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223 views46 pagesThis standard is issued under the fixed designation E 1820; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

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This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 1820; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

© All Rights Reserved

223 views

This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 1820; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

© All Rights Reserved

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Measurement of Fracture Toughness1

This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 1820; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of

original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A

superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1.1 This test method covers procedures and guidelines for Metallic Materials2

the determination of fracture toughness of metallic materials E 813 Test Method for JIc, A Measure of Fracture Tough-

using the following parameters: K, J, and CTOD (d). Tough- ness2

ness can be measured in the R-curve format or as a point value. E 1152 Test Method for Determining J-R Curves2

The fracture toughness determined in accordance with this test E 1290 Test Method for Crack-Tip Opening Displacement

method is for the opening mode (Mode I) of loading. (CTOD) Fracture Toughness Measurement2

1.2 The recommended specimens are single-edge bend, E 1737 Test Method for J-Integral Characterization of Frac-

[SE(B)], compact, [C(T)], and disk-shaped compact, [DC(T)]. ture Toughness2

All specimens contain notches that are sharpened with fatigue E 1823 Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture

cracks. Testing2

1.2.1 Specimen dimensional (size) requirements vary ac- E 1921 Test Method for Determination of Reference Tem-

cording to the fracture toughness analysis applied. The guide- perature, To, for Ferric Steels in Transition Range2

lines are established through consideration of material tough- E 1942 Guide for Evaluating Data Acquisition Systems

ness, material flow strength, and the individual qualification Used in Cyclic Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Testing2

requirements of the toughness value per values sought. 3. Terminology

1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the

standard. The values given in parentheses are for information 3.1 Terminology E 1823 is applicable to this test method.

only. 3.2 Definitions:

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the 3.2.1 compliance [LF1], n the ratio of displacement

safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the increment to load increment.

responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- 3.2.2 crack displacement [L], nthe separation vector be-

priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- tween two points (on the surfaces of a deformed crack) that

bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. were coincident on the surfaces of an ideal crack in the

undeformed condition.

NOTE 1Other standard methods for the determination of fracture 3.2.2.1 DiscussionIn this practice, displacement, v, is the

toughness using the parameters K, J, and CTOD are contained in Test

total displacement measured by clip gages or other devices

Methods E 399, E 813, E 1152, E 1290, and E 1737. This test method was

developed to provide a common method for determining all applicable spanning the crack faces.

toughness parameters from a single test. 3.2.3 crack extension, Da [L], nan increase in crack size.

3.2.4 crack-extension force, G [FL1 or FLL2], nthe

2. Referenced Documents elastic energy per unit of new separation area that is made

2.1 ASTM Standards: available at the front of an ideal crack in an elastic solid during

E 4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines2 a virtual increment of forward crack extension.

E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials2 3.2.5 crack size, a [L], na lineal measure of a principal

E 21 Test Methods for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests planar dimension of a crack. This measure is commonly used

of Metallic Materials2 in the calculation of quantities descriptive of the stress and

displacement fields, and is often also termed crack length or

depth.

1

This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E08 on Fatigue 3.2.5.1 DiscussionIn practice, the value of a is obtained

and Fracture and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E08.08 on Elastic-

Plastic Fracture Mechanics Technology.

from procedures for measurement of physical crack size, ap,

Current edition approved June 10, 2001. Published August 2001. Originally original crack size, ao, and effective crack size, ae, as appro-

published as E 1820 - 96. Last previous edition E 1820 - 99a. priate to the situation being considered.

2

Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1

E 1820 01

3.2.6 crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD), d [L], crack surface to the other, used to characterize the local

nthe crack displacement due to elastic and plastic deforma- stress-strain field around the crack front.

tion at variously defined locations near the original (prior to an 3.2.9.1 DiscussionThe J-integral expression for a two-

application of load) crack tip. dimensional crack, in the x-z plane with the crack front parallel

3.2.6.1 DiscussionIn this test method, CTOD is the dis- to the z-axis, is the line integral as follows:

* S Wdy 2 T ]x ds D

placement of the crack surfaces normal to the original (un- ]

u

loaded) crack plane at the tip of the fatigue precrack, ao. In this J5 (2)

G

test method, CTOD is calculated at the original crack length,

ao, from observations away from the crack tip. where:

3.2.6.2 DiscussionIn CTOD testing, dIc [L] is a value of W = loading work per unit volume or, for elastic

CTOD near the onset of slow stable crack extension, here bodies, strain energy density,

defined as occurring at Dap = 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) + 0.7dIc. G = path of the integral, that encloses (that is,

contains) the crack tip,

3.2.6.3 DiscussionIn CTOD testing, dc [L] is the value of

ds = increment of the contour path,

CTOD at the onset of unstable crack extension (see 3.2.17) or T = outward traction vector on ds,

pop-in (see 3.2.17) when Dap<0.2 mm (0.008 in.) + 0.7dc. The u = displacement vector at ds,

dc corresponds to the load Pc and clip-gage displacement vc. It x, y, z = rectangular coordinates, and

may be size-dependent and a function of test specimen ]u = rate of work input from the stress field into

geometry. T ]x ds

the area enclosed by G.

3.2.6.4 DiscussionIn CTOD testing, du [L] is the value of 3.2.9.2 DiscussionThe value of J obtained from this

CTOD at the onset of unstable crack extension (see 3.2.28) or equation is taken to be path-independent in test specimens

pop-in (see 3.2.17) when the event is preceded by D ap >0.2 commonly used, but in service components (and perhaps in test

mm (0.008 in.) + 0.7du. The du corresponds to the load Pu and specimens) caution is needed to adequately consider loading

the clip gage displacement vu. It may be size-dependent and a interior to G such as from rapid motion of the crack or the

function of test specimen geometry. It can be useful to define service component, and from residual or thermal stress.

limits on ductile fracture behavior. 3.2.9.3 DiscussionIn elastic (linear or nonlinear) solids,

3.2.6.5 DiscussionIn CTOD testing, dm [L] is the value of the J-integral equals the crack-extension force, G. (See crack

CTOD at the first attainment of a maximum load plateau for extension force.)

fully plastic behavior. The dm corresponds to the load Pm and

3.2.10 Jc [FL1]The property Jc determined by this test

the clip gage displacement vm. It may be size-dependent and a

method characterizes the fracture toughness of materials at

function of test specimen geometry. It can be useful to define

fracture instability prior to the onset of significant stable

limits on ductile fracture behavior.

tearing crack extension. The value of Jc determined by this test

3.2.6.6 DiscussionIn CTOD testing, ^dc[L]characterizes method represents a measure of fracture toughness at instabil-

the CTOD fracture toughness of materials at fracture instability ity without significant stable crack extension that is indepen-

prior to the onset of significant stable tearing crack extension. dent of in-plane dimensions; however, there may be a depen-

The value of ^dc c determined by this test method represents a dence of toughness on thickness (length of crack front).

measure of fracture toughness at instability without significant

3.2.11 Ju [FL1]The quantity Ju determined by this test

stable crack extension that is independent of in-plane dimen-

method measures fracture instability after the onset of signifi-

sions. However, there may be a dependence of toughness on

cant stable tearing crack extension. It may be size-dependent

thickness (length of crack front).

and a function of test specimen geometry. It can be useful to

3.2.7 effective thickness, Be [L], nfor side-grooved speci- define limits on ductile fracture behavior.

mens Be = B (B B N)2/B. This is used for the elastic

3.2.12 net thickness, BN [L], ndistance between the roots

unloading compliance measurement of crack length.

of the side grooves in side-grooved specimens.

3.2.7.1 DiscussionThis definition is different from the

3.2.13 original crack size, ao [L], nthe physical crack size

definition of effective thickness in Test Method E 813.

at the start of testing.

3.2.8 effective yield strength, sY [FL2], nan assumed

value of uniaxial yield strength that represents the influence of 3.2.13.1 DiscussionIn this test method, aoq is used to

plastic yielding upon fracture test parameters. denote original crack size estimated from compliance.

3.2.8.1 DiscussionIt is calculated as the average of the 3.2.14 original remaining ligament, bo [L], ndistance

0.2 % offset yield strength sYS, and the ultimate tensile from the original crack front to the back edge of the specimen,

strength, sTS as follows: that is (bo = W a o).

3.2.15 physical crack size, ap [L], nthe distance from a

~sYS 1 sTS!

sY 5 (1) reference plane to the observed crack front. This distance may

2

represent an average of several measurements along the crack

3.2.8.2 DiscussionIn estimating sY, influences of testing front. The reference plane depends on the specimen form, and

conditions, such as loading rate and temperature, should be it is normally taken to be either the boundary, or a plane

considered. containing either the load line or the centerline of a specimen

3.2.9 J-integral, J [FL1], na mathematical expression, a or plate. The reference plane is defined prior to specimen

line or surface integral that encloses the crack front from one deformation.

2

E 1820 01

3.2.16 plane-strain fracture toughness, KIc [FL3/2], JIc 3.2.25 stable crack extension [L], na displacement-

[FL1], KJIc [FL3/2] , nthe crack-extension resistance under controlled crack extension beyond the stretch-zone width (see

conditions of crack-tip plane strain. 3.2.27). The extension stops when the applied displacement is

3.2.16.1 DiscussionFor example, in Mode I for slow rates held constant.

of loading and negligible plastic-zone adjustment, plane-strain 3.2.26 stress-intensity factor, K, K1, K2, K3, KI, KII, KIII

fracture toughness is the value of the stress-intensity factor [FL3/2], nthe magnitude of the ideal-crack-tip stress field

designated KIc [FL3/2] as measured using the operational (stress-field singularity) for a particular mode in a homoge-

procedure (and satisfying all of the qualification requirements) neous, linear-elastic body.

specified in this test method, which provides for the measure- 3.2.26.1 DiscussionValues of K for the Modes 1, 2, and 3

ment of crack-extension resistance at the start of crack exten- are given by the following equations:

sion and provides operational definitions of crack-tip sharp- lim

K1 5 r0 @syy ~2pr!1/2# (3)

ness, start of crack extension, and crack-tip plane-strain.

lim 1/2

3.2.16.2 DiscussionFor example, in Mode I for slow rates K2 5 r0@t xy ~2pr ! # (4)

of loading and substantial plastic deformation, plane-strain K3 5 lim 1/2

r0@tyz ~2pr ! # (5)

fracture toughness is the value of the J-integral designated JIc

[FL1] as measured using the operational procedure (and where r = distance directly forward from the crack tip to a location

where the significant stress is calculated.

satisfying all of the qualification requirements) specified in this

test method, that provides for the measurement of crack- 3.2.26.2 DiscussionIn this test method, Mode 1 or Mode

extension resistance near the onset of stable crack extension. I is assumed. See Terminology E 1823 for definition of mode.

3.2.16.3 DiscussionFor example, in Mode I for slow rates 3.2.27 stretch-zone width, SZW [L], nthe length of crack

of loading, plane-strain fracture toughness is the value of the extension that occurs during crack-tip blunting, for example,

stress intensity designated KJIc[FL3/2] calculated from JIc prior to the onset of unstable brittle crack extension, pop-in, or

using the equation (and satisfying all of the qualification slow stable crack extension. The SZW is in the same plane as

requirements) specified in this test method, that provides for the original (unloaded) fatigue precrack and refers to an

the measurement of crack-extension reistance near the onset of extension beyond the original crack size.

stable crack extension under dominant elastic conditions.(1)3 3.2.28 unstable crack extension [L], nan abrupt crack

3.2.17 pop-in, na discontinuity in the load versus clip extension that occurs with or without prior stable crack

gage displacement record. The record of a pop-in shows a extension in a standard test specimen under crosshead or clip

sudden increase in displacement and, generally a decrease in gage displacement control.

load. Subsequently, the displacement and load increase to

above their respective values at pop-in. 4. Summary of Test Method

3.2.18 R-curve or J-R curve, na plot of crack extension

4.1 The objective of this test method is to load a fatigue

resistance as a function of stable crack extension, Dap or Dae.

precracked test specimen to induce either or both of the

3.2.18.1 DiscussionIn this test method, the J-R curve is a

following responses (1) unstable crack extension, including

plot of the far-field J-integral versus the physical crack

significant pop-in, referred to as fracture instability in this

extension, Dap. It is recognized that the far-field value of J may

test method; (2) stable crack extension, referred to as stable

not represent the stress-strain field local to a growing crack.

tearing in this test method. Fracture instability results in a

3.2.19 remaining ligament, b [L], ndistance from the

single point-value of fracture toughness determined at the point

physical crack front to the back edge of the specimen, that is

of instability. Stable tearing results in a continuous fracture

(b = W ap).

toughness versus crack-extension relationship (R-curve) from

3.2.20 specimen center of pin hole distance, H* [L], nthe

which significant point-values may be determined. Stable

distance between the center of the pin holes on a pin-loaded

tearing interrupted by fracture instability results in an R-curve

specimen.

up to the point of instability.

3.2.21 specimen gage length, d [L], nthe distance be-

4.2 This test method requires continuous measurement of

tween the points of displacement measure (for example, clip

load versus load-line displacement and crack mouth opening

gage, gage length).

displacement. If any stable tearing response occurs, then an

3.2.22 specimen span, S [L], nthe distance between

R-curve is developed and the amount of slow-stable crack

specimen supports.

extension shall be measured.

3.2.23 specimen thickness, B [L], nthe side-to-side di-

4.3 Two alternative procedures for measuring crack exten-

mension of the specimen being tested.

sion are presented, the basic procedure and the resistance curve

3.2.24 specimen width, W [L], na physical dimension on

procedure. The basic procedure involves physical marking of

a test specimen measured from a reference position such as the

the crack advance and multiple specimens used to develop a

front edge in a bend specimen or the load line in the compact

plot from which a single point initiation toughness value can be

specimen to the back edge of the specimen.

evaluated. The basic procedure cannot be used to develop an

R-curve. The resistance curve procedure is an elastic-

compliance method where multiple points are determined from

3

The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to a list of references at the end of a single specimen. In the latter case, high precision of signal

this test method. resolution is required; however, these data can be used to

3

E 1820 01

develop an R-curve. Other procedures for measuring crack for processing by computer or autographically with an x-y

extension are allowed. plotter. Test fixtures for each specimen type are described in the

4.4 The commonality of instrumentation and recommended applicable Annex.

testing procedure contained herein permits the application of 6.2 Displacement Gages:

data to more than one method of evaluating fracture toughness. 6.2.1 Displacement measurements are needed for the fol-

Annex A4-Annex A11 define the various data treatment op- lowing purposes: to evaluate PQ in the KIc evaluation, J from

tions that are available, and these should be reviewed to the area under the load versus load-line displacement record,

optimize data transferability. CTOD from the load versus crack-mouth opening displace-

4.5 Data that are generated following the procedures and ment record and, for the elastic compliance method, to infer

guidelines contained in this test method are labeled qualified crack extension, D ap, from elastic compliance calculations.

data. Data that meet the size criteria in Annex A4-Annex A11 6.2.2 The recommended displacement gage has a working

are insensitive to in-plane dimensions. range of not more than twice the displacement expected during

4.6 Supplementary information about the background of the test. When the expected displacement is less than 3.75 mm

this test method and rationale for many of the technical (0.15 in.), the gage recommended in Fig. 1 may be used. When

requirements of this test method are contained in (2). The a greater working range is needed, an enlarged gage such as the

formulas presented in this test method are applicable over the one shown in Fig. 2 is recommended. Accuracy shall be within

range of crack length and specimen sizes within the scope of 61 % of the full working range. In calibration, the maximum

this test method. deviation of the individual data points from a fit (linear or

curve) to the data shall be less than 60.2 % of the working

5. Significance and Use range of the gage when using the elastic compliance method

and 61 % otherwise. Knife edges are required for seating the

5.1 Assuming the presence of a preexisting, sharp, fatigue

gage. Parallel alignment of the knife edges shall be maintained

crack, the material fracture toughness values identified by this

to within 1. Direct methods for load-line displacement are

test method characterize its resistance to: (1) fracture of a

described in Refs (2-5).

stationary crack, (2) fracture after some stable tearing, (3)

stable tearing onset, and ( 4) sustained stable tearing. This test 6.2.2.1 Gage Attachment MethodsThe specimen shall be

method is particularly useful when the material response provided with a pair of accurately machined knife edges that

cannot be anticipated before the test. support the gage arms and serve as the displacement reference

points. These knife edges can be machined integral with the

5.1.1 These fracture toughness values may serve as a basis

specimen or they may be attached separately. Experience has

for material comparison, selection, and quality assurance.

shown that razor blades serve as effective attachable knife

Fracture toughness can be used to rank materials within a

edges. The knife edges shall be positively attached to the

similar yield strength range.

specimen to prevent shifting of the knife edges during the test

5.1.2 These fracture toughness values may serve as a basis method. Experience has shown that machine screws or spot

for structural flaw tolerance assessment. Awareness of differ- welds are satisfactory attachment methods.

ences that may exist between laboratory test and field condi-

6.2.3 For the elastic compliance method, the recommended

tions is required to make proper flaw tolerance assessment.

signal resolution for displacement should be at least 1 part in

5.2 The following cautionary statements are based on some 32 000 of the transducer signal range, and signal stability

observations. should be 64 parts in 32 000 of the transducer signal range

5.2.1 Particular care must be exercised in applying to measured over a 10-min period. Signal noise should be less

structural flaw tolerance assessment the fracture toughness than 62 parts in 32 000 of the transducer signal range.

value associated with fracture after some stable tearing has 6.2.4 Gages other than those recommended in 6.2 are

occurred. This response is characteristic of ferritic steel in the permissible if the required accuracy and precision can be met

transition regime. This response is especially sensitive to or exceeded.

material inhomogeneity and to constraint variations that may

6.3 Load Transducers:

be induced by planar geometry, thickness differences, mode of

6.3.1 Testing is performed in a testing machine conforming

loading, and structural details.

to the requirements of Practices E 4. Applied load may be

5.2.2 The J-R curve from bend-type specimens recom-

measured by any load transducer capable of being recorded

mended by this test method (SE(B), C(T), and DC(T)) has been

continuously. Accuracy of load measurements shall be within

observed to be conservative with respect to results from tensile

61 % of the working range. In calibration, the maximum

loading configurations.

deviation of individual data points from a fit to the data shall be

5.2.3 The values of dc, du, dm, and Ju may be affected by less than 60.2 % of the calibrated range of the transducer when

specimen dimensions. using elastic compliance, and 61 % otherwise.

