Government of Afghanistan

Ministry of Counter Narcotics

AFGHANISTAN
Opium Rapid Assessment Survey

February 2006

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

Abbreviations ANP CPEF GPS ICMP MCN MoI ORAS RAS UNODC Afghan National Police Central Poppy Eradication Force Global Positioning System Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme (UNODC) Ministry of Counter-Narcotics Ministry of the Interior Opium Rapid Assessment Survey Research and Analysis Section (UNODC) United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

Acknowledgements The following organizations and individuals contributed to the implementation of the 2006 Opium Rapid Assessment Survey in Afghanistan and to the preparation of the present report:

Ministry of Counter-Narcotics: Ibrahim Azhar (Director, Survey and Monitoring Section), Zafer Zafar (Deputy Director, Survey and Monitoring Section), Kiali Jan (Survey Coordinator for the central region), Mateen (Survey Coordinator for the Nangarhar region), Abdul Latif (Survey Coordinator for the Herat region), Fida Mohammad (Survey Coordinator for the Balkh region), Mohammed Ishaq Anderabi (Survey Coordinator for the Badakhshan region), Ahmad Qais Aamir (database expert), Zuhra Saddiqe (data clerk), Nooria Khairandish (data clerk), Zia Ulhaq (data clerk).
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (Kabul)

Doris Buddenberg (Representative), Hakan Demirbüken (Regional Illicit Crop Monitoring Expert for South-West Asia and Survey Project Manager, RAS/ICMP), Shirish Ravan (Remote Sensing Expert, RAS/ICMP), Nazir Ahmad Shah (National Project Coordinator), Ziauddin Zaki (Database Expert), Fazal Mohammad Fazli (Coordinator for the Kandahar region), Mohammad Alam Ghalib (Coordinator for the Nangarhar region), Altaf Hussain Joya (Coordinator for the Herat region), Mohammed Alem Yaqubi (Coordinator for the Badakhshan region), Lutfi Rahman Lutfi (Coordinator for the Balkh region), Abdul Basir Basiret (Survey Coordinator for the Nangarhar region), Abdul Latif Ehsan (Survey Coordinator for the Herat region), Abdul Jalil Hussain Khel (Survey Coordinator for the Balkh region), Abdul Qadir Palwal (Survey Coordinator for the Kandahar region), Fawad Alahi (Survey Coordinator for the Herat Region), Abdul Mannan Ahmadzai (Administration/Finance Assistant).
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (Vienna)

Anja Korenblik (Programme Manager, RAS/ICMP), Thibault le Pichon (Chief, RAS), Martin Raithelhuber (Programme Officer, RAS/ICMP).

The survey would not have been possible without the dedicated work of the field surveyors. Implementation of the UNODC Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme in South-West Asia and of the Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey in 2006 was made possible thanks to financial contributions from the Governments of the United Kingdom, Italy and Finland.

1

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................... 3 1. 2. METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................................. 5 FINDINGS................................................................................................................................................ 7 2.1. GENERAL FINDINGS ........................................................................................................................... 7 NORTH-EASTERN ZONE ................................................................................................................................ 18 BADAKHSHAN PROVINCE ................................................................................................................... 18 TAKHAR PROVINCE.............................................................................................................................. 18 EASTERN ZONE ............................................................................................................................................ 20 NANGARHAR PROVINCE ..................................................................................................................... 20 KUNAR PROVINCE................................................................................................................................ 20 NURISTAN PROVINCE .......................................................................................................................... 22 NORTHERN ZONE ......................................................................................................................................... 23 BAGHLAN PROVINCE........................................................................................................................... 23 BALKH PROVINCE ................................................................................................................................ 23 BAMYAN PROVINCE ............................................................................................................................. 25 FARYAB PROVINCE .............................................................................................................................. 25 KUNDUZ PROVINCE............................................................................................................................. 26 JAWZJAN PROVINCE ............................................................................................................................ 26 SAMANGAN PROVINCE ........................................................................................................................ 27 SARI PUL PROVINCE ............................................................................................................................ 27 CENTRAL ZONE............................................................................................................................................ 28 GHAZNI PROVINCE .............................................................................................................................. 28 KHOST PROVINCE ................................................................................................................................ 28 LOGAR PROVINCE................................................................................................................................ 29 PAKTIKA PROVINCE............................................................................................................................. 29 PAKTYA PROVINCE .............................................................................................................................. 30 PARWAN PROVINCE ............................................................................................................................. 30 KAPISA PROVINCE ............................................................................................................................... 31 WARDAK PROVINCE............................................................................................................................. 31 SOUTHERN ZONE ......................................................................................................................................... 32 KANDAHAR PROVINCE ........................................................................................................................ 32 HELMAND PROVINCE.......................................................................................................................... 33 URUZGAN PROVINCE .......................................................................................................................... 34 ZABUL PROVINCE................................................................................................................................. 35 WESTERN ZONE ........................................................................................................................................... 36 HERAT PROVINCE ................................................................................................................................ 36 FARAH PROVINCE ................................................................................................................................ 36 NIMROZ PROVINCE.............................................................................................................................. 37 GHOR PROVINCE.................................................................................................................................. 37 BADGHIS PROVINCE............................................................................................................................ 38 Maps Map 1: Expected opium poppy cultivation trends in 2006 (by province) ......................................... 11 Map 2: Expected opium poppy cultivation trends in 2006 (by district) ............................................ 12 Map 3: Opium poppy planting calendar in 2006 ............................................................................. 13 Map 4: Expected opium poppy flowering time in 2006 ................................................................... 14 Map 5: Expected opium poppy harvest time in 2006 ...................................................................... 15 Map 6: Dry opium prices (USD) ...................................................................................................... 16 Map 7: ORAS 2006 sampling frame and selected villages............................................................. 17

2

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

INTRODUCTION
Within the framework of its global Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme (ICMP), UNODC cooperates with the Afghan Government to operate an opium monitoring system and to conduct annual opium surveys in Afghanistan, the largest centre of illicit opium production in the world. To ensure effective and continuous monitoring of the opium production problem in the country, the system includes three distinct but interrelated components:

1. OPIUM RAPID ASSESSMENT SURVEY (DECEMBER-JANUARY) The objective of the Opium Rapid Assessment Survey (ORAS) is to assess the situation at the middle of the cultivation cycle in order to guide the preparation of the Annual Opium Survey. Implemented over a three-week period beginning in early December, the ORAS collects information on the geographical distribution and dynamics of opium poppy cultivation and anticipated harvest times. It also attempts to gather information on other factors likely to influence the implementation of the Annual Opium Survey, such as eradication activities and the security situation on the ground. It does not give a quantitative forecast of the forthcoming opium harvest. The ORAS 2006 was conducted earlier than the ORAS of previous years in order to make the relevant results available to the Afghan Government and main stakeholders in good time, i.e. before the opium poppy flowering period. The early scheduling of the survey has the added advantage that the field work can be completed before weather conditions become unfavourable.

2. ANNUAL OPIUM SURVEY (MARCH-AUGUST) Implemented from April to August, the Annual Opium Survey combines ground-level and remote sensing activities to create a robust yet flexible opium monitoring instrument. It provides quantitative estimates and detailed maps of the geographical distribution and levels of opium poppy cultivation and opium production during the year. The report of this survey is published around September. The 2006 Survey will comprise the following elements: Opium Poppy Cultivation Survey Estimates of areas under opium poppy cultivation in the provinces of Badakhshan, Nangarhar, Kunar, Laghman, Kandahar, Uruzgan, Helmand, Farah, Nimroz, Faryab, Jawzjan, Badghis, Sari Pul, Samangan, Daykundi, Ghor, Herat, Zabul and Balkh will be drawn up using satellite images (in 19 of Afghanistan’s 34 provinces). A village survey will monitor opium poppy cultivation in those provinces which are not covered by satellite imagery. In addition, the Village Survey for 2006 will cover issues relating to cannabis cultivation, poverty, drug trafficking and a variety of socio-economic factors affecting villages and farmers. Crop Development Survey In order to gain a better understanding of crop development over the year and its associated phenological patterns in different ecological zones, surveyors take photos of fields with opium poppy, wheat and a number of other crops in strategically selected villages every 15 days over a period of two and a half months. The location of the photographs is recorded with a GPS device. This information helps to optimize the timing of the field work of the Opium Poppy Cultivation Survey and facilitates a more detailed interpretation of the satellite images.

