gate vestige is a common consideration in the selection of valve gates for medical applications. Generally speaking.Valve-gate systems have better balance and repeatability than thermal gates because gate opening and closing is a controlled mechanical action and notdependent on thermal cycling in the gate area. each one with advantages and disadvantages — usually only one or two are best for a given application and resin.the thermal dynamics of the molding process. In contrast. Valve gating uses the mechanical actuation of a stem to open andclose the gate. Different thermal gatingoptions are available. The review determined that a hot runner with a stack-mold design was not feasible because the resin would sit in themanifold for nearly eight minutes before reaching the cavities. and part properties. Gate vestige is the material that stays on a part at thelocation of the gate. process expectations. the company recommended a four-cavity prototype mold with a hot runner. newer technology includes electrical servo drives. valve- gate nozzles with mechanical shutoffs produce a barely visible mark wherethe valve stem meets the part surface. PUTTING HOT RUNNER DESIGN TO WORK A medical molder needed a high-cavitation (many cavities) stack mold for asmall medical device molded with an engineering resin. Selectingthe right nozzle depends on the mold design. Based on resin properties. Alternatively.Valve-gate nozzles are the most common type used in medical- devicemolds. Stems are usually actuated by pneumatic pistons andcylinders. Tests showedthat exceeding a four-minute cycle .

mold maker. Manufacturing department. Sweep 3. Round 4. A casting allowanceof 4 mm is maintained on all the machining surfaces which has been shownwith a surface texture symbol in detailing.Initially a Cast model is created so that it reflects a raw product that comesout after the casting to the manufacturing department . Part dimension and shrinkage values were given to the mold maker to minimize re-machining the mold.would discolor the material.detailing department and also the Quality control department.The surface textures are maintained as close as possible keeping in view thenext level mating partsThe entire model has been developed in PRO-E 4.2 dia drill through which the oil passes to all channels. Chamfer .The manifold design has been developed with a view that the design has to be conversant with the Design department. DESIGN . Extrude 2. Husky suggested using high cavitation single-facemolds. Process results confirmed that the analysis wasaccurate. Before machining the oil passagesare drilled using a 6.To solve this problem.0 in which features suchas 1.As a manifold block acts as the central nervous system of the injectionmoulding machine With the pre-existing manifolds useful data is collected. and hot-runner supplier worked as a team. These successful results came about because the molder. Production tooling was validated andrapidly qualified without issues. It optimized the manifold design with data from the prototype trialsand melt-flow analysis.

near CAST passageschamfers are provided at the holesA transparent CAST MODEL has been attached below showing the roughcast product before entering the manufacturing department The manifold consists of passages which describe various inlet and outletThe passages nomenclature are as follows P .Drill holes etcThe transparent model is so developed gives the manufacturer as to how thefinished model look which helps reduce the problem of errors and gives aoverall picture and the model could be taken as reference in analyzing themodel in ANSYS software.To avoid any damage while carrying or transportation care has been taken by providing rounds and chamfer in the model .PRESSURE LINET – TANK LINEA – CYLINDER INLETB – .

.CYLINDER OUTLET The entire model consist of passages connecting to various cylinders inletand outlet from TANK LINE and supply them through the PRESSURELINE as per the requirements the dia of holes are varied. The entire detailing of the manifold apt or suitable for manufacturing isattached below with complete detailing.

The company process recommends the detailing to be done as per theORDINATE DIMENSIONS. During detailing the ordinate dimensions aredone with reference to the 01. . 02 and 03 planes which are assumed to be theBASE DATUMS or DATUM PLANES.

The PRO-E sequence tree is displayed below. .AFTER MACHINING: The finished product has been attached below which meets theCONCURRENT PROCESS AND PRODUCT DESIGN with all thesequence of operation that take place from the beginning to the end of the product.

MATING PARTS & FUEL TANK A common in and out connection is given to OIL SUMP which passes andcollects the OIL back to the sump. DESCRIPTION The manifold consists of various passages that do the function of transferring the hydraulic oil to various areas such as BARRELS.CYLINDERS.In the above model the product with hose end connections are also displayedfor the coupling purpose. The manifold also consists of PRESSURE LINE which takes the load of transferring of the HYDRAULICOIL to various functioning zone wherever the supply is required.CYLINDER INLET & CYLINDER .

A detailed snapshot of the entire working of the model is shown below PROBLEM DESCRIPTION: The common problem with the manifold design is the huge pressure drop inthe supply line as the passage is not smooth. The smooth passage ensureslesser pressure drop in the working fluid being grade SAE 60.The PRESSURE DROP problem arises due to the sudden transition of thelines into vertical direction and the return holes. Due to this the heavy power is consumed is consumed to allow .OUTLET for the collection of oil fromthe working area and supply them back to the Oil sump.