6.3.2 For the elastic compliance method, the signal resolu-

6. Apparatus tion on load should be at least 1 part in 4000 of the transducer

6.1 Apparatus is required for measurement of applied load, signal range and signal stability should be 64 parts in 4000 of

load-line displacement, and crack-mouth opening displace- the transducer signal range measured over a 10-min period.

ment. Load versus load-line displacement and load versus Recommended maximum signal noise should be less than 62

crack-mouth opening displacement may be recorded digitally parts in 4000 of the transducer signal range.

4

E 1820 01

FIG. 1 Double-Cantilever Clip-In Displacement Gage Mounted By Means of Integral Knife Edges

mance of the load and displacement measuring systems should

be verified before beginning a series of continuous tests.

Calibration accuracy of displacement transducers shall be

verified with due consideration for the temperature and envi-

ronment of the test. Load calibrations shall be conducted

periodically and documented in accordance with the latest

revision of Practices E 4.

6.5 Fixtures:

6.5.1 Bend-Test FixtureThe general principles of the

bend-test fixture are illustrated in Fig. 3. This fixture is

designed to minimize frictional effects by allowing the support

rollers to rotate and move apart slightly as the specimen is

loaded, thus permitting rolling contact. Thus, the support

rollers are allowed limited motion along plane surfaces parallel

to the notched side of the specimen, but are initially positively

positioned against stops that set the span length and are held in

place by low-tension springs (such as rubber bands). Fixtures

and rolls shall be made of high hardness (greater than 40 HRC)

steels.

6.5.2 Tension Testing Clevis:

6.5.2.1 A loading clevis suitable for testing compact speci-

mens is shown in Fig. 4. Both ends of the specimen are held in

such a clevis and loaded through pins, in order to allow rotation

of the specimen during testing. In order to provide rolling

contact between the loading pins and the clevis holes, these

holes are provided with small flats on the loading surfaces.

NOTE 1All dimensions are in millimetres. Other clevis designs may be used if it can be demonstrated that

FIG. 2 Clip Gage Design for 8.0 mm (0.3 in.) and More Working they will accomplish the same result as the design shown.

Range Clevises and pins should be fabricated from steels of sufficient

5

E 1820 01

FIG. 4 Tension Testing Clevis Design

yield strength maraging steel is used for the clevis and pins,

adequate strength will be obtained. If lower-strength grip

material is used, or if substantially larger specimens are

required at a given sYS/E ratio, then heavier grips will be

required. As indicated in Fig. 4 the clevis corners may be cut

off sufficiently to accommodate seating of the clip gage in

specimens less than 9.5 mm (0.375 in.) thick.

6.5.2.3 Careful attention should be given to achieving good

alignment through careful machining of all auxiliary gripping

fixtures.

7.1 Specimen ConfigurationsThe configurations of the

standard specimens are shown in Annex A1-Annex A3.

7.2 Crack Plane OrientationThe crack plane orientation

FIG. 3 Bend Test Fixture Design

shall be considered in preparing the test specimen. This is

discussed in Terminology E 1823.

7.3 Alternative SpecimensIn certain cases, it may be

strength (greater than 40 HRC) to elastically resist indentation desirable to use specimens having W/B ratios other than two.

of the clevises or pins. Suggested alternative proportions for the single-edge bend

6.5.2.2 The critical tolerances and suggested proportions of specimen are 1 # W/B # 4 and for the compact (and

the clevis and pins are given in Fig. 4. These proportions are diskshaped compact) specimen are 2 # W/B # 4, however, any

based on specimens having W/ B = 2 for B > 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) thickness can be used as long as the qualification requirements

and W/B = 4 for B # 12.7 mm. If a 1930-MPa (280 000-psi) are met.

6

E 1820 01

7.4 Specimen PrecrackingAll specimens shall be pre- may deviate from that plane and the test result can be

cracked in fatigue. Experience has shown that it is impractical significantly affected. The K calibration for the specimen, if it

to obtain a reproducibly sharp, narrow machined notch that is different from the one given in this test method, shall be

will simulate a natural crack well enough to provide a known with an uncertainty of less than 5 %. Fixtures used for

satisfactory fracture toughness test result. The most effective precracking should be machined with the same tolerances as

artifice for this purpose is a narrow notch from which extends those used for testing.

a comparatively short fatigue crack, called the precrack. (A 7.4.4 Fatigue Loading RequirementsAllowable fatigue

fatigue precrack is produced by cyclically loading the notched load values are based on the load P f as defined in Annex

specimen for a number of cycles usually between about 104 A1-Annex A3. The fatigue precracking shall be conducted with

and 106 depending on specimen size, notch preparation, and the specimen fully heat-treated to the condition in which it is to

stress intensity level.) The dimensions of the notch and the be tested. No intermediate treatments between precracking and

precrack, and the sharpness of the precrack shall meet certain testing are allowed. The combination of starter notch and

conditions that can be readily met with most engineering fatigue precrack shall conform to the requirements shown in

materials since the fatigue cracking process can be closely Fig. 6. There are several ways of promoting early crack

controlled when careful attention is given to the known initiation: (1) by providing a very sharp notch tip, (2) by using

contributory factors. However, there are some materials that a chevron notch (Fig. 5), (3) by statically preloading the

are too brittle to be fatigue-cracked since they fracture as soon specimen in such a way that the notch tip is compressed in a

as the fatigue crack initiates; these are outside the scope of the direction normal to the intended crack plane (to a load not to

present test method. exceed Pf), and (4) by using a negative fatigue load ratio; for

7.4.1 Fatigue Crack Starter NotchThree forms of fatigue a given maximum fatigue load, the more negative the load

crack starter notches are shown in Fig. 5. To facilitate fatigue ratio, the earlier crack initiation is likely to occur. The peak

cracking at low stress intensity levels, the root radius for a compressive load shall not exceed Pf.

straight-through slot terminating in a V-notch should be 0.08

7.4.5 Fatigue Precracking Procedure Fatigue precrack-

mm (0.003 in.) or less. If a chevron form of notch is used, the

ing can be conducted under either load control or displacement

root radius may be 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) or less. In the case of

control. If the load cycle is maintained constant, the maximum

a slot tipped with a hole it will be necessary to provide a sharp

K and the K range will increase with crack length; if the

stress raiser at the end of the hole.

7.4.2 Fatigue Crack LengthThe crack length (total length displacement cycle is maintained constant, the reverse will

of the crack starter configuration plus the fatigue crack) shall happen. The initial value of the maximum fatigue load should

be between 0.45 and 0.70 W for J and d determination, but is be less than Pf. The specimen shall be accurately located in the

restricted to the range from 0.45 to 0.55 for KIc determination. loading fixture. Fatigue cycling is then begun, usually with a

For a straight-through crack starter terminating in a V-notch sinusoidal waveform and near to the highest practical fre-

(see Fig. 5), the length of the fatigue crack on each surface of quency. There is no known marked frequency effect on fatigue

the specimen shall not be less than 2.5 % of W or 1.3 mm (0.05 precrack formation up to at least 100 Hz in the absence of

in.) minimum, and for a crack starter tipped with a drilled hole adverse environments. The specimen should be carefully

(see Fig. 5), the fatigue crack extension from the stress raiser monitored until crack initiation is observed on one side. If

tipping the hole shall not be less than 0.5 D or 1.3 mm (0.05 crack initiation is not observed on the other side before

in.) minimum on both surfaces of the specimen, where D is the appreciable growth is observed on the first, then fatigue cycling

diameter of the hole. For a chevron notch crack starter (see Fig. should be stopped to try to determine the cause and find a

5), the fatigue crack shall emerge from the chevron on both remedy for the unsymmetrical behavior. Sometimes, simply

surfaces of the specimen. turning the specimen around in relation to the fixture will solve

7.4.3 EquipmentThe equipment for fatigue cracking the problem. The length of the fatigue precrack extension from

should be such that the stress distribution is uniform through the machined notch shall not be less than 5 % of the total crack

the specimen thickness; otherwise the crack will not grow size, ao, and not less than 1.3 mm (0.05 in.). For the final 50 %

uniformly. The stress distribution should also be symmetrical of fatigue precrack extension or 1.3 mm (0.05 in.), whichever

about the plane of the prospective crack; otherwise the crack is less, the maximum load shall be no larger than Pf (defined in

Annex A1-Annex A3), a load such that the ratio of maximum

stress intensity factor to Youngs Modulus is equal to or less

than 0.0002 m1/2 (0.001 in.1/2) or 70 % of the maximum load

achieved during the test, whichever is less. The accuracy of

these maximum load values shall be known within 65 %.

When precracking is conducted at a temperature T 1 and testing

at a different temperature T 2, the choice of sY shall take into

consideration the differences in properties at the two tempera-

tures in order to minimize yielding the specimen during

precracking.

7.5 Side GroovesSide grooves are highly recommended

when the compliance method of crack length prediction is

FIG. 5 Fatigue Crack Starter Notch Configurations used. The specimen may also need side grooves to ensure a

7

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NOTE 1The crack-starter notch shall be centered between the top and bottom specimen edges within 0.005 W.

FIG. 6 Envelope of Fatigue Crack and Crack Starter Notches

straight crack front as specified in Annex A4-Annex A7. The length is measured from compliance in this procedure and

total thickness reduction shall not exceed 0.25 B. A total verified by posttest optical crack length measurements. An

reduction of 0.20 B has been found to work well for many alternative procedure using the normalization method is pre-

materials. Any included angle of side groove less than 90 is sented in Annex A15: Normalization Data Reduction Tech-

allowed. Root radius shall be #0.5 6 0.2 mm (0.02 6 0.01 nique.

in.). In order to produce nearly straight fatigue precrack fronts, 8.1.4 Three or more determinations of the fracture tough-

the precracking should be performed prior to the side-grooving ness parameter are suggested to ascertain the effects of material

operation. BN is the minimum thickness measured at the roots and test system variability.

of the side grooves. The root of the side groove should be 8.2 System and Specimen Preparation:

located along the specimen centerline. 8.2.1 Specimen MeasurementMeasure the dimensions,

BN, B, W, H* , and d to the nearest 0.050 mm (0.002 in.) or

8. Procedure

0.5 %, whichever is larger.

8.1 Objective and Overview: 8.2.2 Specimen Temperature:

8.1.1 The overall objective of the test method is to develop

8.2.2.1 The temperature of the specimen shall be stable and

a load-displacement record that can be used to evaluate K, J, or

uniform during the test. Hold the specimen at test temperature

CTOD. Two procedures can be used: (1) a basic procedure

63C for 12 h/25 mm of specimen thickness.

directed toward evaluation of a single K, J, or CTOD value

8.2.2.2 Measure the temperature of the specimen during the

without the use of crack extension measurement equipment, or

test to an accuracy of 63C, where the temperature is

(2) a procedure directed toward evaluation of a complete

measured on the specimen surface within W/4 from the crack

fracture toughness resistance curve using crack extension

tip. (See Test Methods E 21 for suggestions on temperature

measurement equipment. This also includes the evaluation of

measurement.)

single-point toughness values.

8.1.2 The basic procedure utilizes a load versus displace- 8.2.2.3 For the duration of the test, the difference between

ment plot and is directed toward obtaining a single fracture the indicated temperature and the nominal test temperature

toughness value such as K1c, Jc, or dc. Optical crack measure- shall not exceed 63C.

ments are utilized to obtain both the initial and final physical 8.2.2.4 The term indicated temperature means the tem-

crack sizes in this procedure. Multiple specimens can be used perature that is indicated by the temperature measuring device

to evaluate J at the initiation of ductile cracking, J1c, or d1c. using good-quality pyrometric practice.

8.1.3 The resistance curve procedure utilizes an elastic NOTE 2It is recognized that specimen temperature may vary more

unloading procedure or equivalent procedure to obtain a J- or than the indicated temperature. The permissible indicated temperature

CTOD-based resistance curve from a single specimen. Crack variations in 8.2.2.3 are not to be construed as minimizing the importance

8

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of good pyrometric practice and precise temperature control. All labora- alloys, heat tinting at about 300C (570F) for 30 min works

tories should keep both indicated and specimen temperature variations as well. For other materials, fatigue cycling can be used. The use

small as practicable. It is well recognized, in view of the dependency of of liquid penetrants is not recommended. For both recom-

fracture toughness of materials on temperature, that close temperature

control is necessary. The limits prescribed represent ranges that are

mended methods, the beginning of stable crack extension is

common practice. marked by the end of the flat fatigue precracked area. The end

of crack extension is marked by the end of heat tint or the

8.3 Alignment: beginning of the second flat fatigue area.

8.3.1 Bend TestingSet up the bend test fixture so that the 8.5.2 Break the specimen to expose the crack, with care

line of action of the applied load passes midway between the taken to minimize additional deformation. Cooling ferritic steel

support roll centers within 61 % of the distance between the specimens to ensure brittle behavior may be helpful. Cooling

centers. Measure the span to within 60.5 % of the nominal nonferritic materials may help to minimize deformation during

length. Locate the specimen so that the crack tip is midway final fracture.

between the rolls to within 1 % of the span and square the roll 8.5.3 Along the front of the fatigue crack and the front of the

axes within 62. marked region of stable crack extension, measure the size of

8.3.1.1 When the load-line displacement is referenced from the original crack and the final physical crack size at nine

the loading jig there is potential for introduction of error from equally spaced points centered about the specimen centerline

two sources. They are the elastic compression of the fixture as and extending to 0.005 W from the root of the side groove or

the load increases and indentation of the specimen at the surface of smooth-sided specimens. Calculate the original

loading points. Direct methods for load-line displacement crack size, ao, and the final physical crack size, ap, as follows:

measurement are described in Refs (3-6). If a remote trans- average the two near-surface measurements, combine the result

ducer is used for load-line displacement measurement, take with the remaining seven crack length measurements and

care to exclude the elastic displacement of the load-train determine the average. The measuring instrument shall have an

measurement and brinelling displacements at the load points accuracy of 0.025 mm (0.001 in.).

(7).

