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Chapter 8: Training and Developing Employees

Multiple Choice

1. _____ provides new employees with the basic background information


required to perform their jobs satisfactorily.
a. Employee recruitment
b. Employee selection
c. Employee orientation
d. Employee development
e. Training
(c; easy; p. 268)

2. Orientation typically includes information on _____.


a. employee benefits
b. personnel policies
c. daily routine
d. safety measures
e. all of the above
(e; easy; p. 268)

3. The methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to
perform their jobs are called _____.
a. orientation
b. training
c. development
d. appraisal
e. management
(b; easy; p. 270)

4. Employers use a(n) _____ to ensure that employees are working toward
organizational goals.
a. performance management process
b. employee orientation program
c. management by objectives program
d. rewards program
e. just-in-time system
(a; moderate; p. 270)

5. Which of the following has the highest influence on organizational


effectiveness?
a. appraisal
b. feedback
c. training
d. goal-setting
e. technology
(d; moderate; p. 270)

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6. The first step in a training program is to _____.
a. assess the programs successes or failures
b. present the program to a small test audience
c. design the program content
d. conduct a needs analysis
e. train the targeted group of employees
(d; moderate; p. 270)

7. What is the second step in the training process?


a. assess the programs successes or failures
b. present the program to a small test audience
c. design the program content
d. conduct a needs analysis
e. train the targeted group of employees
(c; moderate; p. 270)

8. The third step in the training process is to _____.


a. assess the programs successes or failures
b. present the program to a small test audience
c. design the program content
d. conduct a needs analysis
e. train the targeted group of employees
(b; moderate; p. 270)

9. The fourth step in the training process is to _____.


a. assess the programs successes or failures
b. present the program to a small test audience
c. design the program content
d. conduct a needs analysis
e. train the targeted group of employees
(e; moderate; p. 270)

10. What is the final step in the training process?


a. assess the programs successes or failures
b. present the program to a small test audience
c. design the program content
d. conduct a needs analysis
e. train the targeted group of employees
(a; moderate; p. 270)

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11. James is currently identifying the specific job performance skills needed,
analyzing the skills of prospective trainees, and developing knowledge and
performance objectives based on the deficiencies he finds. James is
working on the _____ step in the training and development process.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
e. fifth
(a; moderate; p. 270)

12. Which of the following is not a consideration when designing a training


program that motivates the trainees?
a. provide the opportunity to apply the material
b. provide prompt feedback
c. utilize a half or three-fourths day schedule
d. pay the trainees for the time spent in training
e. allow trainees to set their own pace
(d; moderate; p. 271)

13. Which of the following is recommended for training sessions to maximize


learning?
a. a full day
b. a half-day
c. one hour
d. three hours
e. two hours
(b; moderate; p. 272)

14. If an employer fails to train an employee adequately and an employee


subsequently does harm to a third party, the court could find the employer
liable for ____.
a. negligent hiring
b. discrimination
c. negligent training
d. occupational fraud
e. adverse action
(c; moderate; p. 272)

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15. Which of the following steps will not help employers protect themselves
against charges of negligent training?
a. confirm employee claims of skill and experience
b. provide extensive training
c. evaluate the degree to which training lowers risks associated with job
d. pay employees for time spent in training
e. all of the above will help employers protect themselves
(d; difficult; p. 272)

16. Under which situation below, should an employer pay an employee for
time spent in training?
a. the training program is voluntary
b. the training program is directly related to the trainees job
c. the trainee does not perform any productive work during the program
d. the training program is conducted outside working hours
e. the training provides no immediate benefit to the employer
(b; difficult; p. 273)

17. _____ is a detailed study of the job to determine what specific skills the
job requires.
a. Needs analysis
b. Task analysis
c. Performance analysis
d. Training strategy
e. Development planning
(b; easy; p. 273)

18. Employers can supplement the job description and specification with a
_____ that consolidates information regarding required tasks and skills in
a format that is helpful for determining training requirements.
a. performance record form
b. training assessment form
c. task analysis record form
d. skill sheet
e. work function analysis
(c; moderate; p. 273)

19. A task analysis record form contains all of the following information
except
a. task list
b. required skill set
c. quality of performance
d. employee name
e. performance conditions
(d; moderate; p. 273)

