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ISSN 2320 - 2599

Volume 5, No. 6, November December 2016


Richa Gupta, International Journal of Microwaves
International Applications,
Journal 5(6), NovemberApplications
of Microwaves December 2016, 48 52
Available Online at http://www.warse.org/IJMA/static/pdf/file/ijma01562016.pdf

Development Analysis of Superstrate Magneto-Hydrodynamic Antenna


Richa Gupta
Asst.Professor
Maharaja Surajmal Institute of Technology,India,richaguptamsit@gmail.com
shows the design of antenna when magnetic bias is applied
ABSTRACT at bottom along with DC bias. The design is further
In this paper ,we experimentally investigates various stages analyzed when magnetic bias is applied at the side along
of antenna design, starting from patch antenna,DRA placed with magnetic bias as shown in Figure 5 .Figure 6. shows
over patch antenna, applying DC Bias voltage to hybrid the design of Antenna when it is embedded with superstate
combination of DRA over Patch. The effect of Antenna layer on top, keeping desired air gap along with DC and
parameters applying magnetic bias along with DC bias has
Magnetic Bias. Circular array of Patches are used as
also been observed. It has also been observed that when
superstrate layer of array has been placed over the DRA, Superstrate.The antenna gain can be increased by using
the antenna gain increases from 6.6db to 9.28 db.The superstrate layer. It has been further observed that by
various parameters of Antenna like Gain, reflection changing the position of superstrate circles as shown in
coefficient has been analyzed for various design Figure 7, an improvement in gain can be obtained. The gain
Keywords can further be enhanced by increasing the number of
DRA, Superstrate., Radiation pattern, Magnetic bias circular patches on superstrate layer. Figure 9 shows design
of antenna when circular patches on both sides of superstate
1. INTRODUCTION
The use of wireless communication and mobile phones has are applied.
changed our life style. Through the evolutionary process of
Technical development, a number of antenna has been
designed for supported application. In the field of mobile
communication, military, aeronautics, Antenna high gain,
Reconfigurability, miniaturized size, large bandwidth is the
major areas in which research is required.Microstrip
antenna was commonly used antenna since 1970s due to its
compact size, but it suffers from disadvantage of low
bandwidth and less gain.[3][2].DRA antenna have received
a lot of attention since last two decades due to its light
weight and high radiation efficiency. The major limitation
of DRA is its Low bandwidth[4][1].The concept of MHD
(Magnetohydrodyanamic) [6][7] is used in the design of
antenna. Magneto hydrodynamics involves a combination
of both electrical and magnetic fields in order to induce
mechanical flow in a fluid that is made conductive by Figure 1: Annular Ring
dissolving an electrolyte in it. This paper experimentally
investigates the various stages of Antenna design [5]. The
various results of gain has been simulated using Ansoft
High frequency Simulator (HFSS )and investigated
experimentally. In this paper various cases of antenna
design has been investigated and analysed.
2. ANTENNA DESIGN DECRIPTION
Figure 1 shows a annular ring of perfect conductive
material of radius 5mm and 12.5mm respectively on copper Figure 2: DRA on annular ring
ground plane. The dimensions of rectangular ground plane
are 80*80 mm2 .Standard SMA feed is connected at the
center point of annular ring for RF excitation. Figure 2
shows two cylindrical tubes of Propylene Random
Copolymer pipes (PPR) of radius 5mm and 12.5mm and
height 12mm respectively mounted on annular ring. The
cylindrical tubes are filled with sea water. The dielectric
properties of sea water can be changed by varying electric
and magnetic field. Figure 3. shows the design of antenna Figure 3: DRA on annular ring with dc
when DC Bias voltage is applied to antenna. Figure 4

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Richa Gupta, International Journal of Microwaves Applications, 5(6), November December 2016, 48 52

Figure 4: DRA on annular ring with dc and magnetic bias Figure 9: Circles on bothside of superstrate
applied bottom

