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CiTRANS 660

High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform

Product Description
Version: D

Code: MN000000428

FiberHome Telecommunication Technologies Co., Ltd.

May 2014
Thank you for choosing our products.

We appreciate your business. Your satisfaction is our goal.


We will provide you with comprehensive technical support
and after-sales service. Please contact your local sales
representative, service representative or distributor for any
help needed at the contact information shown below.

Fiberhome Telecommunication Technologies Co., Ltd.

Address: No. 67, Guanggu Chuangye Jie, Wuhan, Hubei, China


Zip code: 430073
Tel: +6 03 7960 0860/0884 (for Malaysia)
+91 98 9985 5448 (for South Asia)
+593 4 501 4529 (for South America)
Fax: +86 27 8717 8521
Website: http://www.fiberhomegroup.com
Legal Notice

are trademarks of FiberHome Telecommunication Technologies Co., Ltd.


(Hereinafter referred to as FiberHome)
All brand names and product names used in this document are used for
identification purposes only and are trademarks or registered trademarks
of their respective holders.

All rights reserved

No part of this document (including the electronic version) may be


reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior
written permission from FiberHome.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice.
Preface

Related Documentation
Document Description

CiTRANS 660 High-capacity Introduces functions and features, protection mechanisms,


MPLS-TP Platform Product networking applications and technical specifications of the
Description product.

Describes the equipments structures, functions, signal


CiTRANS 660 High-capacity
flows, specifications, and technical parameters in terms of
MPLS-TP Platform Hardware
its hardware components (i.e. the cabinet, the subrack,
Description
cards, and cables).

Details the equipments appearance and structure, how to


CiTRANS 660 High-capacity
install the equipment, connect and lay out its wires and
MPLS-TP Platform Installation
cables, as well as the requirements on the installation
Guide
environment.
Introduces the rules and methods for the configuration of
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity
various functions and performance parameters in the
MPLS-TP Platform Configuration
subnet-level mode through the OTNM2000; gives some
Guide
typical configuration examples and operation procedures.

Details the routine maintenance items and operation


procedures, including the daily maintenance, the weekly
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity
maintenance, the monthly maintenance, and the quarterly
MPLS-TP Platform Routine
maintenance. Also includes the daily operation procedures
Maintenance
of the equipment, instructing users on the implementation
of the basic operations such as hardware replacement.

CiTRANS 660 High-capacity Gives a detailed introduction to notices of fault


MPLS-TP Platform management, fault isolating methods as well as
Troubleshooting Guide procedures and methods of fault management.

I
Document Description

Describes classification and category of alarm and


CiTRANS 660 High-capacity
performance indicators and their suppressing
MPLS-TP Platform Alarm and
relationships, and lists definitions, causes and
Performance Reference
management of each alarm and performance.

Includes four manuals, i.e., product description, operation


guide, routine maintenance and installation guide, all of
e-Fim OTNM2000 Element
which are aimed at introducing common and fundamental
Management System Manual Set
contents of the OTNM2000 for a better understanding and
proficient use of the network management system.

II
Version
Version Description

A Initial version.
Corresponds to the OTNM2000 version: V2.0R5 (Build04.
B
20.05.32SP10).

C Adds the descriptions on the NMUJ1 card.

Corresponds to the OTNM2000 version: V2.0R5 (Build04.


20.05.50).
D
Updates the contents of PW APS, Short Wrapping and
time OAM function.

Intended Readers

This manual is intended for the following readers:

u Commissioning engineers

u Operation and maintenance engineers

To utilize this manual, these prerequisite skills are necessary:

u MPLS-TP technology

u Data communication technology

u TDM communication theory

u Ethernet technology

III
Conventions

Terminology Conventions

Terminology Convention
FiberHome CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP
CiTRANS 660
Platform
FiberHome e-Fim OTNM2000 Element Management
OTNM2000
System

NMUJ1 EMU Management Card

XCUJ2 Cross-connect & Clock Card (320G)

XCUJ4 Cross-connect & Clock Card (160G)

XSJ2 10G LAN/WAN Optical Interface Card (2 channels)

XSJ3 10G LAN/WAN Optical Interface Card (4 channels)

XGJ1 XGE & GE Interface Board


GSJ2 GE Interface Card with Switch Function (MPLS)

GSJ3 GE Interface Card


ESJ1 Ethernet Interface Card with Switch Function
ESJ2 FE Interface Card with Switch Function
S1J1 STM-1 Optical Interface Card

S1J2 STM-1 Optical Interface Card (2 channels)

S1O1 cSTM-1 Emulated Interface Unit


S1J4 8STM-1 Optical Interface Card

E1J1 E1 Interface Card


E1J2 E1 Processing Card

AIFJ1 Power and Auxiliary Terminal Board 1

AIFJ2 Power and Auxiliary Terminal Board 2

IEJ1 E1 Terminal Board (75)

IEJ2 E1 Terminal Board (120)

IFJ1 Ethernet Terminal Board

IV
Symbol Conventions

Symbol Convention Description

Note Important features or operation guide.

Possible injury to persons or systems, or cause traffic


Caution
interruption or loss.

Warning May cause severe bodily injuries.

Jump Jumps to another step.

Cascading
Connects multi-level menu options.
menu
Bidirectional
The service signal is bidirectional.
service
Unidirectional
The service signal is unidirectional.
service

V
Contents

Preface...................................................................................................................I

Related Documentation ...................................................................................I

Version ..........................................................................................................III

Intended Readers ..........................................................................................III

Conventions ................................................................................................. IV

1 Overview ........................................................................................................1

1.1 Brief Introduction...............................................................................2

1.1.1 Equipment Architecture.......................................................2


1.1.2 Product Feature ..................................................................2

1.2 Network Application ..........................................................................4

1.2.1 Equipment Positioning ........................................................4


1.2.2 Network Mode ....................................................................5

2 Product Function ............................................................................................6

2.1 Cross-connect Grooming Capability ..................................................7

2.2 Service Type and Access Capability..................................................7

2.2.1 Service Access Capability...................................................7

2.3 Interface Type...................................................................................8

2.3.1 Service Interface.................................................................8


2.3.2 Management and Auxiliary Interfaces..................................9

2.4 Network Capability..........................................................................10

2.4.1 Typical Network of Ethernet Service ..................................10


2.4.2 Typical Network of CES Service ........................................13
2.4.3 Typical Network of LTE Bearer ..........................................14

2.5 Protection Capability .......................................................................15

2.5.1 Equipment Level Protection ..............................................16


2.5.2 Network-Level Protection ..................................................17
2.5.3 Network Management Information Protection ....................20

2.6 Carrier-class Network Management ................................................20


2.6.1 Supporting Integrated Configuration Management .............21
2.6.2 Supporting Performance Management and Alarm
Management ....................................................................21

2.7 DCN Construction...........................................................................22

2.7.1 In-band DCN Network.......................................................22


2.7.2 Out-of-band DCN Network ................................................23

2.8 Monitoring and Maintenance Function .............................................24

2.8.1 Card Bootstrap Capability .................................................25


2.8.2 Remote Upgrade Capability ..............................................25
2.8.3 Power Supply and Environment Monitoring Capability .......25
2.8.4 Intelligent Fan Feature ......................................................26

3 Product Feature ............................................................................................28

3.1 QoS Feature...................................................................................29

3.2 OAM Feature ..................................................................................31

3.3 ACL Feature ...................................................................................33

3.4 VPN Feature...................................................................................33

3.5 Clock Feature .................................................................................34

3.6 EMC / EMI Related Safety Regulation .............................................36

4 Product Composition.....................................................................................38

4.1 Logical Architecture ........................................................................39

4.2 Hardware Structure.........................................................................41

4.2.1 Cabinet.............................................................................41
4.2.2 PDP .................................................................................44
4.2.3 Subrack............................................................................45
4.2.4 Fiber Guide Unit................................................................48
4.2.5 Card Overview..................................................................49
4.2.6 The NMUJ1 Card..............................................................56
4.2.7 The AIFJ1 / AIFJ2 Card.....................................................57
4.2.8 The XCUJ2 / XCUJ4 Card.................................................57
4.2.9 The XGJ1 Card.................................................................59
4.2.10 The XSJ2 / XSJ3 Card ......................................................59
4.2.11 The GSJ2 / GSJ3 Card .....................................................60
4.2.12 The S1J1 / S1J2 / S1J4 Card ............................................63
4.2.13 The ESJ1 / ESJ2 Card ......................................................64
4.2.14 The S1O1 Card ................................................................65
4.2.15 The E1J1 / E1J2 Card.......................................................66
4.2.16 The IEJ1 / IEJ2 Card.........................................................67
4.2.17 The IFJ1 Card...................................................................67

4.3 Software Architecture......................................................................68

4.3.1 Overview ..........................................................................68


4.3.2 Communication Protocol and Interface ..............................69
4.3.3 BMU Software ..................................................................70
4.3.4 NMU Software ..................................................................70
4.3.5 Network Management Software ........................................71

5 Service Application .......................................................................................74

5.1 Ethernet Service .............................................................................75

5.1.1 E-Line Service ..................................................................75


5.1.2 E-LAN Service ..................................................................78
5.1.3 E-Tree Service..................................................................81

5.2 CES Service ...................................................................................84

5.2.1 CES Application Scenario .................................................85


5.2.2 Emulation Mode................................................................85
5.2.3 Clock Mode ......................................................................86

5.3 Wireless Network Service ...............................................................86

5.3.1 Wireless Network Service Bearing Solution .......................86


5.3.2 Wireless Network Clock Synchronization Solution .............87

6 Protection Implementation ............................................................................89

6.1 Equipment Level Protection ............................................................90

6.1.1 1+1 Protection of the XCU Card ........................................90


6.1.2 1+1 Protection of the NMUJ1 Card ....................................91
6.1.3 1+1 Protection of the Power Card......................................92
6.1.4 TPS Protection .................................................................92

6.2 Network-Level Protection ................................................................95

6.2.1 LSP 1:1 Protection............................................................96


6.2.2 PW APS Protection...........................................................98
6.2.3 DL 1+1 Protection .............................................................99
6.2.4 DL 1:1 Protection ............................................................100
6.2.5 Wrapping Protection .......................................................101
6.2.6 SNCP 1+1 Protection......................................................104
6.2.7 SNCP 1:1 Protection.......................................................106
6.2.8 Dual-homing Protection ..................................................108
6.2.9 Ethernet LAG Protection ................................................. 112

6.3 Network Management Information Protection ................................ 114

7 QoS Function ............................................................................................. 117

7.1 QoS Framework ........................................................................... 118

7.2 Key Specification of QoS .............................................................. 118

7.3 Key Technology of QoS................................................................. 119

8 OAM Function.............................................................................................120

8.1 Basic Concept of OAM..................................................................121

8.2 MPLS-TP and Ethernet OAM Feature ...........................................121

9 Clock and Time Synchronization .................................................................124

9.1 Introduction to Clock and Time ......................................................125

9.1.1 Concept of Synchronization ............................................125


9.1.2 Difference between Clock Synchronization and Time
Synchronization ..............................................................125
9.1.3 Ethernet Clock Synchronization Technology ....................126
9.1.4 1588v2 Time Synchronization Technology.......................128

9.2 Clock and Time Synchronization Function .....................................133

9.2.1 Internal Clock Unit ..........................................................134


9.2.2 Time and Clock Synchronization Capability .....................135
9.2.3 Time OAM Functions ......................................................136

10 Security Management .................................................................................142

10.1 Network Management Security Protection .....................................143

10.1.1 Access Control List .........................................................143


10.1.2 Traffic Monitoring ............................................................143
10.1.3 Anti-attack Capability ......................................................145

10.2 Network Management Security Protection .....................................147

10.2.1 Access Control ...............................................................147


10.2.2 Management of User Level and Authority ........................148
10.2.3 Data Security ..................................................................150
10.2.4 Log Management............................................................150
11 Technical Specifications..............................................................................152

11.1 Technical Specifications of Integrated Equipment ..........................153

11.2 System Performance Specifications ..............................................153

11.3 Interface Performance Specifications ............................................155

11.3.1 XGE Interface Specifications...........................................155


11.3.2 GE Interface Specifications .............................................155
11.3.3 STM-1 Interface Specifications........................................156
11.3.4 FE Interface Specifications..............................................157
11.3.5 E1 Interface Specifications..............................................157

11.4 Clock Specifications......................................................................158

11.5 AC / DC Power Module Specifications...........................................160

11.6 EMC / EMI Performance Specifications and Related Safety


Regulation ....................................................................................160

11.7 Environmental Requirement..........................................................161

11.7.1 Storage Environment ......................................................161


11.7.2 Operating Environment ...................................................161
11.7.3 Transportation Environment ............................................162

Appendix A Abbreviations ..........................................................................163


Figures

Figure 1-1 Network Application ..........................................................................5


Figure 2-1 Typical Network of the CiTRANS 660 in the E-Line Service..............12
Figure 2-2 Typical Network of the CiTRANS 660 in the E-LAN Service .............12
Figure 2-3 Typical Network of the CiTRANS 660 in the E-Tree Service .............13
Figure 2-4 Typical Network of the CiTRANS 660 CES Service..........................14
Figure 2-5 Typical Network of the CiTRANS 660 LTE Service...........................15
Figure 2-6 In-band DCN Network.....................................................................23
Figure 2-7 Out-of-band DCN Network ..............................................................24
Figure 4-1 Functional Modules.........................................................................39
Figure 4-2 The 21-inch Cabinet Appearance ....................................................42
Figure 4-3 Integrated Equipment Layout of the CiTRANS 660 ..........................43
Figure 4-4 PDP Appearance for the 21-inch Cabinet ........................................44
Figure 4-5 Subrack Structure ...........................................................................46
Figure 4-6 Slot Bandwidth Distribution of the CiTRANS 660 .............................48
Figure 4-7 Appearance of the Subrack's Fiber Guide Unit.................................49
Figure 4-8 Dimensions and Signs of the E1J2 Card..........................................50
Figure 4-9 Dimensions and Signs of the S1O1 Card.........................................51
Figure 4-10 Positions of Common Cards in the System ......................................53
Figure 4-11 The System Software Architecture ..................................................69
Figure 4-12 The OTNM2000 Software Architecture ............................................72
Figure 5-1 EP-Line Service Model ...................................................................76
Figure 5-2 EVP-Line Service Model .................................................................77
Figure 5-3 EP-LAN Service Model ...................................................................79
Figure 5-4 EVP-LAN Service Model .................................................................79
Figure 5-5 EP-Tree Service Model ...................................................................82
Figure 5-6 EVP-Tree Service Model.................................................................83
Figure 5-7 CES Service Model.........................................................................85
Figure 5-8 2G / 3G RAN Bearing of the CiTRANS 660......................................87
Figure 5-9 1588v2 Clock Synchronization ........................................................88
Figure 6-1 Slot Distribution of the TPS Protection .............................................93
Figure 6-2 LSP 1:1 Protection..........................................................................97
Figure 6-3 DL 1+1 Protection ...........................................................................99
Figure 6-4 DL 1:1 Protection ..........................................................................100
Figure 6-5 Wrapping Protection .....................................................................103
Figure 6-6 SNCP 1+1 Protection....................................................................105
Figure 6-7 SNCP 1:1 Protection.....................................................................107
Figure 6-8 Normal Working Status .................................................................109
Figure 6-9 Dual-homing Protection Switching Status - Network Side Failure ...109
Figure 6-10 Dual-homing Protection Switching Status - AC Side Failure ........... 110
Figure 6-11 Dual-homing Protection Switching Status - Network Side Failure and
AC Side Failure at the Same Time................................................. 111
Figure 6-12 Dual-homing Protection Switching Status - Node C Failure ............ 111
Figure 6-13 LAG Protection Principle ............................................................... 113
Figure 6-14 Network Management Information Channel Backup in a Ring Network
(a Section Transmission Failure) ................................................... 114
Figure 6-15 Network Management Information Channel Backup (Normal) ........ 115
Figure 6-16 Network Management Information Channel Backup (Main Channel
Failure) ......................................................................................... 116
Figure 7-1 QoS Framework ........................................................................... 118
Figure 9-1 Differences between the Clock Synchronization and the Time
Synchronization ............................................................................125
Figure 9-2 Synchronized Ethernet Operating Principle ...................................127
Figure 9-3 MPLS-TP Frequency Synchronization Network .............................128
Figure 9-4 Time Synchronization Mode ..........................................................131
Figure 9-5 IEEE 1588v2 Time Synchronization Principle ................................132
Figure 9-6 MPLS-TP IEEE 1588 Time Synchronization Network.....................133
Figure 9-7 Clock Signal Flow Direction...........................................................134
Figure 9-8 Fault Management Module............................................................137
Tables

Table 2-1 Cross-connect Grooming Capability ..................................................7


Table 2-2 Service Access Capability.................................................................7
Table 2-3 Service Interface...............................................................................9
Table 2-4 Management and Auxiliary Interfaces................................................9
Table 2-5 Ethernet Service Application Scenario............................................. 11
Table 2-6 CES Service Application Scenario...................................................13
Table 2-7 Equipment Level Protection ............................................................16
Table 2-8 Network-level Protection of the CiTRANS 660 .................................17
Table 2-9 Correspondence Relationships between Rotation Speed Level and
Temperature Threshold ...................................................................27
Table 3-1 Supported OAM Standards .............................................................31
Table 3-2 Applicable EMC Standards of the CiTRANS 660 .............................36
Table 3-3 Applicable Safety Standards ...........................................................37
Table 4-1 Equipment Layout Principle.............................................................44
Table 4-2 Subrack Structure of the CiTRANS 660 ...........................................47
Table 4-3 Dimensions of a Card......................................................................52
Table 4-4 Card Classification..........................................................................52
Table 4-5 Correspondence Relationships between the Cards and the Subrack
Slots ...............................................................................................54
Table 4-6 Corresponding Relationship between Processing Cards and Terminal
Board Slots.....................................................................................56
Table 5-1 E-Line Service Application (in the EP-Line Mode) ............................77
Table 5-2 E-Line Service Application (in the EVP-Line Mode)..........................78
Table 5-3 E-LAN Service Implementation (in EP-LAN Mode)...........................80
Table 5-4 E-LAN Service Implementation (in EVP-LAN Mode) ........................80
Table 5-5 E-Tree Service Application (EP-Tree) ..............................................84
Table 5-6 E-Tree Service Application (EVP-Tree)............................................84
Table 6-1 1+1 Protection Parameters of the XCU Card ...................................90
Table 6-2 1+1 Protection Parameters of the NMUJ1 Card ...............................92
Table 6-3 1+1 Protection Parameters of the Power Card .................................92
Table 6-4 TPS Protection Parameters.............................................................95
Table 6-5 Network-level Protection of the CiTRANS 660 .................................95
Table 6-6 Protection Parameters of the LSP 1:1 Protection .............................98
Table 6-7 PW APS Protection Parameters ......................................................99
Table 6-8 DL 1+1 Protection Parameters ......................................................100
Table 6-9 DL 1:1 Protection Parameters .......................................................101
Table 6-10 Wrapping Protection Parameters...................................................104
Table 6-11 SNCP 1+1 Protection Parameters .................................................106
Table 6-12 SNCP 1:1 Protection Parameters ..................................................108
Table 6-13 Dual-homing Protection Parameters.............................................. 112
Table 6-14 Ethernet LAG Protection Parameters ............................................ 113
Table 9-1 Description of the IEEE 1588v2 Clock ...........................................129
Table 9-2 Standards and Protocols of the CiTRANS 660 Clock Synchronization
Signal Design ...............................................................................135
Table 11-1 Technical Specifications of CiTRANS 660 Cabinets.......................153
Table 11-2 Technical Specifications of the CiTRANS 660 Subracks ................153
Table 11-3 System Performance Specifications of the CiTRANS 660 ..............153
Table 11-4 XGE Interface Specifications.........................................................155
Table 11-5 GE Interface Specifications ...........................................................156
Table 11-6 STM-1 Interface Specifications......................................................156
Table 11-7 FE Optical Interface Specifications ................................................157
Table 11-8 E1 Interface Specifications............................................................157
Table 11-9 Specifications of the Clock Interface..............................................159
Table 11-10 Wander Generation (MTIE) with Constant Temperature .................159
Table 11-11 Wander Generation (TDEV) with Constant Temperature ................159
Table 11-12 AC / DC Power Module Specifications...........................................160
Table 11-13 Applicable EMC Standards of the CiTRANS 660 ...........................160
1 Overview

The following includes the basic information of the CiTRANS 660.

Brief Introduction

Network Application

Version: D 1
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

1.1 Brief Introduction

The following introduces the architecture and features of the CiTRANS 660.

1.1.1 Equipment Architecture

Under the trend of IP (Internet Protocol) telecommunication services, the services


that the transport network bears change from TDM (Time Division Multiplex and
Multiplexer) predomination to IP predomination; new types of services emerging on
the transmission network have a higher demand of data type diversity which the
transmission network can bear.

The CiTRANS 660, based on the packet technology, is the transport equipment
offered by FiberHome. With the packet switching as its inner core, the equipment
implements the transportation of multi-services at multi-rates. It combines the
flexibility of the Ethernet with the high reliability and security of the transport network
to meet the service development trend toward IP.

The CiTRANS 660 not only uses the MPLS-TP (Multi-Protocol Label Switching
Transport Profile) forward technology that is especially optimized for the
telecommunication bearer network, but also configures complete OAM (Operation,
Administration and Maintenance) and protection switching mechanism. It acquires
the advantage of both the packet transport network and the TDM network, and
provides carrier-class services.

1.1.2 Product Feature

The main features of the CiTRANS 660 include the following aspects:

u Service capability

4 Provides abundant layer-2 service features such as layer-2 VLAN (Virtual


Local Area Network).

4 Provides mature VPN (Virtual Private Network) services, and supports


L2VPN (Layer 2 Virtual Private Networks), such as the VPLS (Virtual
Private LAN Service) / VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service).

u Network and grooming capability

2 Version: D
1 Overview

Taking advantage of the network, protection, operating and maintenance


capability of the TDM / MSTP, the equipment uses the IP-based core to provide
the powerful resilient bandwidth distribution, statistical multiplexing and
differentiated service capacity. The equipment also provides client side
interfaces for Ethernet and TDM services, making itself applicable to the
flexible access, convergence and statistical multiplexing for the fine-grained
service with high CoS (Class of Service).

u Multi-service transmission capability

With the PWE3 technology, the equipment implements uniform service


encapsulation, provides the end-to-end transparent transmission path in
service forwarding, and performs Ethernet, CES and STM-1 service
transmission.

u Security design

The CiTRANS 660 provides comprehensive security protection measures to


protect network data for carriers and end users. The security features are as
follows:

4 Supports ACLs (Access Control Lists) based on the forwarding plane and
control plane.

4 Supports data traffic control and policing.

4 Provides queue buffering management, queue scheduling, port rate


limiting, protection against malformed packets, suppression of broadcast,
multicast, and flooding packets, and protection against network attacks
such as IP address spoofing protection.

