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Julieta A. Gregorio

To the course Professors and Students:

As discussed in Chapter 6, intelligence quotient scores seem to be distributed

throughout the population according to the normal curve or bell curve.
Approximately 34.13% of a given population fall one standard deviation above the
mean and another 34.13% fall one standard deviation below the mean. The 68.26%
of the given population are expected to have average mental ability. Meanwhile,
there are students who fall or more standard deviations above the mean that
compose 16% of a given population. These students are described as above
average, bright, superior and high achievers. They belong to the group who are
endowed with intellectual giftedness. It is not unusual for them to graduate with
honors, at the top of their classes, and receive awards for excellent academic
performance,. Meanwhile, there are students who may not be as intellectually
endowed but who, nevertheless, manifest their talent in many ways.
This chapter covers the central concepts on giftedness and talent, the
theories and definitions of human intelligence with an expanded presentation on the
multiple intelligences theory by Howard Gardner. The groundwork for a lifetime of
intelligence traces the essential concepts on the development of the brain, the
seat of mans intellectual capacity. The emerging paradigms and various
definitions of giftedness and talent, the characteristics of gifted and talented
persons, assessment procedures and instructional systems are presented as well.
At the chapter, the students should be able to:
Discuss the nature of the human intelligence as expounded by
philosophers, psychologist and educators through the centuries.
Enumerate and describe the theories and definitions of intelligence;
Enumerate and discuss the multiple intelligences of a person;
Discuss the concept of brain development before and after birth;
Enumerate the ways and means by which intellectual development
may be enhanced;
Compare and contrast the various definitions of giftedness and talent;
Enumerate and discuss the characteristics of gifted and talented
Describe the assessment procedures, curricular program and
instructional systems for gifted and talented students; and
Derive inspiration from the achievements of the great people of the
20th century.

Thirty Years of Enhancing Giftedness and Talent among Filipino

Children and Youth

Dr. Aurora H. Roldan, president of the Talented and Gifted Philippines

Foundation Inc. (TGP) and a pillar in the education of gifted Filipino children and
youth recalled the first step of faith in the Filipino gifted that she took in December
1973 (Sunday Inquirer Magazine, February 20, 1994). She hosted the Childrens
Festival of Words, a creative writing workshop for verbally gifted youngsters. She
wrote that such a move seemed ordinary then when the word gifted was bandied
about very casually. Many schools, parents, government agencies and even private
firms were jumping on the gifted bandwagon.
Dr. Roldan did use the word gifted in the early years of the Childrens
Festival of Words. She simply invited private and public schools to nominate
students as CFW participants on the basis of academic excellence and writing
ability. Through the years, CFW discovered a treasure trove of delightful talents. For
one, Lea Salonga joined the festival as preschooler in 1977. Talented young writers
with exceptional young minds from a wide range of schools and social strata
participated in the workshop.
Dr. Roldan recalled the turning point for gifted education in the
Philippines when she organized and hosted the Fifth World Conference on Gifted and
Talented Children in Manila in August, 1983. Gifted education specialist from all
over the world exchanged views on the theories and practices on gifted education.
The event provided the impetus for the establishment of the Talented and Gifted
Philippines Foundation, Inc. (TAG- Philippines). Form then on, TAG has actively
sought to fulfill its objectives of conducting research on the unique characteristics,
needs and concerns of the Filipino gifted child and his or her family, to help design
and implement educational provisions, both in and out of school, to best nurture
such as giftedness, and to develop and publish instructional and reference materials
for educators, parents and the gifted youth themselves.

Vignettes on Children and Youth Who are gifted and Talented

The following articles highlight the achievements of young Filipinos

who show advanced cognitive development, superior intellectual ability and talent
in the arts. These children and youth are gifted and talented. Find out what their
characteristics are that make them different from children and youth of the same
chronological ages.

Meet the Gifted

By Nathalie Tomada, The Philippine Star, May 19, 2003

Conversations have never been this interesting, Emil Justin Cebrian

talks about his admiration for the wisdom of Confucius, his thoughts on the spread
of the SARS epidemic, and his disapproval on the use of contraceptives- just like any
learned, opinionated adult. Except that he is only 22 years old.
Jon Brian Santiago Tiosin, whose first word when he was about four
months old is supercalifragilis (go figure!) Has been ploughing through books at
an age when others were just getting past thumb-sucking. From the middle earth
and Tolkien, he claims to be now smitten with Michaelangelo and the History of Art.
Bryan is only seven years old.
Meet the gifted children. alam ko naman, higher level ang pagiisip ko
kaysa iba. Justin says, insisting that most of the time, I dont think about it. Im
really just an ordinary kid. Hardly. According to parents, Fred and Ceres, Emil Justin,
named after the great French sociologist Emil Durkheim, was already talking before
he turned one. He mastered the National Anthem, flags, capitals and Philippine
presidents before he turned two. After several accelerations, the award-winning
story teller of Museo Pambata is now an incoming senior at Arellano High School
and, as usual, gunning for the highest honors. When that happens, he will perhaps
be the youngest valedictorian in the country.

