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MRAC Strategies for an IF0 Controlled

AC Motor Drive with Parameter Estimation

L.A.S. Ribeirot, C.B. Jacobinat, A.M.N. Lima$, A.C. Oliveirat
tCentro Federal de EducaGBo TecnoMgica - S i 0 Luis, MA - Brazil
$Departamento de Engenharia ElCtrica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba
58109-970 Campina Grande, PB - Brazil - Caixa Postal 10.105
Fax: $55-83-3332480; Email: {jacobina,marcus}

Abstract - This paper studies the parameter sensitivity 11. MODELREFERENCE

of the dg-voltage and reactive power models, used in the
MRAC strategy for tuning the indirect field oriented con-
troller (IFO). This study is evaluated at different speed
Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of a typical MRAC based
and load conditions. Based on the results, is proposed a
controller. The adaptive scheme of Fig. 1 is basically the
scheme for on-line estimation of the parameters that in-
same proposed by Lorenz and Lawson [a] and Rowan and
fluence the reference models. In specially, is proposed a
Kerkman [6]. In this scheme y*(t), that depends on the
procedure for estimation of T , and al,. This makes the
parameters of the machine and on the values of the input
MRAC more robust. Simulation and experimental results
currents, is compared to $ ( t ) ,which is estimated from the
are present.
output quantities. The error e ( t ) = y*(t) - $(t) is mul-
tiplied by input to correct the PI controller. The output
signal of the PI controller is an estimate of the slip gain IC,
( I C , = lm/4:d?). This gain determines the slip frequency
I. INTRODUCTION w , ~( w , ~= ksz;,) so that e ( t ) becomes zero. From now on
the superscripts T , s and * as seen in Fig. 1 will be used
to denote the rotor flux and stator reference frames and
In general, most of the high performance induction motor set-points quantities respectively.
drive systems employ the Indirect Field Oriented (IFO)
control strategy [l].In this scheme there is no closed loop --
control for the rotor flux neither for the electromagnetic
torque. The sensitivity of this strategy to changes in the
machine parameters is a critical problem. Among all the
parameters of the induction machine, the changes in the ro-
tor time constant are more relevant since they break down
the flux-torque decoupling condition [2]. There are many
papers addressing the problem of parameter estimation of
an induction machine [3, 41. The use of the Model Refer-
ence Adaptive Control (MRAC) to re-tune the I F 0 con-
troller of an induction motor drive has been reported in Controller 2q-
[a, 5, 6, 71. Rowan and Kerkman [6] present a very de-
tailed study of the most usual reference models assuming
the parameters of the machine to be known.
In this paper the steady state characteristics and the Adaption
dynamic response of the induction motor are employed to Model
evaluate the different MRAC reference models. The sens-
itivity of the dq voltage and the reactive power models to
changes in the machine parameters is studied. Based on
the results, is proposed a scheme for on-line estimation
of the parameters that influence the reference models. In
specially, is proposed a procedure for estimation of T , and
al,. The proposed scheme increase the robustness of the Figure 1: Block diagram of the MRAC strategy
The simulation and experimental results of the MRAC The reference models of the machine under I F 0 opera-
strategy used to tune an IF0 controlled induction motor tion can be defined as functions of the terminal quantities.
drive are presented. The models used in this paper to generate the reference

0-7803-3500-71961$5.00 0 1996 IEEE 1222

variable y*(t) are: A. Steady-state Analysis
The steady-state analysis addresses the problem of how
y*(t) is disturbed by the parameter uncertainty. Fig. 2
A. d-Axis Voltage Model shows the sensitivity of to Ar, (changes in the value of
r , ) for different values of speed and load. The sensitivity
to Ar, is small when the load and speed are high, but
it increases as the load or the speed or both of them are
where al, = I, - lk/l,.. reduced. It must be noted that in high speed the sensitivity
is high under weak load. Fig. 2 shows that for a Ar, of
30% a t 10% of the nominal load the d-axis voltage will
B. q-Axis Voltage Model change by 40% at 10Hz and by 17% a t 60Hz. From now
on the subscript o in terms like r,, will be used to indicate
the nominal value of the parameter.