3. RESUTS AND DISCUSSION


The designs of antenna has been simulated using Ansoft
high frequency simulator,HFSS.The measured reftection
coefficient charactertics S11 as a function of frequency of
antenna for designs 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 (Figures1-9) are
plotted in Figures 10-18. The radiation pattern obtained for
various designs 2,3,4,5,6,7,8 9 are shown in Figures 19-
Figure 5: DRA on annular ring with dc and magnetic bias
26.Simulated return loss results, gain and resonant
applied side
frequency results for various designs 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 are
shown in Table 1. It is observed from measured results that
there is significant improvement in return loss and gain of
antenna when antenna is embedded with superstate layer on
top. An improvement in gain is further observed by
increasing the number of circles in superstate layer.

XY Plot 7 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT

Figure 6: DRA on annular ring with dc and magnetic bias 0.00

-2.50
Curv e Info
dB(St(pin_T1,pin_T1))
Setup1 : Sw eep

applied side with superstrate


dB(St(pi n_T1 ,pi n_T1 ))

-7.50

-1 2.50

-1 7.50

-2 2.50
2.00 2.2 5 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.2 5 3.50 3.7 5 4 .00
Freq [GHz]

Figure 10: S11 in db vs Freq for design 1


XY Plot 3 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT
0.00 Curv e Info
dB(St(pin_T1,pin_T1))
Setup1 : Sw eep

-5.00
dB(St(pin_ T1,pin_ T1))

-1 0.00

-1 5.00

Figure 7: Superstrate circle position changes -2 0.00

-2 5.00
2.50 3 .75 5.0 0 6.25 7.50 8.75 10.00
Fre q [GHz]

Figure 11: S11 in db vs Freq for design 2

XY Plot 3 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT


0.00 Curv e Info
dB(St(pin_T1,pin_T1))
-2.50 Setup1 : Sw eep
dB(St(pi n_T1 ,pi n_T1 ))

-7.50

-1 2.50

Figure 8: Number of circles increases in superstrate


-1 7.50

-2 2.50
2.50 3 .75 5.0 0 6.25 7.50 8.75 10.00
Fre q [GHz]

Figure 12: S11 in db vs Freq for design 3

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Richa Gupta, International Journal of Microwaves Applications, 5(6), November December 2016, 48 52
XY Plot 10 HFSSDesign1 ANS OFT
0.00
Curve Info
dB( St(pin_T1,pin_T1))
Setup2 : Sw eep
-5.00

XY Plot 5 HFSSDesign1 ANS OFT


0.00

dB(St(pin_T1,pin_T1))
Curve Info -10.00
dB( St(pin_T1,pin_T1))
Setup2 : Sw eep1
-2.50
-15.00

-5.00
dB(St(pin_T1,pin_T1))

-20.00
-7.50

-10.00 -25.00

-12.50
-30.00
3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.75 5.00
-15.00 Freq [GHz]

-17.50

-20.00
3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00
Freq [GHz]
4.25 4.50 4.75 5.00
Figure 18: S11 in db vs Freq for design 9

Fig 13: S11 in db vs Freq for design 4


Radiation Pattern 2 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT

0 Curve Info
dB(GainTotal)
-30 30 Setup1 : LastAdaptive
4.00 Freq='4GHz' Phi='0deg'
dB(GainTotal)
XY Plot 9 HFSSDesign1 ANS OFT 0.50 Setup1 : LastAdaptive
0.00 -60 60 Freq='4GHz' Phi='10deg'
Curve Info
dB( St(pin_T1,pin_T1)) -3.00 dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : Sw eep Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='20deg'
-5.00 -6.50
dB(GainTotal)
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='30deg'
-90 90
dB(St(pin_T1,pin_T1))

dB(GainTotal)
-10.00 Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='40deg'
dB(GainTotal)
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='50deg'
-15.00
-120 120 dB(GainTotal)

-20.00
-150 150
-180
-25.00
3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.75 5.00
Freq [GHz]

Figure 19:Radiation and Gain Pattern for design 2


Figure 14: S11 in db vs Freq for design 5
Radiation Pattern 2 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT

0 Curv e Info
dB(GainTotal)
-30 30 Setup1 : Las tAdaptiv e
4 .00 Freq='4GHz ' Phi='0deg'
dB(GainTotal)
0 .50 Setup1 : Las tAdaptiv e
-60 60 Freq='4GHz ' Phi='10deg'

-3 .00 dB(GainTotal)
Setup1 : Las tAdaptiv e
Freq='4GHz ' Phi='20deg'
-6 .50
XY Plot 10 HFSSDesign1 ANS OFT
dB(GainTotal)
Setup1 : Las tAdaptiv e
0.00
Curve Info Freq='4GHz ' Phi='30deg'
-9 0 90
dB( St(pin_T1,pin_T1)) dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : Sw eep Setup1 : Las tAdaptiv e
Freq='4GHz ' Phi='40deg'
-5.00
dB(GainTotal)
Setup1 : Las tAdaptiv e
Freq='4GHz ' Phi='50deg'
-120 120 dB(GainTotal)
dB(St(pin_T1,pin_T1))

-10.00

-1 50 15 0
-15.00
-180

-20.00

-25.00
Figure 20: Radiation and Gain Pattern for design 3
-30.00
3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.75 5.00
Freq [GHz]

Figure 15: S11 in db vs Freq for design 6 Radiation Pattern 1 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT

0 Curv e Info
dB(GainTotal)
-30 30 Setup2 : Las tAdaptiv e
4 .00 Freq='4GHz ' Phi='0deg'
dB(GainTotal)
0 .50 Setup2 : Las tAdaptiv e
-60 60 Freq='4GHz ' Phi='10deg'

-3 .00 dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : Las tAdaptiv e
Freq='4GHz ' Phi='20deg'
-6 .50
dB(GainTotal)
XY Plot 14 HFSSDesign1 ANS OFT
Setup2 : Las tAdaptiv e
Freq='4GHz ' Phi='30deg'
0.00 -9 0 90
Curve Info dB(GainTotal)
dB( St(pin_T1,pin_T1)) Setup2 : Las tAdaptiv e
Setup2 : Sw eep Freq='4GHz ' Phi='40deg'

-5.00 dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : Las tAdaptiv e
Freq='4GHz ' Phi='50deg'
-120 120 dB(GainTotal)
dB(St(pin_T1,pin_T1))

-10.00

-1 50 15 0
-15.00 -180

-20.00

-25.00 Figure 21: Radiation and Gain Pattern for design 4


-30.00
3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.75 5.00
Freq [GHz]

Figure 16: S11 in db vs Freq for design 7 Radiation Pattern 2 HFSSDesign1 ANS OFT

0 Curve Info
dB(GainTotal)
-30 30 Setup2 : LastAdaptive
6.00 Freq='4GHz' Phi='0deg'
dB(GainTotal)
2.00 Setup2 : LastAdaptive
-60 60 Freq='4GHz' Phi='10deg'

-2.00 dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='20deg'
-6.00 dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
XY Plot 9 HFSSDesign1 ANS OFT
-90 90
Freq='4GHz' Phi='30deg'
0.00
Curve Info dB(GainTotal)
dB( St(pin_T1,pin_T1)) Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Setup2 : Sw eep Freq='4GHz' Phi='40deg'
dB(GainTotal)
-5.00 Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='50deg'
-120 120 dB(GainTotal)
dB(St(pin_T1,pin_T1))

-10.00

-150 150
-15.00 -180

-20.00

-25.00 Figure 22: Radiation and Gain Pattern for design 5


-30.00
3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.75 5.00
Freq [GHz]

Figure 17: S11 in db vs Freq for design 8

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Richa Gupta, International Journal of Microwaves Applications, 5(6), November December 2016, 48 52
Table 1:Result table for various design