8.5.4 None of the nine measurements of original crack size

8.3.2 Compact TestingLoading pin friction and eccentric-

and final physical crack size may differ by more than 5 % from

ity of loading can lead to errors in fracture toughness determi-

the average physical crack size defined in 8.5.3.

nation. The centerline of the upper and lower loading rods

should be coincident within 0.25 mm (0.01 in.). Center the 8.6 Resistance Curve Procedure:

specimen with respect to the clevis opening within 0.76 mm 8.6.1 The resistance curve procedure involves using an

(0.03 in.). Seat the displacement gage in the knife edges firmly elastic compliance technique or other technique to obtain the J

by wiggling the gage lightly. or CTOD resistance curve from a single specimen test. The

8.4 Basic ProcedureLoad all specimens under displace- elastic compliance technique is described here, while the

ment gage or machine crosshead or actuator displacement normalization technique is described in Annex A15.

control. If a loading rate that exceeds that specified here is 8.6.2 Load the specimens under the displacement gage or

desired, please refer to Annex Annex A14: Special Require- machine crosshead or actuator displacement control. Load the

ments for Rapid-Load J-Integral Fracture Toughness Testing. specimens at a rate such that the time taken to reach the load

8.4.1 The basic procedure involves loading a specimen to a Pf lies between 0.1 and 10.0 min. The time to perform an

selected displacement level and determining the amount of unload/reload sequence should be as needed to accurately

crack extension that occurred during loading. estimate crack length, but not more than 10 min. If a higher

8.4.2 Load specimens at a constant rate such that the time loading rate is desired, please refer to Annex Annex A14:

taken to reach the load Pf lies between 0.1 and 10.0 min. Special Requirements for Rapid-Load J-Integral Fracture

8.4.3 If the test ends by a fracture instability, measure the Toughness Testing.

initial crack length and any ductile crack extension by the 8.6.3 Take each specimen individually through the follow-

procedure in Section 9. Ductile crack extension may be ing steps:

difficult to distinguish but should be defined on one side by the 8.6.3.1 Measure compliance to estimate the original crack

fatigue precrack and on the other by the brittle region. Proceed length, ao, using unloading/reloading sequences in a load range

to Section 9 to evaluate fracture toughness in terms of K, J, or from 0.5 to 1.0 times the maximum precracking load. Estimate

CTOD. a provisional initial crack size, aoq, from at least three

8.4.4 If stable tearing occurs, test additional specimens to unloading/reloading sequences. No individual value shall differ

evaluate an initiation value of the toughness. Use the procedure from the mean by more than 60.002 W.

in 8.5 to evaluate the amount of stable tearing that has occurred 8.6.3.2 Proceed with the test using unload/reload sequences

and thus determine the displacement levels needed in the that produce crack extension measurements at intervals pre-

additional tests. Five or more points favorably positioned are scribed by the applicable data analysis section of Annex A8 or

required to generate an R curve for evaluating an initiation Annex A10. Note that at least eight data points are required

point. See Annex A9 and Annex A11 to see how points shall be before specimen achieves maximum load. If fracture instability

positioned for evaluating an initiation toughness value. is an expected response, then it may be helpful to load the

8.5 Optical Crack Length Measurement: specimen monotonically over the range Pf< P < PQ. (See Annex

8.5.1 After unloading the specimen, mark the crack accord- A5 for a definition of PQ). If crack length values change

ing to one of the following methods. For steels and titanium negatively by more than 0.005 ao(backup), stop the test and

9

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check the alignment of the loading train. Crack length values 9.1.5.1 Crack ExtensionNone of the nine physical mea-

determined at loads lower than the maximum precracking load surements of crack extension shall be less than 50 % of the

should be ignored. average crack extension.

8.6.3.3 For many materials, load relaxation may occur prior 9.1.5.2 Crack Extension PredictionThe crack extension

to conducting compliance measurements, causing a time- predicted from elastic compliance (or other method) at the last

dependent nonlinearity in the unloading slope. One method unloading shall be compared with the measured physical crack

that may be used to remedy this effect is to hold the specimen extension. The difference between these shall not exceed 0.15

for a period of time until the load becomes stable at a constant D ap for crack extensions less than 0.2 bo, and the difference

displacement prior to initiating the unloading. shall not exceed 0.03 bo thereafter.

8.6.3.4 The maximum recommended range of unload/reload 9.2 Fracture InstabilityWhen the test terminates with a

for crack extension measurement should not exceed either fracture instability, evaluate whether the fracture occurred

50 % of Pf or 50 % of the current load, whichever is smaller. before stable tearing or after stable tearing. The beginning of

8.6.3.5 After completing the final unloading cycle, return stable tearing is defined in A6.3 and A7.3. For fracture

the load to zero without additional crosshead displacement instability occurring before stable tearing proceed to Annex

beyond the then current maximum displacement. A5, Annex A6, and Annex A7 to evaluate the toughness values

8.6.3.6 After unloading the specimen, use the procedure in in terms of K, J, or CTOD. For fracture instability occurring

8.5 to optically measure the crack lengths. after stable tearing, proceed to Annex A5, Annex A6, and

8.7 Alternative Methods: Annex A7 to evaluate toughness values and then go to 9.3 to

8.7.1 Alternative methods of measuring crack extension, evaluate stable tearing.

such as the electric potential drop method, are allowed. 9.3 Stable Tearing:

Methods shall meet the qualification criteria given in 9.1.5.2. 9.3.1 Basic ProcedureWhen the basic procedure is used,

8.7.2 If displacement measurements are made in a plane only an initiation toughness can be evaluated. Proceed to

other than that containing the load line, the ability to infer Annex A9 and Annex A11 to evaluate initiation toughness

load-line displacement shall be demonstrated using the test values.

material under similar test temperatures and conditions. In- 9.3.2 Resistance Curve ProcedureWhen the resistance

ferred load-line displacement values shall be accurate to within curve procedure is used, refer to Annex A8 and Annex A10 to

61 %. develop the R curves. Proceed to Annex A9 and Annex A11 to

develop initiation values of toughness.

9. Analysis of Results

9.1 Qualification of DataThe data shall meet the follow- 10. Report

ing requirements to be qualified according to this test method. 10.1 A recommended table for reporting results is given Fig.

If the data do not pass these requirements, no fracture tough- 7 and Fig. 8.

ness measures can be determined in accordance with this test 10.2 Report the following information for each fracture

method. toughness determination:

NOTE 3This section contains the requirements for qualification that 10.2.1 Type of test specimen and orientation of test speci-

are common for all tests. Additional qualification requirements are given men according to Terminology E 1823 identification codes,

with each type of test in the Annexes as well as requirements for 10.2.2 Material designation (ASTM, AISI, SAE, and so

determining whether the fracture toughness parameter developed is forth), material product form (plate, forging, casting, and so

insensitive to in-plane dimensions. forth), and material yield and tensile strength (at test tempera-

9.1.1 All requirements on the test equipment in Section 6 tures),

shall be met. 10.2.3 Specimen dimensions (8.2.1), Thickness B and BN,

9.1.2 All requirements on machining tolerance and pre- and Width W,

cracking in Section 7 shall be met. 10.2.4 Test temperature (8.2.2), loading rate (8.4.2 and

9.1.3 All requirements on fixture alignment, test rate, and 8.6.2), and type of loading control,

temperature stability and accuracy in Section 8 shall be met. 10.2.5 Fatigue precracking conditions (7.4), Kmax, DK

9.1.4 The following crack size requirements shall be met in range, and fatigue precrack length (average),

all tests. 10.2.6 Load-displacement record and associated calcula-

9.1.4.1 Original Crack SizeNone of the nine physical tions (Section 9),

measurements of initial crack size defined in 8.5.3 shall differ 10.2.7 Original measured crack length (8.5), original pre-

by more than 5 % from the average, ao. dicted crack length, aoq, final measured crack length, final

9.1.4.2 Final Crack SizeNone of the nine physical mea- predicted crack length, afq, physical crack extension during

surements of final physical crack size, a p, defined in 8.5.3 shall test, crack front appearancestraightness and planarity, and

differ by more than 5 % from the average. In subsequent tests, fracture appearance,

the side-groove configuration may be modified within the 10.2.8 Qualification of fracture toughness measurement

requirements of 7.5 to facilitate meeting this requirement. (Annex A4-Annex A7 and Annex A8-Annex A11), based on

9.1.5 The following crack size requirements shall be met in size requirements, and based on crack extension, and

the tests using the resistance curve procedure of 8.6. 10.2.9 Qualified values of fracture toughness.

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11. Precision and Bias

11.1 BiasThere is no accepted standard value for any of

the fracture toughness criteria employed in this test method. In

the absence of such a true value no meaningful statement can

be made concerning bias of data.

11.2 PrecisionThe precision of any of the various fracture

toughness determinations cited in this test method is a function

of the precision and bias of the various measurements of linear

dimensions of the specimen and testing fixtures, the precision

of the displacement measurement, the bias of the load mea-

surement as well as the bias of the recording devices used to

produce the load-displacement record, and the precision of the

constructions made on this record. It is not possible to make

meaningful statements concerning precision and bias for all

these measurements. However, it is possible to derive useful

information concerning the precision of fracture toughness

measurements in a global sense from interlaboratory test

programs. Most of the measures of fracture toughness that can

be determined by this procedure have been evaluated by an

interlaboratory test program. The KIc was evaluated in (8), JIc

was evaluated in (9), the J-R curve was evaluated in (10), and

the measures of dc and dm were evaluated in a research report.4

In addition, the overall analysis procedures of this test method

were evaluated in an interlaboratory test program.

12. Keywords

12.1 crack initiation; crack-tip opening displacement;

CTOD; ductile fracture; elastic-plastic fracture toughness;

fracture instability; J-integral; KIc; plane strain fracture tough-

ness; resistance curve; stable crack growth

4

Data on the round-robin results are on file at ASTM Headquarters. Request

FIG. 7 Suggested Data Reporting Format RR:E24-1013.

11

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ANNEXES

(Mandatory Information)

Pf 5 S (A1.1)

A1.1 Specimen

See 7.4.5 for fatigue precracking requirements.

A1.1.1 The standard bend specimen is a single edge-

notched and fatigue-cracked beam loaded in three-point bend- A1.4 Calculation

ing with a support span, S, nominally equal to four times the A1.4.1 Calculation of KFor the bend specimen at a load,

width, W. The general proportions of the specimen configura- P(i), calculate Kas follows:

F G

tion are shown in Fig. A1.1. PiS

A1.1.2 Alternative specimens may have 1 # W/B # 4. K ~i! 5 f~ai /W! (A1.2)

~ N! 1/2W3/2

BB

These specimens shall also have a nominal support span equal

to 4W. where:

3~ai/W! 1/2 [1.99 2 ~ai/W! ~1 2 a i/W! (A1.3)

A1.2 Apparatus 2

3 ~2.15 2 3.93~ai/W! 1 2.7 ~ai/W! !#

A1.2.1 For generally applicable specifications concerning f~ai/W! 5

2~1 1 2ai/W!~1 2 a i/W!3/2

the bend-test fixture and displacement gage see 6.5.1 and 6.2.

A1.4.2 Calculation of J:

A1.3 Specimen Preparation: NOTE A1.2In the calculation of J for the bend specimen a load-line

displacement is required. For evaluating crack length, a crack mouth

A1.3.1 For generally applicable specifications concerning

displacement is used.

specimen configuration and preparation see Section 7.

A1.3.2 All specimens shall be precracked in three-point For the single edge bend specimen, calculate J as follows:

bending fatigue based upon the load Pf, as follows: J 5 Jel 1 J pl (A1.4)

12

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NOTE 1The two side planes and the two edge planes shall be parallel and perpendicular as applicable to within 0.5.

NOTE 2The machined notch shall be perpendicular to specimen length and thickness to within 62.

FIG. A1.1 Recommended Single Edge Bend [SE(B)] Specimen

Jel = elastic component of J, and plastic area under the load versus load-line displacement record

Jpl = plastic component of J. between lines of constant displacement at points i1 and i

A1.4.2.1 J Calculations for the Basic Test MethodAt a shown in Fig. A1.3. The quantity Jpl(i) represents the total crack

point corresponding to v and P on the specimen load versus

load-line displacement, calculate as follows:

Method

FIG. A1.3 Definition of Plastic Area for Resistance Curve J

Calculation

K2 ~ 1 2 v 2 !

J5 E 1 Jpl (A1.5)

where K is from A1.4.1 with a = ao, and growth corrected plastic J at point i and is obtained in two steps

by first incrementing the existing J pl(i-1) and then by modifying

2Apl the total accumulated result to account for the crack growth

Jpl 5 B b

N o increment. Accurate evaluation of Jpl(i) from the Eq A1.7

where: relationship requires small and uniform crack growth incre-

Apl = area as shown in Fig. A1.2, ments consistent with the suggested elastic compliance spacing

BN = net specimen thickness (BN = B if no side grooves are present), of Annex A8 and Annex A10. The quantity Apl(i) can be

and calculated from the following equation:

bo = W ao.

Apl~i! 5 Apl~i21! 1 [P~i! 1 P ~i21!# [vpl~i! 2 vpl~i21!#/2 (A1.8)

A1.4.2.2 J Calculations for the Resistance Curve Test

MethodAt a point corresponding to a (i), v(i), and P(i) on the where:

specimen load versus plastic load-line displacement calculate vpl(i) = plastic part of the load-line displacement = v (i)

as follows: (P (i)CLL (i))), and

CLL(i) = slope, (Dv/DP) (i), required to give the current crack length,

~K~i!! 2 ~1 2 v2! ai.

J ~i! 5 E 1 J pl~i! (A1.6)

CLL(i) can be determined from knowledge of ai/W using the

where K(i) is from A1.4.1, and following equation:

F S DS

Jpl~i! 5 J pl~i21! 1 b

2

~i21!

Apl~i! 2 A pl~i21!

BN DG F

12 b ~i21! G

a~i! 2 a~i21! 1

S

C LLi 5 E B W 2 a

e

S

i

D

2

[1.193 2 1.98~a i/W! 1 4.478~ai/W!2

(A1.7) 2 4.443~a i/W!3 1 1.739~ai/W!4# (A1.9)

13

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where: K2 ~ 1 2 n 2 ! r p~W 2 ao!v pl

Be = B (B BN) 2/B d5 2sYSE 1 @rp ~W 2 ao! 1 a o 1 z] (A1.12)

curve test method using an elastic compliance technique on ao = original crack length,

single edge bend specimens with crack opening displacements K = stress intensity factor as defined in A1.4.1 with a = a o,

measured at the notched edge, the crack length is given as n = Poissons ratio,

follows: sYS = yield or 0.2 % offset yield strength at the temperature of

interest,

ai/W 5 [0.999748 2 3.9504u 1 2.9821u 2 2 3.21408u3 E = elastic modulus at the test temperature,

1 51.51564u 4 2 113.031u5# (A1.10) vpl = plastic component of crack mouth opening displacement at the

point of evaluation on the load-displacement curve, vc, vi, vu,

where: or vm,

1 z = distance of knife edge measurement point from the notched

F G

u 5 B WEC 1/2 (A1.11) edge on the single edge bend specimen, and

e i

S/4 11 rp = plastic rotation factor = 0.44.

Ci = (Dvm/DP) on an unloading/reloading sequence, Test MethodFor the resistance curve test method, calcula-

vm = crack opening displacement at notched edge, tions of CTOD for any point on the load-displacement curve

Be = B (B BN)2/B . are made from the following expression:

NOTE A1.3Crack length on a single edge bend specimen is normally

determined from crack opening compliance. It can be determined from K~2i!~1 2 v2! @rp~W 2 a ~i!! 1 Da]vpl~i!

load-line compliance if the correct calibration is available. d ~i! 5 2s YSE 1 @rp ~W 2 a ~i!! 1 a ~i! 1 z] (A1.13)

where:

resulting accuracy is equal to or greater than those described a (i) = current crack length,

and the accuracy has been verified experimentally. Da = a (i) ao,

A1.4.5 Calculation of CTOD: K (i) = stress intensity factor as defined in A1.4.1 with a = a (i), and

A1.4.5.1 Calculation of CTOD for the Basic Test Method the other terms are defined in A1.4.5.1.

For the basic test method, calculations of CTOD for any point

on the load-displacement curve are made from the following

expression:

A2.1.1 The standard compact specimen, C(T), is a single

edge-notched and fatigue cracked plate loaded in tension. Two A2.4 Calculation

specimen geometries which have been used successfully for J A2.4.1 Calculation of KFor the compact specimen at a

testing are shown in Fig. A2.1. load P (i), calculate K as follows:

A2.1.2 The compact specimen in Fig. A2.2 has generally

been used only for KIc testing; it has no provision for load-line Pi

K ~i! 5 f~a i/W! (A2.2)

displacement measurement. Do not use this specimen for ~BBNW!1/2

ductile fracture toughness measurement. Use it only when with:

KIcbehavior is expected.

A2.1.3 Alternative specimens may have 2 # W/B # 4 but @~2 1 a i/W! ~0.886 1 4.64~ai/W! (A2.3)

with no change in other proportions. 2 3

2 13.32~ai/W! 1 14.72~ai/W! 2 5.6~a i/W! !# 4

f~ai/W! 5

~1 2 ai/W! 3/2

A2.2 Apparatus

A2.4.2 Calculation of JFor the compact specimen calcu-

A2.2.1 For generally applicable specifications concerning

late J as follows:

the loading clevis and displacement gage, see 6.5.2 and 6.2.