C . Reactive Power Model 1.4 -

1.2 -
. <' .
Some other reference models have been proposed in the
literature. The Torque model [6]is one example. However,
u.2 ,..I
.. \. .

this model do not have good convergence properties and 0.R - \.
will not be discussed in this paper. ,:~~~~'_60Hz,lW%torque \ .
0.6 -,' -.-.-lOHz,lW%torque
......1 0 H ~ l O % torque

The performance analysis as considered in this work refers

to the sensitivity of the presented models to changes in IC,
(e.g.: Av::/Ak,), for different load conditions at nominal Figure 2: Sensitivity of d-axis voltage model to Ar,
flux. This study has been conducted and the results con-
firmed the conclusions presented in [6].The obtained res- Fig. 3 shows the sensitivity of U'* to Ar, for various
ults are not presented due to space limitations. The main values of speed and load. The sensitivity to Ar, is quite
issues obtained from this study are summarized below. small but increases as the speed is reduced. When the load
increases, the sensitivity to Ar, augments, nevertheless it
is lower than the sensitivity of the d-axis voltage model for
0 The q-axis voltage model and the reactive power,
a given Ar,.
model may diverge under weak load conditions ( 5
10% full load). 11.025 -

The d-axis voltage, the reactive power, and q-axis
voltage models in the decreasing order present greater
sensitivity to a mis-tuning of the I F 0 strategy.

The d-axis voltage model does not present any diver-

gence problem even under weak load conditions.

/' /' I
-6OH&lW% torque
0.99 ----6OH~10%torque
SENSITIVITY -.-.-lOHz,lW%torque
......IOHz,lO% torque
In the presented MRAC strategies the adaptation is in- 0.975
cluded to keep in track the variations of the parameters 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
that influences directly k,. However, if some other para- rs/rsn
meters change (e.g.: l,, al,, r , ) , the performance of the
MRAC may deteriorate. The sensitivities of the presented Figure 3: Sensitivity of q-axis voltage model to Ar,
models to variations in r,, al, , and 1, are evaluated. This
evaluation is considered at different load conditions and Fig. 4 shows the influence of A ( a l , ) on the d-axis
for different values of the shaft speed. voltage. Under weak load conditions Av:Z/A(al,) in-

creases as the shaft speed increases. However, at nominal
load, Aw$~/A(crl,) increases as the shaft speed decreases. 1.051 ' ' ' ' ' /I I
The d-axis voltage is quite sensible to the variations of al,.
As an example, a 10% of change in alJ, at nominal load
and 6 0 H z , would generate a 10% of change in the d-axis
voltage, and 15% at weak load and 6 0 H z .

Fig. 5 shows the influence of A(ol,) on the reactive
power model. The sensitivity increases as the load in-
creases, and is smaller than the sensitivity of the d-axis

voltage model under the same conditions. -6OHz,lOO% torque
Fig. 6 shows the influence of Al, on the q-axis voltage. 0.98 ----6OHz,lO% torque
The sensitivity does not depend (almost) on the load con- 0.97 -.-.-lOHz,lW%torque
ditions neither on the shaft speed. / '/' ......10Hz,lO% torque
Fig. 7 shows the influence of Al, on the reactive power. 0.96 1 ,/
The sensitivity of the reactive power to Al, is almost in- 0.951' ' ' ' ' ' 8 I
0.7 0.8 0.9 I 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
dependent on the value of the shaft speed, but it increases
as the load decreases. The reactive power may vary up to
25% at nominal load and 30% under weak load conditions
for a Al, = 30%. Figure 5: Sensitivity of reactive-power model to A(g1,)

B. Transient Analysis 1.5

The transient analysis concerns to the time response of
the adapted quantity k , , at a given speed and load, in
1.4 1
response to A r , , or A(cT.I,),
or Al,. Fig. 8 to Fig. 13 show
the transient performance of these models. In these figures
r s , 1, and a!, have been alternately changed by 30% at
t = 1.0s. These modifications were carried out on the
reference models.
-6OHz,lOo% torque
, -60HzJl% t; ,
1.6)- ' 4 ......lOHz,lO% torque
0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3
------- 's flso

Figure 6: Sensitivity of q-axis voltage model to Al,

-.-.-1OHz. 100%torque
......IOHz,IO% torque

0.21 I
0.7 0.8 0.9 I 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
o!v%, U

Figure 4: Sensitivity of d-axis voltage model to A(gl,)

Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 show the transient response of the

d-axis and q-axis voltage models to a Ar, = 30%. It
is important to remark that Av:;/Ar, is greater than
A v i i / A r , (check Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 ) . However, the
AK,/Ar, is fairly the same for both models. This result
is apparently contradictory. But it is important to remark
that the d-axis voltage model is the most sensitive to Ak,
(check Section 111. and [SI). Also, the effect of the vari- v1SU
ations of the stator resistance is more pronounced at low
speed under weak load. The parameters of the PI control- Figure 7: Sensitivity of reactive power model to Al,
ler (check Fig. 1) employed with the d-axis voltage model

were the same for all the operating conditions. As it can 1 1.1-
be noted from Fig. 8, the time required for k , to settle is
1.08 -
quite the same. On the other hand, to obtain the same
behavior with the q-axis model, as well as with the other 1.06 -
models, it was necessary to adjust the PI gains.