Whiz kid
By Edmund M. Silvestre, The Philippine Star, July 23, 2003

Omar Parrenas Rizwan of East Hanover, New Jersey is a Microsoft

Certified Professional (MCP), recognized and promoted by Microsoft as an expert
with the technical skills needed to design, implement, and support solutions with
Microsoft products.
His MCP lapel pin, certificate of excellence and official ID card identifies
his status to colleagues and clients, certifying that he has the skill to work in
network support for many companies.
The thing is, Omar just turned nine last April.
Omar is a computer whiz kid, the youngest Microsoft Certified
Professional in the world. Presently, he is taking a series of exams to become a
Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer by the time he turns ten in April 2004.
I dont know where that amazing talent came from because there was
never a genius in my family, says Rizwans mother, Lea Parrenas-Rizwan, a
registered nurse and native of Pototan, Iloilo. My husband is a physician and hes
smart and intelligent, but not that extraordinarily like Omar.
Her Pakistani-American husband, Dr. Mohammad Rizwan, an internal
medicine specialist at New Jerseys Columbus Hospital, is also in awe of his eldest
sons advanced computer skills.
Maybe its pure God-given talent, Dr. Rizwan says. And he deserves it
because hes a very good boy and he works hard for it.
Omar, his parents recall, began reading his ABCs at 18 months. At age two
and a half, he could identify all car models. At three, he could read traffic signs and
tell directions.
His interest in computer began at the age 5 when his father bought a
computer book. Omar who was already reading childrens books since he was three,
saw the computer book and the rest, as they say, is history.
His learning of the computer was gradual, but his being a fast reader helped
a lot., says Mrs. Rizwan.
While other kids his age are throwing tantrums at Toys R Us outlets, Omar
would rather be at Barnes and Noble, quietly browsing through computer books.
Its very seldom that he would ask for a toy, hed rather read his computer
books at home, says Dr. Rizwan. But he does have the complete Harry Potter
A week before turning nine, Omar took the MCP exam at Infotech Research
International, an East Hanover testing facility. Omar passed the test in half the time-
45 minutes- leaving his fellow examinees, all adults flabbergasted.
Those are not ordinary exams. Omar must be a very brilliant young man.
The exam is not the kind of thing that you can just study for and regurgitate, says
Dr. Merten, vice president of education for the Chubb Institute, a reputable technical
school. The multiple choice test ask very specific questions about Windows XP, such
as the best way to configure a computer to run a particular application. Examinees
must know all sorts of computer applications known only in the world of computer
geeks. Many testing centers offer preparation classes, but Omar did his own
preparation in the confines of his familys upscale home.
Omar is now preparing to be a Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer. The
certification which encompasses all kinds of subjects from computer hardware to
database design and management and network infrastructure design requires nine
exams. Omar who eventually wanted to be a programmer passed the second exam
in ten minutes. He hopes to pass all nine tests before he turns ten.
His aunt says that despite his enormous talent, hes a very normal kid. He
usually sits on her lap and talks about computers. He also loves to tease his sisters.
But he never brag about his talents. He is not affected by all the attention hes
getting. When asked about his favorite TV shows, he said he does not like TV and
does not watch it.
Omar, who is the recipient of the 2000 Young Writers and Illustrators Award
and a straight student who plays chess, piano and soccer. He had become too
advanced for his class where he will be in fourth grade this fall. As of now, even Bill
gates men are unsure of what make of Omar, who is still years away from the legal
working age.

Aliw awards affirms Karels exceptional gift

By Nestor U. Torre, Philippine Daily Inquirer, August 28, 2004

When the Aliw foundation recently gave its new Best Female Artist award to
Karel for Magnificat, friends were especially thrilled, because they had practically
seem the popular teen talent grow up in front of their very eyes.
That was because, since 1995, the musical had been holding some of its
rehearsals in the home of lead singer-actress Pinky Marquez, Karels mom.

Passion for theater

In some TV interviews, Karel has said that her love for performing bloomed
during those rehearsals and performances, during which she imbibed the passion
for theater that her mother Pinky shared with the musicals other original
performers like Andy Bais, Rito Asilo, Jingle Buena, Dulce and Bodjie Pascua.
For our part, we have always been struck by Karels unique
combination of Frenchy looks and husky singing voice. We urged Pinky to give her
young daughter opportunities to perform, but it took years before Karel herself
realized that she felt most fulfilled when she was singing and acting.
Once she had come to that realization, however, nothing could stop
the already teenage Karel from quickly making her mark in the biz.
As an actress, she became regular on some TV shows for teen viewers.
Then, her singing talent got noticed when she guest in some musical programs. Her
unusual one-two punch in terms of acting and singing made her stand out even
more in a field of beautiful young talents- who could do neither well!

Career boost

But Karels biggest career boost came when she was chosen over many other
auditionees for the coveted slot of veejay.
Despite all these success, Karel continues to dream of doing more than just
walk-on roles in theatrical productions. Which is why we sat down with Pinky and
Karel to conceptualize a play that will star Pinky and KArel in a story about a mother
and daughter, mounted early next year.
Karel said she was thrilled to be playing her first major role onstage, and was
especially delighted that she was acting with her mother.
Karels new Aliw award affirms what those whove known for years have long
been aware of: that shes a young talent with a genuine gift and love for performing
that will take her far in the field of entertainment.

Great People of the 20th Century: Gifted and Talented All

In 1996, the editors of TIME, the weekly magazine, published a special edition
that features the remarkable characters that influenced the forces and great events
of the past one hundred years. Titled Great People of the 20 th Century, the book
presents the biographies and achievements of the most memorable and
unforgettable individuals. As stated in the book, the six sections brim with insights
into life and times of an unforgettable gallery of men and women;: the diplomats
and the warriors, the scientists and the moguls, the explore who surprised us and
the artist who moved us, these are:

The Leaders- the diplomats and dictators who have shaped the
destiny of nations: American Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow
Wilson, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon
B. Johnson and Richard Nixon; Russian Marxist Vladimir I. Lenin and Joseph
Stalin, Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev, Chinese Communist Leader Mao
Zedong, German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, British Prime Minister Winston
Churchill, French President Charles de Gaulle.
The activists- the men and women who fought for change from
outside the traditional halls of power: Indian peace advocate Mohandas
Gandhi, South African President Nelson Mandela, Israeli President David Ben-
Gurion, Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran, German doctor Albert Schweitzer, the
Dalai Lama of Tibet, Yugoslavian Mother Teresa, American educator John
Dewey, Italian educator Maria Montessori, American Margaret Sanger,
American preacher Billy Graham, Poe John XXIII, Pope John Paul II, Polish
President Lech Walesa, and Philippine President Corazon C. Aquino.

The pioneers- the men and women who have dared to explore new
fields and breakdown barriers: American pilot Charles Lindbergh who
pioneered the first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean, American pilot
Amelia Earhart, the first woman to fly the Atlantic solo, American pilots Wilbur
and Orville Wright, French Jacques Costeau who explore the depths of the
oceans, mountain climbers Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norkey, American
environmentalist Rachel Carson, Viennese father of psychoanalysis Sigmund
Freud, Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung, French philosopher Jean-Paul
Sartre, American baseball player Jackie Robinson.

The innovators- the gifted few whose visions have changed our lives:
American Henry Ford, founder of Ford Motor, Co., American pilot Eddie
Rickenbacker, American newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst,
American cartoon filmmaker Walt Disney, British economist John Maynard
Keynes, Russian David Sarnoff, the father of mass media, American Ted
Turner, founder of Cable News Network or CNN, American industrialists Tom
Watson Sr. And Jr. who introduced the International Business Machines or IBM,
American computer genius and founder of Microsoft, Bill Gates.

The Scientist- the searchers whose work has revolutionalized human

society in the span of only 100 years. These are: German physicist Albert
Einstein who revolutionalized modern physics with his work on the atomic
nature of matter, Polish scientist Marie Curie who discovered radium, Scottish
doctor Alexander Fleming who discovered the antibiotic nature of penicillin;
British Francis Crick and American James Watson who identified the double
helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA, American Dr. Jonas E. Salk
who discovered the polio vaccine, American chemist Linus Pualing for his
work on chemical bond, British mathematician and theoretical physicist
Stephen Hawking, wheel chair bond due to debilitating disease that paralyzed
him, considered as the best-known scientist in the world, American
astronomer Edwin Hubble who proposed the theory of expansion of the
universe, Kenyan born paleoanthropologists Louis and Mary Leaky who
discovered bone fragments of apelike prehumans called homo habilis,
American anthropologist Margaret Mead.