3

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

Yield Survey A capsule measurement survey is carried out during harvest time to estimate opium poppy yield. A village survey will be carried out in 320 villages, in each of which three fields will be visited. Eradication Verification Survey Eradication activities in 2006 will be carried out by Governors, the Afghan Eradication Forces (AEF) and the Afghan National Police (ANP). The Ministry of Counter-Narcotics and UNODC will jointly verify all eradication activities, using village survey visits, aerial photographs and satellite images.

3. MONTHLY PRICE COLLECTION As a proxy indicator of opium market dynamics in Afghanistan, opium prices are collected every month throughout the year in various provinces of Afghanistan (Helmand, Kandahar, Nangahar, Badakhshan, Balkh and Herat). In 2006, price collection will be extended to other selected provinces such as Farah, Ghor and Faryab. This report presents the findings of the 2006 Opium Rapid Assessment Survey. The results of the ORAS provide important inputs for planning the forthcoming Annual Opium Survey, inter alia with respect to security provided for the surveyors, trends in and the importance of opium poppy cultivation, eradication levels, expected harvest time, etc. The survey reports are available at: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop_monitoring

4

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

1. METHODOLOGY
The Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, including training and deployment, was conducted from 4 December 2005 to 8 January 2006 by 70 local field surveyors. It was jointly supervised by the Ministry of Counter-Narcotics (MCN) and UNODC. The surveyors were selected on the basis of their experience in opium poppy surveys, knowledge of local customs and their acceptance by local communities. The surveyors conducted structured interviews with the ‘headmen’ of selected villages in each district. A total of 469 villages in 266 districts were surveyed across all provinces.1 A stratified sampling method was used to select the villages. The results of previous surveys show that opium poppy cultivation is most successful at altitudes below 1500m, where it is significantly more widespread than in areas of higher elevation, whereas opium poppy cultivation above 2500m is comparatively rare. In view of the uneven distribution of opium poppy cultivation at different elevations, a stratified sampling method was used to select the sample villages. The villages in the sampling frame were divided into three groups (strata) according to their elevation: Group 1: Villages located at an elevation of less than 1500m Group 2: Villages located at elevations between 1500m and 2500m Group 3: Villages located at an elevation of more than 2500m Villages were selected from each group using a systematic random selection technique. The total sampling ratio was 1.5 per cent. The design and size of the sample facilitate the establishment of cultivation trends. The sample is not designed for calculating quantitative areas or production estimates. In addition to the sample villages, the surveyors, using their knowledge of the local situation, visited other areas in the province to complement their assessment both of opium poppy cultivation trends and the security situation throughout the province. Surveyor training and data collection A total of 70 surveyors, together with nine survey coordinators, were given training in the use of the survey form and survey techniques over a four-day period prior to the survey by local UNODC staff in Kabul. In Afghanistan, opium poppy cultivation is illegal and considered to be forbidden under Islam. The collection of information on such a sensitive subject is therefore difficult and can be dangerous. Surveyors are selected from different regions of Afghanistan through a very careful selection process. UNODC and MCN regional offices and coordinators recruit surveyors according to the survey specifications and the surveyors’ skills. Most of the selected surveyors already have experience in conducting UNODC surveys. Surveyors were trained in techniques for approaching local community members and conducting interviews. Following intensive theoretical and practical training, they were deployed to the field, where inter alia they interviewed headmen of villages. UNODC and MCN coordinators monitored both the surveyors and the progress of the survey closely. Fortunately, the surveyors did not face any security problems.

In 2005, the Afghan Government reorganized the country's administrative division into 34 provinces. However, for technical reasons, the ORAS 2006 was designed, and its results are presented, according to the previous administrative division of 32 provinces.

1

5

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

On a trial basis, the surveyors also collected information relating to crime and the justice system. The data collected and experience gained will provide useful information for the further development of crime-related data collection activities. Photo: Surveyors during training

Photo: Data collection (surveyor interviews village headman)

6

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

2. FINDINGS 2.1. GENERAL FINDINGS

Opium poppy cultivation The Opium Rapid Assessment Survey (ORAS) for 2006 shows an increasing trend in opium poppy cultivation in 13 provinces, a decreasing trend in three provinces and no change in 16 provinces as compared to the results of the Annual Opium Poppy Survey 2005. At the end of February 2005, the Ministry of Counter-Narcotics and UNODC announced an expected decrease in opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan, which was confirmed by the survey results reported in August 2005. In 2005, the main reason for that decrease was non-cultivation in major opium poppy-growing provinces such as Nangarhar, Uruzgan, Laghman, Badakhshan and Kunar. However, ORAS results for 2006 indicate that the situation is different this year. Villagers have already planted crops on a scale equal to or exceeding that of 2005, on the basis of which opium poppy cultivation in the majority of Afghanistan’s provinces is not expected to decrease in 2006. This situation may change, however, depending on the eradication campaign scheduled for 2006. No major eradication activity was reported in Afghanistan between the beginning of the planting period (October-November 2005) and the end of December 2005. A comparison of provincial trends expected in 2006 and opium poppy cultivation levels in the same provinces in 2005 indicates an increase in cultivation in 13 of 32 provinces in 2006. Farmers in those provinces are aware of the Government’s ban on opium poppy cultivation and the planned eradication campaign, but do not believe that those measures will be enforced. In the Helmand, Badakhshan, Zabul, Ghor and Uruzgan provinces, which together accounted for 40 per cent of the total area under opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan in 2005, a sharp increase in cultivation is expected. Whilst in 2005 there was a steep decrease in cultivation (by 58 per cent in Uruzgan and 53 per cent in Badakhshan) compared to 2004, most villagers have now resumed opium poppy cultivation in the majority of districts in those provinces. In Nangarhar province, in districts close to the centre — where the provincial police have strong control — villagers have avoided opium poppy cultivation, whereas in remote districts most farmers are cultivating opium poppy at much higher levels than in 2005. An expected decrease in opium poppy cultivation is reported in only three provinces where opium poppy cultivation is neither traditional nor intensive (Nuristan, Sari Pul and Samangan). In 16 provinces, the same level of cultivation as in 2005 is expected in 2006. Both the 2005 Annual Opium Survey and the 2006 Opium Rapid Assessment Survey confirm that opium poppy grows more successfully in villages at elevations below 1500m than in those at higher elevations. Cultivation at elevations above 2500m is very limited due to poor weather conditions. Opium poppy may still be planted in upland areas of the northern and central provinces until midMarch, particularly in rain-fed areas, potentially leading to a further increase in opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan as a result of good snow coverage and water availability. Eradication The Opium Rapid Assessment Survey did not assess the implementation of the eradication campaign, but collected general information on eradication activities in those districts visited. Limited eradication was reported in the Balkh, Kandahar, Sari Pul, Samangan and Laghman provinces by the beginning of January 2006.

