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You are on page 1of 18

HANDOUT 10.

Dr David Corrigan1 .

Electronic and Electrical Engineering Dept.

corrigad@tcd.ie www.mee.tcd.ie/corrigad

Function, Poles and Stability

Transform is an invaluable tool. It allows us to examine stability

through the simple exercise of pole-zero plots and also allows us to

understand frequency response of systems through factorisation.

A similar tool exists for digital signals, it is called the Z Transform.

It helps us avoid alot of tedious dierence equation manipulation.

You probably have had enough of transforms in this course, so

rather than heap upon you a large amount of proofs, we will just

be stating what the Z-Transform is and then well use it to do

stu.

Where possible, we will be using similar analysis for Z- Transforms

as we did for Laplace transforms and so the proofs and so on will

be much more brief.

1

This handout is based on the set of notes produced by Prof. Anil Kokaram

1 THE Z-XFORM

1 The Z-Xform

Z(xn) = X(z) = xnz n

n=0

like s is a complex number in the s plane.

The Z-Transform maps a discrete sequence xn from the sample

domain [n] into the complex plane z.

It is a power series in z

Z(xn) = X(z) = xnz n

n=0

L (x(t)) = X(s) = x(t)estdt

0

1 THE Z-XFORM

Z(xn) = X(z) = xnz n

n=0

forward.

An example. Say xn = 1, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0, 0 and 0 otherwise,

furthermore xn is causal. The Z Transform of xn is then as follows.

Z(xn) = X(z) = xnz n

n=0

= x0z 0 + x1z 1 + x2z 2 + x3z 3 . . .

= 1 + 2z 1 1z 2 + 0.5z 3 + 0.25z 4

And thats it. The Z-transform just takes an input sequence and

multiplies it by increasing negative powers of z to create a power

series in z.

1 THE Z-XFORM

X(z) = xnz n

n=0

= rnz n

n=0

( )n

= rz 1

n=0

a

is 1r . Comparing this to our formula for X(z), it is a GP with

a = 1 and common ratio rz 1. So

1

X(z) =

1 rz 1

1

rn

1 rz 1

What about the inverse? Well, the fancy way of doing the inverse

is to do contour integration of X(z) in the z-plane to get back xn.

But were going to use two simpler methods. One is just plain

cheating and the other is to use tables2.

2

Also a form of cheating

1.1 Inverse Z-Xform 1 1 THE Z-XFORM

Z(xn) = X(z) = xnz n

n=0

What is xn?

Well, the Z-Transform of xn is a power series in z right?

X(z) = xnz n

n=0

= x0z 0 + x1z 1 + x2z 2 + x3z 3 . . .

You can see that the coecients of the power series are the values of

xn themselves! So we can extract the inverse from the power series to

yield

Magic!

1.2 Inverse Z-Xform 2 1 THE Z-XFORM

3 56 z 1

X(z) = (1)

(1 14 z 1)(1 31 z 1)

3 56 z 1 A B

= +

(1 14 z 1)(1 13 z 1) 1 14 z 1 1 13 z 1

Use cover up rule for A, B

1 3 20

6

Put z = 4 and cover up A =

1 34

= 1

3 15

Put z 1 = 3 and cover up B = 6

1 43

=2

Hence:

3 56 z 1 1 2

= +

(1 14 z 1)(1 13 z 1) 1 14 z 1 1 13 z 1

( )n ( )n

1 1

Z 1(X(z)) = xn = 1 +2

4 3

2 SOME Z XFORMS

2 Some Z Xforms

X(z) = xnz n

n=0

= nz n

n=0

its 0. Hence

= 1 z 0 + 0 z 1 + 0 z 2 + . . .

=1

X(z) = xnz n

n=0

= unz n

n=0

= z n

n=0

ratio is z 1

1

=

1 z 1

3 SOME Z-XFORM RELATIONS

of the convolution of xn and yn?

Let wn = xn yn

wn = xn yn = xk ynk

k=

Z{wn} = wnz n

n=0

(

)

= xk ynk z n

n=0 k=

Let m = n k

(

)

= xk ym z (m+k)

m=k k=

( )( )

= xk z k ymz m

k= m=k

( )(

)

= xk z k ymz m

k = m = k

= X(z)Y(z)

MAIN CONVOLUTION AND THE LAPLACE OR FOURIER

XFORMS.

3 SOME Z-XFORM RELATIONS

X(z) what is the Z-Xform of xn1?

Let yn = xn1

Z(yn) = ynz n

n=0

= xn1z n

n=0

Substitute m = n 1

= xmz (m+1)

m=1

= xmz mz 1

m=1

1

=z xmz m + z 1x1z

m=0

= z 1X(z) + x1

Z(yn) = z 1X(z)

z 1X(z); Z{xn2} = z 2X(z); Z{xn3} = z 3X(z); and so

on.

Note that we are assuming that the signal is causal. See tables

for exact Z-Xforms of non-causal signals.

