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ECOCITY

, 4 2017


, MSc, ...

(European Federation of Geologists, EFG)
;

:[1]


(European Geothermal Energy Council, EGEC) [2]:
Geothermal energy is the energy stored in form of heat below the earths surface,
.


: [3]
: [4] : [5]







(...)




:[6] : [7]




: [8]
(I)
Olkaria II , [9]

-
(>90C)


Wairakei, . [12]

Ribeira Grande
So Miguel, [10]

Larderello, Puna
[13] Geothermal Venture, [11]

Hellisheidi, [14]
(I)
( )
() ()
& ()



(, ,

, ..)
(district heating)



[15]

: [16]
: [17]
(I)
( )
(DISTRICT HEATING)
: Klamath Falls, Oregon, , 2 , 112-274 m,
45-49 l/s 100-104oC [18,19]

: [19]
: [19]
(thermal station) -


Klamath Falls ( 2005) [18]

: [19] ,
Klamath (Klamath County
Courthouse),
: [19]
(. 2007) [20]
(I)
( )


,
, ,




Klamath Falls
Oregon () [21]



Harz [23]


/
(
) [22]


Aomori
[23]



Greater
Binghampton Airport [26]


() Louisville,
[24] Kentucky () [25]
(I)
( )


: [19]


14.000 m2


Klamath Falls
Oregon () [19].
To ,


55-60oC [27],
: [19]


Klamath
Falls,



100-104oC [19].

: [19] : [19]
(I)
( )









: [28] : [28]

: [28]

: [28]
(II)
( )
& ()



Altheim [29]


(
) Neustadt-Glewe [30]
(II)
( )
& ()







(
)
Landau
[32]


( )
Unterhaching ( ) [31]
(IV)

(t<25C) /
()

,
, ,
,
, -
,


: [33] : [34]

: [35]

: [36]
: [25]
(IV)


,


()
,
.
-

-
.



[37]

: [38]
: [39, 40] : [41]
(IV)

/
Ball State University
,
,
: Ball State University, INDIANA,
3600 , 120-150 m, [43]
47 [42, 43].
1 2009 [43].
4
[43].
: 80 $ [43]
2 $ /
[42, 44]

[42]

(,
)


: [45] ; : [46]


- CO2 &


:
.
.
CO2
.



( kg/MWh
) [47]
*
,
.





-
CO2
: [48] :[49]

H
CO2
.

: [50]

CO2
[52]


CO2 -
CO2 .
2010 [51]

/ ()
(150C),
, , .
, (CO2),
(2S), (Rn), (NH3), , ;

CO2 -
-
(
) [47, 53, 54, 55].

(H2S), ,
.
( Stretford,
SO2,
, H2O2 ..)
[47, 53, 54, 55]. :[56]


[47].



[53].

/ ()
(BINARY POWER PLANT) : [58]

:[57] :[59] /


(production well)

,
,
(re-injection
well).




CO2 .

- , ,
(i)
Reykjavik 1932,
[60]

, (),
.
CO2
,




.
Reykjavik ,
[61]
.

, Reykjavik
,
.

.

- , ,
(ii)
( gr/KWh) [62]

,
,
.

Reykjavik 1940 [64, 65]

[63]

Reykjavik [66]

(iii)
E CO2 [55] E NOX [55]

E (PM) [55]
E SO2 [55]

(iv)




[67]




[67]

*
**
.
***



- ()
/ ,
Reykjavik
[28]

: 1930 [68]
170000 ,
71,1 ., 85%
(2013) [68]
CO2 2-3 .
/ [66, 68]
CO2
100 . 1944 2012 [68].

CO2
Reykjavik
( ) 1944 2012 [68]
Reykjavik [68]


- ()

CO2
Galanta

1999-2015 [70]
2 , 2100 m, -
( CO2) 77-78oC [69]
1996:
(/)
[70]

[70]

NOx

1996-2015 [70]
CO2 4700 [69].
/ CO2,
CO2 (0,3 CO2/kWh) [68].

SO2
1996-2015 [70]


1999-2015 [70]


- ()
(ORC)

Altheim
ORC 1
MWe [29]
650 8
MWth [29]

:[29]



,

:




400 GWh 2001 [29]
2013 (
) [29]


- (V)
Szeged New Szeged ()
Szeged [71,72,73,74]

1 (1995 m) 2 (1350 1750 m)


: 85-90oC [71] - : 3300 m
25 [72,73]
: 2013 [74] :[75]
: 4,4 MWth [72, 73]
: 55239 GJ/y [72, 73]
CO2: 3633 t/y [72, 73]
New Szeged [71,72,73,74]
1 (2000 m) 2
(1250 1700 m)- : 85-90oC
: 4400 m
12 [72, 73]
: 4,5 MWth [72,73]

: 37167 GJ/y [73]
CO2: Szeged [72,73]
2343 t/y [72,73]


New Szeged [72,73]



- -
.
1995-2015 [76]






1995 2015

88%

89%

(space heating)
(district heating)
28 [76].