The creators- the artist whose work has shaped and mirrored
the century: Spanish visual artist and painter Pablo Picasso,
considered as the centurys most significant artist who created the
cubist style of art, German architect Mies Avn Der Rohe, American
photographer Alfred Stieglitz, American painter Georgia OKeefe,
American novelist James Joyce, British novelist Virginia Woolf, Irish
playright George Bernard Shaw, British stage and film actor Laurence
Olivier, stage and film comedian Charlie Chaplin, Russian neoclassical
choreographer Balanchine, Russian composer Igor Stravinsky,
American jazz band leader Louis Armstrong, American composer
George Gershwin, American rock and roll Elvis Presley, British pop
stars band called the Beatles composed of bassist Paul McCartney,
lead guitarist George Harisson, rhythm guitarist John Lennon and
drummer Ringo Starr.

The Central Concepts of Giftedness and Talent

The prominent men and women from different countries all over the world
who have carved a name for themselves in their respective fields of endeavor,
as well as the many other people who have excelled in their lines of expertise,
have four things in common: they possess the central elements of giftedness
and talent, namely, intelligence or high intellectual ability, creativity, talent, and
task commitment.
Can you imagine what it is to be like Lea Salonga or Cecile Licad who attained
international fame and brought honors to our country through their outstanding
achievements in the performing arts at a very young age? Or Emil Justin Cebrian,
jon Bryan Santiago Tiosin and Omar Parrenas Rizwan whose remarkable and
impressive academic achievements at an early age accelerated their education?
Their performance in school indicates their mental ages are far advanced than
their chronological ages. Average boys and girls would be much older than these
young achievers before they can even approximate their feats.
Or, how about our national hero. Dr. Jose Rizal, who is one among the few
geniuses of renown in the world? Not far behind are the other exceptional Filipino
heroes whose intelligence and creative talents showed in the roles they played in
the attainment of our freedom from the foreign conquerors. Likewise, worthy 0of
recall are the many other compatriots and leaders, both rich and poor, in various
fields of endeavors, who pursued their commitment to serve the people through
significant leadership roles, innovative ideas, creative inventions and similar
Then there is the long list of philosophical thoughts, scientific theories,
inventions and technological advances through the centuries that intelligent and
creative human minds evolved in the sciences, the various fields in medicines,
mathematics, the arts and other areas. The achievements introduced dramatic
changes in human lives such as increase in the life span, cure for diseases, more
convenient, comfortable and enjoyable life styles and information technology.

Human Intelligence

The nature of the human intellect has fascinated scholars and became the
subject of debates, studies and propositions as early as during the time of the
Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. When the field of psychology began to
emerge in the 17th and 18th centuries as a discipline separate from philosophy,
mathematics and biology, individuals such as John Locke, Charles Darwin, Francis
Galton and Charcot continued to influence the study of intelligence. A number of
prominent European schools of psychology flourished until the early part of the
19th century. Some American psychologists studied in Europe and returned home
to establish influential psychology programs in the United States. The study of
intelligence gained popularity and greatly influenced by the works of Wilhelm
Wundt, James MsKeen Cattell, G.S Hall and Hermann Ebbinghaus.
As the students of the great schools began to form their own programs, the
number of theoretical and empirical incestiagtions of intelligence increased. The
prominent psychologist of the 20th century was Edward L. Thorndike, Alfred
Binet, Pearson, Charles Spearman, Goddard, stern, Theodore Simon. Yerkes,
Lewis, Terman, Hollingworth, Goodenough, Vigotsky, and Jean Piaget.
In the latter part of the 20 th century, new statistical designs and modern
experimental strategies were developed that made psychological testing popular
in most western countries. The theory of multiple intelligences began to appear,
particularly in the work of Thurstone and Guilford. The prominent theorists were
Burt, Thurstone, Wechsler, Guilford, Vernon, Hunt, Anna Anastasi, Thorndike,
Inhelder, Taylor and Eysenck.
Current trends in intelligence theory and research involve the formation of
more complex multiple intelligence theories. Standardized tests to measure
intelligence are used only as one of the source of data about mental ability. The
fields of genetics and neurological research methodologist on the measurement
of intelligence have generated a number of factors on intelligence. In addition to
mental ability, other data are considered simultaneously in determining the
intelligence level of the person. Data are derived from the environment,
biological factors and psychological aspects of the intellect. The prominent
theorists in the present movement include R. Catell (1905-1998), Caroll (1916- ),
Jensen (1923- ), Kamin (1924- ), Renzulli (1936- ), Gardner (1943- ), and
Sternberg (1949- )
While a big number of definitions of intelligence have been published, there
seems to be consensus or agreement on what intelligence actually is. Catell,
(1971) defines intelligence as a composite or combination of human traits which
includes the capacity for insight into complex relationships, all of the process
involved in abstract thinking, and a capacity to acquire new capacity.

Theory and Definitions of Intelligence

1. The Binet-Simon scale (1890s)

The modern approach to understand the concept of intelligence began with

the work of Alfred Binet,a French psychologist (1857-1911) and his colleague,
Theodore Simon (1873-1961). Binet was hired by the Paris school system to
develop tests that would identify children who were not learning and would not
benefit from further education. Together, Binet and Simon developed and co-
authored a test to roughly measure the intellectual development of young
children between the ages of three to twelve. They wanted to find a way to
measure the ability of children to think and reason. Binet developed a test that
asked children to follow commands, copy patterns, name objects and put things
in order or arrange them properly. From Binets work, the term intelligence
quotient or IQ evolved. The IQ is the ratio of mental age to chronological age
with 100 as the average. So, an 8-year-old who passes the test for 8-year-olds
has an IQ of 100 which is the average for his or her chronological age.
Meanwhile, an 8-year-old who passes the test for 10-year-olds has an IQ of 10/8
x 100 or 125. This childs IQ is above the average for his or her chronological
age. He or she is brighter or more superior than other children his or her age.
Binets and Simons work influenced the growth of the intelligence testing

2. Spearmans Two-factor Theory of Intelligence (1904)

Charles Spearman, a British psychologist (1863-1945), advanced the two-

factor theory of intelligence g and s. Thus, the performance of any
intellectual act requires some combination of g or general factor which is
available to the same degree for all intellectual acts, and of s or specific
factors which are specific to that act and which varies in strength from one act to
The theory explains that if one knows how a person performs on one task
that is highly saturated with g, one can safely predict a similar level of
performance for another highly g saturated task. Prediction of performance on
tasks with high s factors is less accurate. Nevertheless, since g pervades all
tasks, prediction will be significantly better than chance. Thus, the most
important information to have about a persons intellectual ability is an estimate
of his g.