4 Supports allocation and management of user levels and rights and user
access control.

4 Has multiple security mechanisms to ensure network management data


security, protect data integrity and confidentiality, and implement database
security management.

4 Provides a comprehensive log management function to allow users to


query logs when system security is damaged.

u Carrier-class security protection

Version: D 3
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Supports security protection required by the carrier-class network, including a


service protection switching time that is less than 50 ms and the security
protection functions of carrier-class transport network, such as the end-to-end 1
+1 / 1:1 protection and ring network protection.

u Carrier-class OAM capabilities

Supports high-performance hierarchical OAM mechanisms so that faults can


be located in a real-time and accurate manner in a complicated network.
Supports alarm and performance applications of OAM such as CC, LB, LT, AIS,
RDI, LCK, TST, LM and DM.

u Low transmission cost per bit

Compared with the TDM, the MPLS-TP performs built-in statistic multiplexing,
provides connection-oriented flexible bearing tunnels with high bearing
efficiency and low transmission cost per bit.

u Network management traffic management functions

4 Supports second level real-time traffic monitoring.

4 Supports statistics of bandwidth utilization, 15-minute traffic and 24-hour


traffic.

4 Supports querying the maximum and minimum traffic of the monitored


object.

4 Supports monitoring performance of each layer in the NE, including port,


VP layer (LSP) and VC layer (PW) second level performance query.

1.2 Network Application

The following introduces the product orientation and network modes of the
CiTRANS 660.

1.2.1 Equipment Positioning

The CiTRANS 660 is mainly used at the distribution layer of the metropolitan area
packet network and the core layer of the small and medium-sized cities network. Its
purpose is to transmit packet services inside the network and converges services to
the backbone data network, so as to set up the unified packet bearer network.

4 Version: D
1 Overview

1.2.2 Network Mode

The CiTRANS 660 can be used together with the traditional MSTP (Multi-Service
Transfer Platform based on the TDM) equipment to implement interconnection
between Ethernet services and TDM services, and can be networked with the
remote end MPLS-TP equipment.

See Figure 1-1 for the application of the CiTRANS 660 in the system.

Figure 1-1 Network Application

Version: D 5
2 Product Function

The CiTRANS 660 supports multiple service types and provides various functions to
guarantee the transmission quality and efficiency of services.

Cross-connect Grooming Capability

Service Type and Access Capability

Interface Type

Network Capability

Protection Capability

Carrier-class Network Management

DCN Construction

Monitoring and Maintenance Function

6 Version: D
2 Product Function

2.1 Cross-connect Grooming Capability

The CiTRANS 660 provides two switching capacities (160G and 320G) based on
the packet switching. The switching capacity of the equipment depends on the
switching capacity of the clock and cross-connect card.

Table 2-1 Cross-connect Grooming Capability

Type of Cross-connect Card Switching Capacity Packet Forwarding Rate

XCUJ2 320G 476.16Mpps

XCUJ4 160G 238.08Mpps

2.2 Service Type and Access Capability

The following introduces the accessed service types of the CiTRANS 660 and the
corresponding access capability.

2.2.1 Service Access Capability

Table 2-2 lists various interfaces which provide the access capacity of multiple
services.

Table 2-2 Service Access Capability

Access Capability of a
Interface Applicable Slot Remark
Card (Unit: Channel)

Only the 1st interfaces of the slots 02 to 05,


2 (the XSJ2 card) 02 to 08, 0B to 0F 0E, and 0F are available due to the bandwidth
limit of the backplane.

u Only the 1st interfaces of the slots 02 to


05, 0E, and 0F are available due to the
bandwidth limit of the backplane.
10GE 4 (the XSJ3 card) 02 to 08, 0B to 0F u Only the first two optical interfaces of the
slots 06 to 07, 0E, and 0F are available
due to the bandwidth limit of the
backplane.

Only the 1st optical interfaces of the slots 02


2 (the XGJ1 card) 02 to 08, 0B to 0F to 05, 0E, and 0F are available due to the
bandwidth limit of the backplane.

Version: D 7
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Table 2-2 Service Access Capability (Continued)

Access Capability of a
Interface Applicable Slot Remark
Card (Unit: Channel)

10 (the GSJ2 card) 02 to 08, 0B to 0F -

u Only the 1st optical interfaces of the slots


12 to 15, 1C to 1F are available due to
the bandwidth limit of the backplane.
GE 2 (the GSJ3 card) 12 to 1F
u Only the first two optical interfaces of the
slots 16 to 1B are available due to the
bandwidth limit of the backplane.

8 (the XGJ1 card) 08, 0B -


12 (electrical interface, the Cooperates with the FE terminal board (12 to
16 to 1C
ESJ1 card) 15, 1D to 1F)
FE
12 (optical interface, the
12 to 1F -
ESJ2 card)

Cooperates with the E1 terminal board (12 to


E1 16 (the E1J1 card) 16 to 1C
15, 1D to 1F)

1 (the S1J1 card) 12 to 1F -


2 (the S1J2 card) 12 to 1F -

4 (the S1O1 card) 16 to 1C -


STM-1
Only the first four optical interfaces of the slots
8 (the S1J4 card) 12 to 1F 12 to 15, 1C to 1F are available due to the
bandwidth limit of the backplane.

2.3 Interface Type

The external interfaces of the CiTRANS 660 include service interfaces,


management interfaces and auxiliary interfaces.

2.3.1 Service Interface

The CiTRANS 660 provides abundant service interfaces, as shown in Table 2-3.

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Table 2-3 Service Interface

Interface Type Description

E1 interface 75 or 120 E1 electrical interface; DE25 socket


Electrical interface: RJ-45; optical interface: 100BASE-LX,
FE interface
100BASE-EX, 100BASE-ZX

10GE interface 10GBASE-LR/W, 10GBASE-ER/W, 10GBASE-ZR/W


1000BASE-LX, 1000BASE-EX, 1000BASE-ZX1, 1000BASE-
GE interface
ZX2, single-fiber bidirectional

Channelized STM-1
Based on EOS, S-1.1, L-1.1, L-1.2
interface

2.3.2 Management and Auxiliary Interfaces

The CiTRANS 660 provides abundant management and auxiliary interfaces, as


shown in Table 2-4.

Table 2-4 Management and Auxiliary Interfaces

Connector
Interface Type Description
Type

Alarm interface ALM Alarm output interface

Local monitoring interface, generally connected to DB-9


f
LCT
Control interface for external events (temperatures
CTR and alarms), which generally connects to the
Auxiliary interface
user's environment monitoring equipment

Monitoring interface for external events


MON (temperatures and alarms), which generally
connects to the user's equipment to be monitored

Extended interface for intra-NE subrack


COM1, COM2, COM3
communication and software debugging interface RJ-45

Network management interfaces 1 and 2, which


F1, F2 generally connect to the network management
Management host
interface Debugging serial port
CONS

TEST Card debugging interface

ETH1, ETH2 Control plane interfaces 1 and 2

ETH3, ETH4 Ethernet interface, connected with the OTNM2000

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Table 2-4 Management and Auxiliary Interfaces (Continued)

Connector
Interface Type Description
Type

Clock signal input and output interfaces 1 and 2,


External clock
CKIO1, CKIO2 used for clock synchronization (frequency and DB-9
interface
phase synchronization)

Time signal input and output interfaces 1 and 2


External time
TOD1, TOD2 used for time synchronization, with the ability to RJ-45
interface
access the 1PPS + TOD time signal

2.4 Network Capability

Mainly applicable in the distribution layer of the metropolitan area packet network,
the CiTRANS 660 is in charge of the transmission of the packet services in the
network and make the services converged in the data backbone network.

With strong service grooming and convergence capability, the CiTRANS 660 can
meet the unified bearer requirements of the 2G / 3G / LTE. It provides the following
network interfaces:

u 10GE

u GE

u FE

u STM-1

2.4.1 Typical Network of Ethernet Service

The CiTRANS 660 supports the following Ethernet services:

u E-Line service

u E-LAN service

u E-Tree service

See Table 2-5 for the application scenarios of the Ethernet services of the
CiTRANS 660.

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Table 2-5 Ethernet Service Application Scenario

Item Description

Access service E-Line service E-LAN service E-Tree service


Application mode Packet mode Packet mode Packet mode
Chain-shaped and mesh-
Network mode Mesh-shaped Tree-shaped
shaped

Service type FE, GE, 10GE FE, GE, 10GE FE, GE, 10GE
Network
GE, 10GE GE, 10GE GE, 10GE
interface type

u Accesses user services


via GE / FE and
implements transparent
u Accesses user services
transmission; provides the
via GE / FE and
u Accesses user services QoS service.
implements transparent
via GE / FE and u Provides traffic statistical
transmission; provides
implements transparent count based on the
the QoS service.
transmission; provides interface / service (LSP /
u Provides traffic statistical
the QoS service. PW).
count based on the
u Provides traffic statistical u Provides Ethernet OAM,
Service scenario interface / service (LSP /
count based on the MPLS-TP OAM, and
PW).
interface / service (LSP / access link OAM.
u Provides Ethernet OAM,
PW). u Supports
MPLS-TP OAM, and
u Provides Ethernet OAM, intercommunication with
access link OAM.
MPLS-TP OAM, and the MSTP of the user.
u Supports
access link OAM. u Supports L2 multicast and
intercommunication with
L2 broadcast
the MSTP of the user.
suppression.
u Supports separation on
data of different users.

See Figure 2-1 for the typical network of the CiTRANS 660 in the Ethernet E-Line
service.

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Figure 2-1 Typical Network of the CiTRANS 660 in the E-Line Service

See Figure 2-2 for the typical network of the CiTRANS 660 in the Ethernet E-LAN
service.

Figure 2-2 Typical Network of the CiTRANS 660 in the E-LAN Service

See Figure 2-3 for the typical network of the CiTRANS 660 in the Ethernet E-Tree
service.

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Figure 2-3 Typical Network of the CiTRANS 660 in the E-Tree Service

2.4.2 Typical Network of CES Service

The CiTRANS 660 supports the following types of CES services:

u E1 service

u STM-1 service

See Table 2-6 for the application conditions of the CES services of the CiTRANS
660.

Table 2-6 CES Service Application Scenario

Item Description

Access service E1 service STM-1 service


Application mode Packet mode Packet mode

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Table 2-6 CES Service Application Scenario (Continued)

Item Description

Ring-shaped, tree-shaped Ring-shaped, tree-shaped and mesh-


Network mode
and mesh-shaped shaped

Service type E1 STM-1


Network interface
E1 STM-1
type

The convergence point accesses the


Ethernet emulation
Service condition STM-1 and transports to the base station
transmission of E1
controller.

See Figure 2-4 for the typical network of the CiTRANS 660 in the CES service.

Figure 2-4 Typical Network of the CiTRANS 660 CES Service

2.4.3 Typical Network of LTE Bearer

The LTE (Long Term Evolution), also known as the 3.9G standard, is a brand name
of the emerging and developed technology that comprises the existing 3G and 4G
networks. It improves the 3G wireless access technology and uses the OFDM
(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) and MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-
Output) as the unique standard of the wireless network evolution. Under the 20 MHz
spectrum bandwidth, the LTE provides the peak rate of 326 Mbit/s for downlink and
86 Mbit/s for uplink. The main advantages of the LTE are larger cell capacity, lower
latency, and better user experience.

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The LTE technology supports larger bandwidth for uplink and downlink, and
provides high-speed wireless access service for users. The LTE technology
requires more from the bearer network, includes high-ratio, large capacity, low delay,
accurate synchronization and stable mechanisms of protection and restoration.

The CiTRANS 660 meets the requirements for the bearer network by the LTE
standard. The typical network of the CiTRANS 660 in the LTE service is shown in
Figure 2-5.

Figure 2-5 Typical Network of the CiTRANS 660 LTE Service

The CiTRANS 660 still acts as the trunk convergence node. The eNodeB not only
provides the functions of the original NodeB but also provides the most functions of
the original RNC (Radio Network Controller), and the original backbone networks
are merged and simplified into MME and SGW, so that the structure of the LTE
network is optimized and is more reliable.

2.5 Protection Capability

The CiTRANS 660 provides equipment level protection, network level protection,
and network management information protection.

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

2.5.1 Equipment Level Protection

The CiTRANS 660 provides abundant types of equipment level hot standby
protections and TPS (Tributary Protection Switching) protections, as shown in
Table 2-7.

Table 2-7 Equipment Level Protection

Protection Type Protection Mode Revert Mode

The NMUJ1 card 1+1 hot standby protection Non-revertive

The XCUJ2 / XCUJ4 card 1+1 hot standby protection Non-revertive

The E1J1 card 1: N (N 6) TPS protection Revertive

The ESJ1 / ESJ2 card 1: N (N 6) TPS protection Revertive


Power supply unit 1+1 hot standby protection -

1+1 Protection of the NMUJ1 Card

When the CiTRANS 660 is equipped with two NMUJ1 cards, the NMUJ1 card will
execute the active / standby switching if one of the following triggering conditions
are met.

u The active card hardware or software is faulty;

u The switching command is delivered manually;

u The active card is unplugged manually;

u The active card is hard reset.

1+1 Protection of the XCUJ2 / XCUJ4 Card

When the CiTRANS 660 is equipped with two XCUJ2 / XCUJ4 cards, the XCUJ2 /
XCUJ4 card will execute the active / standby switching if one of the following
triggering conditions are met.

u The active card hardware or software is faulty;

u The switching command is delivered manually;

u The active card is unplugged manually;

u The active card is hard reset.

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TPS Protection of the E1J1 Card and the ESJ1 / ESJ2 Card

Objects of TPS protection are cards whose wires and cables are led out through
terminal boards. When a working card is faulty, the signals from a terminal board to
the faulty card will be switched to the normal protection card via software and
hardware operations, so as to ensure normal transmission of services.

The CiTRANS 660 supports the TPS protection for E1 services and FE services.
The TPS protection will be implemented when one of the following circumstances
occurs.

u Clock loss occurs on the active card;

u The active card has hardware faults;

u The switching command is delivered manually;

u The active card is unplugged manually;

u The active card is hard reset.

1+1 Protection of the Power Supply Unit

The CiTRANS 660 has two power and auxiliary terminal boards (AIFJ1 or AIFJ2)
configured in the slots 10 and 11, which are in the active / standby mode and serve
at the hot standby for each other.

When the active power and auxiliary terminal board fails, the standby power and
auxiliary terminal board will start to provide power supply for the equipment instead
of the active one, so as guarantee the normal operations of the equipment.

2.5.2 Network-Level Protection

The CiTRANS 660 provides abundant network-level protections, as shown in


Table 2-8.

Table 2-8 Network-level Protection of the CiTRANS 660

Protection Type Protection Mode


LSP protection 1:1
1:1
PW APS protection
Redundancy protection

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Table 2-8 Network-level Protection of the (Continued)

Protection Type Protection Mode


WrappingV2

Wrapping protection WrappingV3

Short Wrapping

SNCP protection 1+1, 1:1


Dual-homing protection 1+1/1:1
Ethernet LAG protection Port aggregation

DL protection 1+1, 1:1

LSP 1:1 Protection

In LSP 1:1 protection, the protection path is used to protect the services transmitted
over the working path. When the working path fails, the service switches to the
protection path. The service protected by the LSP 1:1 protection is single-fed and
single-received.

Depending on whether the service is switched to the working path after the working
path is back to normal, the LSP protection can be divided into revertive and non-
revertive modes. And depending on whether the Rx and Tx ends of the service are
assisting the switching when the switching occurs, the LSP protection can be
divided into unidirectional and bidirectional protections.

In LSP 1:1 protection, the active / standby status and switching status are
exchanged on the protection path through the APS protocol. The equipment at both
ends performs service switching according to protocol status and switching status.

PW APS Protection

In PW APS protection, the working and protection PWs are pre-created. When the
working PW is faulty, the service will be switched to the protection PW, so as to
protect the service.

u PW 1:1 protection: in case of the same source and same sink, if the APS
function is enabled, the working/protection PW implements connectivity check
via the VC layer OAM, and performs protection switching, switching delay and
WTR by coordinating the source and sink ports via the APS protocol.

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u PW redundancy protection: in case of the same source and different sink, if the
APS function is disabled, the working/protection PW implements connectivity
check via the VC layer OAM, and supports triggering switching by CSF.

Wrapping Protection

The Wrapping protection protects the network by configuring the Wrapping


protection ring. The services will be looped back to the adjacent node of the failed
node for the line protection switching. When a fault is detected in the network, the
adjacent nodes of the fault will switch the services to the protection direction via the
APS calculation, avoiding the faulty node or link, so as to guarantee the continuity in
operation of the network. It supports WrappingV2/WrappingV3/Short Wrapping.

SNCP 1+1 and 1:1 Protection

SNCP is used to protect internal subnet connections of the carrier's network. The
SNCP 1+1 protection service is dual-fed and selectively-received while the SNCP
1:1 protection service is single-fed and single-received.

Two independent subnet connections exist in the working space of the SNCP 1+1
and 1:1 protection. All services and channels transferred in the working subnet are
protected by the protection subnet. The SNCP protection, similar to the LSP
protection, is divided into revertive and non-revertive, unidirectional and bidirectional
protection, etc.

In SNCP 1:1 protection, the active / standby status and switching status are
exchanged on the protection path through the APS protocol. The equipment at both
ends performs service switching according to protocol status and switching status.

Dual-homing Protection

Dual-homing protection combines MPLS-TP network side protection and


attachment circuit (AC) protection. Network faults trigger switchover only on the
network side and AC faults trigger switchover only on the AC side. When faults
occur on both the network side and AC side, switchover is triggered simultaneously
at both sides to protect services. LSP 1+1 / 1:1 protection is supported on the
network side whereas 1+1 / 1:1 link protection is supported on the AC side. The two
NEs on the AC side are respectively connected to the working and protection lines
of the RNC.

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Ethernet LAG Protection

A Link Aggregation Group (LAG) is a group of physical Ethernet interfaces with the
same rate that are bound as a logical interface for the purpose of increasing the
bandwidth and protecting link protection.

LAG provides larger bandwidth and higher reliability of the links. Members of the
port aggregation group perform mutual dynamic backup protection; when one link
fails, other links will take over the traffic load of the failed link to achieve load sharing.

DL 1+1 and 1:1 Protection

The DL 1+1 / 1:1 protection is implemented between two adjacent nodes to protect
services on the line via the protection line. When the working line is faulty, the
protection line will receive services.

2.5.3 Network Management Information Protection

The CiTRANS 660 provides the protection channel for the network management
information. By connecting the NE which needs the network management
information protection to the data communication network and then connecting it to
the network management host, the CiTRANS 660 can set up the protection channel
for the network management information.

The network management information is transmitted on the working channel when


the network is normal, and will be switched to the protection channel automatically
when fault occurs on the working channel. The purpose is to guarantee that the
network management system monitors and operates the entire network.

2.6 Carrier-class Network Management

The CiTRANS 660 uses the OTNM2000 Element Management System (hereinafter
referred to as the OTNM2000). The OTNM2000 is the subnet of the TMN and
designed in line with the OSI standard of ISO.

Developed by FiberHome, the OTNM2000 can implement the integrated


management on FiberHomes various transmission and access equipment with one
platform, so as to facilitate the operations and reduce the maintenance cost of users.

20 Version: D
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2.6.1 Supporting Integrated Configuration Management

The OTNM2000 at the central office performs uniform management of the CiTRANS
660, with advantages of a large control range, high management efficiency, and low
maintenance cost.

The configuration management is responsible for configuring the network and NE


equipment information.

u Network information configuration: Involves physical link of the network; sets up,
modifies or deletes service paths; reconfigures the paths and equipment and
recovers the route when the network is faulty.

u NE information configuration: Performs management of the equipment


constituting the communication network (such as set-up, modification and
deletion); initializes NEs and configures various functions such as adding /
deleting NEs, subracks and cards.

2.6.2 Supporting Performance Management and Alarm


Management

The CiTRANS 660 performs performance and alarm management via the
OTNM2000, implements real-time collection, alert, filter, browse, confirmation,
clearance and statistics of performance and alarms as well as alarm relevance
analysis and fault diagnosis.

u Performance management: The OTNM2000 supports the function of


performance management, which makes reports and evaluation on the
transport performance parameters of the communication equipment and the
network, collects the quality data, statistical data about the practical operations
of the equipment in the communication network. The information is used in the
monitoring of the status and performance of the network and the equipment
and provide basis for the maintenance staff to evaluate, analyze, predict and
plan.

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

u Alarm management: The OTNM2000 supports the function of alarm


management, which implements real-time monitoring on the abnormal
operating situation in the equipment and the network channels, achieves the
monitoring, report, storage of alarm signals, and diagnosing, locating and
processing of faults. At the same time, the alarms will be given to inform users
of the faults and make them detect the faults on time and adopt measures to
solve the problems and resume the service that is influenced by the fault.

2.7 DCN Construction

The DCN is a part of the network management, and is used to transmit network
management information.

The CiTRANS 660 supports multiple DCN construction modes. In these modes,
users can implement isolation between the management communication network
and the signaling communication network, and can achieve the in-band DCN
network and out-of-band DCN network modes.

2.7.1 In-band DCN Network

The in-band DCN network refers to the network mode that uses the service
channels provided by the managed equipment to manage the network equipment.
In this mode, the network management information is transmitted via the service
channels of the equipment.

The features of the in-band DCN network are the flexibility and that no extra
equipment is required.

The CiTRANS 660 supports the in-band DCN network interfaces as follows:

u 10GE interface

u GE interface

u FE interface

u STM-1 interface

u E1 interface

22 Version: D
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Figure 2-6 In-band DCN Network

2.7.2 Out-of-band DCN Network

The out-of-band DCN network refers to the network mode that uses the channels
other than the service channels to transmit the network management information, so
as to accomplish the management on the network.

Compared with the in-band DCN network mode, the out-of-band DCN network
mode provides more reliable management channels. The users can get the network
management information and implement real-time monitoring when the service
channel fails.

The out-of-band network mode requires specific communication channels as well as


the maintenance channel that is unrelated to the service channel. In the out-band
DCN network mode, the network management center can set up the DCN with the
managed equipment via various methods, such as the E1 private line and the
Ethernet. The network management system manages the network within the
management range via the DCN.