J 5 Jel 1 J pl (A2.4)

A2.3 Specimen Preparation where:

A2.3.1 For generally applicable specifications concerning Jel = elastic component of J, and

specimen size and preparation see Section 7. Jpl = plastic component of J.

A2.3.2 All specimens shall be precracked in fatigue at a A2.4.2.1 J Calculations for the Basic Test MethodFor the

load value based upon the load Pf as follows: compact specimen at a point corresponding to v, P on the

0.4Bb2osY specimen load versus load-line displacement record calculate

Pf 5 (A2.1)

~2W 1 ao! as follows:

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FIG. A2.1 Two Compact Specimen Designs That Have Been Used Successfully for Fracture Toughness Testing

J5 E 1 Jpl (A2.5)

Apl = Area A as shown in Fig. A1.2,

where: BN = net specimen thickness (BN = B if no side grooves

K is from A2.4.1 with a = ao, and are present),

bo = uncracked ligament, (W a o), and

hA pl h = 2 + 0.522bo/W.

Jpl 5 B b (A2.6)

N o

15

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NOTE 1A surfaces shall be perpendicular and parallel as applicable to within 0.002 W TIR.

NOTE 2The intersection of the crack starter notch tips with the two specimen surfaces shall be equally distant from the top and bottom edges of the

specimen within 0.005 W.

NOTE 3Integral or attachable knife edges for clip gage attachment to the crack mouth may be used.

NOTE 4For starter-notch and fatigue-crack configuration see Fig. 6.

FIG. A2.2 Compact Specimen for KIc Testing

A2.4.2.2 J Calculation for the Resistance Curve Test above relationship requires small and uniform crack growth

MethodFor the C(T)specimen at a point corresponding a (i), increments consistent with the suggested elastic compliance

v(i), and P(i) on the specimen load versus load-line displace- spacing of Annex A8 and Annex A10. The quantity Apl(i) can be

ment record calculate as follows: calculated from the following equation:

~K~i!! 2 ~1 2 n2! @P~i! 1 P~i21!# [ vpl~i! 2 v pl~i21!#

J ~i! 5 E 1 J pl~i! (A2.7) Apl~i! 5 Apl~i21! 1 (A2.9)

2

where K(i) is from A2.4.1, and: where:

F

J pl~i! 5 Jpl~i21! 1 b S D

h ~i21! Apl~i! 2 Apl~i21!

BN G vpl(i) = plastic part of the load-line displacement, vi (P

(i)CLL(i)), and

F G

~i21!

a~i! 2 a~i21! CLL(i) = compliance, (Dv/DP)i required to give the current

1 2 g~i21! b (A2.8) crack length, ai.

~i21!

where:

h(i1) = 2.0 + 0.522 b(i1)/W, and following equation:

g(i1) = 1.0 + 0.76 b( i1)/W.

S

1 W 1 ai 2

CLL~i! 5 EB W 2 a

e i

D

[2.1630 1 12.219~a i/W!

In Eq A2.8, the quantity Apl(i) Apl(i-1) is the increment of 2 20.065~ai/W! 2 0.9925~a i/W!3

2

plastic area under the load versus plastic load-line displace- 1 20.609~ai/W!4 2 9.9314~a i/W!5# (A2.10)

ment record between lines of constant displacement at points

where:

i1 and i shown in Fig. A1.3. The quantity Jpl(i) represents the

total crack growth corrected plastic J at point i and is obtained ~B 2 BN!2

Be 5 B 2 (A2.11)

in two steps by first incrementing the existing Jpl(i1) and then B

by modifying the total accumulated result to account for the

crack growth increment. Accurate evaluation of J pl(i) from the

16

E 1820 01

In an elastic compliance test, the rotation corrected compli-

ance, Cc(i), described in A2.4.4 shall be used instead of CLL (i)

in Eq A2.10.

A2.4.3 Calculation of Crack LengthFor a single speci-

men test method using an elastic compliance technique on the

compact specimen with crack opening displacements measured

on the load line, the crack length is given as follows:

ai/W 5 [1.000196 2 4.06319u 1 11.242u 2 2 106.043u3

1 464.335u 4 2 650.677u5# (A2.12)

where:

1

u5 (A2.13)

@BeECc~i!#1/2 1 1

ance (Dv/D P) on an unloading/reloading sequence

corrected for rotation (see A2.4.4),

Be = B (B B N)2/B.

A2.4.4 To account for crack opening displacement in C(T)

specimens, the crack length estimation shall be corrected for

rotation. Compliance is corrected as follows:

Ci

F GF G

Cc~i! 5 H* D (A2.14)

R sinui 2 cosui R sinu i 2 cosui

Ci = measured specimen elastic compliance (at the load-

line),

H* = initial half-span of the load points (center of the pin

holes),

R = radius of rotation of the crack centerline, (W + a)/2, FIG. A2.3 Elastic Compliance Correction for Specimen Rotation

where a is the updated crack length,

D = one half of the initial distance between the displace-

where:

ment measurement points,

ao = original crack length,

u = angle of rotation of a rigid body element about the

K = stress intensity factor as defined in A2.4.1 with

unbroken midsection line, or

a = a o,

n

F G

= Poissons ratio,

u 5 sin21

S dm

2 1D D SDD

2 tan21 R , and (A2.15)

sYS = yield or 0.2 % offset yield strength at the tempera-

ture of interest,

~D 1 R 2!1/2

2 E = elastic modulus at the test temperature,

vpl = plastic component of clip gage opening displace-

ment at the point of evaluation on the load-

dm = total measured load-line displacement. displacement curve, vc, vu, or vm,

A2.4.5 Other compliance equations are acceptable if the z = distance of knife-edge measurement point from the

resulting accuracy is equal to or greater than those described load-line on the C(T) specimen, and

and the accuracy has been verified experimentally. rp = plastic rotation factor = 0.4 (1 + a),

where:

A2.4.6 Calculation of CTOD:

A2.4.6.1 Calculation of CTOD for the Basic Test Method

For the basic test method, calculations of CTOD for any point

a52 FS D

ao

bo

2 ao 1

1b 12

o

G

1/2

Sao 1

22 b 12

o

D (A2.17)

A2.4.6.2 Calculation of CTOD for the Resistance Curve

expression:

Test MethodFor the resistance curve test method, calcula-

K~2i!~1 2 n 2! @rp~W 2 ao!# vpl~i! tions of CTOD for any point on the load-displacement curve

d~i! 5 2sYSE 1 @rp ~W 2 a o! 1 ao 1 z] (A2.16)

are made from the following expression:

17

E 1820 01

K~2i!~1 2 n2! @rp~i!~W 2 a ~i!! 1 Da]vpl~i! rp(i) = plastic rotation factor = 0.4 (1 + a (i)),

d ~i! 5 2s YSE 1 @rp~i!~W 2 a ~i!! 1 a ~i! 1 z] (A2.18)

where

where:

Da = a (i) ao,

FS D

a~i! 5 2

a~i!

b~i!

2 a~i! 1

1b 12

~i!

G S

1/2 a~i! 1

22 b 12

~i!

D (A2.19)

K (i) = stress intensity factor as defined in A2.4.1, with and the other terms are defined in A2.4.6.1.

a = a (i), and

A3.1.1 The standard disk-shaped compact specimen, A3.4 Procedure

DC(T), is a single edge-notched and fatigue cracked plate

loaded in tension. The specimen geometry which has been used A3.4.1 Measurement The analysis assumes the specimen

successfully is shown in Fig. A3.1. was machined from a circular blank, and, therefore, measure-

NOTE 1All surfaces shall be perpendicular and parallel as applicable within 0.002 W TIR.

NOTE 2The intersection of the crack starter notch tips on each surface of the specimen shall be equally distant within 0.005W from the centerline

of the loading holes.

NOTE 3Integral or attached knife edges for clip gage attachment to the crack mouth may be used.

NOTE 4For starter-notch and fatigue-crack configuration see Fig. 6.

NOTE 5Required circularity measurements shall be made at eight equally spaced points around the circumference. One of these points shall be the

notch plane. Average the readings to obtain the radius. All values shall be within 5 % of the average.

FIG. A3.1 Disk-Shaped Compact Specimen, DC(T), Standard Proportions and Dimensions

A3.1.2 Alternative specimens may have 2 # W/B # 4 but ments of circularity as well as width, W; crack length, a; and

with no change in other proportions. thicknesses, B and BN , shall be made. Measure the dimensions

BN and B to the nearest 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) or 0.5 %,

A3.2 Apparatus whichever is larger.

A3.2.1 For generally applicable specifications concerning A3.4.1.1 The specimen blank shall be checked for circular-

the loading clevis and displacement gage see 6.5.2 and 6.2. ity before specimen machining. Measure the diameter at eight

A3.3 Specimen Preparation equally spaced points around the circumference of the speci-

men blank. One of these measurements shall lie in the intended

A3.3.1 For generally applicable specifications concerning notch plane. Average these readings to obtain the diameter, D.

specimen size and preparation, see Section 7. If any measurement differs from the average diameter, D, by

A3.3.2 All specimens shall be precracked in fatigue at a more than 5 %, machine the blank to the required circularity.

load value based upon the load Pf as follows: Otherwise, D = 1.35 W.

0.4Bb2osY A3.4.1.2 Measure the width, W, and the crack length, a,

Pf 5 (A3.1)

~2W 1 ao! from the plane of the centerline of the loading holes (the

18

E 1820 01

notched edge is a convenient reference line but the distance represents the total crack growth corrected plastic J at Point i

from the centerline of the holes to the notched edge must be and is obtained in two steps by first incrementing the existing

subtracted to determine W and a). Measure the width, W, to the Jpl(i1) and then by modifying the total accumulated result to

nearest 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) or 0.5 %, whichever is larger. account for the crack growth increment. Accurate evaluation of

Jpl(i) from the preceding relationship requires small and uni-

A3.5 Calculation form crack growth increments consistent with the suggested

A3.5.1 Calculation of KFor the DC(T) specimen at a load elastic compliance spacing of Annex A8 and Annex A10. The

P(i), calculate Kas follows: quantity Apl(i) can be calculated from the following equation:

Pi @P~i! 1 P ~i21!# [vpl~i! 2 vpl~i21!#

K ~i! 5 f~a i/W! (A3.2) Apl~i! 5 A pl~i21! 1 (A3.9)

~BBNW!1/2 2

where: where:

@~2 1 a i/W! ~0.76 1 4.8~ai/W! 2 11.58~a i/W!2 (A3.3) vpl(i) = plastic part of the load-line displacement, vi

(PiCLL(i)), and

1 11.43~ai/W!3 2 4.08~a i/W!4!#

f~ai/W! 5 CLL(i) = compliance, (Dv/DP)i required to give the current

~1 2 ai/W! 3/2

crack length, ai.

A3.5.2 Calculation of JFor the DC(T) specimen, calcu- For test methods that do not utilize the elastic compliance

late J as follows: techniques, CLL(i) can be determined from knowledge of a(i)/W

J 5 Jel 1 J pl (A3.4) using the following equation:

where:

Jel = elastic component of J, and

1

CLL~i! 5 EB

e

S 1 1 a~i!/W

1 2 a ~i!/W D 2

A3.5.2.1 J Calculation for the Basic Test MethodFor the 1 6.1748~a ~i!/W!3# (A3.10)

DC(T) specimen at a point corresponding to v(i), P(i) on the

specimen load versus load-line displacement record calculate where:

as follows: Be = B (B B N)2/B.

K2~1 2 n 2! In an elastic compliance test, the rotation corrected compli-

J5 E 1 Jpl (A3.5) ance, Cc(i), described in A3.5.4 shall be used instead of CLL(i)

given above.

where K is from A3.5.1 with a = ao, and

A3.5.3 Calculation of Crack LengthFor a single-

hApl

Jpl 5 B b (A3.6) specimen test method using an elastic compliance technique on

N o

DC(T) specimens with crack opening displacements measured

where: at the load-line, the crack length is given as follows:

Apl = Area A as shown in Fig. A1.2,

a ~i!/W 5 0.998193 2 3.88087u 1 00.187106u 2

BN = net specimen thickness (BN = B if no side grooves

are present), 1 20.3714u3 2 45.2125u 4 1 44.5270u5 (A3.11)

bo = uncracked ligament, (W a o), and where:

h = 2 + 0.522bo/W.

1

A3.5.2.2 J Calculation for the Resistance Curve Test u5 (A3.12)

MethodFor the DC(T) specimen at a point corresponding to @~BeECc~i!!1/2 1 1]

ai, vi, and Pi on the specimen load versus load-line displace- where:

ment record, calculate as follows: Cc (i) = specimen crack opening compliance (Dv/DP) on

~K~i!!2 ~1 2 v2! an unloading/reloading sequence, corrected for

J ~i! 5 E 1 J pl~i! (A3.7) rotation (see A3.5.4),

Be = B (B BN) 2/B.

where K(i) is from A3.5.1 and:

F S D G

A3.5.4 To account for crack opening displacement in DC(T)

h ~i21! Apl~i! 2 Apl~i21!

J pl~i! 5 Jpl~i21! 1 b specimens, the crack size estimation shall be corrected for

BN

F G

~i21!

rotation. Compliance shall be corrected as follows:

a ~i! 2 a~i21!

1 2 g~i21! b (A3.8) Ci

F GF G

~i21! Cc~i! 5 H* D (A3.13)

where: R sinui 2 cosu i R sinui 2 cosui

h(i1) = 2.0 + 0.522 b (i1)/W, and

g(i1) = 1.0 + 0.76 b (i1)/W. where (Fig. A2.3):

In the preceding equation, the quantity Apl(i) Apl(i1) is the Ci = measured specimen elastic compliance (at the load-

increment of plastic area under the load versus load-line line),

H* = initial half-span of the load points (center of the pin

displacement record between lines of constant displacement at

holes),

points i1 and i shown in Fig. A1.3. The quantity Jpl(i)

19

E 1820 01

R = radius of rotation of the crack centerline, (W + a)/2, sYS = yield or 0.2 % offset yield strength at the tempera-

where a is the updated crack length, ture of interest,

D = one half of the initial distance between the displace- E = elastic modulus at the test temperature,

ment measurement points, vpl = plastic component of clip gage opening displace-

u = angle of rotation of a rigid body element about the ment at the point of evaluation on the load-

unbroken midsection line, or displacement curve, vc, vu, or vm,

F S D G

dm z = distance of knife edge measurement point from the

2 1D

SDD load-line on the C(T) specimen, and

21

u 5 sin 2 tan21 R , and (A3.14) rp = plastic rotation factor = 0.4 (1 + a),

~D 1 R 2!1/2

2

where:

bo

2 ao 1

1b 12

o

G

1/2

S

ao 1

22 b 12

o

D (A3.16)

A3.5.5 Other compliance equations are acceptable if the Test MethodFor the resistance curve test method, calcula-

resulting accuracy is equal to or greater than those described tions of CTOD for any point on the load-displacement curve

and the accuracy has been verified experimentally. are made from the following expression:

A3.5.6 Calculation of CTOD: K~2i!~1 2 n2! @rp~i!~W 2 a ~i!! 1 Da]vpl~i!

A3.5.6.1 Calculation of CTOD for the Basic Test Method d ~i! 5 2s YSE 1 @rp~i!~W 2 a ~i!! 1 a ~i! 1 z] (A3.17)

For the basic test method calculations of CTOD for any point

on the load-displacement curve are made from the following where:

expression: a (i) = current crack length,

Da = a (i) ao,

K~2i!~1 2 n 2! @rp~W 2 ao!# vpl~i! K (i) = stress intensity factor as defined in A3.5.1, with

d~i! 5 2sYSE 1 @rp ~W 2 a o! 1 ao 1 z] (A3.15)

a = a (i), and

rp(i) = plastic rotation factor = 0.4 (1 + a (i)),

where:

ao = original crack length, where:

K = stress intensity factor as defined in A3.5.1 with

a = a o, a~i! 5 2 FS Da~i!

b ~i!

2 a~i! 1

1b 12

~i!

G S

1/2 a~i! 1

22 b 12

~i!

D (A3.18)

n = Poissons ratio,

and the other terms are defined in A3.5.6.1.

NOTE A4.1Annex A4-Annex A7 through cover methods for evaluat- A4.1.2.1 Draw a line, CB, which is parallel to the initial

ing toughness for fracture instability. slope 0A and that passes through the crack initiation load point

A4.1 Pop-In Crack Propagation: of the pop-in under consideration.