1.08 -6OHt 100% torque
1.06 . -.-.-lOHzIW%rorque 0.98 -
-60Hz.100% torque
......lOHz,lO% torque 0.96 - ----6OHtlO% rorque
1.04 -
1.02 - i 0.94 - ...... lOHzlO% torque

0.92 -

Figure 10: Transient performance of the reactive power

model for A(cl,) = 0.7al, at t = 1.0s
0.92 .......

Figure 8: Transient performance of the d-axis model for a

Ar, = 0.7r, at t = 1.0s


1081 i
-6OHtl00% torque

0.85 ......

0 1 2 3 4 5


iI -6OHzlWC torque
----6OH&IOC torque
-.-.-lOH~lCO% torque
......lOH&lO% torque
Figure 11: Transient performance of the d-axis model for
a A(n1,) = 0.7al, at t = 1.0s

-60Hz 100% torque

3. ----6OHz,lO% torque
Figure 9: Transient performance of the q-axis model for a -.-.-lOH&100%torque
Ar, = 0.7r, at t = 1.0s ......IOU&10% torque
2.5 -

Fig. 10 and Fig. 11show the transient performance of the

reactive power and the d-axis voltage models to a A(als)=
30%. It must be noted even with Av::/A(ul,) >>
A Q * / A ( a l , ) (check Fig. 4 and Fig. 5) the resulting
A k s / A ( a l s )is only twice for the d-axis voltage model.
Fig. 12 and Fig. 13 show the transient performance of the
reactive power and the q-axis voltage models to a Al, =
30%. It must be noted even with A Q * / A l , % Av:i/Al, r(li)
(check Fig. 7 and Fig. 6) the resulting Ak,/Al, is twice 0 I 2 3 4
for the q-axis voltage model. This is valid only for high
load. At weak load both models diverge. This is expected Figure 12: Transient performance of the reactive power
since they present sensitivity problems (check Section 111. model for a Al, = 0.71, at t = 1.0s
and [6]).

41 I This model allows the estimation of al, and I , provided
---6OH~l0% torque
the input signal be persistent. However, a sinusoidal sig-
-.-. -1OHz lW?L torque -_.a - nal is enough for the estimation of only a i s , which is the
......IOHzlOW torque --
, /-
... desired parameter. Nevertheless, I , is not estimated with
3- /-
good precision.
Based on the dynamic model of an induction machine
and considering a DC input signal, the following linear
regression model may be derived for the estimation of r , :

It is important to note that a simpler model like

Figure 13: Transient performance of the q-axis model for

a Al, = 0.71, at t = 1.0s
could be used to estimate r,. However, the proposed model
is less restrictive with respect to the choices of exciting
The overall conclusion of this section is to recommend
voltage values and vip.
the use the d-axis voltage model instead of the q-axis
voltage or the reactive power models. It is important to To detect the changes in r , a DC level is employed peri-
remark that the maximum AL, = 11%was observed for a odically for a short time period. The amplitude of the DC
A(a1,) = 30%. However, as it will be demonstrated in the signal must be low for do not disturb very much the nor-
next section al, can be estimated with good accuracy. mal operation of the machine. A low-pass filter is used to
extract the DC level and to estimate r, through (5).

It has been demonstrated in the previous section that an The experimental set-up consists of a wound rotor induc-
accurate value for al, under high load conditions and for tion machine, a three phase bipolar junction transistor
r , in the low speed range is the mean to achieve high per- inverter and a 486DX2/66 microcomputer. The stator
formance when using the d-axis voltage model. Another al- voltage waveforms were synthesized using the PWM (Pulse
ternative to seek for high performance is to devise a model Width Modulator) that generates the switching patterns
that does not include these parameters. Kerkman et al. [8] of the inverter. The sampling time and switching period of
proposed a model where by using an appropriate reference the inverter were loops. Four A/D converter (10bit/25ps)
frame, r, is removed out from the d-axis voltage model. As channels were employed, two for i,l and i,2 and two for
the resulting model depends only on al,, Kerkman et al. v,1 and v,2. The angular shaft position was obtained from
[9] also proposed an algorithm to obtain an off-line estim- a 9bit optical encoder (absolute, gray code). The speed
ate of al,. In the present paper the estimation of r, and measurement as presented in this section is computed from
al, uses two different algorithms that jointly process the the readings of this encoder.
real-time data coming from the motor. These algorithms In Fig.14 is presented the experimental results for estim-
are based on the S-operator models proposed by Ribeiro ation of r , with the model (5). The signal used is sinus-
et al. [IO]. oidal with a DC level. The sinusoidal signal has 12.7Hz
Based on the models proposed by Ribeiro et al. [lo], the and 50V. The cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter was
following model may be derived for the estimation of al, : wf = 1 2 ~ r a d / s .The mean value of r, in Fig.14 is 1.91R
(1.2s < t < 1.3s). The value obtained with only a DC level
was 1.93R. In Fig.15 is presented the measurement of the
speed. From t = 1.0s to t = 1.3s a DC level was injected.
All the control loops were opened and their respective out-
puts at t = 1.0s were stored in memory. Using the stored
values, new d-axis and q-axis reference voltages were gen-
erated (sinusoidal+DC) in order to follow approximately
the same profile as if the drive was in closed loop. It must
be noted that the speed was not disturbed very much from
its normal value.
In Fig.16 is shown the estimation of al, in the low speed
range (20Hz) with a PWM sinusoidal voltage. The value
of al, obtained in this speed and with the model (4) is