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20. Employers can identify training needs for new employees by _____.
a. reviewing job descriptions
b. reviewing performance standards
c. performing the job
d. questioning current job holders
e. all of the above
(e; easy; p. 273)

21. The process of verifying that there is a performance deficiency and


determining if such deficiency should be corrected through training or
through some other means is called _____.
a. needs analysis
b. task analysis
c. performance analysis
d. training strategy
e. development planning
(c; moderate; p. 273)

22. The first step in a performance analysis is to _____.


a. compare the persons performance to ideal performance
b. evaluate productivity per employee
c. assess number of employee-related customer complaints
d. evaluate supervisor performance reviews
e. conduct tests of job knowledge
(a; moderate; p. 273)

23. Sources of performance deficiencies in an employee may develop from a


lack of _____.
a. training
b. supplies
c. support systems
d. rewards
e. all of the above
(e; moderate; p. 273)

24. _____ means having a person learn a job by actually doing it.
a. Practice
b. On-the-job training
c. Socialization
d. Social learning
e. Modeling
(b; easy; p. 275)

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25. Which of the following training methods is the most popular?
a. on-the-job training
b. apprenticeship training
c. informal learning
d. job instruction training
e. lectures
(a; moderate; p. 275)

26. On-the-job training can be accomplished through the use of all of the
following techniques except
a. coaching
b. programmed learning
c. understudy
d. job rotation
e. special assignments
(b; moderate; p. 275)

27. Rebekah was hired soon after graduation and assigned to complete a
management trainee program. She will move to various jobs each month
for a nine-month period of time. Her employer is utilizing the _____ form
of training.
a. job rotation
b. understudy
c. coaching
d. special assignments
e. informal learning
(a; moderate; p. 275)

28. Jack hopes to be promoted to head of his department next year. In the
meantime, he has been assigned to spend a year as assistant to the current
department head. This is an example of the _____ form of training.
a. job rotation
b. job instruction
c. coaching
d. special assignments
e. informal learning
(c; moderate; p. 275)

29. Which of the following guidelines is intended to Prepare the Learner for
success using on-the-job training?
a. explain performance quality requirements
b. go through the job at the normal work pace
c. designate to whom the learner should go for help
d. familiarize the worker with equipment, materials, and tools
e. compliment good work
(d; moderate; p. 276)

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30. Which of the following guidelines is intended to Present the Operation
when taking the steps for success using on-the-job training?
a. put the learner at ease
b. have the learner explain the steps as the trainer goes through the job at
a slow pace
c. explain the whole job
d. create interest in the job
e. compliment good work
(b; moderate; p. 276)

31. The Do a Tryout step for success when using on-the-job training entails
all of the following except _____.
a. finding out what the learner already knows about this job
b. having the learner go through the job several times while explaining
each step
c. running the job at the normal pace
d. having the learner do the job while gradually building up skill and
speed
e. correcting mistakes as the learner goes through the job
(a; moderate; p. 276)

32. Which of the following is not part of the Follow Up step in ensuring
success from on-the-job training?
a. decrease supervision
b. correct faulty work patterns
c. explain quantity and quality requirements
d. designate to whom the learner should go for help
e. compliment good work
(c; moderate; p. 276)

33. The first step to ensuring success for on-the-job training programs is to
_____.
a. present the operation
b. follow up
c. do a tryout
d. prepare the learner
e. evaluate the program
(d; easy; p. 276)

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34. When low expectations on the trainers part translate into poor trainee
performance, this is called the _____.
a. golem effect
b. expectations fallacy
c. what you ask for is what you get effect
d. expectancy risk
e. trainer bias
(a; moderate; p. 275)

35. A structured process by which people become skilled workers through a


combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training is called
_____.
a. job instruction training
b. understudy training
c. programmed learning
d. apprenticeship training
e. coaching
(d; easy; p. 276)

36. Which form of on-the-job training usually involves having a learner study
under the tutelage of a master craftsperson?
a. job instruction training
b. understudy training
c. programmed learning
d. apprenticeship training
e. coaching
(d; easy; p. 276)

37. All of the following occupations except _____ use apprenticeship training
to prepare trainees.
a. cook
b. electrician
c. millwright
d. operating engineer
e. teacher
(e; moderate; p. 276)