3. Termans Stanford Binet Individual Intelligence Test (1906)

Lewis Madison Terman, an American cognitive psychologist (1877-1956),
published a revised and perfected Binet-Simon Scale for American populations in
1906 while he was at Stanford University. In 1916 he adopted William Sterns
suggestion that the ratio between mental and chronological age be taken as a
unitary measure if intelligence multiplied by 100 to get rid of the decimals. The
resulting intelligence quotient became known as the IQ. The classic formula for
the IQ is: IQ= mental age divided by chronological age x 100. By far, the
Termans Stanford Binet Individual Intelligence Test is considered as the best
available individual test of intelligence.

4. Thorndikes Stimulus Response Theory

Edward L. Thorndike, an American psychologist (1874-1949), and his students

used objective measurements of intelligence in human subjects as early as
1903. During the 1920s he developed a multifactor rest of intelligence that
consisted of completion, arithmetic, vocabulary and directions tests (CAVD). The
logic behind the CAVD tests eventually became the foundation of modern
intelligence tests.
Thorndike drew an important distinction among three broad classes of
intellectual functioning: abstract intelligence that is measured by standard
intelligence tests, mechanical intelligence which is the ability to visualize
relationships among objects and understand how the physical world works, and
social intelligence which is the ability to function successfully in interpersonal
He proposed that abstract intelligence has four dimensions, namely, altitude
or the complexity or difficulty of tasks one can perform, width or the variety of
tasks of a given difficulty, area of which is the function of width and altitude, and
speed which is the number of task one can complete in a given time.
Thorndike is cited for his work on what he considered as two most basic
intelligences: trial and error and stimulus response association. His proposition
stated that stimulus response connections that are repeated are strengthened
while those that are not used are weakened.

5. L.L Thurstones Multiple Factors Theory of Intelligence (1938)

Louis L. Thgurstone was an American psychometrician (1887-1955) who

studied intelligence test and perception through factor analysis. His theory
stated that intelligence is made up of several primary mental abilities rather
than a general factor and several specific factors. His Multiple factors theory of
Intelligence identified the seven primary mental abilities as verbal
comprehension, word fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, associative
memory, perceptual speed, and reasoning. He developed the Test of primary
Mental Abilities in 1938. Thurstone discovered later on that the abilities are not
completely independent of one another. Instead, there were modest correlations
among the abilities.
Thurstone was among the first to propose and demonstrate that there are
numerous ways in which a person can be intelligent. His multiple factors theory
has been used in the development of intelligence tests that yield a profile of the
persons performance in each of the seven primary mental abilities.
6. Catells Theory on Fluid and crystallized Intelligence

Raymond B. Catell, a British-American psychologist (1905-1998), theorized

that there are two types of intelligence.
Fluid intelligence is essentially non-verbal and relatively culture free. Fluid
intelligence involves adaptive and new learning capabilities, related to mental
operations and processes on a capacity, decay, selection and storage
information. This type of intelligence is more dependent on the physiological
structures or parts of the brain that are responsible to intellectual behavior. It
increases until adolescence, then goes through a plateau and begins to gradually
decline with the degeneration of the brains physiological structures.
Crystallized intelligence develops through the exercise of fluid intelligence. It
is the product of the acquisition of knowledge and skills that are strongly
dependent upon exposure to culture. It is related to mental products and
achievements and highly influenced by formal and informal educational factors
throughout the life span. Crystallized intelligence continues to increase through
middle adulthood.

7. Guilfords Theory on the Structure of the Intellect (1967)

J.P. Guilford, an American psychologist, advanced a general theory of human

intelligence whose major application or use is for educational research,
personnel selection and placement and the education of gifted and talented
children. The theory on the structure of the intellect (SOI) advances that human
intelligence is composed of 180 separate mental abilities (the initial count was
120) that have been identified through factor analysis.
The mental abilities are composites of three separate dimensions, namely,
contents, operations and products.

The four types of contents are:

1. figural or the properties of stimuli experienced through the senses-

visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory and kinesthetic. Examples are shapes
and forms, sizes, colors, sounds, tastes, temperature, intensity, volume;
2. symbolic or letters, numbers, symbols, designs;
3. semantic or words and ideas; and
4. behavioral or actions and expressions of thoughts and idea.

The five kinds of operations are:

1. cognition or the ability to gain, recognize and discover knowledge;

2. memory or the ability to retain, store, retrieve and recall all the
contents of thoughts;
3. divergent production or the ability to produce a single best solution
to a problem
4. convergent production or the ability to produce a single best
solution to a problem; and
5. evaluation or the ability to render judgment and decide whether the
intellectual contents are correct or wrong, good or bad.

The six kinds of products are:

1. units that come in single number, letter or word;
2. classes or a higher order concept, for example, men and women
3. relations or connections between and among classes and concepts;
4. systems or the process of ordering or classification of relations;
5. transformation or the process of altering or restructuring of
intellectual content; and
6. implication or the process making inferences from separate pieces if

Guilford developed a wide variety of psychometric tests to measure the

specific mental abilities predicted by the theory. The tests provided the operational
definitions of the mental abilities proposed by the theory.
The following examples illustrate three closely related abilities that differ in
terms of operation, content and product.

1. Evaluation of semantic units or EMU is measured by the ideational fluency

tests in which respondents are asked to make judgments about concepts.
For example, Which of the following objects best satisfies the criteria
hard and round: an iron, a button, a tennis ball, or a light bulb?
2. Divergent production of semantic units or DMU would require the
respondent to list all the items he or she can think of that are hard and
3. divergent production of symbolic units or DPU involves a different content
category. For example: list all the words that end in ion.

8. Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of intelligence (1982)

Robert Sternberg of Yale University theorized that intelligence is a fixed
capacity of a person. Hence, with higher intellectual capabilities, as in the case of
children and youth who are gifted and talented, almost every task can be achieved
at a high level of performance. The capabilities that underlie intelligence will enable
a highly intelligent child at any age, to do better than
His peers or age mates. Intellectual abilities must increase with age, given
the supportive environment and effective teaching learning conditions.
The triarchic theory of intelligence seeks to explain in an integrative way the
relationship between:
1. Intelligence and the internal world of the individual, or the mental
mechanisms that underlie intelligent behavior.
2. intelligence and external world of the individual, or the use of these mental
mechanisms in everyday in life in order to attain an intelligent fit to the
environment; and
3. intelligence and experience, or the mediating role of ones passage through
life between the internal and external worlds of the individuals.