almost the same the value obtained off-line with a rich
signal (0.0194H).
In Figs. 17 and 18 are shown the results with the MRAC. 3,1
In the experimental tests the reference of the speed con-
troller was kept constant at 100radls. Three external res-
istors of 2.8R were sequentially switched on (t = 20s) and
off (t = 55s), in series with the rotor windings. The MRAC
strategy was implemented using the d-axis voltage model
under weak load condition. In the first test (Fig. 17) the
MRAC strategy has been turned on. As it may be ob-
served in Fig. 17, the slip gain k , converges quickly (E 5s)
to a new value ( k , = 31.2) after the resistors have been
switched on. Also, after switching off, k , settles quickly
to its previous value (IC, = 11.2). Fig. 18 shows the amp-
litude of the machine current (is = )-/, observed
during the first test (thick line). It must be noted thai the
current changes a t the switching instants, but it returns
quickly to its original value. In the second test the same Figure 14: Estimation of T,

resistance switching sequence has been employed, but the

MRAC strategy was turned off. In this case the current
increases by 10% (dotted line in Fig. 18) when the resist-
ors were inserted and remains at this value until they have
been removed. This clearly demonstrates the reduction of 45 -
the torque per ampere ratio of the drive. It is important to
remark that when the MRAC strategy is employed there
40 7
is no reduction on the torque per ampere ratio. 35 -


The steady-state and dynamic performances of presented
MRAC models were analyzed. From the parameter sensit-
ivity studies, one may surely select a good reference model
to implement the MRAC strategy. The parameter sens-
itivity studies had revealed that the d-axis voltage model
is the most sensitive to A r , and A(al,), while the q-axis
voltage model is more sensitive to Al,. However, the com-
bined effect (e.g.: AvL;t/AIC, cascaded with Av:;t/Ar, or Figure 15: Measured speed during the estimation of r,
A v ~ ~ / A ( a l , )makes
) the d-axis voltage model the best
model among all the ones presented in this paper. This
model is the most sensible to k , and only a small Ak, is
required to correct the parameter uncertainty through a
new .;21: The d-axis voltage model remains quite sensit-
ive to uncertainties in r , , at low speeds, and in al, under
high load conditions. This clearly demonstrates that we
may not bypass an on-line parameter estimation task to
continuously track r, and a1,. With the proposed models 0.02s -
it was possible to promptly accomplish this estimation.
The experimental tests demonstrated the effectiveness of
the MRAC approach to recover the I F 0 decoupling condi- 0.01s .
tion using the d-axis voltage models with the parameters
estimated with the proposed approach. 0.01


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
[l] Robert D. Lorenz, T. A . Lipo, and D. W. Novotny.
Motion control with induction motors. Proceedigris of Figure 16: Estimation of al,
IEEE, 82 (8) :1215-1 240, august 1994.

acy issues for parameter estimation of field oriented
35 -
induction machine drives. In Conf. Rec. IAS, pages
593-600, 1994.
30 -
[4] J. Stephan, M. Bodson, and J . Chiasson. Real-time
25 - estimation of the parameters and fluxes of indution
motors. IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., 30(3):746-759,
20 - may/june 1994.
IS - [5] K. Onishi, Y. Ueda, and K. Miyachi. Model reference
adaptive system against rotor resistance variation in
10 induction motor drive. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,
33( 3) :217-223, august 1986.
, f.7)
[6] T.M. Rowan and R.J. Kerkman. A simple on-line
0 IO 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

[9] R. J . Kerkman, J . D. Thunes, T. M. Rowan, and

D. Schlegel. A frequency based determination of
the transient inductance and rotor resistence for field
commissioning. In Conf. Rec. IAS, pages 359-366,
[lo] L.A.S. Ribeiro, C.B. Jacobina, and A.M.N. Lima. Dy-
namic estimation of the induction machine paramet-
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Atlanta-Georgia,USA, 1995.

0 10
I i.T 1 wifk &phW







Figure 18: Stator current amplitude with and without the

adapting strategy