38. When jobs consist of a logical sequence of steps and are best taught step-
by-step, the appropriate training method to use is _____.
a. job instruction training
b. informal learning
c. job rotation
d. programmed learning
e. apprenticeship training
(a; moderate; p. 277)

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39. The first step in using a job instruction training program is to _____.
a. prepare the worker
b. list all necessary steps in the job
c. order the steps in the job
d. list key points or guidelines for each step
e. present the operation
(b; moderate; p. 277)

40. A disadvantage of lecturing as a method of training is that it is _____.


a. fast
b. appropriate for large groups
c. allow questions from the audience
d. boring
e. less expensive than written materials
(d; easy; p. 278)

41. _____ is a step-by-step self-learning method.


a. Job instruction training
b. Programmed learning
c. Apprenticeship training
d. Lecturing
e. Job rotation
(b; easy; p. 279)

42. Which of the following is not an advantage of programmed learning?


a. reduction in training time
b. facilitation of learning
c. reduced feeling of risk on the part of the learner
d. learning similar to that with textbook
e. immediate feedback provided
(d; moderate; p. 279)

43. Functional illiteracy is defined as _____.


a. reading below 9th grade level
b. the inability to handle basic reading, writing, and arithmetic
c. the inability to understand standard industry terminology
d. proficiency in math and reading skills at the 8th grade level and above
e. all of the above
(b; moderate; p. 279)

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44. Employers are responding to the problem of functional illiteracy by
_____.
a. testing the basic skills of job candidates
b. instituting literacy programs at work
c. conducting literacy audits
d. holding formal classes on math and reading
e. all of the above
(e; easy; p. 279)

45. Because illiterate employees will usually try to hide their problem,
supervisors can try to identify illiteracy problems by looking for
employees who _____.
a. do not follow written instructions
b. take forms home to complete
c. are multilingual
d. both a and b
e. all of the above
(d; moderate; p. 279)

46. Which of the following goals is the focus of diversity training?


a. to create cross-cultural sensitivity
b. to foster harmonious working relationships
c. to improve interpersonal skills
d. to socialize employees into the corporate culture
e. all of the above
(e; moderate; p. 280)

47. An advantage of conventional lecturing over the use of audiovisual-based


training is that _____.
a. audiovisuals are more boring
b. audiovisuals are more expensive
c. audiovisuals allow for instant replay and stop-action
d. audiovisuals can show events that are not easily demonstrated in live
lectures
e. audiovisuals can be easily sent to all locations
(b; moderate; p. 280)

48. Another term for vestibule training is _____.


a. apprenticeship training
b. computer-based training
c. cubicle training
d. simulated training
e. job instruction training
(d; moderate; p. 281)

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49. _____ is a method in which trainees learn on actual or simulated
equipment but are trained away from the job.
a. Vestibule training
b. Apprenticeship training
c. Retreat training
d. Cubicle training
e. Job instruction training
(a; moderate; p. 281)

50. Pilots train on flight simulators for safety, learning efficiency, and cost
savings. This is an example of _____.
a. apprenticeship training
b. on-the-job training
c. simulated training
d. coaching
e. programmed learning
(c; easy; p. 281)

51. _____ are computer-based training systems that learn what the trainee did
right and wrong and then adjusts the instructional sequence to the trainees
unique needs.
a. Programmed learning
b. Multi-media training
c. DVD training programs
d. Intelligent tutoring systems
e. Programmed instruction
(d; moderate; p. 281)

52. All of the following are advanced types of computer-based training except
_____.
a. interactive gaming systems
b. intelligent tutoring systems
c. interactive multimedia training
d. virtual reality training
e. all of the above are advanced types of computer-based training
systems
(a; moderate; p. 281)

53. A(n) _____ is a set of instruction, diagrams, or similar methods available


at the job site to guide the worker.
a. instruction sheet
b. job aid
c. task analysis record form
d. skill sheet
e. work function analysis
(b; easy; p. 282)

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54. United Airlines utilizes a checklist of things that pilots should do prior to
take-off and landing. This checklist is an example of a(n) _____.
a. job aid
b. instruction sheet
c. task analysis form
d. work function analysis
e. skill sheet
(a; moderate; p. 282)