Version: D 23
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Figure 2-7 Out-of-band DCN Network

2.8 Monitoring and Maintenance Function

The CiTRANS 660 provides complete equipment monitoring and maintenance


function.

u Card bootstrap capability: Detects the newly added card information


automatically and reports to the OTNM2000.

u Remote upgrade capability: Supports the remote upgrade of the card software.

u Power supply and environment supervision capability: Monitors the power


supply and temperature conditions of the equipment and generates
performance data to report to the OTNM2000.

u Intelligent fan: Sets the fan working mode and temperature threshold using the
OTNM2000, and adjusts the fan rotation speed automatically according to the
reported temperature.

24 Version: D
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2.8.1 Card Bootstrap Capability

The CiTRANS 660 has the card bootstrap capability. When a new card is added
during the normal operations of the NMUJ1 card of the CiTRANS 660, the CiTRANS
660 will automatically detect the information of the added card, such as the bureau /
subrack / slot and network block / NE to which the card belongs and the card name,
and then report the information to the OTNM2000 for users to query and save the
detected configuration data. Consequently, this simplifies the management
configuration procedures and facilitates the project commissioning and
maintenance.

2.8.2 Remote Upgrade Capability

Remote login is one of the most original services provided by the Internet. Via the
remote login, users can enjoy the same convenience in controlling the computer in
the remote end of the network as controlling the computer that is in the users side.
The remote login function is widely applied to the transmission network such as
TDM, especially applied to large-scale project commissioning, equipment upgrading,
and network supervision and maintenance.

The CiTRANS 660 supports remote upgrade of the FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate)
and BMU (Basic Measurement Unit) software of various cards through the remote
computer. This facilitates project start-up and maintenance, and also meets future
upgrading requirements of the system.

2.8.3 Power Supply and Environment Monitoring Capability

The CiTRANS 660 provides two channels of -48 V power supply induction. The
system uses the NMUJ1 card to supervise status of the power supply and the
temperature of the equipment in real time.

u Power supply supervision: Supervises the status of the power supply in real
time. As long as the active power supply failure is detected, the standby power
supply starts to provide power for the equipment, so as to guarantee the normal
operations of the equipment.

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

u Temperature supervision: Supervises the temperature status in real time and


controls the operations of the fan system automatically according to the
temperature threshold set by the user.

Through the external supervision interfaces of the NMUJ1 card, the CiTRANS 660
monitors the environment conditions (e.g., temperature and alarms) of the
equipment room in real time.

2.8.4 Intelligent Fan Feature

The CiTRANS 660 acquires the intelligent fan feature, namely controlling the
rotation speed of the fan through setting the intelligent fans operating mode and
temperature threshold, so as to adjust the temperature inside the equipment and
guarantee the cards are operating under the normal temperature.

Operating Mode

Set via delivering a control command Intelligent Fan Control on the NMUJ1 card.

u Intelligent control mode: In this mode, the system adjusts the rotation speed of
the fan intelligently, according to the highest temperature detected in cards
under the domination of the fan. The rotation speed of the fan has four levels:
full speed, fast, slow and stopped.

u Forcible full speed mode: In this mode, the fan is not adjusted intelligently, and
forced to run with full speed.

Temperature Threshold

Configure the items of intelligent fan temperature threshold 1-3 at the network
management GUI of the NMUJ1 card, and three temperature thresholds can be
configured: intelligent fan threshold 1, intelligent fan threshold 2 and intelligent fan
threshold 3.

The value range of the three thresholds above should be: 0 < intelligent fan
threshold 1 < intelligent fan threshold 2 < intelligent fan threshold 3 < 50.

Table 2-9 lists correspondence relationships between the rotation speed level and
the temperature threshold.

26 Version: D
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Table 2-9 Correspondence Relationships between Rotation Speed Level and Temperature
Threshold

The Highest Temperature in Card under the Domination of Rotation Speed Level of the
the Fan Intelligent Fan

Lower than intelligent fan threshold 1 Stopped

Higher than intelligent fan threshold 1; lower than intelligent fan


Slow
threshold 2
Higher than intelligent fan threshold 2; lower than intelligent fan
Fast
threshold 3
Higher than intelligent fan threshold 3 Full speed

Version: D 27
3 Product Feature

The CiTRANS 660 supports multiple function features to guarantee the


transmission quality and efficiency of services.

QoS Feature

OAM Feature

ACL Feature

VPN Feature

Clock Feature

EMC / EMI Related Safety Regulation

28 Version: D
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3.1 QoS Feature

The CiTRANS 660 provides hierarchical end-to-end QoS (Quality of Service)


management, and provides elaborate service bearer and complete hierarchical QoS
guarantee. The CiTRANS 660 supports the QoS functions such as traffic
classification, traffic monitoring, congestion management, queue scheduling and
traffic shaping. It aims to provide end-to-end guarantee on the quality of the service.

Traffic Classification

The CiTRANS 660 supports the traffic classification of the data messages. It divides
the messages into different priorities and service types, and applies the other QoS
features to different classifications, so as to perform the congestion management
and traffic shaping based on classification. The traffic classification is the
prerequisite to implement QoS strategy on the messages.

The different traffic classification methods include: port-based, VLAN-based, PW


label-based, IP address-based and so on.

Traffic Bandwidth Control

The CiTRANS 660 supports the CAR function, and both the Color-Blind mode and
the Color-Aware mode are supported.

The default traffic bandwidth control policy is: to discard red messages and let
yellow and green messages pass.

The CiTRANS 660 supports the add / drop traffic bandwidth control policy of
multiple layers, including:

u Traffic bandwidth control based on MPLS TUNNEL.

u Traffic bandwidth control based on PW.

u Traffic bandwidth control based on VPWS.

u Traffic bandwidth control based on VPLS-VS.

u Traffic bandwidth control based on VPLS emulation LAN.

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Service Priority Mapping

The CiTRANS 660 supports the DiffServ mode, and can implement PHB (Per-Hop
Behavior) defined by related standards in the MPLS-TP network. This enables
network operators to provide different service guarantees at different QoS levels for
users.

u In data forwarding, the CiTRANS 660 supports the mapping from the user
priority level and the VC layer priority level of the received messages to the
PHB, as well as the mapping from the PHB of the transmitted messages to the
VC / VP layer priority level.

u The CiTRANS 660 can set VPWS channel, VPWS flow and PHB of the
VPLSVS and VPLS emulate LAN interface.

u Users can either choose from the existed mapping table for the PHB and the
VC priority level, or set a specific PHB service level.

Congestion Control

When the network congestion occurs or intensifies, the CiTRANS 660 will
guarantee the QoS of the services with high priority level via certain queue buffering
management strategies.

The CiTRANS 660 supports two kinds of queue buffering management strategies:
tail drop and WRED.

u Tail drop

Tail drop: a buffer queue buffers the messages, not differentiating the discard
level. When the queue is full, drop the messages that arrive later directly.

u WRED

WRED (Weighted Random Early Detected): detects the discard priority of


messages (color) and sets the high and low discard threshold and discard ratio
of the messages according to their discard priority, so as to provide different
discard features for the messages.

Queue Scheduling

When the congestion occurs, the CiTRANS 660 will provide QoS guarantee for the
service types with high levels via different queue scheduling strategies.

30 Version: D
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The CiTRANS 660 supports the following two kinds of queue scheduling strategies:

u SP

Strict priority queue scheduling strategy means to schedule the messages in


the queue strictly according to the priority level. Only when the queues with
higher priority level are empty will the messages in the queues with lower
priority level be transmitted.

u WFQ

Weighted fair queuing scheduling strategy means to implement fair scheduling


on the queues according to the weights assigned to the queues. Usually the
queues with higher priority levels have higher weights and occupy larger
bandwidth and the queues with lower priority levels have lower weights and
occupy smaller bandwidth.

3.2 OAM Feature

The CiTRANS 660 supports 802.1ag Ethernet OAM, GACh+Y.1731 MPLS-TP


network layer OAM and IEEE 802.3ah access link OAM, so as to perform the OAM
management functions at client side and various layers of MPLS-TP network. This
can implement quick fault diagnosis, so as to trigger protection switching and
ensure the carrier-class service quality in the packet switched network.

Table 3-1 lists OAM standards supported by the CiTRANS 660.

Table 3-1 Supported OAM Standards

Type Corresponding Standard

Access link OAM IEEE 802.3ah


MPLS-TP OAM (VS/VP/VC) GACh+Y.1731

Ethernet OAM 802.1ag

Access Link OAM

Access link OAM performs the end-to-end OAM function for the service, and tests
the quality of the Ethernet link that crosses multiple NEs.

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

The CiTRANS 660 supports access link OAM mechanism compliant with IEEE
802.3ah standard, monitors single link and tests link connection, obtains statistical
information of the remote interface and provides threshold-crossing alarms of the
error information.

MPLS-TP OAM

MPLS-TP OAM mechanism can effectively detect, confirm and locate the defect that
originates from inside the MPLS layer network and monitor the network
performance. The equipment can trigger the protection switching using the
detecting status of OAM, so as to implement quick fault detection and service
protection. The monitoring of network performance includes packet loss rate, delay
and jitter. This guarantees the quality of carrier-class service in the packet switched
network.

The CiTRANS 660 supports OAM mechanism in line with MPLS-TP standards, has
abundant overhead capability similar to TDM, so as to perform functions such as
hierarchical network automatic fault diagnosis, protection switching, performance
monitoring, fault isolation, signal integrity monitoring, etc. The MPLS-TP OAM
mechanism also performs OAM monitoring at all layers of MPLS-TP and supports
proactive and on-demand OAMs.

The CiTRANS 660 provides up to 2047 MPLS-TP OAMs.

Ethernet OAM

Ethernet OAM, a tool of monitoring network problems, works at the data link layer,
reports network status via the regular interacting of OAM PDU between devices and
assists network administrators in efficiently managing the network.

The CiTRANS 660 supports Ethernet layer OAM mechanism in line with 802.1ag
standard, supports proactive and on-demand fault management mechanisms, and
performs functions such as Ethernet continuity check, loopback detection, link
tracing message, alarm indication message, maintenance communication channel
message, and remote defect indication.

32 Version: D
3 Product Feature

3.3 ACL Feature

The CiTRANS 660 supports the ACL (Access Control List) function of IPV6 and
IPV4, and classifies the messages by configuring a serial of matching conditions. As
a message filtering rule, the ACL is applied widely in the functions related to security
and QoS.

u Supports the ACL strategy of an interface.

u Supports the mixed ACL strategy based on quintuple.

u Supports setting ACL filtering for the specified time.

u Supports the ACL processing for IPV4 segment messages.

3.4 VPN Feature

VPN has two basic features as follows:

u Private: For the VPN users, no difference exists between the VPN and the
traditional private network. The VPN has independent resource from the
underlying network, which means that the VPN resource will not be occupied
by non-VPN users in the network. VPN also provides security guarantee to
prevent external intrusion.

u Virtual: The intercommunication between VPN users is performed using the


public network, which can be used by other non-VPN users simultaneously.
VPN users only occupy the logical private network. The public network is called
the VPN backbone network.

L2VPN

The CiTRANS 660 supports the L2VPN of multiple service models.

u E-Line

u E-LAN

u E-Tree

u CES

Version: D 33
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

3.5 Clock Feature

The CiTRANS 660 supports clock synchronization at the physical layer, provides
external clock input / output interface and the internal system clock of the equipment,
as well as complies with the IEEE 1588 v2 synchronization protocol.

The CiTRANS 660 supports the time synchronization scheme with the highest
precision and will not be influenced by network delay and jitter. It also supports
separated transmission and common-channel transmission of the high-precision
synchronization signal, and supports multiple time transmission modes such as OC,
TC and BC, using the advanced BMC algorithm. The entire network provides the
IEEE1588v2 time synchronization using the MPLS-TP to meet the time
synchronization requirement from LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD, which has better cost
advantage the GPS.

Physical Layer Clock Synchronization

The clock synchronization at the physical layer is to extract the clock information
from the transmission link physical channel and perform frequency synchronization.

The CiTRANS 660 can extract clock information from the following transmission
links:

u Supports clock signal extraction from the E1 interface.

u Supports clock signal extraction from the FE interface.

u Supports clock signal extraction from the GE synchronous Ethernet interface.

u Supports clock signal extraction from the STM-1 interface.

The CiTRANS 660 supports two channels of external clock source input / output
with the 75 or 120 clock interface. The two channels of external clock source
input / output enable the 1+1 protection.

The CiTRANS 660 can provide 2048 kHz / 2048 kbit/s (HDB3) stratum-3
synchronization reference source externally.

The CiTRANS 660 supports locked, holdover and free running modes, processes
and transfers SSM (Synchronization Status Message) with the maximum
processing capability of SSM in 52 directions.

34 Version: D
3 Product Feature

IEEE 1588 V2 Time Synchronization

The CiTRANS 660 supports the following features defined in IEEE 1588:

u Supports clock synchronization and time synchronization using the IEEE 1588
protocol as follows.

u Supports three clock modes. Each port can be set to a certain mode as
required.

4 Boundary clock (BC) mode.

4 Ordinary clock (OC) mode.

4 Transparent clock mode (including the end-to-end transparent clock and


the point-to-point transparent clock).

u Supports protection switching between synchronization reference sources.

Internal System Clock

The CiTRANS 660's internal system clock unit is embedded in the XCUJ2 / XCUJ4
card, providing clock functions for the entire system.

The clock unit meets the requirements of the ITU-T G.8261 protocol. It provides the
synchronous Ethernet equipment with the system clock compliant with G.8262
references, and accepts various timing reference sources. It offers the stratum-3
clock for the exterior and makes the CiTRANS 660 adaptable to various
environments and enables flexible network.

The main features of the clock unit are described as follows:

u Provides stable timing frame alignment and multiframe alignment pulses for the
system.

u Selects and traces a suitable synchronization reference source automatically.

u Provides input interfaces for multiple types of synchronization reference


sources.

u The CiTRANS 660 can provide 2048 kHz / 2048 kbit/s (HDB3) stratum-3
synchronization reference source externally.

u Performs the automatic protection switching function.

u Provides a comprehensive supervision and management system.

Version: D 35
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

u Supports an interlock between two cards and smooth switching between the
clock units of the equipment.

3.6 EMC / EMI Related Safety Regulation

The EMC / EMI standards followed by the CiTRANS 660 are listed in Table 3-2.

Table 3-2 Applicable EMC Standards of the CiTRANS 660

Standard Number Title


Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM);
ETSI EN 300 386 Telecommunication network equipment Electromagnetic
Compatibility (EMC) requirements

Information technology equipment radio disturbance characteristics


EN 55022
limits and methods of measurement
Information technology equipment - Immunity characteristics -
EN 55024
Limits and methods of measurement
Electromagnetic compatibility Testing and measurement techniques
EN 61000-4-2
Electrostatic discharge immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility Testing and measurement techniques


EN 61000-4-3
Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility Testing and measurement techniques


EN 61000-4-4
Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility Testing and measurement techniques


EN 61000-4-5
Surge immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility Testing and measurement techniques


EN 61000-4-6 Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency
fields
Information technology equipment - Radio Disturbance
CISPR 22
characteristics - Limits and methods of measurement
Information technology equipment - Immunity characteristics -
CISPR 24
Limits and methods of measurement
Resistibility of telecommunication equipment installed in a
ITU-T K.20
telecommunications centre to overvoltages and overcurrents

Resistibility of Telecommunication Equipment installed in Customer


ITU-T K.21
Premises to Overvoltages and Overcurrents

ITU-T K.43 Immunity requirements for telecommunication equipment

Resistibility tests for telecommunication equipment exposed to


ITU-T K.44
overvoltages and overcurrents - Basic Recommendation

36 Version: D
3 Product Feature

The safety standards followed by the CiTRANS 660 are listed in Table 3-3.

Table 3-3 Applicable Safety Standards

Standard Number Title


Information technology equipment - Safety - Part 1: General
EN 60950-1
Requirements

Information technology equipment - Safety - Part 1: General


IEC 60950-1
Requirements

Version: D 37
4 Product Composition

The following introduces the system composition of the CiTRANS 660.

Logical Architecture

Hardware Structure

Software Architecture

38 Version: D
4 Product Composition

4.1 Logical Architecture

The CiTRANS 660 functional modules include the service processing module, the
element management module, the clock and time control module, the cooling
module, and the power supply module. See Figure 4-1 for each module's function.

Figure 4-1 Functional Modules

Service Processing Module

The service processing module includes the client interface, line interface, and
packet switching chip.

u Client interface and line interface: the interface for the service communication
between the CiTRANS 660 and the external clients and lines. The CiTRANS
660 can access multiple services via client side interfaces and line side
interfaces.

4 Client side: 10GE, GE, FE, CSTM-1, and E1.

4 Line side: 10GE and GE.

u Packet switching chip: Process service signals accessed by the equipment, so


as to perform the packet cross-connect capacity of 160G / 320G and the
protection function.

Version: D 39
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Element Management Module

u The control and management module implements communications between


cards via the internal bus of the system, supports transferring overhead
information, manages card information, and enables the card bootstrap
function.

u This module provides various management interfaces and auxiliary interfaces,


including the Ethernet interface, f interface, F interface, alarm interface, etc.

Clock and Time Control Module

The clock and time control module supports the IEEE1588 / 802.1as protocols that
synchronize the frequency and the time.

u Processes and transfers SSM, and receives input timing signals through the
external clock interface. After preferential selection and phase locked
synchronization of the external synchronization reference sources, the clock
and time control module provides system timing for various modules of the
system, and also provides timing signal output.

u Supports time synchronization and receives time signal through the external
time interface to provide synchronization time for each module in the system
and provide time signal output at the same time.

u Supports the extraction and processing of synchronization information through


the client interface and line interface to meet the demand of the carrier-class
network equipment.

Cooling Module

The cooling module provides adequate air flow to facilitate heat dissipation. It
consists of three fan units and the intelligent fan control software with the following
functions:

u Supports area temperature detection and alarm in the subrack.

u Supports the full-speed, fast, and slow speed choices of the intelligent fan and
the fan stop function.

u Supports custom configuration of corresponding temperature thresholds of all


rotation speeds of the fan.

40 Version: D
4 Product Composition

u Supports the manual setting of the fan's rotation speed choice.

Power Supply Module

The power supply module provides power supply for each module in the system.

u Supports two channels of -48 V active / standby power supply protection.

u Performs the lightning protection and transient power failure protection to


prevent the system from the damage caused by a lightning strike.

4.2 Hardware Structure

The CiTRANS 660 is composed of the cabinet, PDP, subracks, fiber passage units,
and cards.

4.2.1 Cabinet

The following introduces the appearance and equipment layout of the 21-inch
cabinet.

4.2.1.1 Appearance

See Figure 4-2 for the appearance and structure of the 21-inch cabinet.

Version: D 41
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Figure 4-2 The 21-inch Cabinet Appearance

4.2.1.2 Equipment Layout

Figure 4-3 shows the typical layout of the CiTRANS 660s components inside the
cabinet.

42 Version: D
4 Product Composition

Figure 4-3 Integrated Equipment Layout of the CiTRANS 660

Numbers of subracks that can be installed inside a cabinet depend on the height of
the cabinet. When planning the layout of the CiTRANS 660s components, users
need to follow the principles below:

u To ensure the air cooling, users should reserve the space with a height of 125
mm between subracks, and the space with a height of 200 mm between the
subrack and the bottom of the cabinet.

u Users should reserve the more space in the cabinet if expansion is needed.

u Cabinets of different heights have different full configurations. Install the


subracks from the top down when the cabinet is not fully configured.

Version: D 43
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Table 4-1 shows the number of the subracks can be installed in the cabinets of
different heights according to the principles mentioned previously.

Table 4-1 Equipment Layout Principle

Cabinet Type (Height Width Depth: mm) Installed Subrack Quantity

2000600306 1
2200600306 1
2600600306 1 to 2

4.2.2 PDP

The following introduces the appearance and functions of the PDP used by a 21-
inch cabinet.

4.2.2.1 Appearance

The PDP is located at the top of the cabinet, and its appearance and structure are
shown in Figure 4-4.

Figure 4-4 PDP Appearance for the 21-inch Cabinet

44 Version: D
4 Product Composition

4.2.2.2 Function

The PDP mainly performs the induction and distribution of the external power supply,
and the alarm signal processing. It leads in the power supplies from the exterior and
distributes them among the devices to be fed in the cabinet. It also receives alarm
signals from devices in the cabinet, displays and outputs the alarms.

The CiTRANS 660 uses the 23-branch -48 V / 40 A PDP, which provides the
following functions:

u Inducts two channels of -48 V power supply (one active and the other standby)
from the external (e.g. the power cabinet) and provides six sets of branch
power rails for 3 subracks.

u Receives the alarm information from subrack, displays the alarm using the
alarm unit on the top of cabinet, and reports to the higher level equipment (such
as the head of row cabinet).

u Provides functions such as lightning protection, under-voltage protection, and


transient interruption protection.

4.2.3 Subrack

The subrack is used to contain various types of cards to achieve the signal
exchange between cards and the subrack backplane.

4.2.3.1 Structure

The CiTRANS 660 subrack structure is shown in Figure 4-5.

Version: D 45
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

(1) Mounting ear (2) Subrack anti-dust screen (3) Fiber passage area

(4) Fan unit (5) Card area

Figure 4-5 Subrack Structure

The CiTRANS 660 subrack structure is shown in Table 4-2.

46 Version: D
4 Product Composition

Table 4-2 Subrack Structure of the CiTRANS 660

Number Name Function Remark


Is for securing the subrack in the Uses the front vertical mounting flange
(1) Mounting ear
cabinet. method.
Is located in the bottom of the fan unit
and consists of slide rails and low
Is used to keep the cards in the subrack
Subrack anti-dust density anti-dust screen. Uses the self-
(2) clean, preventing dust and foreign
screen latching mode to secure, for
bodies from entering the subrack.
convenience in plugging and
unplugging.

Is used to arrange the optical fibers of


the lower part of the subrack, so as to
(3) Fiber passage area -
make the fibers of the equipment orderly
arranged.

Is located in the middle of the card area


(4) Fan unit Is used to air cool the equipment. of the subrack, composed of three
independent fan units.

(5) Card area Is used to contain various cards. -

4.2.3.2 Slot Bandwidth Distribution

Both the upper and lower parts of the CiTRANS 660 subrack have 16 card slots.
The bandwidth distribution of each slot is shown in Figure 4-6.

Version: D 47
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Figure 4-6 Slot Bandwidth Distribution of the CiTRANS 660

4.2.4 Fiber Guide Unit

The fiber guide unit of the CiTRANS 660 is installed on the top of the subrack, used
to arrange the optical fibers at the upper half part of the subrack, the subrack power
cables, and the subrack signal cables.