7

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

Eradication activities will be implemented largely from mid-January 2006 by Governors in Afghanistan, following which the Afghan Eradication Forces (AEF), the Afghan National Police (ANP) and Governors will carry out eradication jointly in opium poppy-growing provinces. The Ministry of Counter-Narcotics and UNODC will jointly verify eradication activities carried out in 2006. Reasons for opium poppy cultivation Respondents reported the following reasons for opium poppy cultivation (Table 1): Table 1: Reasons for opium poppy cultivation in 2006
Number of observations Percentage 225 37.2% 178 29.4% 122 20.2% 40 6.6% 18 3.0% 13 2.1% 3 0.5% 2 0.3% 2 0.3% 1 0.2% 1 0.2% 605 100.0%

Reasons for cultivation Poverty alleviation (provision of basic food and shelter) High sale price of opium No aid received from Government or other sources Purchase of luxury items (e.g. vehicle, television, etc.) Greater profit in relation to area of land cultivated External pressure (e.g. from traders or local commanders) Lack of water during summer High price of food Low prices for wheat and cotton Demand among addicts Lack of land Total

Opium poppy farmers earn up to 10 times more per hectare cultivated than cereal farmers, which makes opium poppy cultivation an attractive option for farmers (see Afghanistan Opium Survey 2005 (UNODC)). Some 20 per cent of those farmers interviewed complain of lack of aid or assistance. Interestingly, 6.6 per cent gave “purchase of luxury items” such as televisions, vehicles, refrigerators, etc., as their reason for growing opium poppy. Unemployment is a persistent problem in Afghanistan. The ORAS reports that some 23 per cent of the male population (age 15 and above) in the survey sample are unemployed. The rural population expects more employment opportunities from the government – an expectation that is often not fulfilled. In villages visited in the Badakhshan, Helmand, Kandahar, Uruzgan, Zabul and Nimroz provinces, farmers reported that they had received advance payments from drug traffickers to grow opium poppy. Groups such as drug smugglers are encouraging villagers to grow opium poppy, particularly in Helmand province. They give villagers guarantees for the protection of land on which opium poppy is cultivated, and in some areas use threats and intimidation to force those farmers that have not yet cultivated opium poppy to do so. Prices In addition to the monthly collection of price information for key provinces, the ORAS 2006 collected price information in all 469 villages surveyed. The average farm-gate price of dry opium is US$144 per kilogramme, whilst fresh opium costs US$113 per kilogramme (prices as at time of survey). An overview of dry opium prices by province shows that prices are higher in southern, western and eastern provinces, whilst generally lower in the northern provinces.

8

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

Graph 1: Average farm-gate prices for dry opium (US$/kg)

250 200
US$/kg

222 180 154 136 187 170 161 167171161 152145150 147139 137 123

150 124 107 100 50 0

Ja n-0 5

Ju n-0 4

Ma r-0 5

Ma y-0 5

Ju n-0 5

Ju l-05

Ju l-04

Oc t-0 5

No v-04

Feb-0 5

Se p-05

No v-05

Oc t-0 4

Ap r-05

De c-04

Source: UNODC Monthly Opium Price Report for Afghanistan, December 2005 High prices are found inter alia in Nangarhar and Nimroz. In Nangarhar, where law enforcement is strong, the price of dry opium per kilogramme is US$207. In Nimroz, a border province that is used as a major trafficking route to Iran and Pakistan, prices reach US$205 per kilogramme. Map 6 illustrates these regional price differences for dry opium. Farmers in Afghanistan usually cultivate crops twice a year in irrigated areas, typically growing maize, rice, vegetables or cotton following the opium poppy or wheat harvest. Some grow cannabis following the first harvest during the summer. ORAS results indicate that farmers earn a net per hectare income of US$540 from cotton, US$665 from vegetables and US$1,650 from maize. A wheat farmer can earn a net income of US$450 per hectare. None of Afghanistan’s agricultural products can currently match per hectare income from opium poppy, which is estimated at US$4000. External assistance Of the 469 villages visited, 429 received external assistance (91 per cent). A total of 927 assistance activities were reported in those 429 villages. The distribution of external assistance is presented in Table 2:

Se p-04

Au g-04

De c-05

Au g-05

9

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

Table 2: Distribution of external assistance activities 2005

Assistance received GOVERNMENT Medical (including vaccinations) 165 Agricultural inputs (including fertilizers) 98 Education/school 48 Construction (roads/other) 32 Cash for labour 11 Electricity 6 Drinking water Food Dam construction 2 Cash as credits Carpet-weaving machines Digging of deep wells Household appliances Tents Wheat as payment for labour Total 362

NGOs (Including USAID) 86 46 54 70 35 4 5 1 1 2 1 1 1

307

Provincial Reconstructio n Team RED Total as (PRT) CROSS UN USAID WHO Total percentage 3 1 130 1 12 398 42.8% 5 8 7 167 18.0% 2 36 8 148 15.9% 5 16 5 128 13.8% 5 5 1 57 6.1% 1 11 1.2% 5 0.5% 1 3 5 0.5% 1 4 0.4% 2 0.2% 1 0.1% 1 0.1% 1 0.1% 1 1 0.1% 1 1 0.1% 21 3 200 22 12 930 100.0%

In those villages visited, 21 per cent of assistance activities were provided by the United Nations. External assistance provided between January 2005 and January 2006 was largely nonagricultural. In 2004, agricultural assistance activities accounted for 11 per cent of the total assistance provided, as compared to 18 per cent in 2005. Field security Security was good in most provinces during the Opium Rapid Assessment Survey. However, it was a concern in most areas of Kandahar, Zabul, Farah, the border districts of Nangarhar, Paktya, Paktika and Khost and northern and southern areas of Helmand. This situation may worsen as the opium poppy flowering or harvesting period approaches, since most of these areas report that villagers and certain groups are prepared to resist eradication.

10

Afghanistan: Expected opium poppy cultivation trends in 2006 (by province -at the time of the Survey, 10th December 2005 - 4th January 2006)

UZBEKISTAN
TAJIKISTAN
Fayz Abad #

TURKMENIS TAN

10837

275 Mazar-E-Sharif #

Jawzjan
2665 3227

Kunduz

Takh ar
1364

Balkh

Badakshan

Sam angan
3874

Fary ab
2967

Sari Pu l

Baghlan
2563 0 1554 274

Nuristan

7370

1748

Badghis
# 1924 2689 4605

Parwan Kapisa
Bamy an
126 106 115 0 #

1059

Herat Ghor Uruzgan

Wardak
0

Kabul

Kunar Lagh man
1093 # Jalalabad Peshwar #

Loga r
0 Pakt ya

Nangarha r
0

0

Khost Ghazni

10240

#

Fara h

Zabu l
2053

0

Pakt ika

Legend
#
Main Cities

Province Boundaries
#

IRAN

1690

12989

Kandahar

International Boundaries
2005 Cultivation level (ha)

Nimroz

Helm and
Quetta #

Source: MCN - UNODC Afghanistan Rapid Assesment Survey 2006 (http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop_monitoring.html) Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

26500

PAKISTAN
Cultivation trend as compared to 2005

¯

0

50 100
Kilometers

Decrease (-50% < and < -10%) No Change (-10% < and < 10%) Increase (10% < and < 50% ) Strong Increase (> 50%)

Geographic Projection Datum: WGS 84

Afghanistan: Expected opium poppy cultivation trends in 2006 (by province- At the time of the Survey, 10th December 2005 -4th January 2006)
Legend
#

Main Cities Province Boundaries International Boundaries

UZBEKISTAN

Darwaz Khwahan

TURKMENIS TAN
Khamyab

TAJIKISTAN

Cultivation trend as compared to 2005 Decrease (-50% < and < -10%) No Change (-10% < and < 10%)

