\.
..--.
this model do not have good convergence properties and 0.R - \.
will not be discussed in this paper. ,:~~~~'_60Hz,lW%torque \ .
\.
----6OHz,lO%torque
0.6 -,' -.-.-lOHz,lW%torque
......1 0 H ~ l O % torque
111. PERFORMANCE
ANALYSIS 0.4
0
The d-axis voltage, the reactive power, and q-axis
voltage models in the decreasing order present greater
sensitivity to a mis-tuning of the I F 0 strategy.
1.01
/'
/' /' I
0.995
-6OH&lW% torque
0.99 ----6OH~10%torque
/
IV. PARAMETER
SENSITIVITY -.-.-lOHz,lW%torque
......IOHz,lO% torque
0.98
In the presented MRAC strategies the adaptation is in- 0.975
cluded to keep in track the variations of the parameters 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
that influences directly k,. However, if some other para- rs/rsn
meters change (e.g.: l,, al,, r , ) , the performance of the
MRAC may deteriorate. The sensitivities of the presented Figure 3: Sensitivity of q-axis voltage model to Ar,
models to variations in r,, al, , and 1, are evaluated. This
evaluation is considered at different load conditions and Fig. 4 shows the influence of A ( a l , ) on the d-axis
for different values of the shaft speed. voltage. Under weak load conditions Av:Z/A(al,) in-
1223
creases as the shaft speed increases. However, at nominal
load, Aw$~/A(crl,) increases as the shaft speed decreases. 1.051 ' ' ' ' ' /I I
The d-axis voltage is quite sensible to the variations of al,.
As an example, a 10% of change in alJ, at nominal load
and 6 0 H z , would generate a 10% of change in the d-axis
voltage, and 15% at weak load and 6 0 H z .
1.03
1.02
11
Fig. 5 shows the influence of A(ol,) on the reactive
power model. The sensitivity increases as the load in-
creases, and is smaller than the sensitivity of the d-axis
//i
voltage model under the same conditions. -6OHz,lOO% torque
Fig. 6 shows the influence of Al, on the q-axis voltage. 0.98 ----6OHz,lO% torque
The sensitivity does not depend (almost) on the load con- 0.97 -.-.-lOHz,lW%torque
ditions neither on the shaft speed. / '/' ......10Hz,lO% torque
Fig. 7 shows the influence of Al, on the reactive power. 0.96 1 ,/
The sensitivity of the reactive power to Al, is almost in- 0.951' ' ' ' ' ' 8 I
0.7 0.8 0.9 I 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
dependent on the value of the shaft speed, but it increases
as the load decreases. The reactive power may vary up to
04bl,vo
25% at nominal load and 30% under weak load conditions
for a Al, = 30%. Figure 5: Sensitivity of reactive-power model to A(g1,)
0.6
-.-.-1OHz. 100%torque
0.4
......IOHz,IO% torque
0.21 I
0.7 0.8 0.9 I 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
o!v%, U
1224
were the same for all the operating conditions. As it can 1 1.1-
be noted from Fig. 8, the time required for k , to settle is
1.08 -
quite the same. On the other hand, to obtain the same
behavior with the q-axis model, as well as with the other 1.06 -
models, it was necessary to adjust the PI gains.
1.1
1.08 -6OHt 100% torque
---4OHzIO%torque
1.06 . -.-.-lOHzIW%rorque 0.98 -
-60Hz.100% torque
......lOHz,lO% torque 0.96 - ----6OHtlO% rorque
1.04 -
-.-.-lOHtlW%torque
1.02 - i 0.94 - ...... lOHzlO% torque
0.92 -
r(.d
0.9
1.1
1081 i
-6OHtl00% torque
0.85 ......
0.8
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.94
0.96
0.92
iI -6OHzlWC torque
----6OH&IOC torque
-.-.-lOH~lCO% torque
......lOH&lO% torque
Figure 11: Transient performance of the d-axis model for
a A(n1,) = 0.7al, at t = 1.0s
1225
41 I This model allows the estimation of al, and I , provided
-~OHLIWItorque
---6OH~l0% torque
the input signal be persistent. However, a sinusoidal sig-
3.5.
-.-. -1OHz lW?L torque -_.a - nal is enough for the estimation of only a i s , which is the
......IOHzlOW torque --
, /-
... desired parameter. Nevertheless, I , is not estimated with
3- /-
good precision.
