ROYAUME DU MAROC LE PREMIER MINISTRE AGENCE POUR LA PROMOTION ET LE DEVELOPPEMENT ECONOMIQUE ET SOCIAL DES PREFECTURES ET PROVINCES DU NORD DU ROYAUME

Morocco Cannabis Survey 2005
Executive Summary

January 2007

Abbreviations: Dh € UNODC US$ Moroccan Dirham Euro United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime United States Dollar

The figures and results of the Moroccan Cannabis Survey 2005 were already approved by the Government of Morocco as well as by UNODC, and published in the World Drug Report 2006. However, the final report, on which this executive summary is based, has not yet been formally approved by the Moroccan authorities.

The boundaries and names shown and designations used on the maps of this publication do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Morocco - Northern Provinces: Cannabis Cultivation, 2005
5°W 4°W

6°W

Tangier
Portugal

Assilah #

Tangier
#

Fahs-Bni Makada
#

Spain

Martil
Morocco

Algeria

Tetouan

Assilah Tetouan
#

Asilah Ouad-Laou

#

Umeras
# #

#

Umeras Al Hoceima
#

Larache Chefchaouen El Jabha

#

Larache

#

#

Taguidit

35°N

#

Tarquist

Chefchaouen
Ouezzane #

Al Hoceima

# Rualam

#

Souk El Arbaa du Rharb

Ulad Mohand
#

#

Mechra bel Ksiri
#

Taounate

#

Main cities

Cannabis cultivation

Taounate
0
5°W 4°W

Taza
12.5 25
Projection UTM 30N - WGS84

Survey area

Forest and scrub

Province boundaries

Others

Main roads

6°W

Sidi Slimane Eradication area # Lakes #

50 km
#

Source: Government of Morocco/UNODC Cannabis Survey 2005 The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

35°N

# Ksar El Kebir

Nador

FACT SHEET
2004 Cannabis cultivation On rain-fed land (bour) On irrigated land Cannabis yield On rain-fed land (bour) On irrigated land Gross cannabis production Cannabis extraction rate Potential production of cannabis resin Distribution of farm gate sales Sale of raw cannabis Sale of cannabis resin Cannabis sale price For raw cannabis For cannabis resin Total farmers income from cannabis 25 Dh/kg 1,400 Dh/kg Dh 2.9 billion US$ 325 million € 263 million Number of households cultivating cannabis Average gross household income from cannabis per year n/a Dh 30,000 US$ 3,300 € 2,700 Seizures in Morocco Of raw cannabis Of resin Annual turnover of international trade in cannabis resin of Moroccan origin 319 mt 87 mt US$ 13 billion € 10.8 billion -64% 11% -57% -57% 116 mt 97 mt US$ 5.6 billion € 4.6 billion 30% 30% 33% 100% 186% 21% 19% 24% 50 Dh/kg 4,000 Dh/kg Dh 3.5 billion US$ 386 million € 325 million 89,900 Dh 38,900 US$ 4,300 € 3,600 66 % 34 % -32% 62% 45% 55% 750 kg/ha 1,270 kg/ha 98,000 mt 2.82 % 2,760 mt -39% 43% -46% -29% -62% 459 kg/ha 1,821 kg/ha 53,300 mt 2.0% 1,066 mt 120,500 ha 88% 12% Variation -40% 2005 72,500 ha 80% 20%

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Morocco Cannabis Survey 2005 was implemented by the Government of Morocco with support from UNODC's Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme (ICMP). The objective of ICMP is to assist the international community in monitoring the extent and evolution of illicit crops, namely coca bush, opium poppy and cannabis, in the context of the elimination objective adopted by the General Assembly Special Session on Drugs in June 1998. Despite decreases in the area under cannabis cultivation for the second consecutive year, Morocco remains on of the main producers of cannabis resin (hashish) in the world. It supplies primarily the European market. The Northern Region of Morocco, where most of the cannabis cultivation is concentrated, is spread over five provinces and covers an area of roughly 20,000 square kilometres. The survey area covered the Rif region in the North of the country. Using SPOT satellite imagery, the area under cannabis cultivation was estimated at 72,500 hectares, which is a decline of 40% compared to 2004. This significant decrease was the result of the combined effects of adverse weather conditions, an awareness campaign by the Government to convince farmers to give up cannabis cultivation, and eradication activities.

Figure 1: Cannabis cultivation (hectares), 2003 to 2005

160,000 140,000 120,000 Hectares 100,000 80,000 60,000 134,000 120,500 40,000 20,000 0 2003 2004 2005 72,500

The reduction was most pronounced in the province of Chefchaouen, where the area under cannabis cultivation decreased from 79,195 hectares (2004) to only 40,529 hectares (2005). This corresponds to a decrease by 46%. Despite this encouraging reduction, the province remains the largest cannabis producing province, and contributes to 56% of the total cannabis area in the country.