Shortepa Qarqin Khani Chahar Kaldar Mingajik Dawlat AbadNahri Shahi Andkhoy Wakhan Khwaja Du Ko Mardyan Balkh Mazar-E-Sharif Aqcha Qaramqol Increase (10% < and < 50% ) Fayz Abad # Khulm Kishim Bangi Taluqan Chahar Dara Strong Increase (> 50%) Dawlat Abad Chimtal Ali Abad Shibirghan Chal Farkhar Jurm Chahar Kint Baghlani Jad Ishkamish Sholgara Sari Pul Zebak Shirin Tagab Aybak Baghlan Burka DarzabSayyad Sozma Qala Warsaj Khuram Wa Sabagh Khwaja Sabz Maymana Puli Khumri NahrinKhost Wa Firing Almar Kishindih Kuran Wa Munjan Sangcharak Bargi Matal Dara-I- Suf Ghormach Bilchiragh Andarab Ruyi Du Ab Qaysar Pashtun Kot Dushi Hisa-I-Awali Wama Kamdesh Balkhab Murghab Khinjan Kohistan Kohistanat Tala Wa Barfak Mandol SalangPanjsher Nari Muqur Kahmard Nijrab Jawand Ghorband Waygal Bar Kunar Gulran Qadis Ab Kamari Nuristan Pech Asad Abad Kushk Yakawlang Shibar Dangam Qalay-I- Naw Bamyan Shekh Ali Alingar Surkhi Parsa BagramKohi Safi Tagab Kushki Kuhna an Bamy Nurgal Sirkanay Kohsan Dih SabzSurobi Hisa-I- Awali Bihsud JalrezNirkh Chaghcharan Lal Wa Sarja # Goshta Karukh Panjab Qarghayi # Chishti Shar Zinda Jan Injil Bagrami Markazi Bihs Hirat # RodatJalalabad Obe Hisarak Lal Pur Day Mirdad Azra Peshwar Ghoryan GuzaraPashtun Zarghun Waras Shahrak Chaki Wardak Dur Baba Day Kundi # Jaji KhogyaniDih Bala Achin Tulak Sayd AbadPuli Alam Chamkani Farsi Nawur Jaghatu Charkh Shahristan Adraskan Sabari Ghazni Gardez BakJaji Maydan Pasaband Bahrami Shah Ajristan Saghar Taywara Dih Yak Zurmat Shwak Tere Zayi Jadran Kijran Malistan Gizab Qarabagh Andar Mata Khan Ziruk SperaTani Gurbuz Shindand Jaghuri Sharan Pur Chaman Giro Baghran Shahidi Hass Sar HawzaUrgunGayan ChoraKhas Uruzgan Anar Dara Omna MuqurAb Band Kamdesh Hisa-I-Awali Sarobi Daychopan Gelan Tirin Kot Zarghun Shah Barmal Panjsher Eastern Afghanistan Khaki Safed Bala Buluk Wama Mandol Dihrawud Arghandab Gulistan Waygal Bar Kunar Nari Hisa-I-Duwum Musa Qala Pusht Rod Dila Shahjoy NURISTAN Naw Zad Nesh # Kajaki Qalay-I-Kah Kohistan Koh BandPARWAN Bakwa Nijrab Farah Nawa Nuristan Gomal Qalat Dawlat Shah Asad Abad Shib Koh Shah Wali Ko Mizan Waza Khwa Mahmud Raqi Washer Dangam SanginGhorak Khakrez Chapa Dara Pech Bagram Alasay Tarnak Wa Ja Shinkay Wor Mamay Shamulzayi Nahri Sarraj KUNAR Marawara Arghandab Lash Wa Juwa Kohi Safi Tagab Atghar Alingar Khash Rod Alishing Narang Arghistan # Maywand Kandahar Daman Chawkay Sirkanay KAPISA Nad Ali LAGHMAN Dara-I-Nur Lashkar Gah Nurgal Maruf Dih Sabz Mihtarlam Naway i Barakzayi Khas Kunar Kang

Jawzjan

Ragh Shighnan Darqad Chah Ab Shahri Buzur Yangi Qala Fayz Abad # Imam Sahib Khwaja GharRustaq Fayz Abad Baharak Kunduz Archi Qalay-I- Zal Ishkashim Kalafgan

Kunduz

Takh ar

Balkh

Badakshan

Sam angan

Fary ab

Sari Pu l

Baghlan

Nuristan

Badghis

Parwan Kapisa Kabul

Kunar Lagh man Nangarha r

Hirat

Wardak

Ghor

Loga r

Uruzgan

Pakt ya Khost

Ghazni

Fara h

Zabu l

Pakt ika

Kandarhar
Spin Boldak

Chakhansur

Panjwayi Reg

#

IRAN

Bagrami

KABUL Surobi
Khaki Jabbar

Qarghayi

Kuz Kunar

Zaranj

Jalal AbadKama Surkh Rod # Hisarak Sherzad Khogyani Pachir Wa Agam

Goshta

Nimroz
Chahar Burja Dishu

Hilm and
Garmser Reg Shorabak

PAKISTAN
Quetta #

LOGAR
Khushi Puli Alam

Azra Jaji

NANGARHAR

Lal Pur Chaparhar Bati Kot Rodat ShinwarMuhmand Dara Nazyan Dur Baba Dih Bala Achin

#

¯

0

50 100
Kilometers

Geographic Projection Datum: WGS 84

KHOST PAKTYA Jani Khel Jaji Maydan
Gardez Musa KhelSabari Bak

Dand Wa Pata Lija Mangal Chamkani Sayid Karam

Source: MCN - UNODC Afghanistan Rapid Assesment Survey 2006 (http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop_monitoring.html) Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Afghanistan: Opium poppy planting calendar in 2006
UZBEKISTAN
Khwahan Darwaz

TURKMENIS TAN
Khamyab Qarqin Shortepa Kaldar Khani Chahar MingajikMardyan Dawlat Abad Andkhoy Nahri Shahi Khwaja Du Ko Aqcha Chahar BolakBalkh Mazar-E-Sharif Qaramqol Fayz Abad Marmul # Khulm Dawlat Abad Darqad Chah Ab Shahri Buzur Yangi Qala Imam Sahib Qalay-I- ZalKunduz Khwaja Ghar Rustaq Archi

TAJIKISTAN
Shighnan

Ragh

# Fayz Abad

Fayz Abad
Baharak Ishkashim Wakhan

Jawzjan

Chimtal

Shibirghan Shirin Tagab Darzab Almar Ghormach Qaysar Murghab Kohistan Muqur Gulran Kushk Kohsan Injil Zinda Jan Hirat # Ab Kamari Qalay-I- Naw Kushki Kuhna Qadis Jawand Khwaja SabzMaymana Sangcharak Bilchiragh Sayyad Sari Pul Sozma Qala

Chahar Kint Sholgara

Kunduz Takh ar Balkh Hazrati Sultan Chahar DaraAli Abad Bangi Taluqan KalafganKishim Badakshan Farkhar
Baghlani Jad Aybak Baghlan Puli Khumri Ishkamish Chal Jurm Zebak Burka Nahrin Khost Wa Firing Kuran Wa Munjan Bargi Matal Hisa-I-Awali Mandol Wama Kamdesh Khuram Wa Sabagh Warsaj

Kishindih

Sam angan
Dara-I- Suf Ruyi Du Ab

Legend #
Main Cities Province Boundaries

Fary ab

Dahana-I- Ghori Dushi

Pashtun Kot

Sari Pu l

Baghlan
Khinjan Andarab Salang Panjsher Nijrab Hisa-I-Duwum

Balkhab

Kohistanat Kahmard Tala Wa Barfak

Badghis
Chishti Shar

Hirat

Karukh Obe

Ghoryan

Guzara

Pashtun Zarghun Tulak Farsi Shahrak

Ghor

Adraskan Saghar Shindand Anar Dara Bala Buluk Khaki Safed Pusht Rod Qalay-I-Kah Shib Koh Gulistan Taywara