The fiber guide unit is composed of the wire binding rail and the fiber groove. See
Figure 4-7. The wire binding rail is used to arrange the subrack power cables and
subrack signal cables; the fiber groove is used to arrange the optical fibers at the
upper half part of the subrack.

48 Version: D
4 Product Composition

(1) Wire binding rail (2) Fiber guide slot

Figure 4-7 Appearance of the Subrack's Fiber Guide Unit

4.2.5 Card Overview

The following discusses the dimensions, types, and positions of the cards in the
CiTRANS 660 system , as well as the correspondence relationship between the
cards and the slots.

4.2.5.1 Card Appearance

According to their dimensions, the CiTRANS 660s cards can be divided into higher
order slot cards and lower order slot cards, which are respectively configured in the
corresponding higher order slot card area and lower order slot card area of the
CiTRANS 660 cabinet. The following discusses the dimensions of the two types of
cards respectively, as shown in Table 4-3.

Lower Order Slot Card

The dimensions, main components, and signs of a lower order slot card are shown
in Figure 4-8 (here we take the E1J2 card as an example).

Version: D 49
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

(1) Latch (2) Card name

Figure 4-8 Dimensions and Signs of the E1J2 Card

Higher Order Slot Card

The dimensions, main components, and signs of a higher order slot card are shown
in Figure 4-9 (here we take the S1O1 card as an example).

50 Version: D
4 Product Composition

(1) Latch (2) Safety sign (3) Card name

Figure 4-9 Dimensions and Signs of the S1O1 Card

Dimensions of a Card

The dimensions of each card of the CiTRANS 660 are shown in Table 4-3.

Version: D 51
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Table 4-3 Dimensions of a Card

Item Lower Order Slot Card Higher Order Slot Card

AIFJ1, AIFJ2, E1J1, E1J2, ESJ1,


NMUJ1, XSJ2, XSJ3, GSJ2,
Card name ESJ2, IEJ1, IEJ2, IFJ1, S1J1,
XGJ1, XCUJ2, XCUJ4, S1O1
S1J2, SIJ4, GSJ3
Dimensions (height
width depth, unit: 34030150 34030210
mm)

4.2.5.2 Card Classification

Table 4-4 lists the classification of the CiTRANS 660s cards.

Table 4-4 Card Classification

Type Corresponding Card Main Function


E1J1, E1J2, S1J1, S1J2, S1J4, Accessing and processing GE,
Service card S1O1, ESJ1, ESJ2, GSJ2, 10GE, E1, FE and STM-1
GSJ3, XSJ2, XSJ3, XGJ1 signals.

Achieving the switch of various


services in client side and line
Cross-connect & clock
XCUJ2, XCUJ4 side;
processing Unit
Providing the standard system
clock or time for the system.

Providing the interface between


Supervision signal
NMUJ1 the system and network
processing unit
management system.

Power supply AIFJ1, AIFJ2 Accessing external power supply.

Interface terminal
IEJ1, IEJ2, IFJ1 Accessing E1 and FE signals.
board

4.2.5.3 Position of Card in the System

Figure 4-10 shows the positions of common CiTRANS 660 cards in the system.

52 Version: D
4 Product Composition

Figure 4-10 Positions of Common Cards in the System

4.2.5.4 Relationship between Card and Slot

The following introduces the corresponding relationship between cards and slots,
and between terminal boards and service cards.

Available Slots for Cards

Table 4-5 lists correspondence relationships between the cards and the subrack
slots.

Version: D 53
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Table 4-5 Correspondence Relationships between the Cards and the Subrack Slots

Panel
Card Name Slot Quantity Remark
Name
NMUJ1 NE management card 00, 01 1 to 2 00: compulsory; 01 optional.

Select one from XCUJ2 and XCUJ4 to


configure. If XCUJ2 is selected, the
Clock cross-connect
XCUJ2 09, 0A 1 to 2 maximum subrack cross-connect
card
capacity is 320 G.

Select one from XCUJ2 and XCUJ4 to


Clock cross-connect configure. If XCUJ4 is selected, the
XCUJ4 09, 0A 1 to 2
card maximum subrack cross-connect
capacity is 160 G.

Power and auxiliary


AIF1 10 1 Compulsory
terminal board
Power and auxiliary
AIF2 11 1 Compulsory
terminal board
Optional
10G optical interface Only the 1st interfaces of the slots 02 to
XSJ2 02 to 08, 0B to 0F 0 to 12
card 05, 0E, and 0F are available due to the
bandwidth limit of the backplane.

Optional
u Only the 1st interfaces of the slots
02 to 05, 0E, and 0F are available
due to the bandwidth limit of the
10G optical interface
XSJ3 02 to 08, 0B to 0F 0 to 12 backplane.
card
u Only the first two optical interfaces
of the slots 06 to 07, 0E, and 0F
are available due to the bandwidth
limit of the backplane.

Optional
u Only the 1st optical interfaces of
the slots 02 to 05, 0E, and 0F are
available due to the bandwidth limit
GE / 10GE mixed
XGJ1 02 to 08, 0B to 0F 1 to 2 of the backplane.
interface card
u Only the first two optical interfaces
of the slots 06 to 07, 0E, and 0F
are available due to the bandwidth
limit of the backplane.

The GSJ2
GE switch card 02 to 08, 0B to 0F 0 to 12 Optional
Card

54 Version: D
4 Product Composition

Table 4-5 Correspondence Relationships between the Cards and the Subrack Slots
(Continued)

Panel
Card Name Slot Quantity Remark
Name
Optional
u Only the 1st optical interfaces of
the slots 12 to 15, 1C to 1F are
available due to the bandwidth limit
The GSJ3
GE interface card 12 to 1F 0 to 14 of the backplane.
Card
u Only the first two optical interfaces
of the slots 16 to 1B are available
due to the bandwidth limit of the
backplane.

FE switch card
The ESJ1 Optional, cooperated with the FE
(supporting the electrical 16 to 1C 0 to 7
Card terminal board.
interface protection)

FE switch card (not


The ESJ1
supporting the electrical 12 to 1F 0 to 14 Optional
Card
interface protection)

The ESJ2 FE switch card (optical


12 to 1F 0 to 14 Optional
Card interface)

The S1J1 STM-1 optical interface


12 to 1F 0 to 14 Optional
Card card
The S1J2 STM-1 optical interface
12 to 1F 0 to 14 Optional
Card card (2 channels)

Optional
Only the first four optical interfaces of
The S1J4 STM-1 optical interface
12 to 1F 0 to 14 the slots 12 to 15, 1C to 1F are
Card card (8 channels)
available due to the bandwidth limit of
the backplane.

STM-1 optical interface


S1O1 12 to 1F 0 to 14 Optional
card (4 channels)

Optional, cooperated with the E1


E1J1 E1 interface card 16 to 1C 0 to 7
terminal board.
E1J2 E1 processing card 12 to 1F 0 to 14 Optional

Optional, cooperated with the ESJ1


12 to 15
IFJ1 FE terminal board 0 to 7 card (with electrical interface
1D to 1F
protection)

75 / 120 E1 terminal 12 to 15 Optional, cooperated with the E1


IEJ1, IEJ2 0 to 7
board 1D to 1F interface card.

Version: D 55
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Corresponding Relationship between Processing Cards and Terminal Board Slots

The service cards and terminal boards should be one-to-one correspondent, as


shown in Table 4-6.

Table 4-6 Corresponding Relationship between Processing Cards and Terminal Board Slots

Slot Slot Slot Slot Slot Slot Slot


Item
Number Number Number Number Number Number Number
Slot for
16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C
service card
Slot for
terminal 12 13 14 15 1D 1E 1F
board

4.2.6 The NMUJ1 Card

The following introduces the number and functions of the NMUJ1 card.

4.2.6.1 Card Number

The NMUJ1 card number: 2319119.

4.2.6.2 Function

u Supports accessing and processing the MCC data and the channel overheads.

u Performs configuration management, fault management, performance


management, and security management of the equipment, and stores the
management information of the equipment.

u Provides the following interfaces: detection and software debugging interfaces


(f interface, Ethernet interface), alarm interface, external monitoring interface,
and F interface.

u Monitors the power supply of the power card, detects the ambient temperature,
and controls the intelligent fan of the system.

u Supports detecting the hardware present status of the system card.

u Supports the card bootstrap capability.

56 Version: D
4 Product Composition

u Supports the HUB reset selection for the EMU reset.

u Supports the interconnection and communication among the EMU, the BMU,
the ASCU, and the network management system.

u Implements the communication between the NMUJ1 and various cards such as
the optical / electrical interface card.

u Supports 1+1 hot standby and active-standby switching.

4.2.7 The AIFJ1 / AIFJ2 Card

The following introduces the number and functions of the AIFJ1 / AIFJ2 card.

4.2.7.1 Card Number

The AIFJ1 card number: 3699318.

The AIFJ2 card number: 3699319.

4.2.7.2 Function

u Provides the -48 V power supply input, and the input current is not less than 40
A.

u Provides the clock interface CKIO, time interface TOD, Ethernet interface,
MON access and so on.

u The AIFJ1 terminal board and the AIFJ2 terminal board are in the active /
standby mode for the power supply.

4.2.8 The XCUJ2 / XCUJ4 Card

The following introduces the number and functions of the XCUJ2 / XCUJ4 card.

4.2.8.1 Card Number

The XCUJ2 card number: 2154072.

Version: D 57
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

The XCUJ4 card number: 2200722.

4.2.8.2 Function

u The XCUJ2 card provides the switching capacity of 320 G (the XCUJ4 card
provides the switching capacity of 160 G), and supports MAC, VLAN and MPLS
label switching.

u Provides APS signaling processing capacity in multiple directions (up to 120


directions).

u Provides 1+1 unidirectional trail protection and 1:1 bidirectional trail protection
and shared protection ring functions, supports the G.8131 and G.8132
protocols and achieves the protection switching time of the path and ring
network < 50 ms.

u Supports the SSM processing function. The system actually processes the
SSM information in up to 52 directions. Receives 8 kHz line synchronization
timing provided by each aggregate and tributary line card.

u Outputs local card status indication signals to the cards connected to the
interfaces, controlling the synchronization timing selection of each card.

u Provides external 2048 kHz / 2048 kbit/s (HDB3) stratum-3 synchronization


reference source and the input / output interface can be 2048 kHz or 2048 kbit/
s synchronization reference source; and provides backups for the external
reference and output clock.

u Automatically selects, traces and locks the appropriate clock reference, tracing
the external reference clock and line extraction clock.

u Supports temperature collection report on the temperature sensitive area in the


card.

u Supports the 1+1 hot standby protection mode, achieving the switching
between the active and standby XCUJ2 / XCUJ4 cards automatically or via the
network management system.

u Supports the remote upgrade of the FPGA and BMU software.

58 Version: D
4 Product Composition

4.2.9 The XGJ1 Card

The following introduces the number and functions of the XGJ1 card.

4.2.9.1 Card Number

The XGJ1 card number: 2200671.

4.2.9.2 Function

u Supports the access of two 10GE and eight GE optical signals.

u Performs the forwarding function of the data packets, including the MPLS frame
forwarding.

u Supports the QoS functions, including the traffic management, congestion


avoidance, queuing and scheduling of the data packets.

u Supports the VS-OAM, TVP-OAM and VC-OAM functions.

u Supports the MCC function of the transparent network management channel.

u Supports the line clock extraction function.

u Supports the APS_bus / S1_bus / LSP_ALM / S_ALM of the backplane,


achieving the APS and system clock synchronization function.

u Supports the service classification based on PW, interface, VLAN, IP, MAC,
802.1P, and DSCP.

u Supports the WRED buffering management mechanism.

u Supports the SP + WDRR queue scheduling mechanism.

u Supports the E-Line / E-Tree / E-LAN Ethernet service model.

u Supports the VPWS / VPLS carrier-class Ethernet service model.

u Supports the hot insertion function.

4.2.10 The XSJ2 / XSJ3 Card

The following introduces the number and functions of the XSJ2 / XSJ3 card.

Version: D 59
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

4.2.10.1 Card Number

The XSJ2 card number: 2170851.

The XSJ3 card number: 2200348.

4.2.10.2 Function

u The XSJ2 card supports the access of two 10GE optical signals. The XSJ3
card supports the access of four 10GE optical signals.

u Performs the forwarding function of the data packets, including the MPLS frame
forwarding.

u Supports the QoS functions, including the traffic management, congestion


avoidance, queuing and scheduling of the data packets.

u Supports the VS-OAM, TVP-OAM and VC-OAM functions.

u Supports the MCC function of the transparent network management channel.

u Supports the line clock extraction function.

u Supports the APS_bus / S1_bus / LSP_ALM / S_ALM of the backplane,


achieving the APS and system clock synchronization function.

u Supports the service classification based on PW, interface, VLAN, IP, MAC,
802.1P, and DSCP.

u Supports the WRED buffering management mechanism.

u Supports the SP + WDRR queue scheduling mechanism.

u Supports the E-Line / E-Tree / E-LAN Ethernet service model.

u Supports the VPWS / VPLS carrier-class Ethernet service model.

u Supports the hot insertion function.

4.2.11 The GSJ2 / GSJ3 Card

The following introduces the number and functions of the GSJ2 / GSJ3 card.

60 Version: D
4 Product Composition

4.2.11.1 Card Number

The GSJ2 card number: 2115335.

The GSJ3 card number: 2170896.

4.2.11.2 Function

The GSJ2 Card

u When configured as the tributary card:

4 The GSJ2 card provides 10GE UNI interfaces, offering the access
services for the clients.

4 Encapsulates the client service messages into MPLS messages and adds
to the MPLS-TP network for forwarding. At the same time, drops the
service messages in the MPLS-TP network and decapsulates the MPLS
messages into the client service messages.

4 Supports the service classification based on PW, port, VLAN, IP, MAC, and
802.1P.

4 Supports the WRED buffering management mechanism.

4 Supports the SP + WDRR queue scheduling mechanism.

4 Supports the E-Line / E-Tree / E-LAN Ethernet service model.

4 Supports the locking on the Ethernet line clocks of the first two GE
interfaces, providing clock synchronization between the NE nodes for the
system.

4 Supports single-fiber bidirectional optical module.

u When configured as the line card:

4 Provides the forwarding channel for the services between the MPLS-TP
network nodes; and supports 10GE interface service forwarding.

4 Supports the MPLS frame forwarding, label Swap, Push, Pop and TTL
modification.

4 Supports the VS-OAM and VP-OAM functions.

4 Supports the MCC function of the transparent network management


channel.

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4 Supports the locking on the line clocks of the first two GE interfaces,
providing clock synchronization between the NE nodes for the system.

u When configured as the mixed port card:

4 The LAN1 to LAN6 are in the NNI port mode and LAN7 to LAN10 are in the
UNI port mode.

4 The corresponding port provides the functions when the card is configured
as the line card and tributary card.

The GSJ3 Card

u Provides 4GE interfaces, performing the access and transmission of the GE


services.

u Achieves the O / E and E / O conversion of the GE signals.

u Performs the active / standby selection and transmission of the GE signals.

u Processes the controlling signals of the active / standby clock and cross-
connect card and achieves the traffic of 1G or 2G via the GE interfaces on the
backplane.

u Performs the voltage conversion from -48V to 3.3V and provides voltage for
each module in the card.

u Supports the hot insertion of cards and optical modules.

u Provides the power and alarm gathering function of the card.

u Achieves the management function to the SFP optical module.

u Supports the over- / under-voltage protection of the power supply and power
alarm monitoring.

u Supports the loopback test: line loopback and equipment loopback.

u Supports the remote upgrade of the FPGA and BMU software.

u Supports single-fiber bidirectional optical module.

Note:

The GSJ3 card can be installed in all the lower order slots in the subrack
with the bandwidth 1G or 2G. Only one or two GE interfaces are working.

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4.2.12 The S1J1 / S1J2 / S1J4 Card

The following introduces the number and functions of the S1J1 / S1J2 / S1J4 card.

4.2.12.1 Card Number

The S1J1 card number: 2170828.

The S1J2 card number: 2170856.

The S1J4 card number: 2200595.

4.2.12.2 Function

The S1J1 Card

u Supports 63E1 service circuit emulation function, achieving the access and
transparent transmission of the TDM services in the packet-switched network.

u Provides 1STM-1 interface.

u Supports seamless handover between the active and standby XCU cards.

u Supports the loopback test: line loopback and equipment loopback.

u Supports the online remote upgrade of the FPGA and BMU software.

The S1J2 Card

u Supports 126E1 service circuit emulation function, achieving the access and
transparent transmission of the TDM services in the packet-switched network.

u Provides 2STM-1 interfaces.

u Supports seamless handover between the active and standby XCU cards.

u Supports the loopback test: line loopback and equipment loopback.

u Supports the online remote upgrade of the FPGA and BMU software.

The S1J4 Card

u Supports 863E1 service circuit emulation function, achieving the access and
transparent transmission of the TDM services in the packet-switched network.

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u Provides 8STM-1 interfaces.

u Supports seamless handover between the active and standby XCU cards.

u Supports the loopback test: line loopback and equipment loopback.

u Supports the online remote upgrade of the FPGA and BMU software.

4.2.13 The ESJ1 / ESJ2 Card

The following introduces the number and functions of the ESJ1 / ESJ2 card.

4.2.13.1 Card Number

The ESJ1 Card

u The ESJ1 card number (not supporting the electrical interface protection):
2115322;

u The ESJ1 card number (supporting the electrical interface protection):


2115323.

The ESJ2 Card

The ESJ2 card number: 2115355.

4.2.13.2 Function

The ESJ1 Card

u Supports 12FE electrical interfaces.

u Supports VLAN label processing and the QinQ function.

u Supports two clock signals extracted from FE signals and produces 8 kbit/s
timing, through hardware designating and software selecting.

u The ports 11 and 12 support the IEEE1588 function.

u Supports the MAC / VLAN / port-based traffic management.

u Supports the over- / under-voltage protection of the power supply and power
alarm monitoring.

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u Achieves the active / standby switching on the clock and cross-connect.

u Supports the online remote upgrade of the FPGA and BMU software.

u Supports fault management, collecting and analyzing the card alarms and
Ethernet interface alarms, and then reporting the results.

u Supports the statistics report of the card performance.

u The ESJ1 card (with electrical interface protection) supports the TPS protection
using the terminal board.

The ESJ2 Card

u Supports 12FE optical interfaces.

u Supports VLAN label processing and the QinQ function.

u Supports two clock signals extracted from FE signals and produces 8 kbit/s
timing, through hardware designating and software selecting.

u The ports 1 and 4 support the IEEE1588 function.

u Supports the MAC / VLAN / port-based traffic management.

u Supports the over- / under-voltage protection of the power supply and power
alarm monitoring.

u Achieves the active / standby switching on the clock and cross-connect.

u Supports the online remote upgrade of the FPGA and BMU software.

u Supports fault management, collecting and analyzing the card alarms and
Ethernet interface alarms, and then reporting the results.

u Supports the statistics report of the card performance.

4.2.14 The S1O1 Card

The following introduces the number and functions of the S1O1 card.

4.2.14.1 Card Number

The S1O1 card number: 2200137.

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4.2.14.2 Function

u The panel side provides four cSTM-1 optical interfaces.

u Supports 252E1 circuit emulation.

u Supports the adaptive and differential clock synchronization.

u Extracts the SSM information to send to the clock and cross-connect card, and
receives the SSM information from the clock and cross-connect card.

u Supports temperature collection report on the temperature sensitive area in the


card.

u Supports over- / under-voltage protection and alarm monitoring of the power


supply. Receives the transient interruption control signal from the power card
and performs the -48 V power control.

u Supports the power supply monitoring and management.

4.2.15 The E1J1 / E1J2 Card

The following introduces the number and functions of the E1J1 / E1J2 card.

4.2.15.1 Card Number

The E1J1 card number (no interface): 2170808.

The E1J2 card number (75 interface): 2200037.

The E1J2 card number (120 interface): 2200240.

4.2.15.2 Function

u The E1J1 card achieves the circuit emulation functions that encapsulates 1 to
16 channels of E1 signals to Ethernet signals with the GE rate.

u The E1J2 card achieves the circuit emulation functions that encapsulates 1 to
32 channels of E1 signals to Ethernet signals with the GE rate.

u Complies with the ITU-T Y.1413 recommendation, the IETF PW3 emulated
service, and the MEF8 frame structure.

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u Provides low-delay transmission and meets the real-time service demand.

u Supports the structural and non-structural emulation modes.

u Supports differential and self-adaptive clock recovery modes.

u Supports the over- / under-voltage protection of the power supply and power
alarm monitoring.

u Supports the remote upgrade of the FPGA and BCT software.

u Supports the handover of the active / standby clock cross-connect card.

u Supports the loopback test: line loopback and equipment loopback.

u Supports the hot-insertion.

4.2.16 The IEJ1 / IEJ2 Card

The following introduces the number and functions of the IEJ1 / IEJ2 card.

4.2.16.1 Card Number

The IEJ1 card number (75 ): 3699316.

The IEJ2 card number (120 ): 3699323.

4.2.16.2 Function

u Supports the selection and driving of the signals from the ESJ1 interface card.

u Provides 16E1 interfaces.

u Assists the E1J1 interface in performing the 1:n (n 6) card protection function
of the E1 electrical interface. When any of the active E1J1 interface cards has
faults, it connects the interface signals of the standby E1J1 interface card and
the active terminal board interfaces (bidirectionally), so as to perform the 1:n
protection.

4.2.17 The IFJ1 Card

The following introduces the number and functions of the IFJ1 card.

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4.2.17.1 Card Number

The IFJ1 card number: 3699317.

4.2.17.2 Function

u Supports the selection and driving of the signals from the ESJ1 interface card.

u Provides 12 FE interfaces.

u Assists the ESJ1 interface card in performing the 1:n (n 6) card protection
function of the FE electrical interfaces in the system. When any of the active
ESJ1 interface cards has faults, it connects the interface signals of the standby
ESJ1 interface card and the active terminal board interfaces (bidirectionally), so
as to perform the 1:n protection.

4.3 Software Architecture

The following introduces the software communication protocols, interfaces, and


software architecture of the CiTRANS 660.

4.3.1 Overview

The CiTRANS 660 uses modularized software architecture, including the card
management (BMU) software, element management (EMU) software and EMS (the
OTNM2000) software. The software mentioned previously operates on functional
cards, the MMU cards and network management system hosts respectively, and
works together to perform the configuration, management and supervision of the
equipment. The system software architecture is shown in Figure 4-11.

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Figure 4-11 The System Software Architecture

4.3.2 Communication Protocol and Interface

The following are communication protocols and interfaces between various software
modules:

u The OTNM2000 provides the Q interface and the CORBA interface.

4 The OTNM2000 connects the EMU using the Q interface. The


management protocol of the Q interface is the FiberHome private protocol.