Sternberg calls his theory triarchic because intelligence has three main parts
or dimensions: contextual part, an experiential part, and a componential part.

Contextual intelligence emphasizes intelligence in its socio cultural

contexts. Thus, intelligence for a child requires adaptive behavior (childrens basic
cognitive skills according to Gesell) that is not required of an older person. Similarly,
it may be stated that intelligence for a Filipino child, especially those who are
deprived of the basic needs requires adaptive behavior that is not required of an
American child. Intelligence for children in rural areas requires adaptive behavior an
required of children who live in urban areas. Persons who are high on the contextual
dimension of intelligence quickly recognize what factors influence success on
various tasks. They are adept at both adapting to and shaping their environment so
that they can accomplish their goals.

Experiential intelligence emphasizes insight and the ability to formulate

new ideas and combine seemingly unrelated facts or information. Sternberg
emphasizes the role of experience. He says that the habitual, highly practiced ways
of dealing with the environment are not the true indicators of intelligence. Rather, it
is the way a person responds to an event that is new, novel and even unexpected
that shows how smart he or she is.

Componential intelligence emphasizes the effectiveness of information

processing. Sternberg defines component as the underlying cognitive mechanisms
that carry out the adaptive behavior to novel situations. The cognitive mechanisms
are equivalent to the skills, knowledge and competencies that a person would have
required mainly through education and experience. There are two kinds of
components performance components and metacomponents.
Performance components are used in the actual execution of the tasks.
They include encoding, comparing, chunking and triggering actions and speech. The
metacomponents are the higher order executive processes used in planning,
monitoring and evaluating ones working memory program.
Sternberg has identified six significant metacomponents. As he
emphasized time and again, metacomponents form the basis for developmental
changes in intelligence. All activation and feedback are filtered through these
elements, and if they do not perform their function well, then it will not matter very
much what the other kinds of components do.
1. recognition of what has to be done; understanding the task at hand;
2. selecting performance components and encoding important features of a
3. selecting an appropriate mental representation visually or verbally;
4. organizing performance components by formulating plans for organizing and
sequencing the steps or procedures in the process;
5. deciding how to allocate attention and resources; and
6. monitoring ones performance.

Persons who are high in componential intelligence do very well in abstract

thinking and are able to process information effectively. They think analytically,
critically and creatively.

9. Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983)

Howard Gardner is a psychologist and professor at Harvard University

Graduate School of Education and director of Project Zone Based on his studies of
many7 people from different walks of life in everyday circumstances and
professions, he developed his breakthrough theory of multiple intelligences or MI.
he did a massive synthesis of a, lot of research including brain research,
evolutionary research, and genetic research. He did brain research on stroke
victims, prodigies, people with autism and even idiot savants. He had authored 20
books and hundreds of articles on MI. Gardner was in Manila in April, 2005 for the
first Philippine convention on Mi with the theme Changing minds: teaching and
Parenting for the 21st Century.

The Multiple Intelligences

The MI theory advances that in teaching anything, a parent or teacher can

draw on a childs many intelligences which are linguistic, logical-mathematical,
bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. His
theory rejects the idea of central intelligence, rather, as the author says, it
subscribes to: each his own learning style.

Gardner emphasizes that MI is originally not an educational theory. It is a

theory on how the mind is organized and developed. As opposed to general
intelligence which implies that there is one computer in the brain that determines
whether a person will be competent or incompetent at everything, he describes the
mind as having 7, 8, 9 or even a dozen different computers. Some people have
better computers than others because of who their parents are, where they live and
how they were trained.

1. Linguistic Intelligence

Linguistic intelligence is the ability to use to excite, please, convince,

stimulate or convey information. The indicators of linguistic intelligence are
manifested by persons who:
Ask a lot of questions, particularly why and what if questions.
Have a good vocabulary, enjoy talking, can spell easily.
Enjoy playing with words, word games, word puzzles, rhymes
Enjoy reading, love stories, jokes, riddles
Like to write
Can talk about language skills

Linguistic intelligence can be developed through the use of the following

activities: reading fiction and non fiction, literary work, newspapers,
magazines, reports, biographies, bibliographies, the internet; engaging in
story telling, debates, plays, listening to audiotapes, watching films, writing
reports, stories, and speeches.

2. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
Logical-mathematical intelligence is the ability to explore patterns, categories
and relationships by manipulating objects or symbols and to experiment in
controlled, orderly ways. The indicators of logical-mathematical intelligence are
manifested by persons who:
Want to know how things work.
Are interested in if then logic
Oriented towards rule-based activities
Play with numbers, enjoy solving problems
Love to collect and classify things

Logical-mathematical intelligence can be enhanced with the use of the

following activities: mazes, puzzles, outlines, matrices, sequences, codes,
patterns, logic, analogies, timelines, equations, games, formulas, theorems,
calculations, computations, syllogisms, and probabilities.

Perhaps who excel in the following professions have high logical-

mathematical intelligence: mathematicians, scientist, computer engineers and
programmers, doctors, astronomers, inventors, accountants, lawyers,
economists, detectives, and trivia champions.

3. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence refers to the ability to use fine and gross motor
skills, in sports, the performing arts and crafts production. The indicators of this
component of the multiple intelligences are observed among persons who:
Have a good sense of balance, good eye-hand coordination
Have sense of rhythm, graceful in movement
Communicate ideas through gestures, body movement and facial
expressions read body language
Have early ease in manipulating objects and toys
Solve problems through doing
The following activities develop bodily kinesthetic intelligence: role-
playing, dramatization, skits, mimes, body language, gestures, facial
expressions, dancing, sports, games, experiments, laboratory works.
Persons who are successful in the following professions have highly
bodily-kinesthetic intelligence; ballet and folk dancers, choreographers,
sculptors, professional
athletes, gymnasts, surgeons, calligraphers, jewelers, watch makers,
carpenters and circus performers.

4. Spatial Intelligence

Spatial intelligence is the ability to perceive and mentally manipulate a firm

or object, perceived and create tension, balance and composition in a visual or
spatial display.

Some indicators of this aspect of MI are manifested by persons who:

Like to draw, doodle, sketch
Have a keen eye for detail
Like to take things apart, like to build things
Have a good sense of relating parts to the whole
Enjoy puzzles, riddles
Remember places by description or image, can interpret maps
Enjoy orienteering, mechanically adept

Some of the activities that enhance spatial intelligence are: illustrations,

constructions, maps, paintings, drawings, mosaics, sketches, cartoons,
sculptures, storyboards nand videotapes.

Persons who are successful in the following professions have high spatial
intelligence: urban planners, architects, engineers, surveyors, explorers,
navigators, mechanics, curators, map designers, fashion designer, florists,
interior designers, visual artist, muralists, photographers, movie directors, set
designers, chess players and cartoonist.