Pur Chaman

Nari Waygal Bar Kunar Nuristan Pech Asad Abad Shibar Shekh Ali Yakawlang Dawlat Shah Dangam Bamyan Marawara BagramKohi SafiTagab Alishing Alingar Surkhi Parsa Istalif Nurgal Shakardara Dih SabzSurobi Chaghcharan Khas Kunar Lal Wa Sarja Hisa-I- Awali Bihsud Jalrez NirkhPaghman # Goshta Panjab Qarghayi Bagrami # Markazi Bihs Jalalabad Muhammad Agh Hisarak Sherzad Rodat Lal Pur Waras Day Mirdad Azra Peshwar Chaki Wardak Dur Baba Day Kundi # Khogyani Dih BalaAchin Puli AlamKhushi Jaji Sayd Abad Sayid Karam Lija MangalDand Wa Pata Shahristan Jaghatu Nawur Jani Khel Charkh Zana Khan SabariJaji Maydan Pasaband Gardez Ghazni Bahrami Shah Bak Ajristan Shwak Dih Yak Zurmat Kijran Gizab Tere Zayi Jadran Malistan Khost(Matun) Qarabagh Andar Mata Khan Nika ZirukSpera Tani Gurbuz Jaghuri Sharan Sar Hawza Giro Khas Uruzgan Baghran Shahidi Hass Urgun Gayan Chora MuqurAb Band Omna Ghorband Shinwari

Nuristan

Planting Dates
September October November December March October/March October/February November/March International Boundaries

Parwan Kapisa Kabul

Bamy an

Kunar Lagh man Nangarha r

Wardak

Loga r

Uruzgan

Pakt ya Khost

Ghazni

Dihrawud Tirin Kot Musa Qala Kajaki Naw Zad Nesh

Daychopan Arghandab

Gelan

Zarghun Shah Dila Gomal

Sarobi Barmal

PARWAN Eastern Afghanistan

#

Fara h
Farah Bakwa Washer

NURISTAN

Zabu l

Shahjoy Nawa

Pakt ika
Waza Khwa

Lash Wa Juwa

Khash Rod Nad Ali Kang Chakhansur

Shah Wali Ko Mizan Qalat Sangin Ghorak Khakrez Tarnak Wa Ja Shinkay Nahri Sarraj Arghandab Maywand

KAPISA
Wor Mamay

Shamulzayi Atghar

KUNAR LAGHMAN

# Kandahar

Arghistan Maruf

Lashkar Gah Naway i Barakzayi Panjwayi

Kandarhar
Daman Spin Boldak

#

IRAN

KABUL #

Zaranj

Reg

Nimroz
Chahar Burja Dishu

Hilm and
Garmser Reg Shorabak

PAKISTAN
Quetta #

NANGARHAR LOGAR #

¯

0

50 100
Kilometers

PAKTYA

Geographic Projection Datum: WGS 84

KHOST
Source:MCN - UNODC Afghanistan Rapid Assessment Survey 2006 (http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop_monitoring.html) Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Afghanistan: Expected opium poppy flowering time in 2006
UZBEKISTAN

TAJ IKIS TAN
Ragh Darqad Qarqin Shortepa Kaldar Dawlat Abad Chahar Balkh Bolak Dihdadi Chimtal Imam Sahib Qalay-I- Zal Archi Yangi Qala Khwaja Ghar Taluqan Kalafgan Kishim Bangi Chal Farkhar Ishkamish Burka Warsaj Nahrin Kuran Wa Munjan Bargi Matal Andarab Kamdesh Mandol Chah Ab Shahri Buzur

TURKMENIS TAN

Khani Chahar Andkhoy Qaramqol Dawlat Abad

Mingajik Mardyan Khwaja Du Ko Aqcha Fayz Abad

Rustaq

!

Fayz Abad
Baharak Ishkashim

Shibirghan

Balkh Mazar-E-Sharif ! Khulm
Nahri Shahi Marmul Chahar Kint

Kunduz
Khan Abad Ali Abad

Takhar

Chahar Dara

Badakshan
Jurm

Jawzjan Faryab
Shirin Tagab Darzab Almar Khwaja Sabz Pashtun Kot Maymana Bilchiragh Sayyad Sari Pul Sozma Qala Sangcharak

Hazrati Sultan Baghlani Jad Aybak Khuram Wa Sabagh

Legend
!
Main Cities

Sholgara Baghlan Puli Khumri Dahana -I- Ghori Dushi

Province Boundaries International Boundaries

Kishindih

Dara-I- Suf

Qaysar

Samangan
Sari Pul
Kohistanat Balkhab Ruyi Du Ab

Baghlan
Khinjan

Badghis
Gulran Kushk Qalay-I- Naw Kushki Kuhna Kohsan Zinda Jan Ghoryan Qadis Jawand

Kohistan Kahmard Yakawlang Shibar Bamyan

Bamyan
Chaghcharan Lal Wa Sarja

Panjsher Salang Shinwari Jabalussaraj Ghorband Chaharikar Bagram Shekh Ali Guldara Tala Wa Barfak

Nuristan Kunar

Flowering Calendar
Late March Early April

Parwan

Kapisa Laghman

Hirat !
Guzara

Injil

Karukh Chishti Shar Obe Pashtun Zarghun Tulak Farsi Shahrak

Panjab Waras

Maydan Shahir Nirkh

Kabul !
Muhammad Agh

Surobi

! Jalalabad
Azra Jaji Dand Lija Mangal Wa Pata Chakmani Jaji Jani Khel Maydan Musa Khel Qalandar Nadir Shah K Mando Zayi Gurbuz Tani

Late April Early May

Wardak

Ghor
Pasaband

Chaki Wardak

Logar

Nangarhar

Uruzgan
Shahristan

Sayd Baraki Barak Abad

! Peshwar

Late May Early June Late June Early July

Adraskan Saghar Taywara Kijran Shindand Pur Chaman Anar Dara Bala Buluk Khaki Safed Pusht Rod Qalay-I-Kah Shib Koh Dihrawud Musa Qala Naw Zad Kajaki Nesh Mizan Bakwa Washer Ghorak Sangin Nahri Sarraj Khash Rod Nad Ali Lashkar Gah Naway i Barakzayi Maywand Arghandab Khakrez Baghran Shahidi Hass Chora Gizab

Ajristan

Zana Khan

Paktya
Ghazni

Khost

Andarab
Arghandab Tirin Kot Daychopan Gulistan

Eastern Hisa-I-Awali Panjsher Afghanistan
Wama

Kamdesh Nari

!

Zabul
Qalat

Shahjoy

Farah

Paktika

Salang Panjsher Koh Band Kohistan Nijrab Chaharikar Bagram

Mandol

Waygal

Bar Kunar

Shah Wali Ko

Nuristan
Dawlat Shah Nuristan Chapa Dara Alingar Pech Alishing

Tarnak Wa Ja Shamulzayi Arghistan

Kunar
Asad Abad Dangam Marawara Narang Sirkanay Chawkay Khas Kunar

Lash Wa Juwa

!

Kapisa
Alasay Tagab

Kandarhar
Maruf

Laghman
Mihtarlam Dara-I-Nur Nurgal Kuz Kunar Jalal Abad Kama Qarghayi Surkh Rod

IRAN

Hilmand

Panjwayi Spin Boldak

Nimroz
Reg Daman

PAKISTAN
Shorabak

Kabul
Muhammad Agha

Surobi

Goshta

Garmser

Hisarak

Chahar Burja

Reg

!