4 The OTNM2000 is connected with a superior management system via the


CORBA interface.

u The physical channel between network elements (i.e. EMUs) is the ESC
channel. The communication protocol applied is the IP protocol.

u The EMU card is interconnected with the BMU of a card via a LAN. The
communication protocol applied is the IP protocol.

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4.3.3 BMU Software

The BMU software is embedded in each card to perform direct control of functional
circuits and support the NMUs management of cards. The main functions of this
software are described as follows:

u Collects and processes information of the card in real time, including instant
alarms, instant performances, instant statuses, etc.

u When cards are powered, they apply for configuration to the NMU, initiate
themselves according to the configuration, and enter the preset operating
status.

u When cards are in operations, they receive control commands delivered by the
NMU, execute the designated operations, and accept the NMU queries.

4.3.4 NMU Software

The NMU software uses an embedded real time multi-task operating system. Based
on the manager / agent model, the NMU software performs management on all
cards in NEs via a unified Ethernet bus.

The functional modules of the NMU software are described as follows:

u Management / agent application functional module

The manager / agent application functional module includes manager (M) and
agent (A). At the NE layer, the NE management card (EMU) can be appointed
as either agent (A) or manager / agent (M / A) (named as an agent with
management functions).

4 When appointed as M / A, the EMU card acts as agent for the local NE and
also manages other NEs within its control. Its main function is to maintain
these remote objects.

4 When appointed as agent, it is only responsible for collecting and


managing performance events, alarms / faults, and status data of each
BMU in the local NE and receiving and responding to commands and
operations related to the local NE from the manager.

The EML (Element Management Layer) provides manager functions for the M
of NEL (Network Element Layer) as well.

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u Network communication protocol stack software

The network communication protocol stack software performs management


information exchanges between the software management system and the NE
and between various NEs.

u Real time operating system

The EMU software uses an embedded real time operating system to perform
intra-EMU resource management. The real time operating system supports
execution of applications, and conducts basic functions such as task
scheduling, memory management, peripheral product management, and
communication between processes.

4.3.5 Network Management Software

The Windows2000 Server-based OTNM2000 mainly consists of a data collection


module, a data processing module, a GUI (Graphic User Interface) management
module, and a database. The software architecture is shown in Figure 4-12.

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Figure 4-12 The OTNM2000 Software Architecture

The relationships between modules and functions of each module are described as
follows:

u The OTNM2000 collects alarm and performance event data of the managed
objects via the data collection module. After being analyzed and processed by
the data processing module, the data are saved in database. The OTNM2000
can use the SQL database or the Informix database.

u The data processing module provides fault management, performance


management, configuration management, and security management for the
GUI management module.

u The GUI management module consists of a configuration management


component and a Supervision management component.

4 Configuration management component: Implements logical configuration,


physical configuration, service configuration and region configuration.

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4 Supervision management component: As the core of the OTNM2000, it


provides important functions such as cross-connect configuration, alarm
view, performance view, fault handling, etc.

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5 Service Application

The following introduces the service types supported by the CiTRANS 660 as well
as the network applications of various service types.

Ethernet Service

CES Service

Wireless Network Service

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5.1 Ethernet Service

The CiTRANS 660 supports multiple types of Ethernet services, providing excellent
L2VPN solutions.

The VPN (Virtual Private Network) refers to the virtual private network provided for
clients via the public network by network operators. Constructing the private network
by utilizing the public network not only enables network operators to provide high-
performance and low-cost carrier-class network for users, but also provides a good
profiting mode for network operators themselves. But the traditional VPN has
obvious shortcomings in the following aspects: VPN extensibility, security,
management and maintenance, QoS and traffic engineering, so it cannot meet the
requirements of clients adequately.

To solve these problems, the L2VPN based on MPLS has emerged as the times
require. The L2VPN not only eliminates the shortcomings of traditional IP network,
frame relay and ATM network, but also has distinguished itself for following aspects:
security, real time, broad band, convenience and low construction cost. Therefore, it
can fully meet the requirements for VPN services of subscribers.

There are three modes for delivering Ethernet services using the CiTRANS 660.

u Ethernet private line service, i.e., E-Line service

u Ethernet private network service, i.e., E-LAN service

u Ethernet convergence service, i.e., E-Tree service

5.1.1 E-Line Service

Service Introduction

E-Line service means that the original private line service is replaced by the
Ethernet private one. Providing a point-to-point connection of the client data, it
transfers the dedicated packets from the client side port or the dedicated port to the
network side port, and transfers the packets received at the network side port to the
client side or other network side ports.

Depending on whether the service at the network side UNI port is multiplexed, the
E-Line services can be further divided into the following two categories:

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u EP-Line Ethernet private line service: not allow for service multiplexing.

u EVP-Line Ethernet private line service: allows for service multiplexing.

Service Features

The E-Line service has the following features:

u Only point-to-point service supported;

u Different types of services are totally isolated, but either the EP-Line or EVP-
Line can be used to transmit bandwidths.

Service Model

Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2 present a typical model of E-Line services provided by the
CiTRANS 660.

Corporation X and Corporation Y both have divisions in City A and City B. The
divisions of Corporation X or Y can communicate with each other, but the
information between Corporation X and Corporation Y is strictly isolated.

The MPLS-TP network constructed by the CiTRANS 660 can provide E-Line
services for the Corporation X and Corporation Y via EP-Line or EVP-Line, meeting
the communication demands as well as ensuring the data security for both
corporations.

Figure 5-1 EP-Line Service Model

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Figure 5-2 EVP-Line Service Model

Service Application

u EP-Line mode

As Figure 5-1 shows, in City A the services of Corporation X and Corporation Y


are accessed from LAN ports 1 and 2 (LAN1 and LAN2) of the ESJ1 card of
NE1; in City B the services of Corporation X and Corporation Y are accessed
from LAN ports 1 and 2 (LAN1' and LAN2') of the ESJ1 card of NE2.

In this network mode, the service demands of Corporation X and Corporation Y


are met via EP-Line, namely sharing the Tunnel individually. See Table 5-1 for
details.
Table 5-1 E-Line Service Application (in the EP-Line Mode)

Client Service Tunnel Tunnel Source and Destination PW Channel


Corporation X Tunnel 1 LAN1LAN1 PW1
Corporation Y Tunnel 2 LAN2LAN2 PW1

u EVP-Line mode

As Figure 5-2 shows, in City A the services of Corporation X and Corporation Y


are both accessed from LAN port 1 (LAN1) of the ESJ1 card of NE1; in City B
the services of Corporation X and Corporation Y are both accessed from LAN
port 1 (LAN1') of the ESJ1 card of NE2.

In this network mode, both corporations share the Tunnel but the services can
still be isolated by using different PW channels. See Table 5-2 for details.

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Table 5-2 E-Line Service Application (in the EVP-Line Mode)

Client Service Tunnel Tunnel Source and Destination PW Channel


Corporation X PW1
Tunnel 1 LAN1LAN1
Corporation Y PW2

5.1.2 E-LAN Service

Service Introduction

The E-LAN service is the most important and most widely used service type to
replace the original private LAN service with Ethernet. The E-LAN service is a
multipoint-to-multipoint service. In the E-LAN service, packets of certain ports or
certain packets of a port on the user side are forwarded to multiple ports on the
network side, and packets received from the network side are forwarded to ports on
the user side and other ports on the network side. Therefore the multipoint-to-
multipoint forwarding of user data is achieved.

The E-LAN service can be further classified into two types according to whether the
service of the UNI interface at network side is multiplexed.

u EP-LAN service: No service is multiplexed.

u EVP-LAN service: Service are multiplexed.

Service Features

The E-LAN service has the following features:

u Supports access of multiple services.

u Different services are totally isolated but the bandwidth can be used separately
(EP-LAN mode) or shared (EVP-LAN mode).

Service Model

As shown in Figure 5-3 and Figure 5-4, Corporation X has branches 1, 2 and 3
named as X-1, X-2 and X-3 in City A, B and C respectively; and Corporation Y has
branches 1, 2 and 3 named as Y-1, Y-2 and Y-3 in City A, B and C respectively. All
branches of each corporation should communicate with each other, but between the
Corporation X and Corporation Y the information must be isolated.

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The service requirement of Corporation X/Y is the typical application of E-LAN


service, which is used between multiple (more than 2) access points. And between
every two access points there are communication requirements. Either the EP-LAN
mode or the EVP-LAN mode can be used.

Figure 5-3 EP-LAN Service Model

Figure 5-4 EVP-LAN Service Model

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Service Application

u EP-LAN mode

Take the network in Figure 5-3 for example. Services of three branches of
Corporation X are accessed via LAN1 ports of the ESJ1 cards of NE1, NE2 and
NE3 respectively; and services of three branches of Corporation Y are
accessed via LAN2 ports of the ESJ1 cards of NE1, NE2 and NE3 respectively.

Under this network mode, Corporation X and Corporation Y can meet service
requirements by using Tunnels separately. See Table 5-3 for the service
implementation.

Table 5-3 E-LAN Service Implementation (in EP-LAN Mode)

Service Tunnel Tunnel Source and Sink PW


Tunnel 1 (X-1X-3) LAN1LAN1 PW1
Corporation
Tunnel 2 (X-3X-2) LAN1LAN1 PW1
X
Tunnel 3 (X-2X-1) LAN1LAN1 PW1
Tunnel 4 (Y-1Y-3) LAN2LAN2 PW1
Corporation
Tunnel 5 (Y-3Y-2) LAN2LAN2 PW1
Y
Tunnel 6 (Y-2Y-1) LAN2LAN2 PW1

u EVP-LAN mode

Take the network in Figure 5-4 for example. Services of three branches of
Corporation X are accessed via LAN1 ports of the ESJ1 cards of NE1, NE2 and
NE3 respectively; and services of three branches of Corporation Y are also
accessed via LAN1 ports of the ESJ1 cards of NE1, NE2 and NE3 respectively.

Under this network mode, Corporation X and Corporation Y can meet service
requirements by sharing Tunnels but using PWs separately. See Table 5-4 for
the service implementation.

Table 5-4 E-LAN Service Implementation (in EVP-LAN Mode)

Service Tunnel Tunnel Source and Sink PW


Tunnel 1 (X-1X-3) LAN1LAN1 PW1
Corporation
Tunnel 2 (X-3X-2) LAN1LAN1 PW1
X
Tunnel 3 (X-2X-1) LAN1LAN1 PW1
Tunnel 1 (Y-1Y-3) LAN1LAN1 PW2
Corporation
Tunnel 2 (Y-3Y-2) LAN1LAN1 PW2
Y
Tunnel 3 (Y-2Y-1) LAN1LAN1 PW2

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5.1.3 E-Tree Service

Service Introduction

Providing a multipoint-to-point connection of the client data, it transfers the


dedicated packets from the client side ports or the dedicated ports to a network side
port, or transfers the packets received at the network side port to the client side or
other network side ports.

E-Tree services can be applied in ISP connection and provide basic networks for
multicast services such as IPTV. Depending on whether the service at the network
side UNI port is multiplexed, the E-Tree services can be further divided into the
following two categories:

u EP-Tree Ethernet convergence service: not allow for service multiplexing.

u EVP-Tree Ethernet convergence service: allows for service multiplexing.

Service Features

The E-Tree service has the following features:

u A point-to-multipoint connection (a ROOT node to a LEAF node) supported;

u The data at ROOT node is transmitted to all LEAF nodes;

u Different LEAF services are totally isolated, but either the EP-Tree or EVP-Tree
can be used to transmit bandwidths.

Service Model

As shown in Figure 5-5 and Figure 5-6, a mobile network operator constructs a 3G
network. In this project, the services of NodeBs in Area A and B should be
aggregated and transmitted to RNC. NodeBs in Area A are named as A-1 and A-2;
NodeBs in Area B are B-1 and B-2; RNC is C.

The parameters such as total bandwidth guarantee QoS should be configured at the
convergence node, and the client services at all NodeBs should be completely
isolated.

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This project is a typical E-Tree service application. The ROOT node and all LEAF
nodes, expect between the LEAF nodes, have communication demands in the EP-
Tree or EVP-Tree mode.

Figure 5-5 EP-Tree Service Model

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Figure 5-6 EVP-Tree Service Model

Service Application

u EP-Tree mode

As Figure 5-5 shows, A-1 and A-2 nodes in Area A are accessed via LAN1 and
LAN2 of NE1 respectively; B-1 and B-2 nodes in Area B are accessed via
LAN1' and LAN2' of NE2 respectively; RNC is accessed from LAN port 3 (LAN3)
of the ESJ1 card of NE3.

To implement individual communication between RNC and NodeBs and isolate


the communication between every two of the NodeBs, the Tunnel can be used
by all services separately. See Table 5-5 for details.

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Table 5-5 E-Tree Service Application (EP-Tree)

Tunnel Source and


Client Service Tunnel PW Remark
Destination
A-1C Tunnel 1 LAN1LAN3 PW1 NE3 should be
AC
A-2C Tunnel 2 LAN1LAN3 PW1 configured with split

B-1C Tunnel 3 LAN1LAN3 PW1 horizon functionality,


that is, the split
horizon of the NNI
BC
B-2C Tunnel 4 LAN1LAN3 PW1 port corresponding to
each Tunnel should
be set to ON.

u EVP-Tree mode

As Figure 5-6 shows, A-1 and A-2 nodes in Area A are accessed via LAN1 and
LAN2 of NE1 respectively; B-1 and B-2 nodes in Area B are both accessed via
LAN1' of NE2; RNC is accessed from LAN port 3 (LAN3) of the ESJ1 card of
NE3.

To implement individual communication between RNC and NodeBs and isolate


the communication between every two of the NodeBs, the Tunnel can be used
by all services but PW used separately. See Table 5-6 for details.

Table 5-6 E-Tree Service Application (EVP-Tree)

Tunnel Source and


Client Service Tunnel PW Remark
Destination
A-1C PW1 NE3 should be
AC Tunnel 1 LAN1LAN3
A-2C PW2 configured with split

B-1C PW1 horizon functionality,


that is, the split
horizon of the NNI
BC Tunnel 2 LAN1LAN3
B-2C PW2 port corresponding to
each Tunnel should
be set to ON.

5.2 CES Service

With the CES (Circuit Emulation Service) technology, the CES circuit switched data
can be transparently transmitted in the packet transport network. The CiTRANS 660
supports emulation transparent transmission of the E1 CES service and the
channelized STM-1 service.

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5.2.1 CES Application Scenario

The CES is implemented using the PWE3 technology.

The CES is mainly applied in the wireless service and the business private line
service. The CiTRANS 660 is connected to the 2G / 3G station or the enterprise
private line through the E1 / channelized STM-1 line; it slices E1 / STM-1 signals
and encapsulates them into the data packet, and finally transmits the packet to the
opposite end via the MAN network through PW. See Figure 5-7.

Figure 5-7 CES Service Model

5.2.2 Emulation Mode

The CiTRANS 660 supports CES in the structured emulation mode and the
unstructured emulation mode.

In the structured emulation mode:

u Can identify and process the frame structure and transmit signaling in CES
frames;

u Can identify the frame structure of the CES service. It does not need to transmit
idle timeslot channels, but only extracts useful timeslots of CE devices from the
E1 traffic stream and then encapsulates them into PW packets for
transmission;

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u Can identify and transmit CAS and CCS in E1 traffic streams.

In the unstructured emulation mode:

u Segments all CES services as bit streams and then encapsulates them for
transmission over a PW tunnel;

u Can transparently transmit CES traffic data and synchronous timing information.
It completely disregards any structure, and has no need to interpret the CES
data or to participate in the CES signaling;

u Is a simple way for transparent transmission of PDH bit-streams in the CES.

5.2.3 Clock Mode

The CES has very high requirements for the clock synchronization. The CiTRANS
660 provides multiple clock synchronization solutions for the CES, so as to ensure
the transmission of the CES clock.

The clock synchronization solutions include:

u Line clock recovery.

u Adaptive clock recovery.

u Differentiation clock recovery.

u System clock.

5.3 Wireless Network Service

The following introduces the wireless network service bearing solutions and clock
synchronization solutions.

5.3.1 Wireless Network Service Bearing Solution

The 2G / 3G wireless service bearing is achieved by the via IP RAN.

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In the earlier TDM network, the 2G wireless service is mainly the voice service with
relatively small data traffic. A BTS uses one to three E1 interfaces to connect with
the BSC. Some operators who have no fixed E1 lines need to rent the high-cost E1
private lines from their competitors. As the development and expansion of the RAN
have been welcomed by world-wide operators, the 2G RAN based on TDM can
hardly meet the requirements of high bandwidth utilization ratio, easy expansion and
flexible configuration. The IP-based 2G / 3G RAN is the development trend of the
wireless service bearer network.

The CiTRANS 660 can provide MPLS-based CES service and transmit E1 and
STM-1 signals using the PW3E technology. It implements the service data
transmission between the BTS and the BSC via cheap metro area Ethernet network.
See Figure 5-8 for the 2G / 3G RAN bearing solutions using the CiTRANS 660.

Figure 5-8 2G / 3G RAN Bearing of the CiTRANS 660

5.3.2 Wireless Network Clock Synchronization Solution

The 3G mobile service bearer network uses an external clock or the GPS to achieve
the time synchronization of the entire network. The CiTRANS 660 supports 1588v2
clock synchronization protocol, inputs and outputs time signals via the 1PPS&TOD
interface or the Ethernet line interface, and supports the time synchronization of the
entire network required by 3G services.

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As shown in Figure 5-9, the equipment in the bearer network uses the 1588v2
protocol to achieve the time synchronization. The NodeB supportive of 1588v2 uses
multicast 1588v2 time signals to achieve synchronization; the NodeB not supportive
of 1588v2 uses synchronized Ethernet or WAN interface to achieve frequency
synchronization.

Figure 5-9 1588v2 Clock Synchronization

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With the development of telecommunication industry and expansion of the transport


network, the stability and reliability of the network has gradually become a key point
in the establishment and operation of the transport network and a focus in the
competition among operators in an open market. The CiTRANS 660 provides
abundant protection functions, ensuring the normal operations of various services.

The following introduces protection modes of the CiTRANS 660.

Equipment Level Protection

Network-Level Protection

Network Management Information Protection

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6.1 Equipment Level Protection

The CiTRANS 660 provides abundant equipment level protections, which include
the 1+1 protection for the power card, the XCUJ2 / XCUJ4 card, and the NMUJ1
card, the TPS protection for the E1J1 card and the ESJ1 card.

6.1.1 1+1 Protection of the XCU Card

The XCUJ2 / XCUJ4 card is the clock cross-connect card used for service cross-
connect, clock processing and output, protection switching, etc.

Protection Principle

When two XCUJ2 / XCUJ4 cards (one active and one standby) are installed on the
CiTRANS 660, only the active card will operate under the normal condition. But
when one of the switching triggering conditions occurs and the active card fails to
operate, the standby card will be informed via the monitoring line between the cards
and will start up, so as to ensure the normal operations of the equipment.

When the original active card recovers from the fault, it will come into the standby
status. Until the current active card meets one of the switching triggering conditions,
the original active card will be resume its normal work.

Triggering Conditions

u The active card hardware or software is faulty;

u The switching command is delivered manually;

u The active card is unplugged manually;

u The active card is hard reset.

Protection Parameters

See Table 6-1 for the 1+1 protection parameters of the XCU card.

Table 6-1 1+1 Protection Parameters of the XCU Card

Parameter Description

The card's slot 09, 0A


Revertive mode Non-revertive mode

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Note:
There are two revert modes:

u Revertive mode: after the active card resumes, services will be


switched back to the active card automatically.

u Non-revertive mode: after the active card resumes, services will not
be switched back to the active card automatically.

6.1.2 1+1 Protection of the NMUJ1 Card

Introduction

The NMUJ1 card of the CiTRANS 660 provides various management and auxiliary
interfaces for the routing protocol control and the management of the entire
equipment.

Protection Principle

When two NMUJ1 cards (one active and one standby) are installed on the
CiTRANS 660, only the active card will operate under the normal condition. But
when one of the switching triggering conditions occurs and the active card fails to
operate, the standby card will be informed via the monitoring line between the cards
and will start up, so as to ensure the normal operations of the equipment.

When the original active card recovers from the fault, it will come into the standby
status and form 1+1 protection together with the current active card.

Switching Triggering Conditions

u The active card hardware or software is faulty;

u The switching command is delivered manually;

u The active card is unplugged manually;

u The active card is hard reset.

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Protection Parameters

See Table 6-2 for the 1+1 protection parameters of the NMUJ1 card.

Table 6-2 1+1 Protection Parameters of the NMUJ1 Card

Parameter Description

The card's slot 00, 01


Revertive mode Non-revertive mode

6.1.3 1+1 Protection of the Power Card

The AIFJ1 / AIFJ2 card provides -48 V power supply for the entire CiTRANS 660.

Protection Principle

When two AIFJ1 / AIFJ2 cards are installed on the CiTRANS 660, they act as hot
backup to each other to ensure the normal operating of the CiTRANS 660.

Protection Parameters

See Table 6-3 for the 1+1 protection parameters of the power card.

Table 6-3 1+1 Protection Parameters of the Power Card

Parameter Description

The card's slot 10, 11

Protection mode Hot backup

6.1.4 TPS Protection

The E1J1 card is the E1 processing card, which is used to achieve circuit emulation
function of encapsulating 1 to 16 channels of E1 signals into the GE signals.

The ESJ1 card is the FE interface card with the switching function, which is used for
the long-haul transmission of the Ethernet data in the MAN, achieving the layer 2
switching function as well as the functions that are not usually obtained by the
traditional Ethernet (such as protection switching of the services).

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Protection Principle

Objects of TPS protection are cards whose wires and cables are led out through
terminal boards. When a working card is faulty, the signals from a terminal board to
the faulty card will be switched to the normal protection card via software and
hardware operations, so as to ensure normal transmission of services.

Figure 6-1 shows the distribution of the slots on the CiTRANS 660 that support the
TPS protection: The slots 16 to 1C among the 14 slots on the upper subrack support
TPS protection; the slots 12 to 15 and 1D to 1F should be plugged with the
corresponding terminal boards of the slots 16 to 1C from left to right.

Figure 6-1 Slot Distribution of the TPS Protection

The types and the maximal number of groups can be supported by the CiTRANS
660 are as described as follows:

u One group of 1:6 TPS protection

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u One group of 2:2 TPS protection

u Three groups of 1:1 TPS protection

u 1:2 and 1:1 TPS protection used together

Below are the protection principles:

u Supports the simultaneous TPS protection on both the E1J1 card and the ESJ1
card, but for each TPS protection group, the working and protection cards must
be of the same type;

u Except the 1:6 TPS protection, the slot distribution for neither the 1:2 nor the
1:1 TPS protection is fixed. Since the protection signals between terminal
boards are transferred one by one in parallel mode, the slots of protection card
and working card must be next to each other;

u In a group of TPS protection, the protection slot must be on the left, the working
slot should be next to it at the right side. The priorities of the working slots are
arranged in the descending order from the left to the right.