Table 1: Cannabis cultivation by province (hectares), 2005

Province Chefchaouen Taounate Al Hoceima Tetouan Larache Total (rounded)

Cannabis (ha) 2005 40,529 12,362 11,671 7,916 (eradicated) 72,500

As % of total cannabis cultivation 2005 56% 17% 16% 11% 0% 100%

The potential gross cannabis production was estimated at 53,000 metric tons in 2005. This is a decrease by 46% compared to 2004 (98,000 metric tons). This decrease is a result of the decrease in area under cannabis cultivation. The impact of an increased proportion of irrigated cannabis fields, which usually have much higher yields than rain-fed fields, was negligible as irrigated fields had only a share of 20% of the total cannabis area.

Figure 2: Gross cannabis production (metric tons), 2003 to 2005

120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 109,000 98,000 20,000 0 2003 2004 2005 53,300

Assuming that all the cannabis was transformed into cannabis resin with a ratio of 2 kg of resin per 100 kg of raw cannabis, the total potential production of cannabis resin was estimated at 1,066 metric tons in 2005. This is a decrease by 61% compared to 2004 (2,700 metric tons). The decrease in potential resin production is more pronounced than for raw cannabis due to a lower resin extraction ratio compared to 2004. Cannabis prices doubled in 2005, from 25 Dh/kg (2004) to 50 Dh/kg (2005) for raw cannabis, as a result of the decreases in production. Prices for cannabis resin almost tripled from 1,400 Dh/kg (2004) to 4,000 Dh/kg (2005). Farmers processed a larger proportion of their raw cannabis harvest into resin (55%) for sale, which, together with the high price for cannabis resin, led to a overall increase by 21% in farmers income from cannabis in 2005. The total farmers income from the sale of cannabis was 3.5 billion dirham (US$ 386 million or € 325). This amount is equivalent to 0.8% of the GDP in 2004 (Dh 443.67 billion).

Metric tons

Figure 3: Prices and production of cannabis and cannabis resin, 2003 to 2005
50 Dh/kg 35 Dh/kg 25 Dh/kg Gross cannabis production (mt) 60 50 40 Dh/kg 30 20 10 0 2003 2004 2005 Price of raw cannabis 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0

4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0

4,000 Dh/kg 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,400 Dh/kg 1,400 Dh/kg 1,500 1,000 500 0 2003 Resin production 2004 2005 Price of cannabis resin Resin production (mt)

Gross cannabis production

With an estimated number of 89,000 households cultivating cannabis in 2005, the gross annual income from cannabis per household amounts to Dh 38,900 (US$ 4,300 or € 3,600). Based on an average of 8.5 persons per household, about 760,000 persons were involved in cannabis cultivation in 2005. The annual turnover of international trade in resin of Moroccan origin was estimated at US$ 5.5 billion (€ 4.6 billion).

Dh/kg

Morocco - Northern Provinces: Cannabis Cultivation by Commune, 2005
5°W
Ksar El Majaz Fnidq Taghramt

6°W

4°W

Tangier
Portugal Spain

Assilah

#

Fahs-Bni Makada
M'Diq Allyene Anjra Jouamaa Saddina Souk Kdim Ain Lahsan Azla Zaitoune Zaouiat Sidi Kacem Mallalienne Martil

Tangier
Martil # Tetouan Tetouan Tetouan Al Azhar # Sidi Al Mandri

Algeria

Assilah
Bni Harchen Sahtryine Bghaghza Bni Idder Oulad Ali Mansour Bni Said Zinat Dar Bni Karrich

Asilah # #
Tizgane

Al Manzla

Tetouan
Ouad-Laou

Morocco

Jbel Lahbib

Ayacha

Al Kharroub

Bni Arouss Bni Leit Tassift Steha Al Ouad Bni Bouzra Talambote Tanaqoub Souk L'Qolla Bni Smih Bni Gmil Bab Taza Senada Laghdir Bni Darkoul Iounane Ouaouzgane Brikcha Bni Salah Bab Berred Moulay Ahmed Cherif Issaguen Ketama Bni Bounsar Tamsaout Sidi Bouzineb Abdelghaya Souahel Ratba Tabouda Sidi Yahya Bni Zeroual Sidi Mokhfi Oudka Sidi Lhaj M'Hamed Taghzout Bni Ahmed Imoukzan Bni Bouchibet Bni Bchir Bni Ammart Zarkat Ain Beida Moqrissat Asjen Bni Faghloum Ouad Malha Tamorot Bni Ahmed Cherqia Mansoura Zoumi Kalaat Bouqorra Bni Ahmed Gharbia Fifi Bni Gmil Maksouline Bni Rzine Bni Abdallah Imrabten Bni Boufrah Derdara Bni Selmane Bni Mansour Mtioua Rouadi Al Hamra

