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(During the period 23.01.2017 to


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We first thank our head of the department

who gave us permission for attending
final year project in M/S Greenstar
Fertilizers Limited , Tuticorin.
I extended my sincere thanks to MR .
who approved our request for the
project training.
I also extend my heartful thanks to the
MR . SARAVANAN senior manager peg
department who guided us and made all
arrangements throughout the training.
It also my duty to thank MR. SUNDARRAJ
control room operators , area engineers
and all other employees who gave their
full support and guidance throughout the
entire training period.
Southern Petrochemical Industries Corporation Ltd,
or SPIC, (BSE: 590030, NSE: SPIC) is an Indian company
that makes petrochemicals. Its core competency is
in fertiliser products.
The company, headquartered in Chennai, was incorporated
on 18 December 1969[3] and became a joint venture between
the M. A. Chidambaram Group and TIDCO (a part of the
Government of Tamil Nadu) in 1975. The government sold its
stake in 1992. The company's biggest client has been the
government of Tamil Nadu, which purchases agro-
products for subsidised distribution through its Public
Distribution System. The company has been in poor financial
health since about 2002. Its 2006 sales amounted
to 2,200 crore, with a net operating loss of 180 crore.
SPIC has four business lines:

the fertiliser division,

the engineering/construction services division offers

specialised and turnkey project-based solutions mainly in

the agri-business division, which offers products for

agricultural development like hybrid seeds and bio-
The company has a strategic stake/or has promoted
companies like Thoothukudi Alkali Chemicals, a soda ash
manufacturer, Tamil Nadu Petro-products a company which
produces liner alkali benzene, Manali Petrochemicals, Indo-
Jordan Chemicals and a host of other companies.
The plant is composed of a process in which Phosphoric
acid is neutralised with Ammonia in Neutraliser. The slurry
from neutraliser is fed to a Rotary drum Granulator where
the remaining Ammonia is added during Granulation.
Recycle Material is also added in the Granulator as the
main control medium of granulation.The plant is
designed to produce 500 MT/Day of DAP.The process
consists of the following unit operations.
1. Neutralisation.
2. Granulation.
3. Drying.
4. Screening.
5. Cooling and Coating.
6. Exhaust Gas Scrubbing.
The principle reactions in the production of
Ammonium Phosphate Fertilizer is the neutralisation of
Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) with anhydrous ammonia to
form Mono-ammonium phosphate, Diammonium
Phosphate and Ammonium Sulphate as follows:
1. NH3 + H2PO4 --> NH4H2PO4 (MAP)
2. 2NH3 + H3PO4 --> (NH4)2HPO4 (DAP)
3. NH4H2PO4 + NH3 --> (NH4)2HPO4 (DAP)
4. NH3 + H2SO4 --> (NH4)2SO4

Apart from the above mentioned main reactions, there are

many side reactions taking place depending upon the
impurities in acid. A typical acid analysis will have the
following composition:
The following are the side reactions taking place:
1. CaO + H2SO4 --> CaSO4.1/2 H20 + 1/2 H20
2. Al2O3 + 2H3PO4 --> 2AlPO4.H2O + H2O
3. Fe2O3 + 2H3PO4 --> 2FePO4.H20 + H2O
4. 2Na2O + 2H3PO4 --> 2Na2HPO4 + 2H2O
5. 2K2O + 2H3PO4 --> 2K2HPO4 + 2H2O
6. 2HF + NH3 --> NH4HF2
7. H2SiF6 + 2NH3 --> (NH4)2SiF6
8. 2MgO + 2NH3 + 2HF + 2H3PO4 --> 2MgNH4HFPO4
+ 2H2O
9. 2MgO + 2NH3 + 2H3PO4 --> 2MgNH4PO4.H2O

The metal phosphate complex found in side reactions are

insoluble in water. It is desirable to have less % of
metallic oxides in acid so that the FCO specification of
41% water soluble P2O5 in product can be achieved. The
%SO3 value in acid will determine the amount of
sulphuric acid to be added in to the system
(Neutraliser / Dust Scrubber) (for a given P2O5 value
in acid) to produce DAP of required specification
(ie) 18:46 - N2 & P2O5.