55. Travel agents at Apollo Travel Services follow a computer program that
displays question prompts and dialogue boxes with travel policies as the
agent enters information about the consumers travel plans. This is an
example of a(n) _____.
a. job aid
b. electronic performance support system
c. intelligent tutoring system
d. computer-managed instruction
e. computer-based training
(b; moderate; p. 282)

56. With _____, a trainer in a central location teaches groups of employees at


remote locations via television hookups.
a. lecturing
b. audiovisual-based instruction
c. teletraining
d. teleteaching
e. distance learning
(c; easy; p. 283)

57. Any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge,


changing attitudes, or increasing skills is called _____.
a. diversity training
b. on-the-job training
c. performance improvement programs
d. management development
e. coaching
(d; easy; p. 285)

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58. The _____ process consists of 1) assessing the companys strategic needs,
2) appraising the current performance of managers, and 3) developing the
managers.
a. management development
b. management skills inventory
c. succession planning
d. action planning
e. performance support
(a; moderate; p. 285)

59. The _____ process consists of 1) anticipating management needs, 2)


reviewing the firms management skills inventory, and 3) creating
replacement charts.
a. management development
b. management skills inventory
c. succession planning
d. action planning
e. performance support
(c; moderate; p. 285)

60. Which on-the-job training method is used for managerial positions?


a. job rotation
b. coaching
c. action learning
d. outside seminars
e. all of the above
(e; easy; p. 286)

61. In a(n) _____, carefully selected teams tackle real world business
programs that extend beyond their usual areas of expertise and receive
coaching and feedback on their work.
a. management development program
b. action learning program
c. role playing program
d. job instruction program
e. understudy program
(b; moderate; p. 286)

62. The transparent, but often impermeable barrier that women face when
trying to move to top management is called the _____.
a. glass ceiling
b. glass wall
c. invisible corner office
d. iron wall
e. Mount Everest
(a; easy; p. 287)

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63. _____ is a special approach to organizational change in which the
employees formulate the change thats required and implement it.
a. Managerial development
b. Action research
c. Succession planning
d. Organizational development
e. Participative management
(d; moderate; p. 290)

64. Which of the following is not an application of organizational


development?
a. human process
b. technostructural
c. human resource management
d. strategic
e. interventions
(e; moderate; p. 290)

65. The basic aim of _____ is to increase the participants insight into his or
her own behavior and the behavior of others by encouraging an open
expression of feelings in a trainer-guided group.
a. sensitivity training
b. action research
c. group therapy
d. diversity training
e. coaching
(a; moderate; p. 295)

66. Which of the following organizational development techniques focuses on


technostructural applications?
a. t-groups
b. process consultation
c. quality circles
d. team building
e. goal setting
(c; moderate; p. 295)

67. Which organizational development application involves examples like


goal setting, performance appraisal, and employee wellness?
a. human process
b. strategic
c. technostructural
d. human resource management
e. process consultation
(d; easy; p. 295)

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68. Which of the following is not measured to evaluate a training program?
a. organizational productivity
b. participants reactions to the program
c. what trainees learned from the program
d. changes in on-the-job behavior
e. training objectives achieved
(a; moderate; p. 299)

69. In a _____, measures are taken before and after the training program so
they can be compared to assess the effectiveness of the program.
a. Soloman four-factor design
b. time series design
c. controlled experiment
d. post-test only design
e. factorial design
(b; moderate; p. 299)

70. When _____ are measured to assess the effectiveness of a training


program, variables such as liking of the program, satisfaction with the
program, and attitude toward the program are assessed.
a. learning outcomes
b. behavioral outcomes
c. results
d. reactions
e. productivity levels
(d; moderate; p. 299)

True/ False

71. Employee orientation programs range from brief, informal introductions to


lengthy, formal courses. (T; easy; p. 268)
72. Orientation refers to the methods used to give new or present employees
the skills they need to perform their jobs. (F; easy; p. 268)
73. Most employers do not develop their own training materials. (T; easy; p.
271)
74. Training sessions should be half-day or three-fourths day in length rather
than a full day, because the learning curve goes down late in the day. (T;
easy; p. 272)
75. Employers face the same consequences for discriminating against
protected individuals when selecting candidates for training programs as
they would in selecting candidates for jobs. (T; moderate; p. 272)
76. Employers must always pay employees for attending training programs.
(F; moderate; p. 273)

