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Lab Report Introduction Bhu Koosongdham 5961073


A study stated that, A selectively permeable cell membrane is one that allows certain
molecules or ions to pass through it by means of active or passive transport. (Selectively permeable
membranes: Definition &Examples, n.d.). There are many types of membrane transport but it can be
mainly divided into two main types which are passive and active. Active transport needs energy to
perform its task, its the movement of molecules from low to high concentration gradient. The
another type is passive transport, which doesnt use energy and is the movement of molecules from
high to low concentration. Passive transport can be further divided into three different types, Simple
Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, and Osmosis. Simple Diffusion is the transporting of small
substances directly through the phospholipid bilayer. The substances to be transported in this type
are mostly non-polar as it can passes through the hydrophobic tail of phospholipid. Facilitated
Diffusion is the transporting of substances through the proteins, the substances usually are large and
have charges (Membrane Transport, n.d.). The last type, Osmosis, is the one we are going to focus
on. Its the movement of water across the membrane from high to low concentration of water where
the solute cant pass through the membrane. The effect of Osmosis reaction can vary due to the
difference concentration of the solution. If a cell is placed into a hypertonic solution (solution that
has higher concentration of solute), water will mostly move out of the cell and make the cell
shrinks. If the cell is placed into a hypotonic solution (solution that has lower concentration of
solute), water will mostly enter into the cell and make it swells. However, if the cell is put into an
isotonic solution or the solution that has the same concentration as the cell, water will move in and
out of the cell equally or the dynamic equilibrium exists between the number of water getting in and
out of cell. (Osmosis: Background, n.d.)
In this experiment, we will test the effects of Osmosis reaction. We are going to use the jelly
and potato to represent the cell. The distilled water and salt concentrated water are prepared as the
hypotonic solution and hypertonic solution respectively, which the jelly and potato will be placed in
these solutions to see the effect of Osmosis reaction. The control variable of the experiment are the
jelly and potato placed in an empty beaker, representing an isotonic solution. The size, mass, and
volume of jelly and potato will be observed and calculated to see the differences from before they
were put into the solutions. This experiment will help us to understand more clearly about the
Osmosis reaction.

Membrane Transport. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Osmosis: Background. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Selectively permeable membranes: Definition &Examples. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Lab Report Introduction Bhu Koosongdham 5961073