A4.1.1 If the pop-in is attributed to an arrested fracture A4.1.2.2 Draw a second line, that originates at Point C: Line

instability in the plane of the fatigue precrack, the result is CF, and that has 5 % reduced slope from Line CB.

considered to be a characteristic of the material tested. Pop-in A4.1.2.3 Mark the point G, corresponding to the load and

can be assessed by a specific change in compliance, and also a displacement at pop-in crack arrest.

posttest examination of the fracture surfaces. Pop-ins are only A4.1.2.4 When Point G is within the angle BCF, the pop-in

evaluated when the load rises with increasing displacement is judged to be insignificant. (See Fig. A4.1(b).)

after the pop-in.

A4.1.2.5 When Point Gis outside the angle BCF, the pop-in

A4.1.2 The following procedure may be used to assess the

is significant (see Fig. A4.1(a)). J and d values determined

significance of small pop-ins when the post-test examination

beyond point G are invalid. Calculate values of fracture

indicates that these are associated with arrested fracture insta-

bility in the plane of the fatigue precrack (Refer to Fig. A4.1): toughness corresponding to the point of onset (vc or v u).

20

E 1820 01

FIG. A4.1 Procedure for Evaluating Significance of Pop-in

A5.1 This annex describes the methods and calculations recorded data. If only an autographic record is taken, the initial

required to determine the linear elastic, plane-strain fracture slope of the linear portion on the plotter shall be between 0.7

toughness, KIc, and the associated requirements for qualifying and 1.5.

the data according to this test method. Data meeting all of the

qualification requirements of 9.1 and those of this annex result A5.3 Calculation of ResultsIn order to determine KIc in

in a size-independent K Ic value. accordance with this test method, it is necessary first to

calculate a conditional result, KQ, which involves a construc-

A5.2 Test RecordConduct the test following the proce- tion on the test record, and then to determine whether this

dure in Section 8. Make a test record as shown in Fig. A5.1 result is consistent with size and yield strength requirements.

with the load along the vertical axis and crack-mouth displace- The procedure is as follows:

ment along the horizontal axis. This record can be generated A5.3.1 Construct a secant line as shown on Fig. A5.1 with

autographically during the test or after the test from digitally a slope (P/v)5 = 0.95(P/v)o where (P/v)o is the slope of the

21

E 1820 01

tangent OA to the initial portion of the data record. This slope exceed 1.10, then the test is not a size-independent KIc test

can be obtained from a slope calculation using digital data or because it is then possible that KQ bears no relation to KIc.

fit to an autographic record as desired. A5.4.3 Calculate 2.5 (KQ/sYS)2 where sYS is the 0.2 % offset

yield strength in tension (see Test Methods E 8). If this quantity

NOTE A5.1Slight nonlinearity often occurs at the very beginning of a

record and should be ignored. However, it is important to establish the is less than both the specimen thickness, B, and the length of

initial slope of the record with high precision and therefore it is advisable the initial uncracked ligament, bo, then KQ is equal to KIc.

to minimize this nonlinearity by a preliminary loading and unloading with Otherwise, the test is not a qualified and sizeindependent KIc

the maximum load not producing a stress intensity level exceeding that test. Expressions for calculations of KQ are given in the Annex

used in the final stage of fatigue cracking. A1-Annex A3 appropriate to the specimen being tested.

The load PQ is then defined as follows: if the load at every A5.4.4 If the test result fails to meet the qualification

point on the record that precedes P5 is lower than P5, then P5 requirements in 9.1 or in A5.4, or both, it will be necessary to

is PQ (Fig. A5.1, Type I); if, however, there is a maximum load use a larger specimen to determine KIc. The dimensions of the

preceding P5 that exceeds it, then this maximum load is PQ larger specimen can be estimated on the basis of KQ but

(Fig. A5.1, Types II and III). generally will be at least 1.5 times those of the specimen that

failed to yield a qualified and size-independent KIc value. The

NOTE A5.2For the Annex A1-Annex A3 specimens over the range

0.45 # a/W # 0.55, the 95 % offset criterion corresponds to an increase

unqualified KIc test result can be evaluated by the methods of

in elastic compliance equivalent to that caused by a crack extension of Annex A4-Annex A7 and Annex A8-Annex A11 to determine

approximately 2 % of the original remaining ligament, b o or the original whether other measures of fracture toughness can be developed

crack length, a o. from this test method.

A5.4 Qualification of KQ as KIc: A5.5 Significance of KIcThe property KIc determined by

A5.4.1 For KQ to be qualified as a KIc value it must meet the this test method characterizes the resistance of a material to

qualification requirements of 9.1. To be a size-independent K fracture in a neutral environment in the presence of a sharp

value, it must meet the following requirements: crack under severe tensile constraint, such that the state of

A5.4.2 Calculate the ratio Pmax/PQ, where Pmax is the stress near the crack front approaches tritensile plane strain,

maximum load the specimen was able to sustain (see Fig. and the crack-tip plastic region is small compared to both the

A5.1). If this ratio does not exceed 1.10, proceed to calculate crack size and to the specimen dimension in the constraint

KQ as described in Annex A1-Annex A3 using the formula direction. A KIc value is believed to represent the lower limiting

appropriate to the specimen being tested. If Pmax/PQ does value of fracture toughness.

22

E 1820 01

fracture toughness values based on J, Jc, or Ju, for a fracture

instability and the associated requirements for qualifying the

data according to this test method. Data meeting all of the

qualification requirements of 9.1 and those of this annex result

in qualified values of Jc or Ju. Data meeting the size require-

ment result in a value of Jc that is insensitive to the in-plane

dimensions of the specimen.

fracture occurs before stable tearing a single-point toughness

value may be obtained labeled Jc.

A6.2.1 J is calculated at the final point, instability, using the

J formulas for the basic method. (Note: These formulas must

be applied for evaluating J no matter which method was used FIG. A6.1 Strength Limits Within Which Use of M = 50 is Justified

in the test because a resistance curve was not obtained.) This for Ferritic Steels.

point is labeled JQc, a provisional Jc value.

A6.2.2 Qualification of JQc as JcJQc = Jc, a measure of

fracture toughness at instability without significant stable crack described in Annex A8-Annex A11).

extension that is independent of in-plane dimensions, provided A6.3.1 J is calculated at the final point where instability

the following two conditions are both met: ( 1) if the material occurs using the J formulas for the basic method. These

is a ferritic steel and the measured room temperature yield and formulas must be used for evaluating a single J value no matter

tensile strength fall within the box illustrated in Fig. A6.1, B, bo which method was used in the test. This point is a Ju value.

$ 50 JQ/s Y, otherwise B, bo $ 100 JQ/sY, and ( 2) crack A6.3.2 Qualification of JQu as JuJQu = J u if crack exten-

extension Dap < 0.2 mm + JQ/MsY where M = 2, or an alter- sion Dap $ 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) + JQ/Ms Y.

native value can be determined from the test data, see A9.8.

Note that even if these conditions are met, Jc may be dependent A6.4 Significance of Jc and JuValues of JQc that meet the

on thickness (length of crack front). size criteria are labeled Jc and are considered to be insensitive

to the in-plane dimensions of the specimen. Values of JQc that

A6.3 Fracture Instability After Stable TearingWhen do not meet validity remain J Qc and may be size-dependent. Ju

fracture occurs after stable tearing crack extensionDap >0.2 is not considered to be a size-insensitive property and therefore

mm (0.008 in.) + JQ/Ms Y, a single-point fracture toughness is not subject to a size criterion. It is a characteristic of the

value may be obtained, labeled JQu. In addition, part of an material and specimen geometry and size. It signifies that at the

Rcurve may be developed or the final point may be used in the test temperature the material is not completely ductile and can

evaluation of an initiation toughness value JIc (these are sustain only limited R-curve behavior.

A7.1 This annex describes the method for characterizing A7.2.2 Qualification of dQc as dcA fracture toughness

fracture toughness values based on d, dc,du, or dm, for a fracture value that is insensitive to the in-plane dimensions of the

instability and the associated requirements for qualifying the specimen, if the following two conditions are met: (1) dQc = dc

data according to this test method. Data meeting all of the if B, bo$ 300 dQc, and (2) crack extension Dap < 0.2 mm

qualification requirements of 9.1 and those in this annex result (0.008 in.) + dQu/Md where Md = 1.4 or an alternative value can

in qualified values of dc, du, or dm. Data meeting the size be determined from the test data, see A11.3. Data that fail to

requirement result in a value of dc that is insensitive to in-plane meet the size criterion based on B or bo, but still meet the

dimensions of the specimen. restriction on crack extension, are labeled dc.

A7.2 Fracture Instability Before Stable TearingWhen A7.3 Fracture Instability After Stable TearingWhen

fracture occurs before stable tearing a single-point toughness fracture occurs after stable tearing, crack extension D ap $ 0.2

value may be obtained labeled dc. mm (0.008 in.) + 0.7 dQu, a single-point fracture toughness

A7.2.1 d is calculated at the final point, instability, using the value may be obtained, labeled du. In addition, part of an R

d formulas from Annex A1-Annex A3. This point is labeled d curve may be developed or the final point may be used in the

Qc, a provisional dc value. evaluation of an initiation toughness value (these are described

23

E 1820 01

in Annex A8-Annex A11). may be size-dependent. du is not considered to be a size-

A7.3.1 d is calculated at the final point where instability insensitive property and, therefore, is not subject to a size

occurs, using the d formulas for the basic method. These criterion. It is a characteristic of the material and specimen

formulas must be used for evaluating a single d value no matter geometry and size. It signifies that at the test temperature the

which apparatus was used in the test. This point is labeled dQu, material is not completely ductile and can sustain only limited

a provisional du value. R-curve behavior.

A7.3.2 Qualification of dQu as dudQu = du, if crack exten- A7.4 Maximum Load dmWhen no fracture instability

sion, Dap > 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) + dQu/Md where Md = 1.4 or an occurs up to the first attainment of maximum load, a value of

alternative value can be determined from the test data, see dm can be calculated. d is calculated at the first attainment of

A11.3. maximum load plateau using the formulas for the basic

A7.3.3 Significance of dc and duValues of dQc that meet method. These formulas must be used no matter which

the qualification requirements are labeled dc and are considered apparatus was used. dm may be size-dependent and a function

to be insensitive to the in-plane dimensions of the specimen. of test specimen geometry and is not subject to a size criterion.

Values of dQc that do not meet the size requirement are dc and It can be useful to define limits on ductile fracture behavior.

NOTE A8.1Annex A8-Annex A11 cover methods for evaluating being about 0.005 W. If an initiation value of toughness is

toughness for stable tearing. being evaluated more unload/reload sequences may be neces-

A8.1 This method describes a single-specimen technique sary in the early region of the J-R curve.

for determining the J-R curve of metallic materials. The J-R

curve consists of a plot of J versus crack extension in the A8.3 Measurement Capacity of Specimen:

region of J controlled growth. To measure the J-R curve, the A8.3.1 The maximum J-integral capacity for a specimen is

resistance curve procedure of 8.6 must be used. The J-R curve given by the smaller of the following:

is qualified provided that the criteria of 9.1 and A8.3 are Jmax 5 bsY/20, or

satisfied.

Jmax 5 BsY/20.

A8.2 J Calculation:

A8.3.2 The maximum crack extension capacity for a speci-

A8.2.1 J can be calculated at any point on the load versus men is given by the following:

load-line displacement record using the equations suggested in

Da max 5 0.25 bo

the calculation section of Annex A1-Annex A3 for the different

specimen geometries.

A8.2.2 The values of crack length are calculated using the A8.4 Constructing the J-R Curve:

compliance equations described in Annex A1-Annex A3 (or an

alternative method for measuring crack length). The rotation A8.4.1 The J-integral values and the corresponding crack

correction shall be applied to account for geometry changes extension values must be plotted as shown in Fig. A8.1. Shift

due to deformation for the compact, C(T) and disk-shaped the J-R curve according to the procedure described in A9.3.

compact DC(T) specimens. The J-R curve is defined as the data in a region bounded by the

A8.2.3 The unload/reload sequences should be spaced with coordinate axes and the Jmax and D amax limits given in A8.3.1

the displacement interval not to exceed 0.01 W, the average and A8.3.2.

24

E 1820 01

A9.1 SignificanceThe property JIc determined by this A9.3.3.1 Identify all Ji and ai pairs that were determined

method characterizes the toughness of a material near the onset before the specimen reached the maximum load for the test.

of crack extension from a preexisting fatigue crack. The JIc Use this data set of points to calculate a revised aoq from the

value marks the beginning stage of material crack growth following equation:

resistance development, the full extent of which is covered in J

Annex A8. JIc is qualified provided that the criteria of 9.1 and a 5 a oq 1 2s 1 BJ2 1 CJ3 (A9.1)

Y

A9.8 and A9.9 are satisfied.

The coefficients of this equation shall be found using a least

A9.2 J CalculationCalculations of the J integral are squares fit procedure. An example BASIC code (see Fig. X1.1)

made using the equations in Annex A1-Annex A3. to accomplish this fit is presented in Appendix X1.

A9.3.3.2 If the number of points used in A9.3.3.1 to

A9.3 Corrections and Adjustments to Data:

determine aoq is less than 8 or of these 8 there are less than 3

A9.3.1 A correction is applied to the estimated Dai data between 0.4 JQ and JQ or the correlation coefficient of this fit

values to obtain an improved aoq. This correction is intended to is less than 0.96, the data set is not adequate to evaluate any

obtain the best value of aoq, based on the initial set of crack toughness measures in accordance with this test method.

length estimates, ai, data. For data generated using the basic

procedure of 8.4, no adjustments to the data are necessary. To A9.4 If the optically measured crack length, ao, differs from

evaluate JIc using data from the basic procedure, proceed to aoq by more than 0.01W, the data set is not adequate according

A9.6. to this test method.

A9.3.2 A modified construction line slope, M, can be A9.5 Evaluate the final Ji values using the adjusted aoq of

calculated from a fit to the initial Ji and ai data, and used for the A9.3.3 and the equations of the applicable Annex A1, Annex

calculation of JIc. A2, or Annex A3.

A9.3.3 Adjustment of aoqThe value of JQ is very depen-

dent on the aoq used to calculate the Dai quantities. The value A9.6 Calculation of an Interim JQ:

obtained for aoq in 8.6.3.1 might not be the correct value and A9.6.1 Basic Procedurefor each specimen, calculate Da

the following adjustment procedure is required. as follows:

25

E 1820 01

Da 5 ap 2 ao (A9.2)

Resistance Curve Procedurefor each ai value, calculate a

corresponding Dai as follows:

Dai 5 ai 2 a0q (A9.3)

Plot J versus Da as shown in Fig. A9.1. Determine a

conform to the requirements stated in the previous sections.

Draw the regression line as illustrated in Fig. A9.1.

A9.6.6 The intersection of the regression line of A9.6.5 with

the 0.2-mm offset line defines JQ and DaQ. To determine this

intersection the following procedure is recommended.

FIG. A9.1 Definition of Construction Lines for Data Qualification A9.6.6.1 As a starting point estimate an interim JQ(1) = JQ(i)

value from the data plot of Fig. A9.1.

A9.6.6.2 Evaluate Da(i) from the following:

construction line in accordance with the following equation: JQ~i!

Da ~i! 5 Ms 1 0.2 mm ~0.008 in.! (A9.6)

J 5 MsYDa (A9.4) Y

where M = 2 or M can be determined from the test data. In A9.6.6.3 Evaluate an interim JQ(i+1) from the following

some cases the initial slope of the J-R curve is steeper than 2sY, power law relationship:

for example with austenitic stainless steels. For these materials,

it is recommended that a JQ value be determined using M = 2 JQ~i 1 1! 5 C1 S D

Da~i!

k

C2

(A9.7)

such that an experimental M can then be evaluated and verified where k = 1.0 mm or 0.0394 in.

according to A9.7. An improved JQ can then be evaluated. A9.6.6.4 Increment i and return to A9.6.6.2 and A9.6.6.3 to

Under no circumstances can a value of M less than 2 be used get Da(i) and interim JQ(i+1) until the interim JQ values

for JQ evaluation. converge to within 62 %.