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77. The main task in analyzing current employees training needs is to
determine what the job entails, break the job down into subtasks, and then
teach each subtask to the employee. (F; moderate; p. 273)
78. Performance analysis is a detailed study of a job to determine what
specific skills the job requires. (F; easy; p. 273)
79. The golem effect refers to the occurrence of poor trainee performance
caused by low expectations for success by the trainer. (T; moderate; p.
275)
80. A disadvantage of on-the-job training is its expense. (F; easy; p. 275)
81. The American Society for Training and Development estimates that only
about 20% of what employees learn on the job is learned through informal
means while the rest is learned through formal training programs. (F;
moderate; p. 277)
82. Job instruction training is a step-by-step self-learning method which uses a
textbook, computer, or the Internet. (F; moderate; p. 277)
83. Some estimate that 50% of the U.S. population reads below the eighth-
grade level with about 90 million adults considered functionally illiterate.
(T; moderate; p 279)
84. Literacy training is sometimes a part of a diversity training program. (T;
moderate; p. 279)
85. Computer-managed instruction (CMI) is able to provide some of the
primary characteristics of a human tutor. (F; difficult; p. 281)
86. Intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) is more advanced than
intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) for providing tutoring. (F; difficult; p.
281)
87. Succession planning is a type of management development program. (T;
easy; p. 286)
88. Lewins change process consists of unfreezing, moving, and refreezing.
(T; easy; p. 292)
89. Management development is a special approach to organizational change
in which the employees themselves formulate the change that is required
and implement it. (F; moderate; p. 285)
90. Organizational development usually involves action research. (T;
moderate; p. 294)
91. Sensitivity training seeks to increase participants insight into their own
behavior and the behavior of others by encouraging an open expression of
feelings in a trainer guided t-group. (T; moderate; p. 295)
92. Survey research is a convenient way to unfreeze a companys management
and employees by providing comparative, graphic illustration of the fact
that the organization does have problems to solve. (T; easy; p. 295)
93. OD applications in human resource management involve changing firm
structure, methods, and job design to improve efficiency and productivity.
(F; moderate; p. 295)
94. Survey research is a technostructural OD technique. (F; moderate; p. 295)

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95. Human resource management OD applications use action research to
enable employees to analyze and change their firms personnel practices
such as performance appraisal and reward systems. (T; easy; p. 295)
96. Integrated strategic management is an OD method of developing and
implementing a strategic change plan. (T; easy; p. 295)
97. A survey of employee attitudes towards the training program is the most
frequently used assessment method. (F; moderate; p. 296)
98. When designing a training evaluation study, one can use a time series
design or a controlled experiment. (T; moderate; p. 299)
99. When a training program is evaluated by measuring the outcomes of a
group who receives the training and another group that receives no
training, it is called a time series design. (F; moderate; p. 299)
100. The four categories of training outcomes are reactions, learning, behavior,
and results. (T; easy; p. 299)

Essay/ Short Answer

101. What four things should a successful orientation program accomplish?


(moderate; p. 268)

Answer: New employees should feel welcome and at ease. New


employees should understand the organization in a broad sense including
its past, present, culture, and vision for the future. They should be clear
about what is expected in terms of work and behavior. They should have
begun the socialization process into the firms way of doing things.

102. Training is not useful if the trainee lacks the motivation to benefit from it.
The more meaningful the material, the more motivated an employee
should be to learn. How can a manager make training material more
meaningful for employees? (easy; p. 271)

Answer: There are five suggestions for making training material more
meaningful for employees. First, an overall picture of the training material
that will be presented should be provided at the start of training. Second,
familiar examples should be used. Third, the information should be
logically organized and presented. Fourth, the vocabulary used during
training should be familiar to the trainees. Fifth, many visual aids should
be used.

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103. There are several sources of information an employer can use to identify a
current employees training needs. List five of these sources of
information. (moderate; p. 273)

Answer: The possible sources of information include performance


reviews (supervisor, peer, self, and 360 degree); job-related performance
data such as productivity, absenteeism and tardiness, accidents, short-term
sickness, grievances, waste, late deliveries, product quality, downtime,
repairs equipment utilization, and customer complaints; observation by
supervisors or other specialists; interviews with the employee or the
supervisor; skill tests; attitude surveys; employee task diaries; and
assessment center results.