Quetta

Sherzad Khogyani

Lal Pur Chaparhar Bati Kot Rodat Shinwar Muhmand Dara Pachir Wa Agam Dih Bala Achin Nazyan Dur Baba

¯

0

50 100
Kilometers

Logar

Azra

Jaji Lija Mangal

Geographic Projection Datum: WGS 84

Paktya Chamkani

Dand Wa Patan Jaji Maydan

Nangarhar

Source: MCN - UNODC Afghanistan Rapid Assesment Survey 2006 (http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop_monitoring.html) Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Afghanistan: Expected opium poppy harvest time in 2006
UZBEKISTAN

TAJ IKIS TAN
Ragh Darqad Qarqin Shortepa Kaldar Dawlat Abad Chahar Balkh Bolak Dihdadi Chimtal Imam Sahib Qalay-I- Zal Archi Yangi Qala Khwaja Ghar Taluqan Kalafgan Kishim Chal Ishkamish Bangi Farkhar Chah Ab Shahri Buzur

TURKMENIS TAN

Khani Chahar Andkhoy Qaramqol Dawlat Abad

Mingajik Mardyan Khwaja Du Ko Aqcha Fayz Abad

Rustaq

!

Fayz Abad
Baharak Ishkashim

Shibirghan

Balkh Mazar-E-Sharif ! Khulm
Nahri Shahi Marmul Chahar Kint

Kunduz
Khan Abad Ali Abad

Takhar

Chahar Dara

Badakshan
Jurm

Jawzjan Faryab
Shirin Tagab Darzab Almar Khwaja Sabz Pashtun Kot Maymana Bilchiragh Sayyad Sari Pul Sozma Qala Sangcharak

Hazrati Sultan Baghlani Jad Aybak Khuram Wa Sabagh

Sholgara Baghlan Puli Khumri Dahana -I- Ghori Dushi

Legend

Burka Warsaj Nahrin Kuran Wa Munjan Bargi Matal Andarab Kamdesh Mandol

!

Main Cities Province Boundaries International Boundaries District Boundaries

Kishindih

Dara-I- Suf

Qaysar

Samangan
Sari Pul
Kohistanat Balkhab Ruyi Du Ab

Baghlan
Khinjan

Badghis
Gulran Kushk Qalay-I- Naw Qadis Kushki Kuhna Kohsan Zinda Jan Ghoryan Jawand

Kohistan Kahmard Yakawlang Shibar Bamyan

Bamyan
Chaghcharan Lal Wa Sarja

Panjsher Salang Shinwari Jabalussaraj Ghorband Chaharikar Bagram Shekh Ali Guldara Tala Wa Barfak

Nuristan Kunar

Parwan

Kapisa Laghman

Harvest Calendar
No Data Early April

Hirat !
Guzara

Injil

Karukh Chishti Shar Obe Pashtun Zarghun Tulak Farsi Shahrak

Panjab Waras

Maydan Shahir Nirkh

Kabul !
Muhammad Agh

Surobi

! Jalalabad
Azra Jaji Dand Lija Mangal Wa Pata Chakmani Jaji Jani Khel Maydan Musa Khel Qalandar Nadir Shah K Mando Zayi Gurbuz Tani

Late April Early May

Wardak

Ghor
Pasaband

Chaki Wardak

Logar

Nangarhar

Uruzgan
Shahristan

Sayd Baraki Barak Abad

! Peshwar

Late May Early June Late June Early July Late July

Adraskan Saghar Taywara Kijran Shindand Pur Chaman Anar Dara Bala Buluk Khaki Safed Pusht Rod Qalay-I-Kah Shib Koh Dihrawud Musa Qala Naw Zad Kajaki Nesh Mizan Bakwa Washer Ghorak Sangin Nahri Sarraj Khash Rod Nad Ali Lashkar Gah Naway i Barakzayi Maywand Arghandab Khakrez Baghran Shahidi Hass Chora Gizab

Ajristan

Zana Khan

Paktya
Ghazni

Khost

Andarab
Arghandab Tirin Kot Daychopan Gulistan

Eastern Hisa-I-Awali Panjsher Afghanistan
Wama

Kamdesh Nari

!

Zabul
Qalat

Shahjoy

Farah

Paktika

Salang Panjsher Koh Band Kohistan Nijrab Chaharikar Bagram

Mandol

Waygal

Bar Kunar

Shah Wali Ko

Nuristan
Dawlat Shah Nuristan Chapa Dara Alingar Pech Alishing

Tarnak Wa Ja Shamulzayi Arghistan

Kunar
Asad Abad Dangam Marawara Narang Sirkanay Chawkay Khas Kunar

Lash Wa Juwa

!

Kapisa
Alasay Tagab

Kandarhar
Maruf

Laghman
Mihtarlam Dara-I-Nur Nurgal Kuz Kunar Jalal Abad Kama Qarghayi Surkh Rod

IRAN

Hilmand

Panjwayi Spin Boldak

Nimroz
Reg Daman

PAKISTAN
Shorabak

Kabul
Muhammad Agha

Surobi

Goshta

Garmser

Hisarak

Chahar Burja

Reg

!

Quetta

Sherzad Khogyani

Lal Pur Chaparhar Bati Kot Rodat Shinwar Muhmand Dara Pachir Wa Agam Dih Bala Achin Nazyan Dur Baba

¯

0

50 100
Kilometers

Logar

Azra

Jaji Lija Mangal

Geographic Projection Datum: WGS 84

Paktya Chamkani

Dand Wa Patan Jaji Maydan

Nangarhar

Source: MCN - UNODC Afghanistan Rapid Assesment Survey 2006 (http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop_monitoring.html) Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Afghanistan: Dry opium prices (USD)
UZBEKISTAN
TAJIKISTAN
Fayz Abad #

TURKMENIS TAN
Jawzjan

Mazar-E-Sharif #

Kunduz

Takh ar
Badakshan

Balkh

Sam angan Fary ab
Sari Pu l

Baghlan Nuristan Parwan Kapisa
Bamy an
#

Badghis
#

Hirat Ghor Uruzgan

Wardak

Kabul

Kunar Lagh man
# Jalalabad Peshwar #

Loga r

Nangarha r

Pakt ya Khost Ghazni

#

Fara h

Zabu l

Pakt ika

Legend
# Main Cities Province Boundaries International Boundaries

#

Kandarhar

IRAN
Nimroz Hilm and
Quetta #

Dry Opium Price (USD/kg)

PAKISTAN

No data 88 - 106

¯
Source: MCN - UNODC Afghanistan Rapid Assesment Survey 2006 (http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop_monitoring.html) Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

107 - 156

0

50 100
Kilometers

157 - 190 191 - 207

Geographic Projection Datum: WGS 84

Afghanistan: ORAS 2006 Sampling frame and selected villages

UZBEKISTAN
TAJIKISTAN

TURKMENIS TAN

Jawzjan Kunduz Balkh
Badakshan

Takhar

Samangan Faryab

Sari Pul

Baghlan Nuristan

Badg his

Parwan

Kapisa Kunar Laghman

Bamyan
Hirat

Kabul

Ghor

Wardak

Logar

Nangarhar

Paktya Uruzgan
Ghazni

Khost

Farah

Zabul

Paktika

Legend

IRAN

Nimroz

Hilmand

Kandarhar

Province Boundaries

PAKISTAN

International Boundaries

2006 Village Sampling Frame
Villages

¯
Source:MCN - UNODC Afghanistan Rapid Assessment Survey 2006 (http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop_monitoring.html) Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

<= 1500 m

0

50 100
Kilometers

>1500 m and <= 2500 m >2500 m 2006 RAS selected villages

Geographic Projection Datum: WGS 84

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

NORTH-EASTERN ZONE
BADAKHSHAN PROVINCE
Cultivation Interviews with village headmen indicated that cultivation levels in 2006 may increase sharply. In 2005, fear of eradication led to an increase in opium poppy cultivation in rain-fed and remote areas. In 2006, a sharp increase is expected in both rain-fed and irrigated areas. The main opium growing areas in Badakhshan are the Faizabad, Jurm, Kishm and Baharak districts. Eradication Farmers are aware of the threat of eradication and the Government ban and are closely following eradication activities in southern Afghanistan to assess the degree of risk that they may incur by cultivating opium poppy. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

7 369 Irrigated and rain-fed Strong increase Very high None Autumn/spring End of June Good 132

The total number of villages in Badakhshan province is 1,822. The ORAS collected information in 34 villages.