A9.6.2 Plot the construction line, then draw an exclusion A9.6.6.5 Project the intercepts of the power law curve with

line parallel to the construction line intersecting the abscissa at the 0.15-mm (0.006-in.) and the 1.5-mm (0.06-in.) exclusion

0.15 mm (0.006 in.). Draw a second exclusion line parallel to lines vertically down to the abscissa. This indicates Damin and

the construction line intersecting the abscissa at 1.5 mm (0.06 Dalimit, respectively. Eliminate all data points that do not fall

in.). Plot all J Da data points that fall inside the area enclosed between Damin and Dalimit as shown in Fig. A9.1. Also elimi-

by these two parallel lines and capped by Jlimit = bos Y/15. nate all data points which lie above the limiting J capacity

A9.6.3 Plot a line parallel to the construction and exclusion where Jlimit = bosY/15. The region of qualified data is shown in

lines at an offset value of 0.2 mm (0.008 in.). Fig. A9.2.

A9.6.4 At least one JDa point shall lie between the A9.6.6.6 At least five data points must remain between

0.15-mm (0.006-in.) exclusion line and a parallel line with an Damin and Dalimit and Jlimit. Data point spacing must meet the

offset of 0.5 mm (0.02 in.) from the construction line as shown requirements of A9.6.4. If these data points are different from

in Fig. A9.2. At least one JDa point shall lie between this those used in A9.6.6 to evaluate JQ, obtain a new value of JQ

0.5-mm offset line and the 1.5-mm (0.06-in.) exclusion line. based only on qualified data.

Acceptable data are shown in Fig. A9.2. The other JDa pairs

can be anywhere inside the exclusion zone. A9.7 An alternative construction line slope, M, can be

A9.6.5 Using the method of least squares, determine a linear calculated by fitting the least squares linear regression line to

regression line of the following form: the initial J-R curve data for data in the region 0.2 JQ# Ji #

lnJ 5 lnC1 1 C 2 ln S D

Da

k (A9.5)

0.6JQ as evaluated with M = 2. A minimum of 6 data points are

required in the evaluation region to allow an experimental

26

E 1820 01

value of M. Only values of M $2 are allowed by this method. and the correlation coefficient of the least squares fit of

A revised JQ can now be evaluated using this M by returning to A9.3.3.1 shall be greater than 0.96.

A9.6.1-A9.6.6. A9.8.2.3 If an experimental value of M is determined, at

least 6 data points are required in the region 0.2JQ #Ji# 0.6JQ.

A9.8 Qualification of DataThe data shall satisfy the

Only M # 2.0 can be used in the method.

requirements of 9.1 and all of the following requirements to be

qualified according to this test method. If the data do not pass

A9.9 Qualification of JQ as JIcJQ = JIc , a size-

these requirements no fracture toughness values can be deter-

independent value of fracture toughness, if:

mined according to this test method.

A9.8.1 The power coefficient C 2 of A9.6.5 shall be less than A9.9.1 Thickness B > 25 JQ/sY,

1.0. A9.9.2 Initial ligament, bo > 25 JQ/sY,

A9.8.2 For the Resistance Curve Procedure the following A9.9.3 Regression Line SlopeThe slope of the power law

additional requirements must be satisified: regression line, dJ/da, evaluated at DaQ is less than sY.

A9.8.2.1 aoq shall not differ from ao by more than 0.01W.

A9.8.2.2 The number of data available to calculate aoq shall A9.10 Evaluation of KJIcCalculate KJIc= =(E8JIc) using

be $8; the number of data between 0.4JQ and JQ shall be $3; E8 = E/(1-n2) and the qualified JIc of A9.9.

for determining the d-R curve of metallic materials. The d-R

curve consists of a plot of d versus crack extension. To measure

the d-R curve the resistance curve procedure of 8.6 must be A10.4 Constructing the d-R Curve:

used. The d-R curve is qualified provided that the criteria of 9.1 A10.4.1 The d values and the corresponding crack exten-

and A10.3 are satisfied. sion values must be plotted as shown in Fig. A10.1. A d- R

A10.2 d Calculation: curve is established by smoothly fitting the data points in the

region bounded by the coordinate axes and the dmax and Damax

A10.2.1 The d calculation can be evaluated at any point

limits.

along the load versus load-line displacement record using the

equations suggested in the calculation section of Annex A1-

Annex A3 for the different specimen geometries.

A10.2.2 The values of crack length are calculated using the

compliance equations described in Annex A1-Annex A3. The

rotation correction shall be applied to account for geometry

changes due to deformation for the compact, C(T) and disk-

shaped compact DC(T) specimens.

A10.2.3 The unload/reload sequences should be spaced

with the displacement interval less than 0.01 W, the average

being about 0.005 W. If an initiation value of toughness is

being evaluated more unload/reload sequences may be neces-

sary in the early region of the d-R Curve.

A10.3 Measurement Capacity of a Specimen:

A10.3.1 The maximum d capacity for a specimen is given as

follows:

d max 5 bo/20

specimen is given as follows: FIG. A10.1 Typical d-R Curve

27

E 1820 01

A11.1 SignificanceThe value of CTOD, d Ic, determined Plot d versus Da as shown in Fig. A11.1. Draw a construction

by this method characterizes the fracture toughness of materi-

als near the onset of stable crack extension from a preexisting

fatigue crack. dIc is qualified provided that the criteria of 9.1

and A11.8 and A11.9 are satisfied.

equations in Annex A1-Annex A3.

A11.3.1 A correction is applied to the estimated ai data

values to obtain an improved aoq. This correction is intended to

obtain the best value of aoq, based on the initial set of crack

length estimates, ai, data. For data generated using the basic

procedure of 8.4, no adjustments to the data are necessary. To

evaluate dIc using data from the basic procedure, proceed to

A11.7.

A11.3.2 A modified construction line slope, Md, can be

calculated from a fit to the initial di and ai data, and used for the

calculation of dIc.

A11.3.3 Adjustment of aoqThe value of dQ is very depen-

dent on the aoq used to calculate the Dai quantities. The value FIG. A11.1 Definition of Construction Lines for Data Qualification

obtained for aoq in 8.6.3.1 might not be the correct value, and

the following adjustment procedure is required.

A11.3.3.1 Identify all di and ai pairs that were determined line in accordance with the following equation:

before the specimen reached the maximum load for the test. d 5 Md Da (A11.4)

Use this data set of points to calculate a revised aoq from the where Md = 1.4 or Md can be determined from the test data.

following equation: In some cases the initial slope of the d-R curve is steeper than

d 1.4. For these materials it is recommended that a dQ value be

a 5 aoq 1 1.4 1 Bd2 1 Cd 3 (A11.1)

determined using M d = 1.4 such that an experimental Md can

The coefficients of this equation shall be found using a least then be evaluated and verified according to A11.7. An im-

squares fit procedure. Example BASIC code (see Fig. X1.1) to proved dQ can then be evaluated. Under no circumstances can

accomplish this fit is presented in Appendix X1. a value of Md less than 1.4 be used for dQ evaluation.

A11.3.3.2 If the number of points used in A11.3.3.1 to A11.6.2 Plot the construction line on suitable graph paper.

calculate aoq is less than 8, or of these 8 there are less than 3 Draw an exclusion line parallel to the construction line

between 0.4dQ and dQ, or the correlation coefficient of this fit intersecting the abscissa at 0.15 mm (0.006 in.) as shown in

is <0.96, the data set is not adequate to evaluate any toughness Fig. A11.1. Draw a second exclusion line intersecting the

measures in accordance with this method. abscissa at 1.5-mm (0.06-in.). Plot all d-Dap data points that

fall inside the area enclosed by these two parallel lines and

A11.4 If the optically measured crack length, ao, differs capped by dlimit = bo/15.

from aoq by more than 0.01 W, the data set is not adequate in A11.6.3 One d-Dap point must lie between the 0.15-mm

accordance with this method. (0.006-in.) exclusion line and a parallel line with an offset of

0.5 mm (0.02 in.) from the construction line. One d-Dap point

A11.5 Evaluate the final di values using the adjusted aoq of must lie between a line parallel to the construction line at an

A11.3.3.1 and the equations of the applicable Annex A1, offset of 0.5 mm (0.020 in.) and the 1.5-mm exclusion line.

Annex A2, or Annex A3. Acceptable data is shown in Fig. A11.2 with one point in Zone

A and one point in Zone B. The other d-Dap pairs can be placed

A11.6 Calculation of an Interim dQ: anywhere inside the exclusion zone.

A11.6.1 Basic Procedurefor each specimen, calculate Da A11.6.4 Plot a line parallel to the construction line and

as follows: exclusion lines at an offset value of 0.2 mm (0.008 in.).

A11.6.5 To establish a crack initiation measurement point

Da 5 ap 2 ao (A11.2) under dominant slow-stable crack growth, a power law curve

Resistance Curve Procedurefor each ai value, calculate a fitting procedure shall be used. This has the following form:

S D

corresponding Dai as follows: Da C2

dQ 5 C1 (A11.5)

Dai 5 ai 2 a0q (A11.3) k

28

E 1820 01

A11.6.6.5 Project the intercepts of the power law curve with

the 0.15-mm (0.006-in.) and the 1.5-mm (0.06-in.) exclusion

lines vertically down to the abscissa. This indicates Damin and

Dalimit, respectively. Eliminate all data points that do not fall

between D amin and Dalimit as shown in Fig. A11.1. Also

eliminate all data points which lie above the limiting d capacity

where dlimit = bo/15. The region of qualified data is shown in

Fig. A11.2.

A11.6.6.6 At least five data points must remain between

Damin and Dalimit and dlimit. Data point spacing must meet the

requirements of A11.6.3. If these data points are different from

those used in A11.6.6 to evaluate d Q, obtain a new value of dQ

based only on qualified data.

A11.7 An alternative construction line slope, Md, can be

calculated by fitting the least squares linear regression line to

the initial J-R curve data for data in the region 0.2dQ # di #

0.6dQ as evaluated with Md = 1.4. A minimum of 6 data points

FIG. A11.2 Definition of Regions for Data Qualification are required in the evaluation region to allow an experimental

value of Md. Only values of M d$ 1.4 are allowed by this

method. A revised dQ can now be evaluated using this Md by

where k = 1 mm (or 0.0394 in.) depending upon units used. returning to A11.6.1-A11.6.6.

This power law can be determined by using a method of least

A11.8 Qualification of DataThe data shall satisfy the

squares to determine a linear regression line of the following

requirements of 9.1 and all of the following requirements to be

form:

qualified according to this method. If the data do not pass these

lnd 5 lnC1 1 C 2 ln S D

Da

k (A11.6) requirements, no fracture toughness values can be determined

according to this method.

Use only the data that conform to the criteria stated in the A11.8.1 The power coefficient C2 of A11.6.5 shall be less

previous sections. Plot the regression line as illustrated in Fig. than 1.0.

A11.1. A11.8.2 For the Resistance Curve Procedure the following

A11.6.6 The intersection of the regression line of A11.6.4 additional requirements must be satisified:

with the offset line of A11.6.5 defines dQ and DaQ. To A11.8.2.1 aoq shall not differ from ao by more than 0.01 W.

determine this intersection the following procedure is recom- A11.8.2.2 The number of data available to calculate aoq

mended: shall be $8; the number of data between 0.4dQ and dQ shall be

A11.6.6.1 Estimate a dQ (1) value from the data plot of Fig. $3; and the correlation coefficient of the least squares fit of

A11.1. A11.6.5 shall be greater than 0.96.

A11.6.6.2 Evaluate Dap (1) from the following: A11.8.2.3 If an experimental value of Md is determined, at

dQ~1! least 6 data points are required in the region 0.2dQ # di#

Da p~1! 5 M 1 0.2 mm ~0.008 in.! (A11.7)

d 0.6dQ. Only Md # 1.4 can be used by this method.

A11.6.6.3 Evaluate A11.9 Qualification of dQ as dIc

dQ~1! 5 C1 S D

Dap~1!

k

C2

(A11.8) d Q = dIc, a size-independent value of fracture toughness, if:

A11.9.1 The initial ligament, b o $ 35dQ.

A11.6.6.4 Return to A11.6.6.2 and A11.6.6.3 to get Da(i) and A11.9.2 The slope of the power law regression line, dd/da,

dQ(i + 1) until the dQ values converge to within 2 %. evaluated at DaQ must be less than 1.

NOTE A12.1Annex A12 and Annex A13 cover miscellaneous infor- where:

SD

mation.

j

f~a/W! 5 z [C0 1 C1~a/W!

A12.1 Stress-Intensity Factor:

1 C 2~a/W! 2 1 C3~a/W! 3 1 C 4~a/W! 4#

A12.1.1 The elastic stress intensity factor for a specimen is

expressed as follows: A12.1.2 The parameters for f(a/W) are listed in Table A12.1.

Pf~a/W!

K5 (A12.1)

~BBNW!1/2 A12.2 Compliance from Crack Length:

29

E 1820 01

TABLE A12.1 Parameters for Stress-Intensity Factors

Specimens

SE(B) C(T) DC(T)

j 3(S/W) (a/W)1/2 2 + a /W 2 + a /W

z 2(1 + 2a/W) (1 (1 a/W)3/2 (1 a/W)3/2

a/W)3/2

C0 1.99 0.886 0.76

C1 2.15 4.64 4.8

C2 6.08 13.32 11.58

C3 6.63 14.72 11.43

C4 2.7 5.6 4.08

Limits 0 # a /W # 1 0.2 # a/W# 1 0.2 # a/W # 1

S/ W = 4 H/W = 0.6 D/W = 1.35

Refs (10) (10), (11) (12)

Specimen SE(B) C(T) DC(T)

Location vLL vLL vLL

Y S ~W 1 a! ~W 1 a!

~W 2 a! ~W 2 a! ~W 2 a!

A0 1.193 2.163 2.0462

A1 1.980 12.219 9.6496

A2 4.478 20.065 13.7346

A3 4.433 0.9925 6.1748

A4 1.739 20.609 0

A5 0 9.9314 0

Limits 0 # a /W # 1 0.2 # a/W# 0.2 # a/W #

0.975 0.8

Refs (13) (14) (15)

function of crack length as follows:

A12.2.2 Be = B (B BN) 2/B and E8 = E/(1 v 2) for all

v

C5P cases and the other parameters for compliance are listed in

Table A12.2.

Y2

5 B E8 [A0 1 A 1~a/W!

e

A13.1 This annex describes the determination of plane- millisecond is determined. This test time and an optionally

strain fracture toughness (K Ic) properties of metallic materials calculated average stress intensity factor rate, K, characterize

under conditions where the loading rates exceed those for the rapid load test. The yield strength of the material must be

conventional (static) testing [150 000 psiin.1/2/min (2.75 determined or estimated for the loading time of the fracture test

MPam1/2/s)]. and is used in the analysis of the fracture test data. All of the

criteria for static KIcdetermination apply to the rapid-load

A13.2 Summary of RequirementsSpecial requirements plane-strain fracture toughness test. The toughness property is

are necessary for plane-strain fracture toughness testing at denoted by KIc( ) where the time to reach the load correspond-

loading rates exceeding those of conventional (static) plane- ing to KQ in milliseconds is indicated in the parentheses ( ).

strain fracture toughness testing. This description of these

requirements does not include impact or quasi-impact testing A13.3 Significance and UseThe significance of the

(free-falling or swinging masses). Conventional fracture tough- conventional (static) KIc properties applies also to the case of

ness test specimens are prepared as described in this method, rapid loading. The plane-strain fracture toughness of certain

tested under rapid-load conditions, and a fracture toughness materials is sensitive to the loading rate and substantial

value is calculated. Load-deflection, load-time, and deflection- decreases in toughness may be noted as the loading rate

time curves are recorded for each test. The load-deflection increases. Generally, such materials also show a pronounced

curves resulting from these tests are analyzed to ensure that the dependence of KIc on test temperature. For example, the

initial linear portion of the load-displacement record is suffi- loading rate sensitivity of structural grade steels has required

ciently well-defined that PQcan be determined unambiguously. the development of a lower bound KIR curve, given in

In addition, a test time (t), restricted to not less than one Appendix G of Division III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure

30

E 1820 01

Vessel Code,5 for the fracture-safe design of heavy-wall least 20/t (kilohertz) where t is the test time in milliseconds as

nuclear pressure vessels. Additionally, KIc values for steels defined in A13.6.3. As described in A13.4.3, conventional

tested at various temperatures and loading rates are required for mechanical recording devices may not have sufficient fre-

correlation with small-scale production control tests (such as quency response to permit direct plotting of the load versus

the Charpy V-notch test) for setting material specifications and time and the displacement versus time signals.

fracture-safe design procedures.