-
, ,
, , [76].


(i)
M - :[78]

(1,5 . )
CO2:
() 100% ...
2025 [77]
() 100%
2040 [77].
800 km
[77].

(3-5,5 km) 140oC
& ()
[77].

Sauerlach,
[77]


[77]


(ii)
-
Grigny
Viry-Chatillon [79].
- 2016
2 (
) 1650 m [79].
300 m3/h 71oC :[81]
50000 MWh [79].

2017
9000 Grigny Viry-
Chatillon [79].

21000
CO2 [79].
:[82]

:[80] :[83]

-

:[84]

:[82]

H
,
[47, 53].

,
(
)
:[85]
.

-
:[86]

:[87]

:[82]

H
.
(, ,
, ) ,
,
( , )
[47, 53, 55].
-
()

,
(, ,
), o
.

/ () [88]


Szeged [74]


Klamath Falls Oregon () [19]
-
()
,
(.. ).
Laugarnes, Reykjavik



(Pumping
Station)

: [28]
REYKJAVIK :
- /
, 700-800 m, , ,
110-140oC ( )


,
,
764 m
120oC.

!

[ :30-3-2012]
REYKJAVIK :
- /

- (Pumping
Station) Laugarnes,
Reykjavik


(Pumping Station)

: [28]



: [28]
REYKJAVIK :
- /
/

[ : 30-3-2012]
-
()



( ).


[89]

(. 2002) 4
(-4, BO-5, BO-6 BO-7), 1197-2500 m,
240-250oC
(2013-2014) [90] ( ) [91, 92]
-
(V)

/

/ So Miguel [93]
Reykiavik,
,
,


[28]


[94]
-

(noise pollution)
[55, 67]:
- -
- /

- :

, , ,

: [55, 67]

(dBA)
/ 15 - 28
/ 51 - 54
/ 54
40
25
55
96,5 km/h 30 m 65
40


,
.



(...)
: [97] [98]

: [95]

.
24 , 365
, ... (, ),

.
,
,


.
,
,
.
, ...,
.
( km2/TWh)
[96]

()

.
.



Imperial Valley (...)
[100]

[53, 99]:





(I)

, :
,
, / ,



: [95]

: [101]

()


:

/ -
-
, /

,
.



,

,

.


(

,
).

(V)






(micro-earthquakes)
1-3
Richter,
[55, 67].

, .
,
..
: [102]





.

: (i)
- .
: [103]

/ Bouillante

: [91]

7

Bouillante [91]

: (ii)


Bouillante [91] BO-5, O-6 BO-7 ( 2000 -
2001). [91]




BO-5, BO-6 BO-7.
:
BO6
:

( 2001) [91]

: (iii)

-4, BO-5,
BO-6 BO-7
/ (.
2002) [91]

,
, ,
[92]

: [91]

4 -
[91, 92]
:

(iv)




(. 2001) [91]

: [91, 92]

: (v)


( , ) [91, 92].

: (vi)
Bouillante Unit 1 (4,7 MW)

: [91]

: [92]


.
[92].

Bouillante 1 [91]
-
- : 4,7 MW
- 1 (350 m )
(4,7 MW) [91]


Bouillante Unit 2:
(11 MW) (vii)

Bouillante 2 [91]
-
- : 11 MW
- 3
( 1000 1150 m)

[91]:
: [104]

: 30 GWh/y (Bouillante 1)
and 72 GWh/y (Bouillante 2)
: 90%
: 9%

: [105]
: [106] : [107] : [108]

,

25oC,
(),


: [109]

,



,
, : [110]

.

(i)
: [112]

: [111]


(CO2) [114].
CO [114].

4046,86 m2 750
2
[111, 112, 115].
100000
1 acre = 4046,86 m 2
20
1,1
[114].

55-60%
(air-source heat pump) [112].
(Environmental
Protection Agency, EPA)



72%

[116]. : [113]

(ii)
,
.
.
,
.


,

,



.
/, () -
() (. . )

(2007), ( )


-

() [117]



CO2,
,


,

,



/


CO2,



,


.
: [118] & [106]
: [4]

: [119]
(i)
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(ii)
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