,
,
Based on the dynamic model of an induction machine
and considering a DC input signal, the following linear
regression model may be derived for the estimation of r , :
V. ESTIMATION
O F d SA N D rS VI. EXPERIMENTAL
RESULTS
It has been demonstrated in the previous section that an The experimental set-up consists of a wound rotor induc-
accurate value for al, under high load conditions and for tion machine, a three phase bipolar junction transistor
r , in the low speed range is the mean to achieve high per- inverter and a 486DX2/66 microcomputer. The stator
formance when using the d-axis voltage model. Another al- voltage waveforms were synthesized using the PWM (Pulse
ternative to seek for high performance is to devise a model Width Modulator) that generates the switching patterns
that does not include these parameters. Kerkman et al. [8] of the inverter. The sampling time and switching period of
proposed a model where by using an appropriate reference the inverter were loops. Four A/D converter (10bit/25ps)
frame, r, is removed out from the d-axis voltage model. As channels were employed, two for i,l and i,2 and two for
the resulting model depends only on al,, Kerkman et al. v,1 and v,2. The angular shaft position was obtained from
[9] also proposed an algorithm to obtain an off-line estim- a 9bit optical encoder (absolute, gray code). The speed
ate of al,. In the present paper the estimation of r, and measurement as presented in this section is computed from
al, uses two different algorithms that jointly process the the readings of this encoder.
real-time data coming from the motor. These algorithms In Fig.14 is presented the experimental results for estim-
are based on the S-operator models proposed by Ribeiro ation of r , with the model (5). The signal used is sinus-
et al. [IO]. oidal with a DC level. The sinusoidal signal has 12.7Hz
Based on the models proposed by Ribeiro et al. [lo], the and 50V. The cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter was
following model may be derived for the estimation of al, : wf = 1 2 ~ r a d / s .The mean value of r, in Fig.14 is 1.91R
(1.2s < t < 1.3s). The value obtained with only a DC level
was 1.93R. In Fig.15 is presented the measurement of the
speed. From t = 1.0s to t = 1.3s a DC level was injected.
All the control loops were opened and their respective out-
puts at t = 1.0s were stored in memory. Using the stored
values, new d-axis and q-axis reference voltages were gen-
erated (sinusoidal+DC) in order to follow approximately
the same profile as if the drive was in closed loop. It must
be noted that the speed was not disturbed very much from
its normal value.
In Fig.16 is shown the estimation of al, in the low speed
range (20Hz) with a PWM sinusoidal voltage. The value
of al, obtained in this speed and with the model (4) is
1226
almost the same the value obtained off-line with a rich
signal (0.0194H).
In Figs. 17 and 18 are shown the results with the MRAC. 3,1
In the experimental tests the reference of the speed con-
troller was kept constant at 100radls. Three external res-
istors of 2.8R were sequentially switched on (t = 20s) and
off (t = 55s), in series with the rotor windings. The MRAC
strategy was implemented using the d-axis voltage model
under weak load condition. In the first test (Fig. 17) the
MRAC strategy has been turned on. As it may be ob-
served in Fig. 17, the slip gain k , converges quickly (E 5s)
to a new value ( k , = 31.2) after the resistors have been
switched on. Also, after switching off, k , settles quickly
to its previous value (IC, = 11.2). Fig. 18 shows the amp-
litude of the machine current (is = )-/, observed
during the first test (thick line). It must be noted thai the
current changes a t the switching instants, but it returns
quickly to its original value. In the second test the same Figure 14: Estimation of T,
30
VII. CONCLUSIONS
The steady-state and dynamic performances of presented
MRAC models were analyzed. From the parameter sensit-
ivity studies, one may surely select a good reference model
to implement the MRAC strategy. The parameter sens-
itivity studies had revealed that the d-axis voltage model
is the most sensitive to A r , and A(al,), while the q-axis
voltage model is more sensitive to Al,. However, the com-
bined effect (e.g.: AvL;t/AIC, cascaded with Av:;t/Ar, or Figure 15: Measured speed during the estimation of r,
A v ~ ~ / A ( a l , )makes
) the d-axis voltage model the best
model among all the ones presented in this paper. This
model is the most sensible to k , and only a small Ak, is
required to correct the parameter uncertainty through a
new .;21: The d-axis voltage model remains quite sensit-
ive to uncertainties in r , , at low speeds, and in al, under
high load conditions. This clearly demonstrates that we
may not bypass an on-line parameter estimation task to
continuously track r, and a1,. With the proposed models 0.02s -
it was possible to promptly accomplish this estimation.
0.02
The experimental tests demonstrated the effectiveness of
the MRAC approach to recover the I F 0 decoupling condi- 0.01s .
tion using the d-axis voltage models with the parameters
estimated with the proposed approach. 0.01
0.00s
REFERENCES
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
[l] Robert D. Lorenz, T. A . Lipo, and D. W. Novotny.
Motion control with induction motors. Proceedigris of Figure 16: Estimation of al,
IEEE, 82 (8) :1215-1 240, august 1994.
1227
40
acy issues for parameter estimation of field oriented
35 -
induction machine drives. In Conf. Rec. IAS, pages
593-600, 1994.
30 -
[4] J. Stephan, M. Bodson, and J . Chiasson. Real-time
25 - estimation of the parameters and fluxes of indution
motors. IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., 30(3):746-759,
20 - may/june 1994.
IS - [5] K. Onishi, Y. Ueda, and K. Miyachi. Model reference
P
adaptive system against rotor resistance variation in
10 induction motor drive. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,
33( 3) :217-223, august 1986.
5-
, f.7)
[6] T.M. Rowan and R.J. Kerkman. A simple on-line
0
0 IO 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
3
0 10
,
I i.T 1 wifk &phW
,
20
,
30
cunfroller
40
,
SO
,
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,
70
01
1
80
1228