Umeras #

Rissana ChamaliaBni Garfett

Zaaroura

Umeras # Tazroute

Sahel

Larache # Chefchaouen #
Amtar

Larache
El Jabha #

Al Hoceima # Al Hoceima
Izemmouren Ait Youssef Ouali Imzouren Louta Bni Bouayach

Rissana Janoubia

Souaken

Laouamra

Oulad Ouchich Souk Tolba Zouada

Bou Jedyane

Taguidit # Ait Kamra

35°N

Ksar El Kebir #

Chefchaouen

Tarquist # Zaouiat Sidi
Sidi Boutmim Abdelkader Chakrane

Dar Drius #
Bni Hafida Tifarouine Nekkour

# Rualam

Ouezzane

#

Al Hoceima

Arbaa Taourirt

Nador

Souk El Arbaa du Rharb #
Tafrant GhafsaiEl Bibane

Ulad Mohand #
Khlalfa Bouhouda Tamedit Bni Ounjel Tafraout Fennassa Bab Thar Essouk El Hit

Mechra bel Ksiri #
Kissane Galaz Moulay Bouchta Ourtzagh Moulay Abdelkrim Ghouazi Jbabra Bouchabel Bouarouss Sidi El Abed Kariat Ba Mohamed Mkansa Bni Snous Loulja

Timezgana Zrizer

Mezraoua

Taouante

Taounate # Bouadel
Rghioua Ain Mediouna Oulad Daoud Ain Maatouf Ain Aicha

Bni Oulid

#

Main cities

Cannabis cultivation (ha)

Taounate

Survey area

No cannabis

Province boundaries

Ras El Ouad El Bsabsa Tissa Ouad Jemaa Messassa Sidi M'Hamed Ben Lahcen Outabouabane

Commune boundaries

1- 600 Sidi Slimane #601 - 1200

Taza
Taza #
Ain Legdah

1201 - 1800#

Guercif # Sidi Abdallah #
Oulad Ayyad

1801 - 2400 #

> 2400
5°W

0
Fes #
4°W

15

30
Projection UTM 30N - WGS84

Eradicated

60 km

Source: Government of Morocco/UNODC Cannabis Survey 2005 The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

34°N

6°W

35°N

Ksar Bjir

Tatoft

Morocco - Northern Provinces: Gross Cannabis Production by Commune, 2005
5°W
Ksar El Majaz Fnidq Taghramt

6°W

4°W

Tangier
Assilah #

Portugal Spain

Fahs-Bni Makada
M'Diq Allyene Anjra Jouamaa Saddina Souk Kdim Ain Lahsan Azla Zaitoune Zaouiat Sidi Kacem Mallalienne Martil

Tangier
Martil # Tetouan Tetouan Tetouan Al Azhar# Sidi Al Mandri

Algeria

Assilah
Bni Harchen Sahtryine Bghaghza Ayacha Oulad Ali Mansour Al Kharroub Bni Idder Bni Said Zinat Dar Bni Karrich Al Manzla Jbel Lahbib

Asilah #
#
Tizgane

Tetouan
Ouad-Laou

Morocco

Bni Arouss Bni Leit Tassift Steha Al Ouad Bni Bouzra Talambote Tanaqoub Souk L'Qolla Bni Smih Bni Gmil Bab Taza Laghdir Bni Darkoul Iounane Tatoft Brikcha Bni Salah Bab Berred Moulay Ahmed Cherif Issaguen Ketama Bni Bounsar Tamsaout Abdelghaya Souahel Ratba Tabouda Sidi Yahya Bni Zeroual Oudka Sidi Mokhfi Khlalfa Bouhouda Timezgana Zrizer Galaz Moulay Bouchta Ourtzagh Moulay Abdelkrim Ghouazi Jbabra Bouchabel Bouarouss Sidi El Abed Kariat Ba Mohamed Mkansa Bni Snous Loulja Ras El Ouad El Bsabsa Tissa Ouad Jemaa Messassa Sidi M'Hamed Ben Lahcen Outabouabane Mezraoua Sidi Lhaj M'Hamed Taghzout Bni Ahmed Imoukzan Bni Bouchibet Bni Bchir Zarkat Ain Beida Fifi Moqrissat Asjen Bni Faghloum Ouad Malha Tamorot Bni Ahmed Cherqia Mansoura Zoumi Kalaat Bouqorra Bni Ahmed Gharbia Ouaouzgane Bni Rzine Bni Gmil Maksouline Senada Derdara Bni Selmane Bni Mansour Mtioua Bni Boufrah Al Hamra Zaaroura