A13.5 Procedure:

A13.4 Apparatus: A13.5.1 Loading Rate The rate of loading is optional with

A13.4.1 LoadingGenerally, hydraulic machines with the investigator, but the time to reach the load corresponding to

rapid-acting servo controlled valves are used. Depending on KQ shall not be less than 1 ms. Use a preload to eliminate

the compliance of the loading system and the pump capacity, ringing in the load or displacement transducers associated with

an accumulator may be required. clearances in the load train being suddenly taken up by the start

A13.4.2 FixturesThe fixtures used for static plane-strain of rapid loading.

fracture toughness tests are generally suitable for rapid-load A13.5.2 For each test conducted, a load versus time, a

tests. However, consideration should be given to the possibility displacement versus time, and a load versus displacement

that the toughness of the fixture material may be reduced by record shall be obtained. The time scale of these records shall

rapid loading. be accurately determined since the time is used to characterize

A13.4.3 Load and Displacement TransducersThe trans- the test. Examine the time-dependent records for the presence

ducers used for static plane-strain fracture toughness tests are of ringing before reaching the P Q load. Such ringing can result

generally suitable for rapid-load tests. However, these trans- from inertial effects as described in Note A13.2. The special

ducers must have response characteristics that will ensure that record analysis procedure described in A13.6 may be helpful in

inertial effects will not influence the load and displacement assessing the magnitude of such effects.

signals.

NOTE A13.2It should be recognized that some materials may exhibit

NOTE A13.1While not required, the resonant frequencies of these a burst of crack extension at loads less than PQ that is sufficiently abrupt

transducers may be determined by suitably exciting them and observing to produce ringing in the displacement transducer signal. Such an abrupt

the wave characteristic on an oscilloscope. If ringing (high-frequency advance of the crack may be associated with material inhomogeneities

oscillation) is observed within the time period required to reach the PQ local to the fatigue crack tip. If the ringing is severe it may not be possible

load, the stiffness of the transducers should be increased or their mass to unambiguously determine a value for PQ. The presence of such bursts

reduced. Load cells are quite stiff and should provide no problem at the of crack extension should be recorded for those tests having analyzable

minimum loading time of 1 ms. The displacement transducer might be load versus displacement records.

cause for concern depending on its design. The cantilever beam displace- NOTE A13.3The test data may be directly recorded if the recording

ment gage described in Section 6 has been used successfully at loading devices have sufficient frequency response. Generally, it is advantageous

times slightly lower than 1 ms. The resonant frequency of this gage when to use a storage device that will capture the data and permit playing it out

mounted in a specimen in a conventional manner and excited by tapping at a sufficiently slow speed that a pen recorder can be used in producing

is about 3300 Hz. The free-arm resonant frequency is about 750 Hz. Other the required records. Such storage devices are commonly available in the

gages of the same type but having different dimensions should operate form of digital storage oscilloscopes having pen recorder outputs. Sepa-

satisfactorily if their free-arm resonance is at least 750 Hz. The following rate storage instruments are also available. In general these digital storage

equation may be used to estimate the free-arm resonant frequency of such devices have performance characteristics that are more than adequate to

a gage: capture, store, and replay the transducer signals from a 1-ms test. For

F G

example, calculations show that for a typical fracture test, the crack-mouth

B2Eg displacement resolution would be about 0.76 mm/sample (0.030 mil/

f 5 RC (A13.1)

rl4 sample) and the load resolution would be about 712 N/sample (160

lbf/sample). It should be possible to obtain at least 1000 simultaneous

where: samples of load and displacement during such a test. A digital storage

RC = 51.7, scope capable of at least this performance would have the following

f = resonant frequency, Hz, characteristics: maximum digitizing rate of 1 MHz, maximum sensitivity

B = arm thickness, m, of 6100 mV, resolution of 0.025 %, and memory of 4096 words by 12

E = elastic modulus of the arms, MPa, bits. It may be necessary to amplify the output of the clip gage moderately

g = gravitational acceleration, 9.804 m/s2, and possibly that of the load cell depending on its capacity in terms of the

r = density of the arm material, kg/m3, and range required. These values of resolution are based on a total noise figure

l = length of the uniform thickness section of the arms, of about 50 mV.

m. A13.6 Calculation and Interpretation of Results:

The coefficient RC becomes 0.162 if inch-pound units are

used where B is in inches, E is in pound-force per square inch, A13.6.1 Special requirements are placed on the analysis of

g is 386 in./s2, r is pounds per cubic inch, and 1 is in inches. the load versus displacement record. These take into account

A13.4.4 Signal ConditionersAmplification or filtering of the fact that experience (17) has shown load versus displace-

the transducer signals may be necessary. Such signal condi- ment records from rapid-load fracture toughness tests are not

tioning units should have a frequency response from dc to at always as smooth in the linear range as those obtained from

static tests. The special requirements of this annex are designed

to ensure that an unambiguous value of PQ can be determined.

5

Available from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 E. 47th The test time must be determined from the load versus time

Street, New York, NY 10017. record.

31

E 1820 01

A13.6.2 The additional analysis of the load versus displace-

ment record is illustrated in Fig. A13.1. The procedure is as

Record

in determining the specimen size requirements for a valid test

as described in Annex A5. If the rapid load value of KQ is valid

FIG. A13.1 Special Requirements for Analysis of Load Versus using a static yield strength value determined at a temperature

Displacement Records (5 % Secant Line Not Shown) at or above that of the rapid-load test, no further yield strength

considerations are necessary.

follows: Construct the straight line OA best representing the A13.6.5 If the test is invalid using such a yield strength, a

initial portion of the test record that ideally should be linear but tension test should be conducted on the test material at the

may not be smooth. Then construct the line OP5 as described temperature and loading time of the rapid-load toughness test

in Annex A5 and determine PQ. Draw a vertical line at vp with the time to reach the yield load in the tension test

passing through PQ and define Pv at the point of intersection of approximately equal to the time t defined in A13.6.3.

this line with the line OA. Determine 5 % of Pv and construct A13.6.6 In the absence of s YS values as defined in A13.6.5,

two lines BC and DE parallel to OA with BC passing through the dynamic yield strength sYD of certain steels may be

Pv + 0.05 P v and DE passing through PQ (Pv 0.05Pv). Draw estimated using the following equation:

a horizontal line at P = 0.5 PQ. For the test to be valid that A

recorded load versus displacement curve up to PQ must lie sYD 5 sYD 1 2B (A13.2)

Tx log10~2 3 10 7t!

within the envelope described by these parallel lines for the

portion of the record with P # 0.5 PQ. where:

A13.6.3 The test time t in milliseconds is determined from sYS = 0.2 % offset room temperature static yield strength,

the record of load versus time as indicated in Fig. A13.2. t = loading time, ms, and

Construct the best straight line OA through the most linear Tx = temperature of the rapid-load toughness test.

portion of the record. The value t is then determined from the Units:

point of intersection of this line with the time axis to the time If sYS is in megapascals, then A = 1 198 860, B = 187.4 MPa,

corresponding to PQ. This time, t is shown in the parentheses If s YS is in pound force per square inch, then

( ) following KIc. An average stress intensity rate, K, may be A = 174 000, B = 27.2 ksi,

calculated by dividing KQ or KIc by t with the result being If the test temperature T is measured in K, then Tx = 1.8 T, and

expressed in ksiin.1/2/s or MPam1/2/s. It should be recognized If the test temperature T is measured in F, then Tx = (T + 460).

that minor errors in determining the loading time are not NOTE A13.4The equation in A13.6.6 has been found useful only in

significant because significant changes in the toughness require estimating the low-temperature dynamic yield strength of constructional

a change of several orders of magnitude in loading rate. steels having room temperature yield strengths below 480 MPa (70 ksi).

32

E 1820 01

A14.1.1 This annex covers the determination of the rate loading rate such that the time taken to reach Pf (see 7.4.4) is

dependent JIc(t) and the J-integral versus crack growth resis- less than 0.1 minutes.

tance curve (J-R(t) curve) for metallic materials under condi- A14.3.1.4 Minimum test time-tw(t)In J integral fracture

tions where the loading rate exceeds that allowed for conven- testing, the minimum time to the rate dependent JQ(t) or JQc(t)

tional (static) testing, see Section 8.4.2. accepted by this method (18). Test times less than tw will lead

to inaccurate J integral results since large kinetic energy

A14.2 Summary of Requirements components will be present. In this method:

A14.2.1 Special requirements are necessary for J-integral 2p

tw 5 (A14.1)

fracture toughness testing of metallic materials at loading rates =ks/Meff

exceeding those of conventional (static) testing. Standard

fracture toughness test specimens are prepared as described in where:

this method, tested under rapid-load or drop weight conditions, ks = specimen load line stiffness, (N/m),

and a J-R(t) curve is calculated. From this J-R(t) curve a JQ(t) Meff = effective mass of the specimen, taken here to be half

can be evaluated using Section 9 of this method. If unstable of the specimen mass (kg).

fracture intervenes, a JQc(t) can be evaluated at the onset of A14.3.1.5 Test time - tQ(t)(T)In J integral fracture testing,

unstable behavior as in the static case. the observed time to the rate dependent JQ(t).

A14.2.1.1 Load, load line displacement, and time are re- A14.3.1.6 Jc(t)(FL1)In J integral fracture testing, the

corded for each test. The load versus displacement curve rate dependent J integral at the onset of fracture instability

resulting from each test is analyzed to ensure that the initial prior to the onset of significant stable tearing crack extension,

portion of the curve is sufficiently well defined that an see Section 3.2.10, as defined in this annex.

unambiguous curve can be determined from the J(t) versus A14.3.1.7 JQc(t)(FL1)In J integral fracture testing, the

crack length (a(t)) data. In addition a minimum test time is provisional rate dependent J integral at the onset of fracture

calculated from the specimen stiffness and effective mass that instability prior to the onset of significant stable tearing crack

sets a maximum allowed test rate for the material and geometry extension, as defined in this annex.

being tested. At times less than the minimum test time a A14.3.1.8 Ju(t)(FL1)In J integral testing, the rate depen-

significant kinetic energy component is present in the specimen dent J integral at the onset of fracture instability after signifi-

relative to the internal energy, and the static J integral cant stable tearing crack extension, see Section 3.2.11, as

equations presented in this method are not accurate. Evaluation defined in this annex.

of a JQ(t) or JQc(t) at a time less than the minimum test time is A14.3.1.9 JIc(t)(FL1)In J integral testing, the rate depen-

not allowed by this method. dent J integral at the onset of stable crack extension as defined

A14.2.1.2 Evaluation of the J-R(t) curve requires estimation in this annex.

of crack extension as a function of load line displacement or A14.3.1.10 JQ(t)(FL1)In J integral fracture toughness

time using the normalization method of Annex A15. An elastic testing, the provisional, rate dependent, J integral at the onset

compliance method cannot be used. A multiple specimen of stable crack extension as defined in this annex.

method can be used to evaluate JQ(t) from a series of tests, but A14.3.1.11 dJ/dt(FL1T1)In J integral fracture testing,

the resulting J-R(t) curve is not valid according to this method. the rate of change of the J integral per unit time. Two loading

A14.2.1.3 All of the criteria for the static JIc, Jc, and J-R rate quantities are defined in this method, (dJ/dt)I measured

curve evaluations apply to the rapid load J integral fracture before JQ(t), and (dJ/dt)T measured after JQ(t), as defined by

toughness test. The rapid load J integral resistance curve is this annex.

denoted J-R(t), the stable initiation property JIc(t), and the A14.4 Significance and Use

unstable initiation property by Jc(t), where the time to reach the

A14.4.1 The significance of the static J-R curve, JIc, and Jc

instant corresponding to JQ in milliseconds is indicated in the

properties applies also to the case of rapid loading. The J

brackets.

integral fracture toughness of certain metallic materials is

A14.3. Terminology sensitive to the loading rate and to the temperature of test. The

J-R(t) curve and JIc(t) properties are usually elevated by higher

A14.3.1 Definitions:

test rates while Jc(t) can be dramatically lowered by higher test

A14.3.1.1 The definitions given in Terminology E 1823 are

rates.

applicable to this annex.

A14.3.1.2 The definitions given in Section 3 of this method A14.5 Apparatus

are applicable.

A14.5.1 LoadingTwo types of high rate loading systems

are anticipated. Servohydraulic machines with high flow rate

6

This test method is an Annex to ASTM E1820. It under the jurisdiction of

servovalves and high capacity accumulators, or alternatively,

ASTM Committee E08 on Fatigue and Fracture and is the direct responsibility of drop weight impact machines can be used. On-specimen load

Subcommittee E08.08 on Elastic-Plastic and Fracture Mechanics Technology. measurements are recommended for high rate tests. Remote

33

E 1820 01

load cells or other transducers can be used for high rate tests if fixtures are required to obtain a limited extent of stable crack

the requirements of this annex are met. Strain gage bridges are growth for J-R(t) curve development. Soft metal absorbers are

recommended for on-specimen load measurement, as shown in recommended to reduce the initial shock resulting from the

Fig. A14.1 and Fig. A14.2. For each specimen type, four gages impact of the drop tower striker on the specimen surface. A

are connected to construct a four-arm bridge and calibrated high frequency load line displacement transducer and signal

statically before the rapid load test (see A14.5.4). Strain gages conditioner is required for drop tower tests.

with grid patterns of approximately 0.25 B are recommended. A14.5.4 Load TransducersIf remote load transducers are

For SE(B) specimens, gages should be positioned on the used, they shall meet the requirements of Practice E 4. Re-

specimen mid-plane at the specimen span quarterpoints. For quirements on the measured initial specimen stiffness and on

C(T) specimens, the gages should be positioned on the speci- the load and displacement signal smoothness are presented in

men upper and lower surfaces near the specimen mid-plane A14.7.4. Static calibration of the on-specimen strain gage

with the gage edge at least 0.1W behind the initial crack, ao. bridge should be done over a load range from 20 to 100 % of

A14.5.2 Servohydraulic Testing FixturesThe fixtures used the final precracking load. At least five load calibration values

for static fracture toughness tests generally require some shall be used, spaced evenly over this interval, and at least two

modification for rapid load tests. Slack grip fixtures are often repeat data sets are required. The applied load shall exceed 14

necessary to reduce the applied load oscillation and to allow of the calibrated range of the reference load cell used. The

the actuator to accelerate before load is applied to the speci- on-specimen, transmitted load measuring system shall be

men. Soft metal absorbers are generally used in drop tower accurate to within 2 % of the final precracking load over the

tests to reduce the inertial shock caused by the impact of the calibration range.

test machine striker on the specimen surface. A14.5.5 Displacement TransducersThe transducer shall

Both initial and final crack lengths are required by the have response characteristics that allow it to follow the motion

normalization method of J-R(t) curve development of Annex of the specimen while not introducing excessive mechanical

A15. The high rate test must be stopped abruptly to obtain a noise into the measured displacement.

limited specimen deformation and a crack extension increment A14.5.5.1 Cantilever beam displacement gages such as

satisfying the requirement of A15.1.2.1. Rigid stop block those used in static fracture toughness testing may be suitable

fixtures can be used to obtain the abrupt stop. In some cases a for rapid-load testing, see A13.4.3. The cantilever beam dis-

ramp and hold or square wave command signal can be used to placement gage described in Annex A1 of Test Method E 399

obtain limited specimen deformation for the specimen test. has been used successfully at loading times (tQ) slightly less

A14.5.3 Drop Tower Testing FixturesSpecial fixtures are than 1 ms.

necessary for drop tower testing according to this standard. A14.5.5.2 Gap measuring transducers that use either capaci-

Recommended fixtures for SE(B) and C(T) specimens are tance or optical means to measure displacement have also been

shown in Figs. A14.3 and A14.4 respectively (19). Stop block used successfully in rapid-load testing (19). These transducers

FIG. A14.1 Strain Gages Mounted on SE(B) Specimen for Measurement of Transmitted Load

34

E 1820 01

FIG. A14.2 Strain Gages Mounted on C(T) Specimen for Measurement of Transmitted Load

have the advantage that they can be rigidly attached to the generally do not affect the measured displacement. The disad-

specimen, and the vibration characteristics of the transducer vantages are that the output may be non-linear, and the signal

35

E 1820 01

conditioners used with these transducers are often the limiting filter is present in the measurement system it should not

component in frequency response of the displacement mea- introduce more than 0.5 % measurement error, see Guide

surement system. Capacitive transducers have been designed to E 1942.

fit in the notch of the C(T) specimen as shown in Fig. A14.5. A14.5.7 Data SamplingThe user is referred to Guide

Fiber-optic transducers have been used to measure load line E 1942 for a detailed discussion of requirements for data

displacement of SE(B) specimens. If the load line displacement acquisitions systems. The rate at which an analog signal is

is measured relative to the test fixture, care must be taken to sampled to create a digital signal shall be high enough to

account for the effects of fixture compliance and brinnelling on ensure that the peak value is accurately captured. The rate of

the measured displacement, as discussed in 8.3.1.1. data acquisition shall result in the time per data set being less

A14.5.6 Signal ConditionersThe user is referred to Guide than tQ/50.