104. Trainers often try to solve employee performance deficiencies with


training, but some deficiencies cant be overcome with training. What
other causes might exist for performance deficiency from an employee?
(easy; p. 274)

Answer: Training is appropriate if the problem is caused by the employee


failing to understand how to do, what to do, or what the standards for
performance are. However, if employees are not provided with the proper
resources for doing a job well then training cannot solve this problem.
Likewise, if employees have the necessary knowledge and resources, then
the may not be motivated to improve performance.

105. There are several types of on-the-job training. Identify and describe three
types. Which one is used most often? Why? (moderate; p. 275)

Answer: The types of on-the-job training include the coaching or


understudy method, the job rotation method, and the special assignments
method. Using the understudy method, an experienced worker or the
trainees supervisor trains the employee. At lower levels, the trainee might
observe the supervisor, but it is also used at higher levels. Job rotation
means that an employee moves from job to job at planned intervals. This
is common in management training programs. Special assignments give
employees firsthand experience in working on actual problems. The
coaching or understudy method is used most often. It is the simplest to
execute and still offers the advantages of OTJ training.

106. What advantages are associated with on-the-job training? (moderate; p.


275

Answer: OJT is relatively inexpensive. Trainees learn while producing


and there is no need for expensive training facilities like classrooms or
programmed learning devices. OJT also facilitates learning because
trainees learn by doing and get prompt feedback on their performance.

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107. On-the-job training can be enhanced if trainers know the four-step job
instruction technique. What are the four steps in job instruction? Explain
what happens in each step. (moderate; p. 276)

Answer: The four steps in job instruction are to 1) prepare the learner, 2)
present the operation, 3) do a tryout, and 4) follow up. In the first step, the
trainer should try to put the learner at ease and relieve tension. The trainer
should explain why the trainee is being taught. The trainer should create
interest in the training by encouraging questions and finding out what the
learner already knows. The job should be explained to the trainee along
with making sure the trainee is familiar with the equipment, materials,
tools, and terminology of the trade. In the second step, the trainer should
explain the quantity and quality requirements of the job. The job should be
gone through at a normal pace and then at a slower pace several times
while explaining each step. After the steps have been covered, the learner
should explain the steps to the trainer while the trainer goes through the
job at a slow pace. In the third step, the learner should go through the job
several times slowly while explaining each step. Mistakes should be
corrected. Then the learner should do the job at a normal pace. This should
continue while the learner builds up skill and speed. Once the learner has
demonstrated ability to do the job, the work should begin, but the trainer
should stay close by. In the final step, the trainer should designate a
contact person the learner can reach for help. Supervision should be
gradually decreased but work should still be checked periodically for
quality and quantity standards. Any faulty work patterns should be
corrected. Finally good work should be complimented and the worker
encouraged until able to performance standards.

108. Describe the programmed learning training method and explain the three
parts of this form of instruction. (moderate; p. 279)

Answer: Programmed learning is a step-by-step self-learning method


using a medium such as a textbook, computer, or the Internet. The three
parts of the method include presenting questions, facts, and problems to
the learner, allowing the person to respond, and then providing feedback
on the accuracy of answers.

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109. What is the goal of succession planning? What steps are involved in the
process? (moderate; p. 286)

Answer: Succession planning refers to the process through which a


company plans for and fills senior-level openings. The typical succession
planning process involves several steps. First, anticipate management
needs based on factors like planned expansion. Next, review the firms
management skills inventory to assess current talent. Then, create
replacement charts that summarize potential candidates and each persons
development needs.

110. Changing employee attitudes, skills, and behaviors can be difficult.


Explain how Lewins Change Process proposes how change should be
implemented. (moderate; p. 292)

Answer: To Lewin, all behavior in organizations is a product of two kinds


of forces those striving to maintain the status quo and those pushing for
change. Implementing change means either weakening the status quo
forces or building up the forces for change. Lewins change process
consists of three steps: 1) unfreezing the forces that seek to maintain the
status quo, 2) moving to develop new behaviors and attitudes, and 3)
refreezing the organization into its new system to prevent it from reverting
to its old ways.

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