4 SYSTEM XFER FUNCTIONS

tions using the Z-Xform, in the same way that we can use the Laplace

Xform to help us solve dierential equations.

yn 0.9yn1 = xn (2)

Lets try to nd an expression for the output Y(z) in terms of X(z). Take

Z-Xforms of both sides remembering

yn Y(z)

yn1 z 1 Y(z)

xn X(z)

Y(z)[1 0.9z 1 ] = X(z)

1

Y(z) = X(z)

1 0.9z 1

Y(z) 1

=

X(z) 1 0.9z 1

Y(z)

The function X(z) is the SYSTEM TRANSFER FUNCTION for the dif-

ference equation. And given xn we can use the above to work out the

output given ANY input using the Z-Xform.

TRANSFER FUNCTIONS ALSO APPLIES INCLUDING THE BLOCK

DIAGRAM ALGEBRA.

Thus if two systems G1 (z) and G2 (z) are in cascade the NET transfer

function is G1 (z)G2 (z).

4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAMS 4 SYSTEM XFER FUNCTIONS

yn = 0.48yn2 0.2yn1 + xn + 0.5xn1

Y(z) = Y(z)[0.48z 2 0.2z 1 ] + X(z)[1 + 0.5z 1 ]

x[n] y[n]

T 0.5

0.48 -0.2

T T

-1 0.5

z

0.48 -0.2

z-2 Y(z)

z-1 z-1

z-1 Y(z)

4.2 Example 1 4 SYSTEM XFER FUNCTIONS

4.2 Example 1

Given xn = n input into the system G(z) = 1/(1 0.9z 1), what

is the output hn? (This is another way of asking you to calculate the

impulse response of the system G(z)). Let hn be the output sequence

(the impulse response). BTW: G(z) is IIR.

H(z) = G(z)X(z)

X(z) = Z(n) = 1

H(z) = G(z)

hn = Z 1(G(z))

1

= Z 1( )

1 0.9z 1

From tables

hn = 0.9n

OF THE SYSTEM TRANSFER FUNCTION.

in exactly the same way that the time domain impulse response

of an analogue system is the inverse Laplace Xform of its system

transfer function.

4.3 Example 2 4 SYSTEM XFER FUNCTIONS

4.3 Example 2

1/(1 0.9z 1), what is the output yn? (This is another way of asking

you to calculate the step response of the system G(z)). BTW: G(z)

is IIR.

yn is the output sequence (the step response in this case).

Y(z) = G(z)X(z)

1

X(z) = Z(un) =

1 z 1

1

Y(z) = G(z)

(1 z )

1

G(z)

yn = Z 1

1 z 1

( )

1

= Z 1

(1 0.9z 1)(1 z 1)

1 9 10

= +

(1 0.9z 1)(1 z 1) 1 0.9z 1 1 z 1

yn = 9(.9)n + 10

OF [ THE SYSTEM TRANSFER FUNCTION MULTIPLIED BY

1

1z 1

].

in similar fashion to analogue systems.

4.3 Example 2 4 SYSTEM XFER FUNCTIONS

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 10 20 30 40

Sample (n)

10

0

0 10 20 30 40

Sample (n)

5 POLES AND ZEROS

Same deal as for analogue systems. Poles are the values of z that

make the denominator zero, and zeros are the values of z that

make the numerator go to zero. NOT z 1, just z !!!

1

G(z) =

1 + 0.2z 1 0.48z 2

z2

= 2

z + 0.2z 0.48

z2

= (3)

(z + 0.8)(z 0.6)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Imaginary Part

2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 0.5 0 0.5 1

Real Part

You must always mark out the UNIT CIRCLE on the z-plane.

Well see why next . . .

6 STABILITY

6 Stability

impulse response is absolutely summable i.e.

|hn| = B <

n=0

WITHIN THE UNIT CIRCLE IN THE Z-PLANE. We will not

prove this in depth. Instead we will use the following example.

Lets look at the system G(z) as below

1

G(z) =

1 az 1

This system has a pole at z = a, and a zero at z = 0

We know the impulse response of the system above is hn = an.

Hence

|hn| = |an|

n=0 n=0

= |a|n

n=0

n=0 |a| repesents the sum of a geometric progession, the sum

n

That means that the POLE must be within the unit circle!

In general, to test stability for digital systems, just check that

all the poles are within the unit circle. If any are not, then the

6 STABILITY

can get the picture. The proof is almost identical to what we did

using the Analogue System Transfer Functions.

The location of zeros does not aect stability.

THEREFORE FIR FILTERS ARE ALWAYS STA-

BLE! They do not have poles!

IIR Filters always have poles.

If poles lie ON the unit circle then the system may be marginally

stable. We will not deal with that in this course. All you will

need to know is that z-plane poles must lie WITHIN the unit

circle for a digital system to be stable.

6 STABILITY

Im Im

The Z-Transform maps

the LHS of the S-Plane 1

Stable Systems into the interior of the

have poles Unit Circle

over here Re -1 1 Re

-1 Stable Systems

THE UNIT CIRCLE

have poles in here

LAPLACE-LAND Z-LAND

It turns out that if you are designing digital systems that will be

processing signals generated by sampling, and then the output will be

reconstructed to give an analogue signal, this connection helps.

An example of this would be an audio processing system where an

analogue signal from a microphone is digitized for processing before

being converted back into an analogue signal and sent to a loud-

speaker.

But we will not be dealing with that in this course. Thats got

more to do with design. In this course we just want you to get a

handle on the tools, and the rough lay of the land.

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