5. Musical Intelligence

Musical intelligence is the ability to enjoy, perform or compose a musical

piece. The indicators of musical intelligence are shown by persons who:
Have sensitivity to sound patterns, hum or move rhythmically
Capture the essence of a beat and adjust movement patterns
according to changes
Have a good sense of pitch
Hum tunes, can discriminate among sounds
Play with sounds, remember tunes and sound patterns

Persons who succeed in the following occupations have high musical

intelligence: composers, musicians, conductors, critics, opera artists, singers,
rappers, instrument makers and players, and sound recording artists.

6. Interpersonal Intelligence
Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand and get along with
others. The indicators of the multiple intelligences are observed in persons who:
Demonstrates empathy towards others, feel so much for others
Are sensitive to the feelings of others
Act as mediator or counselor to others
Relate as well to peers and adults alike, like to be with other people
Are admired by peers, make friends easily
Display skills of leadership
Work cooperatively with others
Enjoy cooperative and group activities

The types of activities that will develop interpersonal intelligence include

group projects and charts, communication, social interaction, dialogs,
conversations, debates, arguments, consensus building, group work on murals and
mosaics, round robins, games, challenges and sports.

People who succeed in the fields of endeavor have high interpersonal

intelligence: teachers, social workers, doctors and nurses, anthropologists,
counselors, priest/ministers, nuns, ombudsman, managers, politicians, sales person
and tour guides.

7. Intrapersonal Intelligence

Intrapersonal intelligence is the ability to gain access to and understand

ones inner feelings, dreams and ideas. The indicators of this element of multiple
intelligences are evidenced by people who:
Are goal-oriented, develop plans carefully
Are aware of their strengths and weaknesses, confident of their own
abilities and accept their limitations
Are self-regulating and self-directing, do not need to be told what to do
Motivate themselves to engage in projects
Work towards the achievement of ones goals
Express preferences for particular activities
Communicate their feelings
Engage in creative thinking, novel and original ideas,
Keep hobbies, productive pursuits and diaries

The activities that will enhance interpersonal skills are intuition

building, creative and critical thinking, goal setting, reflection and self meditation,
self assessment, affirmation, keeping journals, logs and reflectionnaires, I
statements, discussions, interpretation and creative expression of values,
philosophical thoughts and ideas, quotations.

8. Naturalist Intelligence

Naturalist intelligence is the most recent addition to the original list of seven
multi[ple intelligences. Naturalist intelligence refers to the persons ability to
identify and classify patterns in nature. In prehistoric times when people relied
on hunting animals and gathering plants, naturalist intelligence was used to sort
what animals and plants were edible or not. At present, a person uses his or her
naturalist intelligence in the ways he or she relates to the environment. A person
who has naturalist intelligence abilities is likely to be sensitive to changes in flora
and fauna, weather patterns and similar environmental factors.

Laying the Groundwork for a Lifetime of Intelligence

There are essential concepts on brain development in utero or in the

mothers womb that every special education student must understand (Healy,

Life begins in the mothers uterus eighteen to twenty four hours after
fertilization- the process where the spermatozoa or sperm cell from the
father and the ovum from the mother unite to form the zygote, the one-
celled organism that will develop for the next nine months into the
embryo, the fetus, and finally will be born as the infant.
The zygote undergoes meiosis or cell division from two, four, sixteen until
there are millions of human cells, clusters of which are predetermined to
develop into the central nervous system, the skeletal system.
The brain cells begin to form as early as three weeks after fertilization had
taken place.
The pregnant mothers condition and the uterine environment exert
tremendous influences on brain development. Studies show that the
growing brain is highly susceptible to changes in the developing organism.
There are pieces of evidence that specific academic abilities such as
reading or mathematics may be affected by hormones secreted during
pregnancy. Poor maternal nutrition and lack of protein retard brain growth.
A pregnant womens heavy use of alcohol, prohibited drugs, even
common drugs for headaches, heartburn, diarrhea without doctors
prescription can affect brain development.
The natural pattern of brain development shows that the brain is
organized in systems of connections that do increasingly complex
functions as they mature mainly from inside to outside and from back to
The neurons or brain cells begin to form as early as three weeks after
fertilization, multiplying more rapidly than the other cells of the body. A
thin layer of neurons in the developing embryo folds inwards and rises to
a fluid-filled cylinder known as the neural tube. The cells produced in the
neural tube will migrate to other locations and accurately lay down the
connections to link one part of the brain to another. In addition, the
embryonic brain must construct a variety of temporary structures,
including the neural tube that will eventually disappear. The instructions
programmed into the genes guide the neurons in their long migration to
become specific parts of the body later on.
Starting at the top of the spinal cord, the fetal brain first develops brain
stem structures for reflexes and basic motor coordination. Rocking
movements help develop part of this complex. As the mother moves
about, the fetus is rocked and the movements add to the stimulation. The
cerebellum and the vestibular system which is linked to the balance
mechanism of the ear undergird the later development of higher cognitive
Development of much of the brains physical structure called hard
wiring starts at this time directed by a complex genetic program (Time
Magazine, 1998). Neurons, the future thinking cells, are produced in
abundance. Many neurons migrate to particular sections of the brain to
form part of the subsystem that will later control reflexes, voluntary body
movements, perception, language and thinking. Some neurons fail to
attach themselves to any area and disintegrate or disappear. No one yet
understands how these neurons know where to go, or why some integrate.
What is known is that the process of cell differentiation and migration
determines the future structure of the brain.
Ten to twelve weeks after conception during the first trimester or three
months of pregnancy, the neurons that carry electrical messages through
the nervous system and brain send pulsing staccato bursts of electricity.
The distinctive coordinated waves of neural activity change the shape of
the brain and carve mental circuits into patterns that over time will enable
the newborn infant to perceive a fathers voice, a mothers touch, a
colorful mobile moving over the crib. Of all the discoveries in neuroscience
recently, the most breathtaking is the finding that the electrical activity of
the brain cells changes the physical structure of the brain. For the
rhythmic firing of neurons is no longer assumed as the by-product of
building the brain but it is an essential process that takes place in the
The growth spurts in the formation of neurons or brain cells lasts from the
second trimester of pregnancy 4th to the 6th month) until the age of two.
Meanwhile, glial cells begin to form and nourish the neurons and hold
them together.

The cell systems are the raw materials for the normal development of the
brain. Any disturbance in the process may cause cranial malformation, a learning
disability of mental retardation.