E 1942 for a detailed discussion of requirements for data

acquisitions systems. The signal conditioner must have suffi- A14.6 Procedure

cient bandwidth to capture the transducer signal without

introducing distortion. A14.6.1 Follow the procedure of Sections 7 and 8 to prepare

A14.5.6.1 Signal conditioners shall have a frequency band- and test specimens. The following items are additional steps

width in excess of 10/tQ for the load signal and 2/tQ for the necessary for high rate testing.

displacement signal(s). The more stringent requirement on the A14.6.2 Calculate tw, the minimum test time from Eq

load signal is necessary to obtain an accurate measurement of A14.1. The loading rate is optional but the time to reach JQ(t)

the elastic component of the J integral near crack initiation. No or JQc(t) shall not be less than tw.

phase shifting of transducer signals is allowed by this A14.6.3 For each test, load and load line displacement are

method. The bandwidth required to accurately capture a signal required as functions of time. Additional crack opening dis-

of that frequency will depend on the type of low-pass filter in placement data, electric potential data, or both, can be acquired

the signal conditioner, and the tolerable error. If a low-pass as well if desired.

36

E 1820 01

FIG. A14.5 High Rate Capacitance COD gage and C(T) Specimen with Attachment Holes

A14.6.4 Install and align the specimen in the test fixtures, A14.7.3 Plot the J integral versus the time as shown in Fig.

establish the test temperature, conduct the test at the desired A14.6. If fracture instability occurs, calculate J based on ao

test rate, collect and store the data required. Remove the test using the basic analysis procedure and plot the data up to and

specimen from the fixture and mark the extent of the ductile including JQc(t) or JQu(t). Use a linear regression analysis to

crack growth according to 8.5.3, break the specimen open evaluate (dJ/dt)I as shown in the example of Fig. A14.5 using

according to 8.5.4 to expose the fracture surface, and measure the data from 0.5JQ(t) to JQ(t), from 0.5JQc(t) to JQc(t), or from

the initial crack length ao, and the final crack length af 0.5 JQu(t) to JQu(t), as the case may be. Extrapolate this line to

according to 8.5.5. the abscissa to evaluate the quantity tQ, as shown in Fig. A14.6.

A14.6.5 If the specimen is characterized by ductile upper A14.7.3.1 A second loading rate, (dJ/dt)T, is defined as the

shelf behavior, the normalization method of Annex A15 can be slope of the J versus time data beyond maximum load, as

used to develop the J-R(t) curve for the test specimen. Using shown in Fig. A14.6, over the range from JQ to JQ +

Section 9, calculate JQ (the tentative JIc) and the corresponding 0.5(JmaxJQ) or the end of test, if fracture instability occurs.

load PQ and time tQ. If a ductile instability occurs so that the A14.7.4 Plot load versus load line displacement for the time

final stable crack length af cannot be determined, the normal- interval 0 # t # tQ, as shown schematically in Fig. A14.7. Use

ization method cannot be used to develop the J-R(t) curve or a linear regression analysis to evaluate the initial specimen

the corresponding JQ for this test specimen. stiffness ks using data over the range from 20 % to 50 % of the

A14.6.5.1 If a pop-in is present, refer to Annex A4 to assess maximum load measured in the test. Plot this best fit line on the

its significance. If the pop-in is significant, Jc(t) or Ju(t) values figure, and also plot two parallel lines of the same slope with

corresponding to the point of onset can be calculated using the y-intercept offset by 610 % of Pmax as shown in Fig.

Annex A6. If fracture instability occurs without significant A14.7. Locate the final crossover DLLF.

ductile crack extension, Jc(t) or Ju(t) values corresponding to A14.7.4.1 For this data set to be qualified according to this

the point of onset can be calculated as defined in Annex A6. If method, the compliance, 1/ks, shall agree with the predictions

fracture instability follows significant ductile crack extension, of Eq A2.10 for the C(T) specimen and Eq A1.9 for the SE(B)

the J-R(t) and JIc(t) can be determined providing that af is specimen within 610 %. Additionally, the measured load

distinguishable. The validity of the J-R(t) curve and JIc(t) are displacement data in the region between 0.3DLLF and 0.8DLLF

subject to the requirements of Annex A8, Annex A9, and should remain within the bounds of the parallel lines con-

Section 9. structed on Fig. A14.7. If these requirements are not met, slack

grips or impact absorbers must be added or modified or the test

A14.7 Qualification of the Data rate reduced to obtain a smoother data set that can be qualified

A14.7.1 Test equipment, specimen geometries, specimen according to this method.

fixture alignment, and measured data must meet all require- A14.7.5 If tQ< tw, the test data are not qualified according to

ments of Sections 6, 7, 8, and 9, except as specifically replaced this method. A slower loading rate must be used, or the

in A14.5. Additional requirements specified here are necessary specimen geometry changed to decrease tw for the test to be

for high rate testing. qualified according to this method.

A14.7.2 All of the test equipment requirements of A14.5 A14.7.6 If the normalization method of Annex A15 is used

shall be met. to obtain JIc, the J resistance curve, or both, at least one

37

E 1820 01

FIG. A14.6 Evaluation of tQ and the Test Rates (dJ/dt)I and (dJ/dt)T

confirmatory specimen must be tested at the same test rate and A14.10 Precision and Bias

under the same test conditions. From the normalization method

A14.10.1 PrecisionThe precision of J versus crack

the load line displacement corresponding to a ductile crack

growth is a function of material variability, the precision of the

extension of 0.5 mm shall be estimated. The additional

various measurements of linear dimensions of the specimen

specimen shall then be loaded to this load line displacement

level, marked, broken open and the ductile crack growth and testing fixtures, precision of the displacement measure-

measured. The measured crack extension shall be 0.5 6 0.25 ment, precision of the load measurement, as well as the

mm in order for these results to be qualified according to this precision of the recording devices used to produce the load-

method. displacement record used to calculate J and crack length. For

the test rates allowed by this annex, if the procedures outlined

A14.8 Qualifying the High Rate Results in this annex are followed, the load and load-line displacement

A14.8.1 All qualification requirements of 9.1, Annex A6, can be measured with an precision comparable with that of the

Annex A8, Annex A9, and A14.7 must be met to qualify the static loading as described in the main body. If the normaliza-

J-R(t) curve, JQ(t) as JIc(t), or JQc(t) as Jc(t) according to this tion function method of Annex A15 is used, the crack length

method. If the normalization method of Annex A15 is used, the and crack extension information must be inferred from initial

additional requirements of this annex shall also be met. and final crack length measurements. The requirement for the

A14.9 Report additional specimen to be tested near to the point of crack

initiation has been added to validate the JIc(t) measurement. A

A14.9.1 The report shall include all the items of Section 10 round robin used to evaluate the overall test procedures of this

as well as the following:

method is reported in (20).

A14.9.1.1 The minimum test time, tw, according to A14.6.2.

A14.9.1.2 The PQ and tQ, corresponding to the calculated A14.10.2 BiasThere is no accepted standard value for

JQ(t) or JQc(t). measures of elastic-plastic fracture toughness of any material.

A14.9.1.3 The (dJ/dt)I, (dJ/dt)T values, or both. In absence of such a true value, any statement concerning bias

A14.9.1.4 If JIc(t) is being reported, the final crack exten- is not meaningful.

sion obtained on the confirmatory specimen of A14.7.6 shall be

reported.

38

E 1820 01

15 % of the initial uncracked ligament.

A15.1.1 The normalization technique can be used in some

A15.2.2 Each load value Pi up to, but not including the

cases to obtain a J-R curve directly from a load displacement

maximum load Pmax, is normalized using:

record taken together with initial and final crack length

measurements taken from the specimen fracture surface. Ad- Pi

F G

PNi 5 W 2 abi hpl (A15.1)

ditional restrictions are applied (see A14.1.3) which limit the WB W

applicability of this method. The normalization technique is

described more fully in Herrera and Landes (21) and Landes, et where abi is the blunting corrected crack length at the ith data

al. (22), Lee (23), and Joyce (20). The normalization technique point given by:

is most valuable for cases where high loading rates are used, or Ji

where high temperatures or aggressive environments are being abi 5 ao 1 2 s (A15.2)

Y

used. In these, and other situations, unloading compliance with Ji calculated from:

methods are impractical. The normalization method can be

used for statically loaded specimens if the requirements of this Ki2 ~1 2 v2!

Ji 5 E 1 Jpli (A15.3)

section are met. The normalization method is not applicable for

low toughness materials tested in large specimen sizes where where Ki, hpl, and Jpli are calculated as in Annex A1 and

large amounts of crack extension can occur without measurable Annex A2 for each specimen type using the crack length ao.

plastic load line displacement. A15.2.3 Each corresponding load line displacement is nor-

malized to give a normalized plastic displacement:

A15.2 Analysis vpli ~vi 2 Pi Ci!

v8pli 5 W 5 W (A15.4)

A15.2.1 The starting point for this analysis is a load versus

load point displacement record like that shown in Fig. A15.1. where Ci is the specimen elastic load line compliance based

Also required are initial and final physical crack lengths on the crack length abi, which can be calculated for each

optically measured from the fracture surface. This procedure is specimen type using the equations of Annex A1 and Annex A2.

applicable only to Test Method E 1820 standard specimen A15.2.4 The final measured crack length shall correspond to

geometries with 0.45 # ao/W # 0.70 and cannot be used if the a crack extension of not more than 4 mm or 15 % of the initial

39

E 1820 01

uncracked ligament, whichever is less. If this crack extension load and displacement pair defined in A15.2.2 and A15.2.3 to

is exceeded, this specimen can not be analyzed according to fall on the function defined in Equation A15.5. To do so, start

this annex. at the first data point with a positive plastic load line displace-

A15.2.5 The final load displacement pair shall be normal- ment, normalize the load and displacement using the initial

ized using the same equations as above except that the final measured crack size ao, and compare the normalized load with

measured crack length, af, is used. Typical normalized data are the result of the normalization function of A15.2.7. Adjust the

shown in Fig. A15.2. crack size until the measured PNi and the functional value of PN

A15.2.6 A line should be drawn from the final load displace- are within 60.1 %. Each subsequent data set is treated simi-

ment pair tangent to remaining data as shown in Fig. A15.2. larly. If each step is started with the crack length resulting from

Data to the right of this tangent point shall be excluded from the previous data set, only small, positive adjustments of crack

the normalization function fit. Data with vpli/W # 0.001 shall length are necessary, and the process of obtaining the crack

also be excluded from the normalization function fit. lengths corresponding to each data set is relatively rapid.

A15.2.7 If at least ten data pairs conform with A15.2.6, the A15.2.8.1 The data of Fig. A15.1, normalized and adjusted

data of Fig. A15.2 can be fit with the following required to fit the normalization function of Fig. A15.3 is shown in Fig.

analytical normalization function: A15.4.

a 1 b v8pl 1 c v8pl2 A15.2.9 Since load, load line displacement, and crack

PN 5 d 1 v8pl (A15.5) length estimates are now available at each data point, the

standard equations of Annex A1 and Annex A2 are used to

where a, b, c, and d are fitting coefficients. This function can

evaluate the J integral at each data point, resulting in a J-R

be fitted to the data of Fig. A15.1 using standard curve fitting

curve as shown in Fig. A15.5. A JIc value can now be

packages available as part of computer spreadsheet programs

evaluated from this J-R curve using the method of Section

or separately. An example fit for the data of Fig. A15.2 is

Annex A9.

shown in Fig. A15.3. The normalization function shall fit all

the data pairs described above (including the final pair) with a

A15.3 Additional Requirements

maximum deviation less than 1 % of the PN at the final point.

Data should be evenly spaced between vpli /W = 0.001 and the A15.3.1 Requirements presented in 9.1, Annex A8, and

tangency point. If less than ten data pairs are available for this Annex A9 shall be met to qualify a J-R curve or a JIc value

fit, including the final measured data pair, this method cannot obtained by the normalization method. Additional require-

be used. ments specific to the use of the normalization method are

A15.2.8 An iterative procedure is now used to force all PNi, presented below.

vpli/W, ai data to lie on Equation A15.5. This involves A15.3.2 If the normalization method is used to obtain JIc, at

adjusting the crack size of each data set to get the normalized least one additional, confirmatory specimen shall be tested at

40

E 1820 01

FIG. A15.2 Normalized Load Versus Displacement Curve Showing Points up to Maximum Load and the Final Data Point

the same test rate and under the same test conditions. From the record used to calculate J and crack length. For the test rates

normalization method the load line displacement correspond- allowed by this annex, if the procedures outlined in this annex

ing to a ductile crack extension of 0.5 mm shall be estimated. are followed, the crack length throughout the fracture tough-

The additional specimen shall then be loaded to this load line ness test can be measured with a precision comparable with

displacement level, marked, broken open and the ductile crack that of the unloading compliance procedure described in the

growth measured. The measured crack extension shall be 0.5 6 main body. A round robin describing the use of the normaliza-

0.25 mm in order for these results, and hence the JIc value, to tion procedure on rapidly loaded SE(B) and C(T) specimens is

be qualified according to this method. presented in (20). A requirement for the testing of a confirma-

tory specimen tested near the point of stable crack initiation is

A15.4 Report present to validate the JIc measurement.

A15.4.1 Section 10 describes the reporting requirements for A15.5.2 BiasCrack lengths generally vary through the

this method. If the normalization function method is used the thickness of fracture toughness specimens. A nine point aver-

following additional items shall be reported. age procedure based on optical measurements obtained from

A15.4.2 If the normalization function is used the coeffi- the post-test fracture surface is generally used to give a

cients of the fit shall be reported as well as the maximum reportable crack length. Different measurements would be

deviation of the fit and the number of data used. obtained using more or less measurement points. Alternative

A15.4.3 If JIc is reported, the accuracy of the confirmatory crack lengths can be estimated using compliance methods,

specimen of A15.3.2 shall be reported. which obtain different average crack length estimates for

irregular crack front shapes. Stringent crack front straightness

A15.5 Precision and Bias requirements are present in this standard to minimize differ-

A15.5.1 PrecisionThe precision of the J resistance curve ences caused by these effects. The normalization method acts

is a function of material variability, the precision of the various to interpolate between optically measured crack average

measurements of linear dimensions of the specimen and testing lengths measured at the start and end of the stable resistance

fixtures, precision of the displacement measurement, precision curve fracture toughness test. This method has been demon-

of the load measurement, as well as the precision of the strated in (20) to give results consistent with those obtained by

recording devices used to produce the load-displacement unloading compliance procedures.

41

E 1820 01

FIG. A15.3 The Normalization Function Shown Fitted to the Normalization Data

42

E 1820 01

FIG. A15.4 Data is Adjusted, Defining the Crack Length Necessary to Place All Points on the Analytical Normalization Function. (Only a

portion of the data is shown for clarity.)

43

E 1820 01

APPENDIX

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1.1 Fig. X1.1 To fit Eq A9.1 to the Ji, ai data using the

method of least squares, the following equation must be set up

and solved for aoq, B, and C:

standard spreadsheet. The following listing gives a Microsoft

QuickBASIC program listing that can also be used to accom-

plish this process. This algorithm can be easily modified to

perform the fit for CTOD calculations required in C4.4.1.

44

E 1820 01

REFERENCES

(1) Joyce, J. A., and Tregoning, R. L., Development of Consistent Size a Test Setup for Measuring Deflections of Single Edge Notched Bend

Criteria for ASTM Combined Fracture Mechanics Standards, Fatigue (SENB) Specimens, Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Vol 12, No. 1,

and Fracture Mechanics, Vol 30, ASTM STP 1360, P. C. Paris, et al, January 1984, pp. 6264.

eds., ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 1999. (7) KarisAllen, K. J. and Mathews, J. R., The Determination of Single

(2) Joyce, J. A., Manual on Elastic-Plastic Fracture: Laboratory Test Edge-Notched Bend Specimen Load-Line Displacement from Re-

Procedures, ASTM Manual Series MNL 27, 1996. motely Located Sensors in Elastic-Plastic Fracture Testing, Journal of

(3) Dawes, M. G., Elastic-Plastic Fracture Toughness Based on the COD Testing and Evaluation, JTEVA, Vol 22, No. 6, Nov. 1994, pp.

and J-Integral Concepts, Elastic-Plastic Fracture ASTM STP 668, J. 581-583.

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