When there are multiple E1J1 cards or ESJ1 cards installed on the CiTRANS 660,
only the active cards will operate under the normal condition. But when one of the
switching triggering conditions occurs and the active card fails to operate, the
standby card will be informed via the monitoring line between the cards and will start
up, so as to ensure the normal operation of the equipment.

Triggering Conditions

u Clock loss occurs on the active card;

u The active card hardware or software is faulty;

u The switching command is delivered manually;

u The active card is unplugged manually;

u The active card is hard reset.

Protection Parameters

See Table 6-4 for the TPS protection parameters of the E1J1 and ESJ1 cards.

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Table 6-4 TPS Protection Parameters

Triggering Condition Description

Locked / unlocked, forcible switching, manual switching,


Switching type
automatic switching

Revertive mode Non-revertive mode


Switching time 50
Switching delay time (ms) 0 to 255
WRT (min) 1 to 12 (the default value is 1)

Note:

u Switching delay time: The waiting time between the detection of the
service failure and the startup of switch. If the service resumes
during this time period, the switching will not be started.

u WRT: The waiting time between the resumption of the service and
the elimination of service fault status (canceling of protection status).
If the service fails during this time period, the service fault status will
not be eliminated

6.2 Network-Level Protection

The CiTRANS 660 provides abundant network-level protections, as shown in


Table 6-5.

Table 6-5 Network-level Protection of the CiTRANS 660

Protection Type Protection Mode


LSP protection 1:1
PW APS protection 1+1
WrappingV2

Wrapping protection WrappingV3

Short Wrapping

1+1
SNCP protection
1:1
DL protection 1+1/1:1

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Table 6-5 Network-level Protection of the (Continued)

Protection Type Protection Mode


Dual-homing protection 1+1/1:1
Ethernet LAG protection Port aggregation

6.2.1 LSP 1:1 Protection

Protection Principle

In the LSP 1:1 protection mode, the protection path is used to protect the services
transferred via the working path. The working mode is single-receiving and single-
fed. Normally the service is transmitted via the working path except when the
working path is faulty. The service will be switched to the protection path, so as to
guarantee the normal service transmission.

The APS protocol of the LSP 1:1 protection is transferred through the protection
path, so as to deliver protocol statuses and switching statuses. The equipment sets
at both ends perform service switching according to protocol statuses and switching
statuses.

See Figure 6-2 for the working principles of the LSP 1:1 protection.

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Figure 6-2 LSP 1:1 Protection

Note:

The protection path can be used to transfer an additional service. When


the working path is faulty and the service on the working path is switched
to the protection path, the additional service will be interrupted. After the
working path resumes to normal status, the additional service will restore
as well.

Switching Triggering Conditions

u The intermediate node is powered off;

u The working path is faulty;

u The switching command is delivered manually.

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Protection Parameters

See Table 6-6 for the protection parameters of the LSP 1:1 protection.

Table 6-6 Protection Parameters of the LSP 1:1 Protection

Parameter Description

Revertive mode Non-revertive mode


Switching protocol APS protocol

Switching time 50
Switching delay time (ms) 0 to 255
WRT (min) 1 to 12 (the default value is 5)

6.2.2 PW APS Protection

Protection Principle

In PW APS protection, the working and protection PWs are pre-created. When the
working PW is faulty, the service will be switched to the protection PW, so as to
protect the service.

u PW 1:1 protection: in case of the same source and same sink, if the APS
function is enabled, the working / protection PW implements connectivity check
via the VC layer OAM, and performs protection switching, switching delay and
WTR by coordinating the source and sink ports via the APS protocol.

u PW redundancy protection: in case of the same source and different sink, if the
APS function is disabled, the working/protection PW implements connectivity
check via the VC layer OAM, and supports triggering switching by CSF.

Switching Triggering Conditions

u The intermediate node is powered off.

u The working PW is faulty.

u The switching command is delivered manually.

Protection Parameter

See Table 6-7 for the protection parameters of the PW APS protection.

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Table 6-7 PW APS Protection Parameters

Parameter Description

Revert mode Revertive


Switching time (ms) 50
Hold-off time (ms) 0 to 255
WRT (min) 1 to 12 (the default value is 5)

6.2.3 DL 1+1 Protection

Protection Principle

The DL 1+1 line protection is implemented between two adjacent nodes to protect
services on the line via the protection line.

As shown in Figure 6-3, normally, services are transmitted to the working and
protection lines. The equipment receives services from working line only and the
protection line transmits the APS protocol (includes protocol status and switching
status). When the working line fails, services are received from the protection line.
The service is dual-fed on the Tx end and selectively received on the Rx end.

Figure 6-3 DL 1+1 Protection

Switching Triggering Conditions

u The working line is faulty.

u The switching command is delivered manually.

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Protection Parameter

Table 6-8 describes protection parameters for DL 1+1 protection.

Table 6-8 DL 1+1 Protection Parameters

Parameter Description

Revert mode Revertive


Switching time (ms) 50
Hold-off time (ms) 0 to 255
WRT (min) 1 to 12 (the default value is 5)

6.2.4 DL 1:1 Protection

Protection Principle

In the DL 1:1 protection mode, the service between two adjacent nodes is protected
via the protection line.

As Figure 6-4 shows, the service is transmitted via the working line and the
protection line is used to transmit APS protocol (including protocol status and
switching status). When the working line is faulty, the service Tx and Rx are both
switched to the protection line, that is, the protection line is used to transmit and
receive service. The service is single-fed on the Tx end and single-received at the
Rx end.

Figure 6-4 DL 1:1 Protection

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Switching Triggering Conditions

u The working line is faulty;

u The switching command is delivered manually.

Protection Parameters

See Table 6-9 for the protection parameters of the DL 1:1 protection.

Table 6-9 DL 1:1 Protection Parameters

Parameter Description

Revertive mode Non-revertive mode


Switching protocol APS protocol

Switching time 50
Switching delay time (ms) 0 to 255
WRT (min) 1 to 12 (the default value is 5)

6.2.5 Wrapping Protection

Technical Background

The Wrapping protection is based on the RPR (Resilient Packet Ring) protocol. As a
new MAC layer protocol, the RPR protocol is brought up for optimizing the
transmission of data packets. The RPR not only has advantages of cost-
effectiveness of Gigabit Ethernet, strict guarantee on delay and jitter of TDM,
reliable clock, 50ms ring protection and restoration, but also features the spatial
reuse, bandwidth dynamic allocation and support for service levels. As an advanced
technology for transferring data packets on current optical network, the RPR
protocol has become the first choice in the establishment of the new generation
MAN.

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Similar with TDM in topology, the RPR uses the mutually inverse dual-ring topology
and every section of optical path on the ring operates at the same rate. The
difference is that both rings of RPR can transmit data. The transmission direction of
the RPR outer ring is clockwise and that of the RPR inner ring is counterclockwise.
The RPR protection does not need specific bandwidth for backup, because both
rings can transmit data and back up each other. By broadcasting switching control
message on the ring, the RPR can inform all the nodes on the ring of the route or
node that is faulty.

The RPR supports two protection mechanisms: Wrapping protection and Steering
protection, and either can meet the protection requirements of RPR. The CiTRANS
660 uses the Wrapping protection mechanism since the switching time in the
Steering protection mechanism is relatively longer and some packets will be lost.

Protection Principle

The Wrapping protection is based on the adjacent nodes of the fault. When a fault is
detected in the network, the adjacent nodes of the fault will switch the services to
the protection direction via the APS calculation, avoiding the faulty node or link, so
as to guarantee the continuity in operation of the network.

The Wrapping protection mechanism ensures the connectivity of data flow when it
goes through a long path before arriving at the destination node. If the equipment is
faulty, the services on the failed node will switch to the ring that transfers service in
the opposite direction.

Based on shared ring, the Wrapping protection has the following advantages:

u The switching time is easily guaranteed and the packet loss is relatively small.

u For multicast service packet, the re-calculation of multicast replication points is


not necessary.

u The protection mode is transparent to the opposite source station.

See Figure 6-5 for the Wrapping protection.

u Normal operation status: The service path from Node A to Node D is ABC
D.

u Status when fault occurs:

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4 WrappingV2/V3 protection: After the fault occurs, the optical path wrapping
will occur on two nodes at both ends of the failed link, and the service path
is also looped back at the two nodes. The service path from Node A to
Node D is ABAFEDCD in general. Dropping is
implemented via the working channel.

4 Short Wrapping protection: After the fault occurs, the optical path wrapping
will occur on the node at the failed link side, and the service path is also
looped back at the node. The service path from Node A to Node D is AB
AFED in general. Dropping is implemented via the protection
channel.

Figure 6-5 Wrapping Protection

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Note:

Wrapping protection is only enabled when all nodes on the ring provide
support. The switched service may have a relatively long roundabout
path and occupy a great deal of bandwidth inside the ring.

Switching Triggering Conditions

u The intermediate node is faulty.

u The working path is faulty.

u The switchover command is manually delivered.

Protection Parameter

Table 6-10 describes protection parameters for Wrapping protection.

Table 6-10 Wrapping Protection Parameters

Parameter Description

Revert mode Revertive


Switchover protocol APS protocol

Switching time (ms) 50


Hold-off time (ms) 0 to 255
WRT (min) 1 to 12 (the default value is 5)

6.2.6 SNCP 1+1 Protection

Protection Principle

In the SNCP 1+1 protection mode, the sub-network connection inside the operator's
network is protected. In the protected area, two independent subnetwork
connections exist. One is the working tunnel and the other is the protection one.

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See Figure 6-6 for the SNCP 1+1 protection switching. The working service is
permanently bridged from the protection domain source end (NodeA) to the working
and protection connections, and the protection switching is performed by the
selector of the protection domain destination end (NodeZ). The network tracing end
and the sublayer tracing end are used to monitor and confirm the working and
protection connection status.

Figure 6-6 SNCP 1+1 Protection

Switching Triggering Conditions

u The intermediate node is powered off;

u The working path is faulty;

u The switching command is delivered manually.

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Protection Parameters

See Table 6-11 for the protection parameters of the SNCP 1+1 protection.

Table 6-11 SNCP 1+1 Protection Parameters

Parameter Description

Revertive mode Non-revertive mode


Switching time 50
Switching delay time (ms) 0 to 255
WRT (min) 1 to 12 (the default value is 5)

6.2.7 SNCP 1:1 Protection

Protection Principle

In the SNCP 1:1 protection mode, the sub-network connection inside the operator's
network is protected. In the protected area, two independent subnetwork
connections exist. One is the working tunnel and the other is the protection one.

See Figure 6-7 for the SNCP 1:1 protection. The working service is bridged to the
working connection from the protection area source end (NodeA). And the
protection connection is used to transmit other sub-network services when the
working service is normal. The APS protocol information (including near end and far
end) is used to inform the link and protection status. The protection switching is
performed together by the protection area selector bridge and the destination end
(NodeZ) selector.

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Figure 6-7 SNCP 1:1 Protection

Switching Triggering Conditions

u The intermediate node is powered off;

u The working path is faulty;

u The switching command is delivered manually.

Protection Parameters

See Table 6-12 for the protection parameters of the SNCP 1:1 protection.

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Table 6-12 SNCP 1:1 Protection Parameters

Parameter Description

Revertive mode Non-revertive mode


Switching protocol APS protocol

Switching time 50
Switching delay time (ms) 0 to 255
WRT (min) 1 to 12 (the default value is 5)

6.2.8 Dual-homing Protection

Protection Principle

In the dual-homing protection mode, the MPLS-TP network side protection and the
AC side protection are combined. The network side failure only triggers the network
side protection switching, and the AC side failure only triggers the AC side
protection. When both are in failure, both types of protection will be triggered
simultaneously, so as to protect the service in the dual mode. The network side
protection supports LSP 1+1 / 1:1 protection, and AC side supports link 1+1 / 1:1
protection. Besides, there are two NEs at the AC side respectively connected to the
working and protection lines of the RNC.

As Figure 6-8 shows, the dual-homing protection is configured between Node A and
RNC. The working path is A B C RNC.

u The network side A C is configured with LSP 1+1 / 1:1 protection. The
working path is A B C and the protection path is A D E C.

u The AC side is configured with link 1+1 / 1:1 protection. The working path is C
RNC and the protection path is C E RNC.

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Figure 6-8 Normal Working Status

In the following paragraphs examples are given to introduces the switching


mechanism of dual-homing protection.

u MPLS-TP network side failure

As Figure 6-9 shows, when the MPLS-TP network side working path, i.e., A
B C is faulty, the LSP 1+1 / 1:1 protection switching will be triggered between
Node A and Node C. The switching will not occur between Node C and RNC.
The service path becomes A D E C RNC, and the network side
service is thus protected.

Figure 6-9 Dual-homing Protection Switching Status - Network Side Failure

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u AC side failure

As Figure 6-10 shows, when a fault occurs between Node C and RNC, after
Node E receives the fault information from Node C, the switching will occur and
the service will be switched to C E RNC. At the same time, switching
occurs on the RNC, and the service is received and transmitted in the direction
connecting with Node E. The service path becomes A B C E RNC,
and the AC side service is thus protected.

Figure 6-10 Dual-homing Protection Switching Status - AC Side Failure

u MPLS-TP network side and AC side both in failure

As Figure 6-11 shows, when MPLS-TP network side and AC side are both in
failure, switching occur on both Node A and RNC. Node C transmits fault
information of both to Node E, and Node E switches the service to A D E
RNC, and the service is thus protected.

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Figure 6-11 Dual-homing Protection Switching Status - Network Side Failure and AC Side
Failure at the Same Time

u Node C is faulty

As Figure 6-12 shows, when Node C is faulty, switching still occurs at Node A.
At other nodes the same switching occurs as illustrated in Figure 6-11. The
service path becomes A D E RNC and the service is thus protected.

Figure 6-12 Dual-homing Protection Switching Status - Node C Failure

Switching Triggering Conditions

u The intermediate node is powered off;

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u The working path is faulty;

u The AC side working path is faulty;

u The switching command is delivered manually.

Protection Parameters

See Table 6-13 for the protection parameters of the dual-homing protection.

Table 6-13 Dual-homing Protection Parameters

Parameter Description

1+1 / 1:1 unidirectional switching


AC side
Switching type 1+1 / 1:1 bidirectional switching

Network side 1+1 / 1:1 bidirectional switching

Revertive mode Non-revertive mode


Switching protocol APS protocol

Switching time 50
Switching delay time (ms) 0 to 255
WRT (min) 1 to 12 (the default value is 5)

6.2.9 Ethernet LAG Protection

Introduction

Port aggregation refers to the kind of protection mode that binds a group of physical
Ethernet interfaces with the same rate together, so as to form a logical interface to
enhance bandwidth and provide link protection. The CiTRANS 660 supports LAG
protection of the Ethernet interface on the UNI side.

The Ethernet LAG protection allows the share of load among the ports; the ports of
aggregate members are not divided into active and standby ports. The CiTRANS
660 enables cross-card LAG protection and intra-card LAG protection. When any of
the ports fails, the service message will be delivered to other ports for transmission.

Protection Principle

LAG protection implements the following functions:

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u Enhance link usability: In the group of aggregated ports, the members provide
dynamic backup for each other. When any of the ports fails, the other ports will
take over its work immediately. The process of starting up aggregate port
backup is only related to the ports within the aggregated group, irrelevant with
the ports outside the group.

u Increase link capacity: The group of aggregated ports provides an economical


method of enhancing the links transmission rate for the users. Via binding
multiple physical ports, users can obtain the data link with larger bandwidth
without upgrading their current equipment. The capacity of this link is the sum
of the capacity of all these physical links.

Figure 6-13 illustrates the Ethernet LAG protection supported by the CiTRANS 660.

Figure 6-13 LAG Protection Principle

Switching Triggering Conditions

The LAG group member or the link of the group member is faulty.

Protection Parameters

See Table 6-14 for the protection parameters of the Ethernet LAG protection.

Table 6-14 Ethernet LAG Protection Parameters

Parameter Description

Based on source MAC, based on destination MAC, based on


Aggregation mode
both the source and destination MAC
Revertive mode Non-revertive mode

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6.3 Network Management Information Protection

On the transport network, network management information is transmitted over the


supervisory channel. Usually the supervisory channel and the main channel are the
same physical channel. When the main channel fails, the supervisory channel also
fails, leading to the communication interruption. Therefore, a protection channel
must be provided for transmitting network management information.

On a ring network, when a transmission segment such as the optical fiber fails,
network management information is automatically transmitted over the supervisory
channel in the other direction. This does not affect network management.
Figure 6-14 shows the automatic backup of network management information
channels in a ring network.

Figure 6-14 Network Management Information Channel Backup in a Ring Network (a Section
Transmission Failure)

If both ends of a site on an optical fiber segment fail, or an optical fiber segment in a
point-to-point network or chain network fails, the supervisory channels for network
management information also fail. The network administrator cannot obtain
information about failed sites or operate these sites. To avoid such problems, a
protection channel must be deployed for network management information.

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The CiTRANS 660 can provide a protection channel for network management
information through the data communication network. Between two NEs to be
protected, a router is configured and connected to the data communication network
to establish a protection channel. When the network runs properly, network
management information is transmitted over the main channel. See Figure 6-15.

Figure 6-15 Network Management Information Channel Backup (Normal)

When the main channel becomes faulty, the NE automatically switches over the
network management information to the protection channel. This ensures that the
network management system monitors the entire network. The switchover process
is completed automatically without manual intervention. Figure 6-16 shows backup
of network management channels.

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Figure 6-16 Network Management Information Channel Backup (Main Channel Failure)

Caution:

In network planning, it is recommended that the protection channel and


main channel use different physical channels.

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The following discusses QoS functions of the MPLS-TP equipment.

QoS Framework

Key Specification of QoS

Key Technology of QoS

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7.1 QoS Framework

The IP QoS framework defined by ITU-T is composed of three planes: control plane,
data plane and management plane. See Figure 7-1.

u Control plane: includes access control, resource reservation and QoS route;

u Data plane: includes traffic classification, marking, queuing and scheduling,


traffic policing, traffic shaping, congestion avoidance and buffer management;

u Management plane: includes service level agreements, measurement, traffic


restoration and policies.

Figure 7-1 QoS Framework

7.2 Key Specification of QoS

The specifications used to qualitatively measure the QoS include:

u Availability: the guaranteed normal operation time of the service.

u Delay: the time interval from transmitting to receiving of the data packet
between two reference points.

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u Delay variations (jitter and wander): the different delays presented by different
packets in the same service. Jitter refers to the high-frequency packet delay
variation, whereas wander is the low-frequency packet delay variation.

u Throughput: the rate of transmitting the data packets in the network in terms of
either average rate or peak rate.

u Packet loss rate: the rate of the lost packets in the transmitted packets in the
test, usually tested within the throughput range. The packet loss is usually
caused by network congestion.

7.3 Key Technology of QoS

The key technologies of QoS include:

u Traffic classification

Located at the ingress; the traffic classification may be based on port, 802.1P,
PW, MAC, VLAN ID or combined.

u Traffic policing

4 Usually located after the traffic classification functional module,


responsible for testing and policing the classified ingress service flows.
The ingress service flow test is to test the bandwidth and burst.

4 Algorithm: MEF10, single rate three color marker, two rate three color
marker.

u Traffic shaping

Located at the egress; restrains the packet traffic and temporarily stores the
packets beyond the traffic convention and transmits the buffering packets when
appropriate.

u Congestion management

4 Manages the congestion using the queue scheduling.

4 Queue scheduling algorithm includes PQ, WFQ, DRR, WRR, WDRR, etc.

u Congestion avoidance

4 Avoids congestion using packet discarding.

4 Packet discarding policy includes Tail Drop algorithm, RED, WRED, etc.

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8 OAM Function

The following discusses the OAM functions of the CiTRANS 660.

Basic Concept of OAM

MPLS-TP and Ethernet OAM Feature

120 Version: D
8 OAM Function

8.1 Basic Concept of OAM

According to practical requirements in the network operations of operators, the


network management is usually divided into operation, administration and
maintenance, OAM for short.

u Operation and administration: the routine work of analysis, prediction, planning,


and configuration of the network and services.

u Maintenance: routine operations such as testing and fault management of the


network and its services.

ITU-T defines the OAM functions.

u Monitor performance and produce maintenance information, as well as


evaluating the stability of network according to the performance monitoring and
maintenance information.

u Detect faults in the network via regular queries and produce maintenance and
alarm information of all kinds.

u Make the entity fail bypass via scheduling or switching to other entities, so as to
guarantee the normal operations of the network.

u Transmit the fault information to the management entity.

8.2 MPLS-TP and Ethernet OAM Feature


Introduction

Compared to the OAM function of TDM, the traditional packet based network
management and maintenance functions are relatively weak and cannot provide
end-to-end service management, fault detection and performance monitoring.
Based on the functions of the traditional IP router, the aggregation access router is
added with some MPLS advantages and provides hierarchical OAM functions.

The MPLS-TP OAM features of the CiTRANS 660 are as follows:

u Supports hierarchical OAM functions. The MPLS-TP OAM provides up to eight


MEG layers (0 to 7), and each layer supports independent OAM functions, so
as to meet the requirements of various network deployment policies.

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u Provides the OAM functions related to fault management, performing the


functions of automatic network fault detection, checking, fault isolation and
notification. Performs the end-to-end fault management capability based on the
PW layer inside the MPLS network.

u Provides the OAM functions related to performance monitoring, so as to


implement the network performance online measuring and performance report.
Performs the end-to-end performance measurement capability based on the
PW layer inside the MPLS network.

u Provides OAM functions for daily maintenance, including loopback and locking,
providing operators with more convenient maintenance operation methods for
daily network checking.

The CiTRANS 660 also supports the Ethernet OAM and the access link OAM
functions as shown below:

u EFM OAM

For the link between two directly-connected devices, the EFM OAM provides
such functions as link connectivity test, link fault monitoring, remote fault
notification and remote loopback. In the MAN, the EFM OAM technology is
usually applied between the CE equipment and PE equipment to guarantee the
reliability and stability of the connection between the user network and the
operator network.

u CFM OAM

For the network, the CFM OAM supports such functions as connectivity fault
detection, fault notification, fault diagnosis and fault isolation. The CFM OAM
technology is usually applied to the access distribution layer network and used
to monitor the connectivity of the entire network and isolate the connectivity
fault of the network. Applied together with the protection switching technology,
the CFM OAM enhances the reliability of the network.

u Access link OAM is the end-to-end OAM function that is focused on the service,
which can test the quality of the Ethernet link that crosses multiple NEs.