To conduct the problem the element type FLUID 141 is used as we areconsidering a 2D area problem.For the FLOTRAN CFD elements. The conservation equations for viscous fluid flow and energy are solved in the fluid region. FLUID141 Element Description FLUID141 to model transient or steady state fluid/thermal systems thatinvolve fluid and/or non-fluid regions.the fluid reach is destination pointThe complete analysis of the project performed and also the suggesteddesign is also recommended . FLOTRAN CFD etc..0 there are approximately 206 elements available which areused to solve various domains such as 1. (The temperature. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 2. The sequential solution of all the governing .0 it is considered to be a COMPUTATIONAL FLUIDDYNAMICS problem and solved using the various elements and processwhich are described below. ANSYS FLUID 4. if required.) A segregated sequential solver algorithm is used.In ANSYS 11. the matrix system derived from the finite elementdiscretization of the governing equation for each degree of freedom is solvedseparately. MANIFOLD PASSAGE ANALYSIS: A single manifold passage is analyzed to depict the real time problem ariseddue to the sudden transition of the holes. The flow problem is nonlinear and the governing equations arecoupled together. and the pressure is obtained from theconservation of mass principle. the velocities are obtained from theconservation of momentum principle. that is. is obtainedfrom the law of conservation of energy. THERMAL ANALYSIS 3.In ANSYS 11. while only theenergy equation is solved in the non-fluid region.

FLUID141 Fluid Elements . axisymmetric. Transport equations are solved for the mass fractions of up to six species. dependingon the size and stability of the problem. FLUID141 Input Data FLUID141 Geometry shows the geometry. or pressure- dependent properties. and thecoordinate system for this element.The coordinate system is selected according to the value of KEYOPT(3).equations. The element is defined by three nodes(triangle) or four nodes (quadrilateral) and by isotropic material properties. constitutes a global iteration .and may be either Cartesian. Node and Element Loads describes element loads .combined with the update of any temperature. or polar. node locations. The number of global iterationsrequired to achieve a converged solution may vary considerably.

it is assumed to be afluid element.If large gradients exist in the velocity field within a distributed resistanceregion. where: ρ = is the density (mass/length 3) μ = is the viscosity (mass/(length*time)) RE = is the local value of the Reynolds Number (calculated by the program): RE = (ρ V D h ) / μ f = is a friction coefficient (calculated by the program): f = a RE -b C = is the FLOTRAN permeability (1/length2). We cananalyze only one fluid. Thermalconductivity and specific heat are relevant (and necessary) only if the problem is thermal in nature. ANSYS provides a Power Law model. FLOTRAN permeability is the inverse of the intrinsic or physical permeability. The properties can be a function of temperature through relationships specified by the FLDATA7 . thermal conductivity andspecific heat - are defined with a series of FLDATA commands. Its properties .density. a Bingham model.If the material number of a FLUID141 element is 1. The total pressure gradient is the sum of these three terms. and aCarreauThe area model constructed in ansys . you should deactivate the turbulence model by setting ENKE to 0and ENDS to 1. modeled as a distributed resistance. Non-Newtonian viscosity models also are available for this element.0 in this region. as shown below for the X direction.Currently. viscosity. and it must be in a single phase. may be due toone or a combination of these factors: a localized head loss (K). a frictionfactor (f). or a permeability (C).PROT command or through a property databaseThe resistance to flow.

Lines Areas etcAre converted to nodes and elements after the process of mapped meshing .is shown below which is used todescribe the real time model of the passageThe model consists of 1. Kepoints 2.

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This is used as the boundary condition for the fluid 141 at roomtemperature and under absolute pressure .The fluid passes through the inlet at a velocity approx 3 to 4 m/s and theother end of the passage is free to let the fluid to leave the exit of the passage.

Byobservation it is seen that the outlet velocity and pressure drop aresignificantly changing because of the sharp transition at the corner .During the solution process. the convergence of the solution is shown tovary through the 50 global iterations that are given as input. The velocityalong x-axis and y-axis is bound to convergence and graph is shown below for various iterations of velocity and pressure accordingly.

The model after changes in the model i.The fluid behavior is found to be TURBULENT due to which a vortex flow is created shown below.e. . by introducing fillet at the corner the changes have been shown below with the new model.

. By further increasing the radius value the flow was further more refined but due to manufacturing limits the radius value of 8mm is suggested to be a optimum solution for the existing problem.In the above graph the improvement of the flow is easily found to haveimproved compared to the passage without fillet.