TAKHAR PROVINCE
Cultivation Respondents reported either no change or a slight increase in opium poppy cultivation in all districts in 2006. Takhar lies on a major trafficking route to Tajikistan (via the Chah Ab, Yangi Qala, Darqad and Rustaq districts).

18

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

1 364 Irrigated and rain-fed No change/slight increase Low None Autumn/spring Mid-June Good 106

The total number of villages in Takhar province is 672. The ORAS collected information in 11 villages.

19

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

EASTERN ZONE
NANGARHAR PROVINCE
Cultivation An increase in cultivation was reported in Nangarhar province. Whilst farmers in central Nangarhar follow the eradication campaign and observe the Government ban, farmers in remote districts disregard the ban and are already cultivating opium poppy on a significant scale. Eradication No eradication was reported until the end of December 2005. Opium Poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

1 093 Irrigated Strong increase Moderate No Autumn Mid-April Good 207

The total number of villages in Nangarhar province is 972. The ORAS collected information in 27 villages.

KUNAR PROVINCE
Cultivation Respondents reported the same level of cultivation in 2006 as in 2005. A slight increase is expected in remote areas of the province. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

1 059 Irrigated No change Moderate Limited Autumn Mid-April Good 175

The total number of villages in Kunar province is 457. The ORAS collected information in 13 villages.

20

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

Photo : Opium poppy fields in Kunar (date: 21/12/2005)

LAGHMAN PROVINCE Cultivation Opium poppy cultivation in Laghman province decreased sharply in 2005 but is expected to increase in 2006, particularly in remote districts such as Alingar and Dawlat Shah. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

274 Irrigated Increase Moderate Limited Autumn Beginning of April Good 191

The total number of villages in Laghman province is 464. The ORAS collected information in 11 villages.

21

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

NURISTAN PROVINCE
Cultivation A decrease in cultivation is expected in 2006, following a sharp increase in 2005. Nuristan is located high in the mountains, and most planting will begin in mid-March, by which time villagers may have opted to cultivate alternative crops. Opium poppy cultivation may match levels reported in 2005.

Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

1 554 Irrigated Decrease Low Limited Autumn Beginning of April Good 190

The total number of villages in Nuristan province is 170. The ORAS collected information in eight villages.

22

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

NORTHERN ZONE
BAGHLAN PROVINCE
Cultivation Cultivation in Baghlan province increased considerably in 2005 (as compared to 2004), and the same level of cultivation as in 2005 is expected in 2006. Opium poppy cultivation is reported in all districts of Baghlan, but particularly in the Andarab and Khost Wa Firing districts. An overall increase is expected. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

2 563 Irrigated/rain-fed Increase Moderate None Autumn/spring End of May to mid-June Good 106

The total number of villages in Baghlan province is 902. The ORAS collected information in 15 villages.

BALKH PROVINCE
Cultivation In 2005, opium poppy cultivation increased sharply in Balkh province with respect to levels in 2004 (by 334 per cent). Like other provinces in northern Afghanistan, Balkh is becoming a major opium poppy-growing province. According to ORAS results, cultivation could remain at the same high levels or decrease slightly in 2006. Mazar-i-Sherif, Chimtal, Sholgara and Char Bolak are the main opium poppy-growing districts in this province. Eradication Surveyors did not report any eradication at the time of the survey, but at the beginning of January 2005 some eradication activities were reported to the Government by local authorities in Balkh province.

23

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

10 837 Irrigated and rain-fed No change/slight decrease High Limited Autumn End of April Good 100

The total number of villages in Balkh province is 772. The ORAS collected information in 14 villages. Photo : Opium poppy in Balkh province (date: 17/12/2005)

Photo: Greenhouse construction in Balkh (date: 18/12/2005)

24

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

BAMYAN PROVINCE
Cultivation The majority of farmers in Bamyan province prefer not to cultivate opium poppy. No increase in opium poppy cultivation is expected in 2006.

Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

126 Irrigated Decrease/no change Low Limited Spring Late July Good 100

The total number of villages in Bamyan province is 1,543. The ORAS collected information in 12 villages.

FARYAB PROVINCE
Cultivation Following a reported decrease in 2005, opium poppy cultivation is expected to increase in 2006. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

2 665 Irrigated Increase Moderate None Autumn Mid-May Good 101

The total number of villages in Faryab province is 635. The ORAS collected information in 11 villages.

25

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

KUNDUZ PROVINCE
Cultivation Kunduz province is neither a major nor a traditional opium poppy-growing region. In 2005, only 275 hectares of opium poppy were reported. The same level of cultivation is expected in 2006. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

275 Irrigated No change Very low None Autumn Mid-May Good N/A

The total number of villages in Kunduz province is 377. The ORAS collected information in six villages.

JAWZJAN PROVINCE
Cultivation Jawzjan province was not a significant opium poppy-growing area until 2002. Since 2002, however, opium poppy cultivation has increased sharply. In 2006, a further increase is expected. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

1 748 Irrigated Increase Moderate Limited Autumn Late May Good 156

The total number of villages in Jawzjan province is 256. The ORAS collected information in nine villages.

26

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

SAMANGAN PROVINCE
Cultivation Key respondents reported that they were expecting a decrease in opium poppy cultivation in 2006. Since planting takes place mainly during March, farmers may yet decide to cultivate opium poppy, depending on the success of eradication in the southern provinces or in provinces at low elevations, such as Balkh. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

3 874 Irrigated and rain-fed Decrease Low Limited Spring End of July Good 96

The total number of villages in Samangan province is 495. The ORAS collected information in eight villages.

SARI PUL PROVINCE
Cultivation Opium poppy cultivation is expected to decrease in Sari Pul province in 2006. Since, depending on weather conditions, some farmers prefer to plant opium poppy in March, the situation may still change after that time. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

3 227 Irrigated and rain-fed Decrease Low None Spring Late June Good 99

The total number of villages in Sari Pul province is 558. The ORAS collected information in 12 villages.

27

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

CENTRAL ZONE
GHAZNI PROVINCE
Cultivation Opium poppy cultivation has always been negligible in Ghazni province, and that trend is expected to continue in 2006. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

9 Irrigated Decrease/no change Negligible None Spring Late July Good N/A

The total number of villages in Ghazni province is 2,645. The ORAS collected information in 15 villages.

KHOST PROVINCE
Cultivation In 2005, opium poppy cultivation was negligible. In 2006, however, an increase is expected. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

Negligible Irrigated Increase Very low None Spring Late May Good 169

The total number of villages in Khost province is 519. The ORAS collected information in 10 villages.

28

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

LOGAR PROVINCE
Cultivation The vast majority of villagers in Logar province do not cultivate opium poppy. The same situation is expected in 2006. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

Negligible Irrigated/rain-fed No change Negligible Limited Spring/autumn May/June Good N/A

The total number of villages in Logar province is 394. The ORAS collected information in six villages.

PAKTIKA PROVINCE
Cultivation Opium poppy cultivation in Paktika province has always been negligible, and the same trend is expected in 2006. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

Negligible Irrigated/rain-fed No change Very low None Spring June Good N/A

The total number of villages in Paktika province is 553. The ORAS collected information in 12 villages.

29

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

PAKTYA PROVINCE
Cultivation Opium poppy cultivation in Paktya province has always been negligible, and the same trend is expected in 2006. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

Negligible Irrigated/rain-fed No change Very low None Spring June Good N/A

The total number of villages in Paktya province is 707. The ORAS collected information in 12 villages.