Application

The OAM can be applied in alarms, performance and other aspects.

u Alarm applications

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8 OAM Function

4 CC: Detects whether the connection is normal.

4 LB: Loopback function.

4 LT: Determines the path from the source end to the destination
maintenance end point.

4 AIS: Informs the path failure signal in service layer to the client layer.

4 RDI: Indicates remote defect.

4 LCK: Locking signaling; used to inform a MEP, related service layer and
sublayer MEP to interrupt normal services because of the management
requirement.

4 TST: Testing signaling. The testing request initiated by one MEP to another
MEP.

u Performance applications

4 LM: Detects packet loss.

4 DM: Detects delay and delay variations.

u Other applications

4 APS: Performs the automatic protection switching function.

4 MCC: Performs the management communication channel function.

4 SSM: Performs the synchronization status message function.

4 CSF: Client signal fail signaling, used to transmit the fail signal of client
layer at the source end of the MPLS-TP path to the sink end of the MPLS-
TP path.

4 SCC: Performs the signaling communication channel function, used to


transmit the control plane information from one MEP to the peer MEP.

Version: D 123
9 Clock and Time Synchronization

The following discusses the clock and time synchronization function of the
CiTRANS 660.

Introduction to Clock and Time

Clock and Time Synchronization Function

124 Version: D
9 Clock and Time Synchronization

9.1 Introduction to Clock and Time

The following introduces the concepts, operating principles, network applications,


and features of the clock synchronization and the time synchronization, as well as
their differences.

9.1.1 Concept of Synchronization

The synchronization includes two aspects: frequency synchronization and time


synchronization.

Frequency synchronization: It is generally called clock synchronization. It refers to


the attaining of synchronism between the frequencies or phases of two or more
signals; the obtaining of a desired, fixed relationship among corresponding
significant instants of two or more signal; or the valid moment occurs at the same
rate. The purpose is to maintain all equipment sets in the communication network
working at the same rate.

Time synchronization: It is to adjust the internal clock and time based on the
received time information. It adjusts the frequency of the clock and also the phase of
the clock and represents the clock phase in a numerical value, i.e., time of the day.

9.1.2 Difference between Clock Synchronization and Time


Synchronization

Figure 9-1 Differences between the Clock Synchronization and the Time Synchronization

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Figure 9-1 shows the differences between the time and frequency (clock)
synchronization. If two watches (Watch 1 and Watch 2) keep identical at all times,
this is time synchronization. If the two watches show different time with a constant
variable, for example, one hour, this is frequency synchronization. If the two
watches have different frequencies, the two have no fixed relationships between
time values. Therefore, the prerequisite of time synchronization is frequency
synchronization.

The CiTRANS 660 implements the clock and time synchronization via the following
technologies.

u Frequency synchronization: the synchronization technology based on the


physical layer, and the synchronous Ethernet technology (defined by ITU-T
G.8261) is used.

u Time synchronization: the synchronization technology based on the packet,


and the time synchronization technology (defined by IEEE1588 V2) is used.

9.1.3 Ethernet Clock Synchronization Technology

Background Information

Synchronous Ethernet, shortened as SyncE, is a technology that physical layer (PHY)


chip of the Ethernet bit steams are used to recover clocks of the Rx end. This mode
is the same with the TDM clock recovery mode and can get the similar TDM clock
precision, so as to realize the network clock synchronization.

The clock synchronization quality of synchronous Ethernet is similar to those of a


TDM network and can not be influenced by the network congestion, packet loss and
delay. At present, the synchronous Ethernet only supports the transmission of the
frequency signals but does not support the transmission of time signals. The
Ethernet scheme is only applicable to the scenario which does not need the time
synchronization.

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Basic Concept

Synchronization status information (SSM) algorithm is sourced from clock


synchronization control of TDM. Its rules and clock selection algorithm comply with
the ITU-T G.781 standard. SSM control of the synchronous Ethernet inherits the
features of the TDM network. Ethernet synchronization message channels (ESMC)
are added on the basis of the traditional clock network.

An Ethernet synchronization message channel is a unidirectional broadcast protocol


channel at the media access control (MAC) layer. It is used for transmitting SSMs
between devices. The equipment selects the best clock source according to the
SSM of the ESMC message.

Working Principle

The clock transmission mechanism of the synchronous Ethernet is similar to that of


the TDM network. That is, the clock is recovered from the Ethernet physical link.
The quality of the recovered clock is not affected by service traffic on the link. Clock
tree deployment and clock quality the same as those of the TDM/SONET network
can be provided, meeting the timing interface specifications defined in the ITU-T
G.823 standard.

See Figure 9-2 for the principle of synchronous Ethernet.

Figure 9-2 Synchronized Ethernet Operating Principle

A high-precision timing signal is injected into the Ethernet clock processing module
of equipment at the source side (NE1) and transmitted via line transmitting module
as the system clock after being processed. The signal is extracted from the bit
stream of equipment at the Rx side (NE2). The signal precision can be synchronous
with the source end without loss in the process of transmission.

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Network Application

See Figure 9-3 for the synchronous network scheme of frequency synchronization
based on MPLS-TP.

Figure 9-3 MPLS-TP Frequency Synchronization Network

9.1.4 1588v2 Time Synchronization Technology

Background Information

The name of IEEE1588 standard is Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for


Networked Measurement and Control Systems.

The IEEE1588 time synchronization uses the master-slave clock mode to perform
encoding of time information. It uses the network symmetry and delay measurement
technology to implement master-slave time synchronization.

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9 Clock and Time Synchronization

Process

Prior to the IEEE 1588v2 technology, three time synchronization protocols have
been used in MPLS-TP: the time protocol, the ToD protocol, and the network time
protocol (NTP). The NTP is implemented completely via software, so its accuracy is
relatively low. The NTPv3 (widely used currently) can reach an accuracy of
approximately 10 ms. The IETF is standardizing NTPv4, which supports IPv6 and
discovering a server dynamically, with the synchronization accuracy of 10 s. But
the stability and accuracy of NTP cannot meet the telecommunication network
requirements.

The IEEE 1588v2 is a method which will provide time synchronization and
frequency synchronization unitedly in the future. It can transport interexchange
frequencies of various transport platforms. It can transfer frequency in unidirectional
mode based on the 1588v2 timestamp and in packet-based time transport mode,
and also can use the IEEE 1588v2 protocol to implement the time synchronization,
so it is widely used on the MPLS-TP equipment.

Features and Advantages

As shown in Table 9-1, compared with traditional timing technologies, the


IEEE1588v2 has evident advantages: The accuracy is of ns level, the cost is low,
and it can be used in different access conditions. For the accuracy requirement
increases continually in the industry, using the IEEE 1588v2 has been an
inescapable trend.

Table 9-1 Description of the IEEE 1588v2 Clock

Atomic
Item GPS NTP CNSS IEEE 1588v2
Clock
Typical timing
20 ns 10 ms 100 ns 10 ns 100 ns
accuracy

Satellite
coverage Yes No Yes No No
needed
Locking time 40 s 30 ns 60 s - 60 ns
Integrated cost Medium Low High High Low
Ethernet port
No Yes No No Yes
supported

Controllability Low High Medium High High

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Table 9-1 Description of the IEEE 1588v2 Clock (Continued)

Atomic
Item GPS NTP CNSS IEEE 1588v2
Clock
Security Low Low High High Medium
Reliability Medium High Medium High High

Basic Concept

u PTP port status

4 Master: the master clock port, and transfers the time synchronization
information to the succeeding (Slave) port.

4 Slave: the slave clock port, and receives the time synchronization
information from the previous (Master) port.

u IEEE 1588v2 time synchronization mode

4 Ordinary Clock (OC): Generally is used at the starting or ending equipment


of the network, and provides one 1588 port. It can only act as Slave or
Master.

4 Boundary Clock (BC): Generally is used at the intermediate node of the


network, and provides multiple 1588 ports. Among these ports, one acts as
Slave, and others act as Master.

4 Transparent Clock (TC): Generally is used at the intermediate node of the


network to transmit the clock transparently. It transmits the time information
transparently.

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9 Clock and Time Synchronization

Figure 9-4 Time Synchronization Mode

u BMC (Best Master Clock Algorithm)

The BMC (Best Master Clock Algorithm) is the core technology of the
IEEE1588 protocol. Via comparing the clock performance data, the BMC can
select the best clock in the local network to act as the master clock.

u Synchronization interface

4 1 pps + TOD interface: The time information is transferred via the 1 pps +
TOD interface. The base station or other equipment needing the time
information recovers the time information from this interface directly, and
the base station does not need to support the 1588 function.

4 Ethernet synchronization interface: The Ethernet interface supports the


PTP synchronization, including the FE and GE interfaces. This mode can
support a long transmission distance, but the base station needs to
support the PTP protocol and clock recovery functions.

Operating Principle

By estimating the round-trip delay of a packet on the network, the IEEE 1588 can
calculate the equipment clock deviation independently, so as to implement time
synchronization via master-slave synchronization. The operating principles of the
network time protocol are described as follows:

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1. NE1 transmits a PTP packet to NE2, and record the time when this packet
leaves NE1. The corresponding timestamp is t1.

2. When this PTP packet reaches NE2, NE2 adds the timestamp of receiving this
packet. The corresponding timestamp is Ts1.

3. NE1 transmits the accompanying information to NE2, for notifying NE2 of the
time t1.

4. When this PTP packet leaves NE2, NE2 records the time t2 of this PTP packet
leaving NE2.

5. When NE1 receives the response packet, it adds a new timestamp Tm2. See
Figure 9-5 for the entire synchronization process.

6. The in-the-site equipment set NE1 transmits the accompanying information to


the in-the-site equipment set NE2, for notifying NE2 of the time Tm2.

Figure 9-5 IEEE 1588v2 Time Synchronization Principle

Users can calculate the delta-T (dt) and delay between NE1 and NE2 using the
following formulas:

u delta-T: dt=[(Ts1-t1)-(Tm2-t2)]/2

u Delay: Delay=[(Ts1-t1)+(Tm2-t2)]/2

Via the two key parameters, NE2 can synchronize with NE1.

132 Version: D
9 Clock and Time Synchronization

Network Application

The network scheme of the time synchronization based on the MPLS-TP is shown
in Figure 9-6.

Figure 9-6 MPLS-TP IEEE 1588 Time Synchronization Network

9.2 Clock and Time Synchronization Function

The following introduces the clock and time synchronization function features and
reference standards of the CiTRANS 660.

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

9.2.1 Internal Clock Unit

See Figure 9-7 for the internal clock signal flow direction of the CiTRANS 660. After
selecting the best master clock among clock signals from all slots and locking phase
to it, the clock module of the XCUJ2 / XCUJ4 card transmits 25 M and 8 k signals to
all slots and performs system synchronization and timing as well as synchronization
of the local NE with the appointed synchronization reference source.

Figure 9-7 Clock Signal Flow Direction

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9 Clock and Time Synchronization

9.2.2 Time and Clock Synchronization Capability

The CiTRANS 660 supports two clock signal synchronization modes: in-band (IEEE
1588 protocol interface) and out-of-band (1PPS+TOD interface). Below are the
performance parameters for the two modes.

u In-band (IEEE 1588 protocol interface)

4 Supports OC (Ordinary clock) and BC (Boundary clock) equipment modes;


and Master and Slave modes for port configuration.

4 Supports BMC algorithm; supports SSM information transmission via the


IEEE 1588v2 packet.

4 Supports compensation for asymmetric path delays, in a step smaller than


10 ns; supports packet transmission interval configuration; supports PTP
parameter settings.

u Out-of-band (1PPS + TOD interface)

4 TOD information: The default is 9600 baud, no parity; one start bit
(indicated with a low level), one stop bit (indicated with a high level); idle
frame is high level, 8 data bits; the TOD information transmission occurs at
1 ms after the rising edge of the 1 pps and completes within 500 ms, and
the TOD information labels the rise time of the current 1PPS. TOD protocol
message is transmitted once per second.

4 1PPS (a pulse per second): The rising edge is used as the standard edge;
the rise time is smaller than 50 ns; the pulse width is approximately 180
ms.

The CiTRANS 660 clock synchronization signal designs comply with the following
standards and protocols mentioned in Table 9-2.

Table 9-2 Standards and Protocols of the CiTRANS 660 Clock Synchronization Signal Design

Standard / Protocol Number Title


Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for
IEEE 1588-2008
Networked Measurement and Control Systems

3GPP TR 25.836 NodeB synchronization for TDD

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

9.2.3 Time OAM Functions

The CiTRANS 600 series equipment supports PTP (IEEE 1588-2008) protocol to
implement packet time synchronization function, and supports 1PPS+TOD time
input and output interfaces.

u Status and source selection mechanism

4 Synchronization status parameter: it is required to configure the PTP


parameters and 1PPS+TOD parameters.

4 The time source selection mechanism of equipment is as follows:

The equipment supports complete BMC algorithm, through which the


PTP port status and source selection are determined automatically.
The equipment extracts the clock source attributes via the PTP
Announce message, calculates the best clock source using the BMC
algorithm, and then generates and outputs the Announce message to
the succeeding station. Via processing the message station by station,
the selection of source and determination of master/slave tracing
relationship of the whole network are implemented.

The equipment supports selecting the current best primary time


source from multiple PTP and 1PPS+TOD input sources using the
BMC algorithm.

u Fault management requirements

The CiTRANS 600 series equipment supports monitoring the faults of input/
output time signal and protocol message of the packet layer time
synchronization as well as the faults of the equipment internal time module in
real time, and reporting the faults to management entity in the form of alarm,
event and so on.

136 Version: D
9 Clock and Time Synchronization

Figure 9-8 Fault Management Module

As shown in Figure 9-8, alarm and event are descried as follows:

4 Input function alarm

PTP physical link alarm

When symptoms such as LOS and LINK DOWN occur on the PTP
physical link, the equipment will automatically report the PTP physical
link alarm, and disable the PTP function of the link physical port. After
the alarm disappears, the PTP function of the link will be recovered.

Announce message loss alarm

When obtaining the time reference source from the packet message in
the PTP input interface, the equipment can detect the receiving
condition of Announce message at the Slave port. If no message is
received after the detection time expires, the equipment will
automatically report the alarm of Announce message loss at the PTP
port, and trigger the switching of time reference source or keep the
working status.

Sync or Delay_Resp message loss alarm

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When obtaining the time reference source from the packet message in
the PTP input interface, the equipment can detect the receiving
condition of Sync and Delay_Resp messages at the Slave port. If no
message is received after the detection time expires, the equipment
will report the alarm of Sync and Delay_Resp messages loss at the
PTP port.

PTP input degradation alarm

When the equipment obtains the time reference source from the
packet message in the PTP input interface, if the clock level of the
current PTP reference source is lower than a specific quality level
threshold, and the Steps Removed value of the PTP reference source
is 0, the equipment will automatically report the PTP input degradation
alarm.

1PPS+TOD input loss alarm

When the equipment obtains the time reference source from the 1PPS
+TOD input interface, if it cannot detect any 1PPS signal or TOD
information, it will automatically report the 1PPS+TOD input loss alarm,
and trigger the switching of time reference source or keep the working
status.

1PPS+TOD input degradation alarm

When the equipment obtains the time reference source from the 1PPS
+TOD input interface, if the 1PPS status in the 1PPS+TOD input
signal is lower than a specific quality level threshold, the equipment
will automatically report the 1PPS+TOD input degradation alarm.

4 Time processing function alarm and event

Time loss of lock alarm

The equipment can detect the working status of Phase Locked Loop
(PPL). When the PPL cannot work normally, the equipment will
automatically report the time loss of lock alarm.

When the clock source enters the holdover or free running mode or
when the QL is enabled so that the SSM quality level decreases to
SSU_B (G812 local) or even lower, or the SSM quality level becomes
quality unknown, the PTP time loss of lock alarm will be reported, and
the time working status will change to holdover.

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Synchronization processing hardware fault alarm

The equipment will perform fault detection to all hardware circuits and
key parts including built-in clock, key chip and phase filter. If any of
these parts cannot work normally, the equipment will automatically
report the synchronization processing hardware fault alarm.

Slave port switching event

If the equipment detects the failure or degradation of the PTP port


which serves as the primary time reference, it will trigger the switching
of packet synchronization source and report the Slave port switching
event.

GM clock switching event

When the switching occurs on the GM traced by the Slave NE, the
equipment will automatically report the GM clock switching event.

Equipment time status switching event

When the time status is switched between normal tracing and non-
tracing, the equipment will automatically report the equipment
synchronization status switching event.

When the time working status of the equipment is switched among


free running, locked and holdover modes, the equipment time status
switching event alarm will be reported for a duration of one minute.

4 Output function alarm

Time output module fault alarm: The equipment can detect the working
status of time output module and automatically report the fault alarm if the
module cannot work normally.

u Performance monitoring requirements

The equipment supports monitoring the performance of input/output time signal


of the packet layer time synchronization as well as that of the equipment
internal time module in real time, and reporting the corresponding alarm
information if any performance degradation is found.

4 PTP message statistics

Supports statistical counting of the number of messages received by the


current PTP reference source in the specified period (15 minutes by
default).

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4 PTP time offset real-time monitoring

If the equipment is BC or OC Slave, it supports monitoring the PTP time


offset used by the equipment synchronization in real time.

This function is valid for the active detection mode. Supports reporting data
to the EMS and providing performance monitoring curve on the EMS.

Supports monitoring the performance of the designated node equipment in


real time with the shortest reporting period no more than 5s.

4 PTP delay real-time monitoring

If the equipment is BC or OC Slave, it supports real-time monitoring of the


one-way delay obtained by subtracting PTP timestamps T2 and T1 of PTP
link, the one-way delay obtained by subtracting PTP timestamps T4 and
T3, and the Meanpathdelay (mean delay).

This function is valid for the active detection mode. Supports reporting data
to the EMS and providing performance monitoring curve on the EMS.

4 PTP time offset accumulation and threshold-crossing

If the equipment is BC or OC Slave, it supports accumulation and detection


of time offset. Calculate the cumulative sum of the time offset
compensation value used for system clock adjustment in the designated
time period. If the peak-to-peak value of the cumulative sum exceeds the
preset range, the time offset cumulative sum threshold-crossing alarm will
be reported. The peak-to-peak value refers to the maximum fluctuation
value of the time offset cumulative sum during the reporting period.

This function is valid for the active detection mode. It supports reporting
data to the EMS, querying in real time and setting alarm threshold.

4 Absolute time reference comparison

If the equipment is able to obtain the GPS time directly, or obtain the
absolute time reference source directly from the 1PPS+TOD external input,
the equipment supports directly comparing the external reference time and
the PTP time and reporting the time difference. If the time difference
exceeds the preset range, the time difference (between external reference
time and PTP time) threshold-crossing alarm will be reported.

This function is valid for the active detection mode. It supports reporting
data to the EMS, querying in real time and setting alarm threshold.

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4 Passive node time synchronization performance monitoring

When the PTP synchronization topology is set up for the synchronization


network, the BMC algorithm will decide the Passive port at a certain node
in the ring network to avoid loops. The node equipment supports enabling
the Passive port to calculate the PTP time offset via appropriate setting, so
as to implement performance monitoring by comparing the time difference
of two directions in the ring network obtained by the equipment at the
Passive and Slave ports respectively. When the time difference of two
directions in the ring network measured by the node where the Passive
port belongs to is larger, the equipment will report the ring network Passive
node time difference threshold-crossing alarm.

This function is valid for the active detection mode. It supports reporting
data to the EMS, querying in real time and setting alarm threshold.

u Delay compensation function and monitoring function

In the current network, asymmetry may exist in optical fibers and transmission
delay may occur on the 1PPS+TOD interface, the time synchronization
equipment and performance may be affected. The equipment supports the
asymmetric compensation function for optical fibers and the delay
compensation function for 1PPS+TOD link, and provides the compensation
setting and query on the EMS.

4 PTP asymmetric compensation function: Each port supports asymmetric


delay compensation independently. The compensation range is -100us to
100us, the step of compensation is no more than 10ns, and the
compensation mode is to set asymmetric compensation value (ns).

4 1PPS+TOD delay compensation: Each receiving port supports delay


compensation independently. The compensation range is 0ns to 10us, the
step of compensation is no more than 10ns, and the compensation mode
is to set compensation value (ns).

Version: D 141
10 Security Management

The CiTRANS 660 provides the network and network management system security
protection mechanisms.

Network Management Security Protection

Network Management Security Protection

142 Version: D
10 Security Management

10.1 Network Management Security Protection

The following introduces the access control list, traffic monitoring, and anti-attack
functions of the CiTRANS 660.

10.1.1 Access Control List

The access control covers the user login management, classification of


management domains, control of access time and management of remote access.
The purpose is to prevent illegal users from visiting the network resources (including
the OTNM2000) or authorized users from visiting a network domain beyond their
authorization.

u The operator must enter the valid user name and password before accessing
the network management system. Only after being confirmed by the system
can the user be allowed to access. The purpose is to check whether the
operator is a legal user and has corresponding authority, so as to guarantee
that only the authorized operators can access the management system.

u The equipment to be managed is divided into different domains as required.


Operators are given different authorities with regard to management domains
and management functions. Only the authorized operators are allowed to visit
the specified domains and implement their management functions in the
authorized domains. The domains can be added or modified when necessary.

u The access time for users can be set as required. For example, the operators
are allowed to visit the EMS only in the specified period of time.

u The system supports adding, modification and deletion of users. New users can
be registered, and existing users can be modified or deleted via the network
management system.

10.1.2 Traffic Monitoring

The CiTRANS 660 supports the CAR function, and both the Color-Blind mode and
the Color-Aware mode are supported.

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Traffic Bandwidth Control

The default traffic bandwidth control policy of the CiTRANS 660 is to discard red
messages and let yellow and green messages pass.

The traffic control layers supported by the CiTRANS 660 include:

u Traffic policy statistics collection based on interfaces and sub-ports.

u Statistics collection of the user flow queues, including the forwarding message
number, byte number and discarded message number of the 8 priority levels.

u The forwarding message number, byte number and discarded message


number of the user group.

u Statistics collection of the port queues, including the forwarding message


number, byte number and discarded message number of the 8 priority levels.

u In the L2VPN, the CiTRANS 660 can collect the egress and ingress traffic
statistics of the accessed users when it serves as the PE equipment.

u As the PE equipment in the MPLS TE network, the CiTRANS 660 can collect
the statistics about the egress and ingress traffic of the Tunnel.

u Supports the traffic statistics collection of each PW in the Tunnel.