Umeras #

Rissana Chamalia Bni Garfett

Umeras # Tazroute

Sahel

Larache # Chefchaouen #
Amtar

Larache
El Jabha #
Rouadi

Al Hoceima
# Al Hoceima
Izemmouren Ait Youssef Ouali Imzouren

Rissana Janoubia

Souaken Bou Jedyane

Laouamra

Oulad Ouchich Souk Tolba Zouada

Taguidit Ait Kamra #
Imrabten Bni Abdallah

35°N

Ksar El Kebir #

Louta Bni Bouayach

Chefchaouen

Tarquist # Zaouiat Sidi
Sidi Boutmim Abdelkader Chakrane

Dar Drius #
Bni Hafida Tifarouine Nekkour

# Rualam

Al Hoceima
Sidi Bouzineb Bni Ammart

Arbaa Taourirt

Nador

Ouezzane #

Souk El Arbaa du Rharb #
Tafrant GhafsaiEl Bibane

Mechra bel Ksiri #
Kissane

Tamedit Bni Ounjel Tafraout Fennassa Bab Thar Essouk El Hit

Ulad Mohand # Taounate # Bouadel
Taouante Rghioua

Bni Oulid

#

Main Cities

Gross cannabis production (metric tons)

Taounate

Ain Mediouna Oulad Daoud Ain Maatouf Ain Aicha

Survey area

No cannabis cultivation

Province boundaries

1- 50

Taza
Taza #
Ain Legdah

Commune boundaries

Sidi Slimane 51 - 500 # # 501 - 1000

Guercif # Sidi Abdallah #
Oulad Ayyad

1001 - 2000 #

> 2000
5°WFes

0
#
4°W

15

30
Projection UTM 30N - WGS84

34°N

Eradicated

60 km

6°W

Source: Government of Morocco/UNODC Cannabis Survey 2005 The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

35°N

Ksar Bjir

Retail prices for cannabis resin in North Africa and in Europe (US$/gramme), 2004
24.8 12.4

27.6

Price of cannabis resin (2004)
< 2 US$/gramme 2 - 5 US$/gramme 5 - 8 US$/gramme > 8 US$/gramme Indicative estimation No data

Island
9.0
Finland

Russia 10 .2

12.7 12.4 12
Norway Sweden

11.4
Estonia Latvia

8.2 11 .7 11.1
Denmark

8.2
Netherlands

7.5
Lithuania* Belarus

7.6
Germany

6.8 10.8
Poland

Ireland

9.3

United Kingdom Belgique

7.9 10.2
Slovakia

9.3 12.1 6.2 15.5 5
Hungary

Czech Rep.

Max. price
5.0

5.0
Austria

Average / typical price
Rep. of Moldova

Switzerld.9.4
Slov.

Min. price
Romania

}
4.5
FYR Macedonia

France

4.5
Serbia & Montenegro

Average / typical price
2.8 7.5

5.5

Croatia** Italy

* **

Price (2003) Price (2002)

3.0

Portugal

Spain

Greece

Additional data:
1.5
Tunisia**

0.5
Algeria*

0.5

Retail price in Morocco US$ 0.5 (US$0.4 - 0.6) (2003): Farm gate prices for resin powder in Morocco (2003): 0.09 US$/gramme

Marocco*

Source: UNODC Annual Report Questionnaire and EUROPOL. The boundaries, names and designations used in this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Main trafficking routes of Moroccan cannabis resin, 2004
Finland 467 Norway 2,092 Sweden 820
Estonia 84

Island 37

Denmark 1,757
Lithuania 2

Ireland 3,226
16,101 Germay 5,473 Belgium 39,921
Czech Rep. 23 Austria 427

United Kingdom 69,030*
Netherlands
Poland 41

Slovakia 1 Hungary 2 Slovenia 8 Croatia 5

Switzerld. 300

France 103,705

Italy 15,924 Spain Portugal 794,437 28 994

Main trafficking routes of Moroccan cannabis resin

Cannabis resin production, 2004

Principal destination countries for Moroccan cannabis resin

Figures

Cannabis resin seizures (kg), 2004

Tunisia 2,311 Algeria 12,373

*

Seizures in 2003

Total seizures of cannabis resin in Western and Central Europe: 1,083 metric tons (2004)

Morocco Production: 2,760 mt Seizures: 86,000

Sources: UNODC Annual Reports Questionnaire, Morocco Cannabis Survey Report 2004. The boundaries, names and designations used in this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.