PARWAN PROVINCE
Cultivation Opium poppy cultivation was reported for the first time in the province in 2004, and was estimated at 1,310 ha. Cultivation returned to a negligible level in 2005 as a result of the Government ban. The same level is expected in 2006. No opium poppy cultivation was observed in the villages visited. Eradication There were no reports of eradication. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

Negligible Irrigated/rain-fed No change Negligible None Spring Late June Good 200

The total number of villages in Parwan province is 980. The ORAS collected information in 16 villages.

30

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

KAPISA PROVINCE
Cultivation Kapisa is not a major opium poppy-growing province, and cultivation decreased to 115 ha in 2005. Cultivation is expected to increase in 2006. Eradication There were no reports of eradication. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

115 Irrigated Increase Very low None Autumn/spring Late May/early July Good 191

The total number of villages in Kapisa province is 307. The ORAS collected information in eight villages.

WARDAK PROVINCE
Cultivation Trends in opium poppy cultivation are not expected to change in 2006. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

Negligible Irrigated No change Very low None Autumn/spring Late May/early July Good N/A

The total number of villages in Wardak province is 1347. The ORAS collected information in 14 villages.

31

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

SOUTHERN ZONE
KANDAHAR PROVINCE
Cultivation Following a sharp increase in 2005, no change in cultivation levels is expected in 2006. Following the announcement by the Governor of Kandahar in December 2005 of an eradication campaign, a decrease is expected in the central districts of the province, whilst in remote areas an increase is expected. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

12 990 Irrigated No change High None Autumn Beginning of May Poor 140

The total number of villages in Kandahar province is 1,854. The ORAS collected information in 29 villages.
Photo: Opium poppy field in Kandahar (date: 02/02/2006)

32

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

HELMAND PROVINCE
Cultivation An increase in cultivation is expected in all districts of Helmand in 2006. Helmand province has the highest levels of opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan, and in 2005 a total of 26,500 ha in the province were under opium poppy cultivation. In remote parts of the province, some groups, such as drug smugglers, are encouraging villagers to cultivate opium poppy. Helmand is also the most significant province in terms of heroin processing and trafficking. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

26 500 Irrigated Strong increase High None Autumn Beginning of May Poor, particularly in northern Helmand 141

The total number of villages in Helmand province is 1,126. The ORAS collected information in 20 villages.
Photo: Opium poppy field in Helmand (date: 24/01/2006)

Photo: Wheat field in Helmand (date: 24/01/2006)

33

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

URUZGAN PROVINCE
Cultivation Uruzgan is one of the major and traditional opium poppy-growing provinces of Afghanistan. In 2005, a sharp decrease in cultivation was reported, but in 2006 most villagers have decided to grow opium poppy. A large increase is therefore expected. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) 4 605 Type of cultivation Irrigated Projected trends in 2005-2006 Strong increase Cultivation levels High Eradication reported Limited Planting time Autumn Expected main harvest time Mid-May Security situation Poor in northern Uruzgan; good in southern Uruzgan Dry opium price (US$/kg) 135 The total number of villages in Uruzgan province is 2,492. The ORAS collected information in 34 villages.

34

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

ZABUL PROVINCE
Cultivation Respondents predict a strong increase in cultivation in Zabul province in 2006. Zabul province is one of the poorest regions of Afghanistan, and a high level of migration from the province to other areas of Afghanistan is reported.

Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

2 053 Irrigated Strong increase Moderate None Autumn Mid-May Very poor 146

The total number of villages in Zabul province is 1427. The ORAS collected information in 19 villages.

35

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

WESTERN ZONE
HERAT PROVINCE
Cultivation Until 2003, Herat was not a major opium poppy-growing province. However, cultivation began after 2003, reaching 2,531 ha in 2004. Respondents expect cultivation to increase slightly in 2006, particularly in the Shindad district. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

1 924 Irrigated Increase Low Limited Autumn/spring Late May/late June Good 156

The total number of villages in Herat province is 1,435. The ORAS collected information in 22 villages.

FARAH PROVINCE
Cultivation In 2005, cultivation increased by 348 per cent to 10,240 ha compared to 2004. Respondents expected that cultivation levels would remain the same in 2006. Opium poppy cultivation was reported in most districts during the survey.

Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

10 240 Irrigated No change High None Autumn Early May Poor 177

The total number of villages in Farah province is 820. The ORAS collected information in 14 villages.

36

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

NIMROZ PROVINCE
Cultivation The year 2005 marked a record increase in cultivation from 115 ha to 1,690 ha (1,370 per cent). The same level of cultivation is expected in 2006. Nimroz lies at the country’s borders with Iran and Pakistan, and is therefore one of the major trafficking provinces for the export of Afghan opium. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

1 690 Irrigated No change Moderate None Autumn Mid-April Good 205

The total number of villages in Nimroz province is 427. The ORAS collected information in nine villages.

GHOR PROVINCE
Cultivation Owing to difficult terrain and harsh conditions, agriculture in Ghor province is limited to very narrow valleys. However, cultivation is expected to increase in 2006. Ghor is one of the main opiumtrafficking provinces. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

2 689 Irrigated Increase Moderate None Spring Late June Good 155

The total number of villages in Ghor province is 1,713. The ORAS collected information in 20 villages.

37

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February, 2006

BADGHIS PROVINCE
Cultivation Until 2004, opium poppy cultivation was very limited in Badghis province. In 2005, however, it increased by 383 per cent to 2,967 ha. Key respondents predicted a further increase throughout the province in 2006. Opium poppy cultivation details: Cultivation in 2005 (hectares) Type of cultivation Projected trends in 2005-2006 Cultivation levels Eradication reported Planting time Expected main harvest time Security situation Dry opium price (US$/kg)

2 967 Irrigated/rain-fed Increase Moderate Very limited Spring Mid-June Good 99

The total number of villages in Badghis province is 639. The ORAS collected information in 12 villages.

38

Afghanistan Opium Rapid Assessment Survey, February 2006

ANNEX 1 Cultivation levels in 2004 and 2005 and expected trends in 2006
Change in Change in 2004-2005 Cultivation trends in 2004-2005 as 2006 as compared (ha) percentage to 2005 -8237 -53% Strong Increase 2353 383% Increase 119 5% No Change 8342 334% No Change -677 -84% No Change 7952 348% No Change -584 -18% Increase -62 -100% No Change -2294 -46% Strong Increase -2853 -10% Strong Increase -607 -24% Increase 75 4% Increase -282 -100% No Change 8030 162% No Change -407 -78% Increase -838 -100% Increase -3307 -76% No Change 51 23% No Change -2482 -90% Strong Increase -24 -100% No Change -27747 -96% Strong Increase 1575 1370% No Change 790 103% Decrease 0 0% No Change -1200 -100% No Change -1310 -100% No Change 2723 237% Decrease 1253 63% Decrease 602 79% No Change -6475 -58% Strong Increase -911 -90% No Change -924 -31% Strong Increase -27356 -21% Overall Increase

PROVINCE Badakhshan Badghis Baghlan Balkh Bamyan Farah Faryab Ghazni Ghor Helmand Herat Jawzjan Kabul Kandahar Kapisa Khost Kunar Kunduz Laghman Logar Nangarhar Nimroz Nuristan Paktika Paktya Parwan Samangan Sari Pul Takhar Uruzgan Wardak Zabul Total

2004 15,607 614 2,444 2,495 803 2,288 3,249 62 4,983 29,353 2,531 1,673 282 4,959 522 838 4,366 224 2,756 24 28,840 115 764 1,200 1,310 1,151 1,974 762 11,080 1,017 2,977 131,263

2005 7,370 2,967 2,563 10,837 126 10,240 2,665 2,689 26,500 1,924 1,748 12,989 115 1,059 275 274 1,093 1,690 1,554 3,874 3,227 1,364 4,605 106 2,053 103,907

39