Service Priority Mapping

The CiTRANS 660 supports the DiffServ mode, and can implement PHB (Per-Hop
Behavior) defined by related standards in the MPLS network. This enables network
operators to provide different service guarantees at different QoS levels for users.

When forwarding data, the CiTRANS 660 supports the mapping from the user
priority level and the mapping from the PW layer priority level to the PHB, as well as
the mapping from the PHB of the transmitted packets to the PW / LSP layer priority
level.

The CiTRANS 660 can set PHB of the VPWS channel, VPWS flow, VPLS-VS and
VPLS emulation LAN interface. Users can either choose from the existing mapping
table of the PHB and the PW priority level, or set a specific PHB service level.

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10 Security Management

10.1.3 Anti-attack Capability

The CiTRANS 660 supports multiple protection functions against the network
attacks.

Queue Buffering Management

When the network congestion occurs or intensifies, the CiTRANS 660 will
guarantee the QoS of the services with high priority levels via certain queue
buffering management strategies.

The CiTRANS 660 supports two kinds of queue buffering management strategies:
tail drop and WRED.

u Tail drop

When the queue is filled to its maximum capacity, the newly arriving packets
are dropped until the queue has enough room to accept incoming traffic.

u WRED

Before the buffer zone of output reaches the START threshold, no data packet
will be discarded; when it reaches the END threshold, all the data packets will
be discarded; and when it is between the START and the END, all packets face
a probability of being dropped based on an average-queue-length function.

Queue Congestion Scheduling

When the congestion occurs, the CiTRANS 660 will provide QoS guarantee for the
service types with high levels via different queue scheduling strategies.

The CiTRANS 660 supports the following two kinds of queue scheduling strategies:

u SP

Strict priority queue scheduling strategy means to schedule the messages in


the queue strictly according to the priority levels. Only when the queues with
higher priority levels are empty will the messages in the queues with lower
priority levels be transmitted.

u WFQ

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Weighted fair queuing scheduling strategy means to implement fair scheduling


on the queues according to the weights assigned to the queues. Usually the
queues with higher priority levels have higher weights and occupy larger
bandwidth and the queues with lower priority levels have lower weights and
occupy smaller bandwidth.

Port Rate Limiting Function

Any SYS / Line port on the service card or SCU card of the CiTRANS 660 can be
configured with port rate limiting function, so as to limit the rate for the passing traffic
attack.

Malformed Packet Protection Function

The CiTRANS 660 uses the MTU to control the size of the incoming packets.

u The packets that are smaller than 64 bytes (local or remote collision fragment,
the short packet with invalid FCS) will be identified as fragment packet and
discarded.

u The data packets that are larger than the MTU configuration (usually 1518) and
carry invalid FSC will be identified as Jabber packet and discarded.

Broadcast, Multicast and Flooding Packet Suppression

The CiTRANS 660 supports the suppression function on the broadcast, multicast
and flooding packets. For the previous three types of data packets, the equipment
can set whether to enable the traffic suppression function and the data packet traffic
that is allowed to be passed through the port within a certain period respectively.

For the distributed DOS attack, the CiTRANS 660 can provide policies to prevent
the attack from spreading to the equipment.

IP Address Spoofing Protection

The CiTRANS 660 supports the URPF function, which means the equipment can
query the source address of the data packets and check whether the source
address matches the source interface of the data packet in the FIB table; If not, the
data packet will be discarded.

146 Version: D
10 Security Management

10.2 Network Management Security Protection

The following introduces the protection principles of the network management


system, including access control, management of user level and authority, data
security management, and log management.

10.2.1 Access Control

To prevent illegal users from visiting or visiting with more rights than authorized the
network resources (including the OTNM2000), the OTNM2000 provides the
following access control functions.

Management of User Login

u The operator must enter the valid user name and password before accessing
the network management system. Only after being confirmed by the system
can the user be allowed to access.

u The purpose is to check whether the operator is a legal user and has
corresponding authority, so as to guarantee that only the authorized operators
can access the OTNM2000.

User Log-off by Force

u Function description: The higher-level users can force the lower-level users to
log-off from the OTNM2000.

u Purpose: Avoid faults occur when multiple users are configuring one NE
simultaneously, or avoid other users log in the NE management system
illegally.

Distribution of Management Domains

u Function description: The managed NEs are divided into several domains
according to the network planning. Authorize users with different rights
according to the different management domains and different management
functions, and the users can only implement the management function in their
authorized domains.

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

u Purpose: Prevent the potential risks brought by the shared use of the Internet
database and guarantee the uniqueness of the configuration data.

Limit on the Login Time

u Function description: The login time of users can be set according to needs,
namely allowing the valid users visiting the EMS only during some certain
period.

u Purpose: Enhance the security level of the network and prevent the users from
accessing the EMS and performing the incorrect operations during the
abnormal period (including the time when replacing cards or testing the bit
errors).

License Control

u Function description: A user needs a license to log in to the OTNM2000. The


user cannot log in to the OTNM2000 after the license expires.

u Purpose: Enhance the security level of the network.

Login Password Control

u Function description: In case of three consecutive incorrect password entries,


the OTNM2000 Login Info dialog box will be locked automatically.

u Purpose: Prevent the unauthorized operators from trying to access the


OTNM2000 illegally.

10.2.2 Management of User Level and Authority

To define legal users and prevent operations beyond authority, the OTNM2000
divides the users into different authority levels.

The users are divided into four levels. Each level has the corresponding
management authority. For each user, only the management right of his / her own
level is authorized. The higher-level users have all the rights that the lower-level
users have.

The four user levels and the different functions they provide are listed below.

148 Version: D
10 Security Management

Advanced Users

The advanced users are system administrators authorized with the right of
configuring and modifying network resources. They are responsible to manage the
entire EMS, and can implement the security management operations such as
network control, setting of user passwords, adding, modification and deletion of
users, and log management.

u Create, delete and modify users of lower levels (including their user names and
passwords), and save the project configuration data.

u Query or delete logs.

u Delete alarm records.

u Authorize a low-level user to the corresponding management area.

u Delete performance history records.

Intermediate Users

The intermediate users are the system maintenance operators, who are responsible
for the daily maintenance of the system. They are allowed to create or delete the
users of lower levels, access the network, configure the service data, and back up
the configuration data.

u Perform routine maintenance of the EMS, deliver cross-connect configuration


and commands to equipment.

u Access and back up data in the databases, including data of alarms,


performance events, logs, reports, and user files, but excluding documents of
users at a higher level.

u Configure and modify alarm filter, performance event filter, and performance
event thresholds.

u Manage the cross-connect.

Operational Users

The operational users are the system operators, who can only monitor the system
alarm status, observe the results of various performance monitoring and visit the
results of various reports, including the configuration data of the cards and the
activities.

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Limited Users

The limited users are the system monitoring users. They can only query some of the
system alarms and performance statuses. They cannot implement other
configurations on the EMS.

10.2.3 Data Security

The OTNM2000 can provide data integrity and confidentiality, security management
of the database and SAT functions, so as to effectively guarantee the data security.

u Data integrity: Guarantee that the data are transmitted without distortion or loss,
the data can reach and only reach the destination. On the other hand, the
corresponding data are guaranteed to be stored and can be restored when
needed.

u Data confidentiality: Prevent the illegal users from getting the transmission data
of communication; make sure that the transmission data are not revealed.

u Security management of database: Provide security for the EMS, and the data
or documents in the database can be backed up in the standby network
management computer or the peripheral storage devices.

u SAT function: The OTNM2000 can control the users access to the LCT. Before
the normal login to the LCT, the user name and the password should be
entered. Only the authorized users are allowed to access the LCT, so as to
prevent the NE information from being revealed or modified.

10.2.4 Log Management

The logs record the NE users operations on the NEs and the results of these
operations. The log management means to configure, view and delete the logs
(including command logs, user logs and EMU logs). The logs help users know the
operating status of the OTNM2000 and analyze the faults in the network.

The log management mainly includes the following operation items:

u Set the command logs filtered.

u View the command logs filtered.

150 Version: D
10 Security Management

u View the command / user / EMU logs.

u View the reported events.

u Delete the command / user / EMU logs.

Version: D 151
11 Technical Specifications

The following introduces integrated equipment, system, interface,clock and power


module technical specifications of the CiTRANS 660, as well as the security
standards and environmental requirements.

Technical Specifications of Integrated Equipment

System Performance Specifications

Interface Performance Specifications

Clock Specifications

AC / DC Power Module Specifications

EMC / EMI Performance Specifications and Related Safety Regulation

Environmental Requirement

152 Version: D
11 Technical Specifications

11.1 Technical Specifications of Integrated


Equipment

Integrated equipment technical specifications of the CiTRANS 660 include cabinet


technical specifications and subrack technical specifications.

Technical Specifications of Integrated Equipment

Table 11-1 lists the technical specifications of the CiTRANS 660 cabinets, and all
the cabinets meet ETSI standards.

Table 11-1 Technical Specifications of CiTRANS 660 Cabinets

Dimension (Height Width Depth, unit: mm) Weight (kg) Configurable Subrack Quantity

2000 600 300 58.2 1


2200 600 300 63.3 1
2600 600 300 73.5 1 to 2

Table 11-2 lists the technical specifications of the CiTRANS 660 subracks.

Table 11-2 Technical Specifications of the CiTRANS 660 Subracks

Technical Specifications Description

Dimension (HeightWidthDepth, unit: mm) 993 496 248


Weight (kg) 25.9 (empty)

Power consumption in full configuration (W) 1000


Power consumption in typical configuration
450
(W)

Range of the DC voltage (V) -57 to -40

11.2 System Performance Specifications

Table 11-3 lists the system performance specifications of the CiTRANS 660.

Table 11-3 System Performance Specifications of the CiTRANS 660

Item Specification

24-hour BER performance of E1 service No bit errors in 24 hours


24-hour packet loss characteristic of
No packet loss in 24 hours
Ethernet service

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Table 11-3 System Performance Specifications of the (Continued)

Item Specification

476.16Mpps (320G)
Packet forwarding rate
238.08Mpps (160G)

Quantity of supported PWs 16K for two-way

Quantity of supported LSPs 4096 for two-way, 8192 for one-way

Quantity of supported VLANs in a single


10
PW
Protection switching time < 50ms
1+1 card (XCUJ2 / XCUJ4) protection
Services are not affected during normal switching
switching performance

Supported CES services 992


Quantity of supported E-Line services 10k
Quantity of VSI for the supported E-LAN
4k
services
Quantity of supported E-Tree services 4k
Maximum virtual port quantity
64
supported by each VSI

Quantity of supported dynamic MAC


256k
address
Quantity of supported static MAC
256k
address
Quantity of supported VLAN/VLAN list 4096
CAR/Shaping granularity Rate granularity is 64Kbit/s

Quantity of supported CAR 20k


Quantity of supported APS protection
4096
group

Both SAToP and CESoP modes are supported


CES performance of E1 and STM-1
Encapsulation format complies with RFC4553 and
services
RFC5086 respectively

Each slot supports up to 12 directions


MCC access capability
The system supports up to 480 directions

SSM byte information up to 32 interface directions


SSM management function
can be managed

The maximum higher order switching capability is


System switching capability
3010G
Lower order service add/drop capability 20G lower order service supported

Ethernet link aggregation Eight links can be added to one aggregated link

154 Version: D
11 Technical Specifications

Table 11-3 System Performance Specifications of the (Continued)

Item Specification

Quantity of supported dry contact 4

Ethernet module 9600 Jumbo Frame Support

11.3 Interface Performance Specifications

The following introduces performance specifications of various service interfaces of


the CiTRANS 660.

11.3.1 XGE Interface Specifications

The XGE interface specifications are shown in Table 11-4.

Table 11-4 XGE Interface Specifications

Item Specification

10GBASE-LR/W (10 10GBASE-ER/W (40 10GBASE-ZR/W (80


Optical interface type
km) km) km)

Transmission
10 40 80
distance (km)

Transmitting optical
-6 to -1 -4.7 to 4 0 to 4
power (dBm)

Central wavelength
1290 to 1330 1530 to 1565 1530 to 1565
(nm)

Overload optical
-1 -1 -7
power (dBm)

Receiving sensitivity
-14 -15.8 -24
(dBm)

Extinction ratio (dB) >4 >3 >9

11.3.2 GE Interface Specifications

The GE interface specifications are shown in Table 11-5.

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Table 11-5 GE Interface Specifications

Item Specification

1000BASE- 1000BASE- 1000BASE-


Optical interface type 1000BASE-SX 1000BASE-LX
EX ZX1 ZX2
Transmission distance (km) 550m 10 40 80 120
Source type MLM MLM SLM SLM SLM
Mean launched optical
-9.5 to 4 -8 to -3 -5 to 0 -2 to 3 0 to 5
power (dBm)

Central wavelength (nm) 770 to 860 1275 to 1350 1275 to 1350 1500 to 1580 1500 to 1580
Overload optical power
0 -3 -3 -3 -9
(dBm)

Receiving sensitivity (dBm) -17 -20 -23 -25 -31


Extinction ratio (dB) >9 9.0 to 15 9.0 to 15 9.0 to 15 9.0 to 15

11.3.3 STM-1 Interface Specifications

The STM-1 interface specifications are shown in Table 11-6.

Table 11-6 STM-1 Interface Specifications

Item Specification

Nominal bit rate (kbit/s) 155 520


Application classification code S-1.1 L-1.1 L-1.2
Operating wavelength range (nm) 1265 to 1360 1265 to 1360 1480 to 1580
Target distance (km) 15 40 80
Maximum root mean square spectrum
7.7 3 -
width (s: nm)

Maximum -20 dB width (nm) - - 1


Minimum side mode suppression ratio (dB) - - 30
Maximum mean launched power (dBm) -8 0 0
Minimum mean launched power (dBm) -14 -4 -4
Minimum extinction ratio (dB) 8.5 10.5 10.5
Minimum sensitivity (dBm)
Note 1 -31 -37 -37

Minimum overload point (dBm) -8 -10 -10

156 Version: D
11 Technical Specifications

Table 11-6 STM-1 Interface Specifications (Continued)

Item Specification

Maximum optical path penalty (dBm) 1 1 1


Note 1: The minimum sensitivity refers to the sensitivity specification when the receiver life ends. So the receiver
sensitivity should be 3 dB higher than the minimum sensitivity.

11.3.4 FE Interface Specifications

The FE optical interface specifications are shown in Table 11-7.

Table 11-7 FE Optical Interface Specifications

Parameter Description

100BASE-LX (15 100BASE-EX (40


Optical interface type 100BASE-ZX (80 km)
km) km)

Source type MLM MLM SLM


Transmitting optical
-15 to -8 -5 to -0 -5 to 0
power (dBm)

Central wavelength
1265 to 1360 1265 to 1360 1480 to 1580
(nm)

Overload optical
-8 -10 -10
power (dBm)

Receiving sensitivity
-28 -34 -34
(dBm)

Minimum extinction
8.2 to 15 10 to 15 10 to 15
ratio (dB)

11.3.5 E1 Interface Specifications

The E1 interface specifications are shown in Table 11-8.

Table 11-8 E1 Interface Specifications

Parameter Description

Nominal bit rate 2048 kbit/s


Bit rate accuracy 50 ppm (102.4 bit/s)

Code HDB3

Version: D 157
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

Table 11-8 E1 Interface Specifications (Continued)

Parameter Description

Pulse shape (nominal All marks of a valid signal conform with the mask in ITU-T Rec.
rectangle) G.703 irrespective of the sign.

Pair(s) in each direction One coaxial pair One symmetrical pair

Test load impedance 75 120


Nominal peak voltage of a
2.37V 3V
mark (pulse)

Peak voltage of a space (no


0 0.237 V 0 0.3V
pulse)

Nominal pulse width 244 ns


Ratio of the amplitudes of
positive and negative pulses
0.95 to 1.05
at the centre of the pulse
interval
Ratio of the widths of
positive and negative pulses 0.95 to 1.05
at the nominal half amplitude

Jitter at an input / output port ITU-T Rec. G.823 compliant

51 kHz to 102 kHz 6 dB


Return loss at the output port
102 kHz to 3072 kHz 8 dB
51 kHz to 102 kHz 12 dB
Return loss at the input port 102 kHz to 2048 kHz 18 dB
2048 kHz to 3072 kHz 14 dB
Attenuation of the input port 0 to 6 dB (1024 kHz)

11.4 Clock Specifications


Specifications of the Clock Interface

The CiTRANS 660 provides the external clock input and output interfaces.
Table 11-9 lists the clock interface specifications.

158 Version: D
11 Technical Specifications

Table 11-9 Specifications of the Clock Interface

Clock Type Description

2 75 2048 kbit/s or 2048 kHz input


External clock synchronization source
2 120 2048 kbit/s or 2048 kHz input

2 75 2048 kbit/s or 2048 kHz output


Synchronization output clock
2 120 2048 kbit/s or 2048 kHz output

2 TOD time input


External time synchronization source
2 PPS time information input

2 TOD time output


Synchronization output time
2 PPS time information output

Performance of Clock Timing and Synchronization

u Frequency accuracy

Under free-running conditions, the clock output frequency accuracy is greater


than 4.610-6.

u Pull-in and pull-out ranges

Both the minimum pull-in and pull-out ranges are 4.610-6.

u Wander in the locked mode

Table 11-10 and Table 11-11 show the clock wander in the locked mode.
Table 11-10 Wander Generation (MTIE) with Constant Temperature

MTIE Limit Observation Interval (t:s)

40 ns 0.1 t 1
40t0.1ns 1 t 100
25.25t0.2ns 100 t 1000

Table 11-11 Wander Generation (TDEV) with Constant Temperature

TDEV Limit Observation Interval (t:s)

3.2 ns 0.1 t 25
0.5
0.64t ns 25 t 100
6.4 ns 100 t 1000

Version: D 159
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

11.5 AC / DC Power Module Specifications

The performance specifications of the AC / DC power module are shown in


Table 11-12.

Table 11-12 AC / DC Power Module Specifications

Parameter Description

Input voltage range 180 V to 280 V AC


Output voltage / current 50 V DC / 1.5 A
Dimensions (LWH) (mm) 200 100 4
Supports output shorting protection

Supports output over-current protection


Functional feature
Supports output over-voltage protection

Supports output overheat protection

11.6 EMC / EMI Performance Specifications and


Related Safety Regulation

The EMC standards followed by the CiTRANS 660 are listed in Table 11-13.

Table 11-13 Applicable EMC Standards of the CiTRANS 660

Standard Number Title


Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM);
ETSI EN 300 386 Telecommunication network equipment; Electromagnetic Compatibility
(EMC) requirements

Information technology equipment - Radio disturbance characteristics -


EN 55022
Limits and methods of measurement
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4 - 2: Electrostatic discharge
EN 61000-4-2
immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4 - 3: Testing and


EN 61000-4-3 measurement techniques-Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic
field immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4 - 4: Testing and


EN 61000-4-4
measurement techniques-Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part4 - 5: Testing and


EN 61000-4-5
measurement techniques-Surge immunity test

160 Version: D
11 Technical Specifications

Table 11-13 Applicable EMC Standards of the (Continued)

Standard Number Title


Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4 - 6: Testing and
EN 61000-4-6 measurement techniques-Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced
by radio-frequency fields

Information technology equipment - Radio Disturbance characteristics -


CISPR 22
Limits and methods of measurement
Information technology equipment - Immunity characteristics - Limits and
CISPR 24
methods of measurement
Resistibility of telecommunication equipment installed in a
ITU-T K.20
telecommunications centre to overvoltages and overcurrents

ITU-T K.43 Immunity requirements for telecommunication equipment

Resistibility of telecommunication equipment to overvoltages and


ITU-T K.44
overcurrents
Information technology equipment Safety Part 1: General
EN 60950-1
Requirements

Information technology equipment Safety Part 1: General


IEC 60950-1
Requirements

11.7 Environmental Requirement

The following introduces the environmental requirements of the CiTRANS 660


under the storage, operating, and transportation conditions.

11.7.1 Storage Environment

u Avoid water seeper and leakage in the storage place.

u Keep the package intact.

u Avoid direct sunlight.

u Prevent the equipment from being damaged by rodents (such as rats).

11.7.2 Operating Environment

u Ground bearing of the equipment room: > 600 kg/m2.

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CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

u No corrosive and solvent gas, and no dust in the atmosphere; no strong


electromagnetic field nearby.

u Power supply: Can provide steady voltage, and accumulators of certain


capacitance are equipped.

u Grounding resistance: < 5 .

u Temperature and relative humidity requirements:

4 Guaranteed temperature range: 5 to 40.

4 Operational temperature range: 0 to 45.

4 Guaranteed relative humidity range: 10% to 85% (30).

4 Operational relative humidity range: 5% to 90% (30).

u Prevent the equipment from being damaged by rodents (such as rats).

11.7.3 Transportation Environment

u The equipment set is covered with a plastic film, and its top, middle and bottom
parts are wrapped with shock proof packing foam. A wooden case is used for
outside package.

u The equipment set can be transported via vehicles like coaches, trains, ships,
and airplanes.

u Temperature range during transportation is -20 to 60.

u Avoid severe collision, fall, rain, and direct sunlight.

162 Version: D
Appendix A Abbreviations

APS Automatic Protection Switching

ASON Automatically Switched Optical Network

BITS Building Integrated Timing (Supply) System

BMU Board Management Unit

CES Circuit Emulation Service


EMI Electromagnetic Interference

FC Fiber Channel
FE Fast Ethernet
GE Gigabit Ethernet

IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IETF The Internet Engineering Task Force

IP Internet Protocol
IS-IS Intermediate System to Intermediate System Routing Protocol

ITU International Telegraph Union

ITU-T ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector


LAG Link Aggregation Group

LDP Label Distribution Protocol


LTE Long Term Evolution

MAC Media Access Control


MME Mobility Management Entity

MPLS Multi-Protocol Label Switching

MPLS-TP MPLS-Transport Profile

MSTP Multi-Service Transfer Platform


OAM Operation, Administration and Maintenance

OSPF Open Shortest Path First

PDP Power Distribution Panel


PWE3 Emulation Edge-to-Edge

QinQ 802.1Q In 802.1Q (Double VLAN)

QoS Quality of Service

RSVP Resource Reservation Protocol


SFP Small Form-Factor Pluggable

SNCP Sub-network Connection Protection


SP Strict Priority

Version: D 163
CiTRANS 660 High-capacity MPLS-TP Platform Product Description

STM Synchronous Transport Module

TDM Time Division Multiplex and Multiplexer

TPS Tributary Protection Switching Unit

VLAN Virtual Local Area Network


VPLS Virtual Private LAN Service
VPN Virtual Private Network
WFQ Weighted Fair Queuing

164 Version: D
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