Des Name S11(dB) Gain(d Resonant


Radiation Pattern 2 HFSSDesign1 ANS OFT
ign B) frequency
0 Curve Info

-30
6.00
30
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='0deg'
dB(GainTotal)
(GHz)
2.00 Setup2 : LastAdaptive
-60 60 Freq='4GHz' Phi='10deg'

-2.00 dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='20deg'

-90
-6.00

90
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='30deg'
1. Annular Ring -23.5284 6.6667 3
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='40deg'
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive

-120 120
Freq='4GHz' Phi='50deg'
dB(GainTotal)
2. DRA on annular -21.888 6.6667 3.6363
-150
-180
150
ring

Figure 23: Radiation and Gain Pattern for design 6 3. DRA on annular -20.5869 6.6010 3.6363
ring with dc

4. DRA on annular -20.8259 6.7000 3.6363


ring with dc and
magnetic bias
Radiation Pattern 2 HFSSDesign1 ANS OFT
applied bottom
0 Curve Info
dB(GainTotal)
-30 30 Setup2 : LastAdaptive
6.00 Freq='4GHz' Phi='0deg'

-60
2.00
60
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='10deg'
dB(GainTotal)
5. DRA on annular -22.2335 9.2262 3.6363
-2.00
Setup2 : LastAdaptive

-6.00
Freq='4GHz' Phi='20deg'
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='30deg'
ring with dc and
-90 90
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='40deg'
dB(GainTotal)
magnetic bias
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='50deg'
-120 120 dB(GainTotal)
applied side
-150 150
-180

6. DRA on annular -26.1607 9.2333 3.75


Figure 24: Radiation and Gain Pattern for design 7 ring with dc and
magnetic bias
applied side with
superstrate

7. Superstrate circle -26.2500 9.2262 3.75


Radiation Pattern 3 HFSSDesign1 ANS OFT
position changes
0 Curve Info
dB(GainTotal)
-30 30 Setup2 : LastAdaptive
6.00 Freq='4GHz' Phi='0deg'

-60
2.00

-2.00
60
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='10deg'
dB(GainTotal)
8. Number of -25.8096 9.2857 3.75
Setup2 : LastAdaptive

-90
-6.00

90
Freq='4GHz' Phi='20deg'
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='30deg'
circles increases
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='40deg'
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
in superstrate
Freq='4GHz' Phi='50deg'
-120 120 dB(GainTotal)

-150
-180
150
9. Circles on -27.2780 3.4876 3.75
bothside of
Figure 25: Radiation and Gain Pattern for design 8 superstrate

4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK


Radiation Pattern 2 HFSSDesign1
Curve Info
ANS OFT
In this paper, different techniques to improve the reflection
0
-30
6.00
30
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='0deg'
dB(GainTotal)
coefficient and gain of antenna are presented. It has been
-60
2.00

-2.00
60
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='10deg'
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
observed that optimized gain of 9.28 db is achieved through
design 8, by increasing the no. of circles on superstrate and
Freq='4GHz' Phi='20deg'
-6.00 dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='30deg'
-90 90
dB(GainTotal)
Setup2 : LastAdaptive
Freq='4GHz' Phi='40deg'
dB(GainTotal)
the optimum reflection coefficient S11 of -27.27 db is
Setup2 : LastAdaptive

-120 120
Freq='4GHz' Phi='50deg'
dB(GainTotal) observed for design 9. Hence, by implementing various
-150
-180
150 techniques of antenna design, gain of antenna is enhanced
from 6.6 db to 9.28 db.The various applications of antenna
Figure 26 : Radiation and Gain Pattern for design 9 can be 4G, Bluetooth, WLAN and Reconfigurable Wireless
network. Future work is to increase the gain of antenna by
applying variable magnetic and DC bias voltage, Prepare a
lookup table for various gain Vs voltage and automate the
system using the microcontroller.

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Richa Gupta, International Journal of Microwaves Applications, 5(6), November December 2016, 48 52

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Ltd., 2003 R.Gupta Fluid frame magneto hydrodynamic
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[2] C.A.Balanis,Antenna Technology:Past,Present 9, 2012.
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