Studies on the impact of the mothers emotional state of brain development

suggest that pregnancies marked by excessive fear, anger or stress may
produce irritable infants. Intense feelings release chemicals that are passed from
the mothers blood stream into the infants circulatory system. Children of
depressed mothers have slightly altered patterns of brain activity that may put
the infant at risk for depression. Later on, these children may exhibit disposition,
impulsivity and learning difficulties. Fortunately, the brain is malleable to
experience and much can be done after birth to prevent the occurrence of the

Modern technology makes it possible to study the seat of intelligence, the

human brain, directly. Neurology or brain investigations that are noninvasive or
harmless are done with the aid of computerized scanners and techniques for
measuring the intensity of electrical impulses or chemical changes. The
television screen shows detailed views of the brain in minute cross-sections. The
brain at work or the childs thinking in motion while reading, working on
mathematics and science, and emoting on stage can be viewed on the TV
screen. At present, there is a large body of information about the structure of the
brain and how it functions. Future neurological research promises to
revolutionize the knowledge on how learning takes place.

Neurological studies show that conducive home environments correlate

positively with school achievement. Early childhood education influences better
intellectual growth. Likewise, research findings indicate that children need
different types of learning at different ages. Early age-appropriate experiences
provide little children with a strong base for the acquisition of later skills.

The old debate on whether heredity/nature or environment/nurture play the

major role in cognitive development had long laid to rest. Experts agree that the
infant does not come to the world as the product of heredity or a blank slate at
the mercy of the environment. Rather, the focus of neurological research centers
on the ways in which genetics and environment should interact for intelligence
to develop to the highest possible level.

Studies show that the interaction between genetic traits and experiences is
constant from the time of conception. Every baby inherits a physical brain
structure as well as certain chemical and electrical response patterns that
strongly influence the ways in which the brain responds to environmental stimuli
while in the mothers womb and after birth. A current study shows that a childs
personal tempo- the natural place of responding and the speed of carrying out
activities- seem to be genetically determined.

Definitions of Giftedness and Talent

Through the years, the concept on intellectual giftedness had changed as
shown in the following figure (Heward, 2003).

Old Concepts Emerging Paradigm

Giftedness is high IQ Many types of Giftedness
Trait-based Qualities-based
Subgroup elitism Individual Excellence
Innate, In there Based on Context
Test-Driven Achievement- Driven, What you do
Is Gifted
Authoritarian, You are or Are not Gifted Collaborative, determined by
School-Oriented Field and Domain oriented
Ethnocentric Diverse
Federal or American Governments Definitions

The first federal definition of the gifted and the talented was contained in the
1972 Marland report. Gifted and talented children are capable of high
performance and demonstrate potential ability in any of the following six areas:
General intellectual ability
Specific academic aptitude
Creative or productive thinking
Leadership ability
Ability in the visual or performing arts
Psychomotor ability

The Gifted and Talented Childrens Act of 1978 defined gifted and talented
children as those possessing demonstrated or potential abilities that give evidence
of high performance capability in such areas as intellectual, creative, specific,
academic or leadership ability, or in the performing or visual arts, and who, by
reason thereof require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school.
The definition encompasses almost all of the areas where a person can demonstrate
outstanding performance. Almost all of the states have built their programs for
gifted and talented leaders around the federal definition.

The 1991 Report on National Excellence: A case for Developing Americas

Talent deleted the term gifted I and used outstanding talent and exceptional talent
instead. The definition stated that talent occurs in all groups across all cultures and
is not necessarily revealed in test scores but in a persons high performance
capability in the intellectual, creative and artistic realms. Giftedness is and to
connote a mature power rather than a developing ability.

Key Contemporary and Related Definitions

Renzullis three-Trait definition. Renzullis 1978 three-trait definition of

giftedness continues to be cited in special education literature. The definition states
that giftedness results from the interaction of: (1) above-average general abilities;
(2) a high level of task commitment; and (3) creativity. Gifted and talented children
are those: possessing or capable of developing this composite set of traits and
applying them to any potentially valuable area of human performance. Children who
manifest or are capable of developing an interaction among the three clusters
require a wide variety of educational opportunities and services that are not
ordinarily provided through regular instructional programs.

Piirtos Pyramid Model of Talent Development

Piirtos 1999 definition states that the gifted are those individuals who, by
way of having certain learning characteristics such as superior memory,
observational powers, curiosity, creativity and the ability to lean school-related
subject matters rapidly and accurately with a minimum of drill and repetition, have
aright to an education that is differentiated according to those characteristics,
Piirto further states that even if gifted students do not become producers of
knowledge or makers of novelty, special education should train them to become
adults who will produce knowledge or make new artistic and social products.

As shown in figure 37, Piirtos pyramid model is composed of; (1) a

foundation of genetic endowment; (2) personality attributes such as drive,
resilience, intuition, perception, intensity, and the like; (3) the minimum intelligence
level necessary for function in the domain in which talent is demonstrated; (4)
talent in s specific domain such as mathematics, writing, visual arts, music, science
or athletics and; (5) the environmental influences of five suns: the sun of home,
community and culture, school, chance and gender. Which talent is

developed depends on the thorn of passion, calling or sense of vocation.

Makers Problem-Solving Perspective. Another definition of giftedness

and talent advanced by Maker in 1996 incorporates high intelligence, high
creativity, and excellent problem-solving skills. He enumerates the following
characteristics of a gifted person: a problem solver- one who enjoys the challenge of
complexity and persists until the problem is solved in a satisfying way. Such an
individual is capable of (a) creating a new or more clear definition of an existing
problem, (b)devising new or more efficient or effective methods, and (c) reaching
solutions that may be different from the usual, but are recognized as being effective
than pervious solutions.
Characteristics of Gifted and Talented Children and Youth
The previous discussions clearly indicate that giftedness and talent are a
complex condition that covers a wide range of human abilities and traits. That is
why it must be clearly understood that giftedness and talent vary according to
social contexts. Some students may excel in the academic subjects but may not
show special talents in the arts. On the other hand students who show outstanding
talent in sports and athletics, visual and performing arts or those with leadership
abilities may show only average or above average performance in academic
Highly gifted students, according to Silvermans study (1995) have IQ scores
3 standard deviations or greater above the mean. The score is greater than 145, or
35 to 55 points more or even higher than the average IQ scores of 90 to 110.
Among American children, there is only 1 child in 10 000. Silverman found the
following characteristics among these highly gifted individuals:
Intense intellectual curiosity
Fascination with words or ideas
Need for precision
Learning in great intuitive leaps
Intense need for mental stimulation
Difficulty conforming to the thinking of others
Early moral and existential concern
Tendency toward introversion

There are times when the characteristics of gifted and talented persons are
misinterpreted as bordering on abnormal behavior, aggressiveness, antisocial
behavior and the like.

Shaklee (1989, cited in Heward, 2003) listed the identities of young gifted
and talented children as follows:
Exceptional learner in the acquisition and retention of knowledge:
a. Exceptional memory
b. Learns quickly and easily
c. Advanced understanding/ meaning of area
Exceptional user of knowledge in the application and comprehension of
a. Exceptional use of knowledge
b. Advanced use of symbol systems- expressive and complex
c. Demands a reason for unexplained events
d. Reasons well in problem-solving-draws from previous knowledge and
transfer it to other areas.
Exceptional generator of knowledge- individual and creative attributes
a. Highly creative behavior in areas of interest and talent
b. Does not conform to typical ways of thinking, perceiving
c. Enjoys self-expression of ideas, feelings or beliefs
d. Keen sense of humor that reflects advanced, unusual comprehension of
relationships and meaning
e. Highly developed curiosity about cause, future and the unknown

Exceptional motivation- individual motivational attributes

a. Perfectionism: striving to achieve high standards, especially in areas of
talent and interest
b. Shows initiative, self- directed
c. High level of inquiry and reflection
d. Long attention span when motivated
e. Leadership- desire and ability to lead
f. Intense desire to know

Creativity as the Highest Expression

Creative ability is considered as central to the definition of giftedness. Clark

(1986) refers to creativity as the highest expression of giftedness. Sternberg (1988)
suggest that creative, insightful individuals are those who make discoveries and
devise the inventions that ultimately change society.

There is no accepted definition of creativity. In his studies on creativity, Guilford

(1988) enumerates the following dimensions of creative behavior:
Fluency- the creative person is capable of producing many ideas per unit of
Flexibility- a wide variety of ideas, unusual ideas, and alternative solutions
are offered.
Novelty/originality- low probability, unique words, and responses are used;
the creative person has novel ideas.
Elaboration- the ability to provide details is evidenced.
Synthesizing ability- the person has the ability to put unlikely ideas together.
Analyzing ability- the person has the ability to organize ideas into larger,
inclusive patterns. Symbolic structures must often be broken down before
they can be reformed into new ones.
Ability to reorganize or redefine existing ideas- the ability to transform an
existing object into one of different design, function, or use is evident.
Complexity- the ability to manipulate many interrelated ideas at the same
time is shown.

A foremost authority on creative thinking and author of psychological tests on

creativity, Torrance (1993) found in a 30-year longitudinal study that high-ability
adults who were judged to have achieved far beyond their peers in creative
endeavors possess the following ten most common characteristics:

1. delight in deep thinking

2. tolerance of mistakes
3. love of ones work
4. clear purpose
5. enjoyment in ones work
6. feeling comfortable as a minority of one
7. being different
8. not being well- rounded
9. a sense of mission
10.the courage to be creative
Assessment of Gifted and Talented Children

Similar to the screening and location and identification and assessment of

exceptional children, the following processes are employed:
1. pre-referral intervention
Exceptional children are identified as early as possible. Teachers are asked to
nominate students who may possess the characteristics of giftedness and talent
through the use of a Teacher Nomination Form.

2. multifactored evaluation
Information is gathered from a variety of sources using the following
group and individual intelligence tests
performance in the school-based achievement tests
permanent records, performance in previous grades, awards received
portfolios of student work
parent, peer, self-nomination

Differentiated Curriculum and Instructional Systems

The skills in the Basic Elementary Curriculum of the De3partment of

Education are intended for average learners and lack the competencies that
match the learning characteristics of high-ability students. A study of American
gifted and talented students found that 60% of all grade four students in a
school district have already mastered much of the content of the curriculum.
Majority of the students scored 80% in a pretest in mathematics even before the
school year began. A differentiated curriculum that is modified in depth and
pace is used in special education programs for gifted and talented students.

Curriculum compacting is the method of modifying the regular curriculum

for certain grade levels by compressing the content and skills that high-ability
students are capable of learning in a shorter period of time. At the Silahis Special
education centers of manila City schools, high-ability students study the fourth,
fifth and sixth grades in a span of two years.

Enrichment of the regular curriculum allows the students to study the

content at a greater depth both in the horizontal and vertical directions
employing higher order thinking skills. The differentiated curriculum goes
beyond the so called basic learning competencies or BLC and allows the
student access to advanced topics of interest to them. Meanwhile, acceleration
modifies the pace or length of time which the students gain the skills and
competencies in the regular curriculum to accommodate the enrichment

Horizontal enrichment adds more content and increases the learning areas
not found in the regular curriculum for the grade level. The students go beyond
the grade requirement and move on to study the subjects in the higher grades.
For example, mathematics subjects like Algebra or Geometry that are partly
included in the regular curriculum, or, advanced subjects like Trigonometry and
calculus may be included in the differentiated curriculum. Science, English and
Filipino are enriched by expanding the content covered in the same manner.

Vertical enrichment allows the students to engage in independent study,

experimentation and investigation of topics that interest them. Social studies
and Makabayan subjects lend themselves well to vertical enrichment activities
that will give the high-ability students opportunities to share their ideas in
solving related problems at home, the school and the community.

Most of the special education classes in the different regions of the country
utilize the self-contained class. High-ability students are enrolled in a special
class that is taught by a trained special education teacher. Mainstreaming
activities are arranged so that the students can socialize with their peers, share
their knowledge and assist in peer mentoring the slow learners.

Read and Respond

Test on Content Knowledge
Test how much you have learned about giftedness and talent by answering the
following questions:
1. What are the outstanding achievements of the talented children and youth in the
vignettes? What make them different from normal boys and girls?

Emil Justin Cebrian _________________________________________________________


Omar Parrenas Rizwan _______________________________________________________


Karel ______________________________________________________________________


2. Using the matrix below, compare and contrast the theories and definitions of
intelligence as advanced by the proponents.
Proponent Theory of intelligence Definition of intelligence
1. Alfred Binet and
Theodore Simon
2. Charles spearman
3. Lewis M. Terman
4. Edward L. Thorndike
5. Louis L. Thurstone
6. J.P. Guilford
7. Robert Sternberg
8. Howard Gardner

3. What is creativity? Why is it considered as the highest expression of

4. Quote the portion of the definition of giftedness by the authorities mentioned
in the chapter under the following headings:
a. Intelligence
b. Creativity
c. Talent
d. Task commitment
e. Leadership role

Reflection and Application of Learning

1. Look for references and materials on the great people of the 20 th century- the
leaders, activists, pioneers, innovators, scientists and creators. Write a brief
paper about them. Share your work with your classmates.
2. Visit a special class of gifted and talented pupils in s school near your home. Talk
to them, keeping in mind the characteristics that you have learned in the
chapter. Write a report on your findings. Share your paper with your classmates.