The major portion of chemical reaction between the liquid

raw materialis conducted in the NEUTRALISER to
produce a fertiliser slurry for use in the Granulation
system. Most of the 54% Phosphoric acid and Sulphuric
acid are metered directly into the Neutraliser which is a
cylindrical vessel of about 3.18 M in Diameter and 5.5
M in height. The total hold-up of the material is
about 22 M3 which is equivalent to 30 MT of slurry.
Agitator is provided with a 1.0 M diameter of e blade
driven at 35 rpm by a 11KW motor. Liquid ammonia
is sparged into the vessel through 4 spargers located near
the bottom of neutraliser and just below turbine
blades. The phosphpric acid is neutralised with ammonia
to a mole ratio of 1.3-1.55 Since the reaction is exothermic
large quantity of water is evaporated. The
temperature of the slurry is kept constant with the
scrubbing liquor from the fumes scrubber tank.When the
temperature of the slurry rises up the scrubbing liquor
from Dust Scrubber is fed to Neutraliiser directly . The
neutralised slurry with a solid content of about 80% is
pumped to Granulator through steam jacketed pipe lines
made of stainless steel.
Granulation is to transform Ammonium Phosphate Slurry
to Granular Fertilzer in TVA type drum granulator, DM
6201 Granulator. Depending upon product grade, solid
raw materials such as potash, urea or filler are added into
fertilizer granule in granulation step. Since N/P mole
ratio of Ammonium Phosphate Slurry is approximately
1.3 - 1.55 and that the product fertilizer is approximately
1.85, ammonia is fed into Granulator to react with slurry.
This reaction is also exothermic and reaction heat
evaporates much water to reduce load on DM 6202
Dryer. Granulation takes place in rolling bed of recycled
materials onto which slurry is uniformly sprayed and in
which ammonia is uniformly distributed.

Drying is the process to reduce water content of
granules discharged from DM 6201 Granulator from a
maximum of 5% about to 1.5% by wt in order to give
mechanical strength against abrasion and
collapse to the granules for improved storage
properties.Granules are dried in DM 6202 Dryer while
cascading from rotating flights and contacting with hot gas
coming from DF 6201 Dryer Furnace.
Granulated and dried materials from DM 6202 Dryer
come to DM 6204A, D Screens through DC 6202 Screen
Feed Elevator. Oversize granules including some amount
of lumps are separated from the stream by DM 6204 A
and B Primary Screens and fed to DM 6205 A and B
Oversize mill to reduce their size and then fed to DC 6206
Recycle Conveyor.
Undersize granules and powder are separated from the
stream by DM 6204 C and D Secondary Screens and
directly fed to DC 6206 Recycle Conveyor.
Product size granules are collected in DT 6202 Product
Hopper. Adjusted quantity of product size granules are
drawn by DM 6210 Recycle Conveyor Feeder from DT
6202 to feed into DC 6206. Product size granules
overflowing DT 6202 go to DM 6206 Cooler through
DM 6211 Polishing Screen. Small amount of oversize and
undersize granules still remaining in the product size
stream are removed by DM 6211.

A part of product size granules, milled oversize

granules / lumps and undersize granules / powder are
returned back to DM 6201 together with solid raw
materials to be granulated again. Sufficient exhaust gas
lines are provided for the purpose of dedusting in screens
and mills.

Fertilizers tend to pick up moisture during exposed to
atmosphere. This tendency is called hygroscopicity
and evaluated by Critical Relative Humidity (CRH). The
purpose of cooling is to raise CRH value of the fertilizer
rapidly and minimise the moisture pick-up. Cooling of
fertilizer granules is carried out in DM 6206 Cooler with
ambient air. Granules are cascaded from flights and
contact with the air which flows in counter current.


The purpose of exhaust gas treatment is to recover
valuable nutrients from various exhaust gases and to
prevent air pollution. Exhaust gases from various
equipment can be classified into four streams.

1. Fumes from Neutralizer and Granulator.

2. Hot gas from Dryer.

3. Dust Air from Cooler and miscellaneous equipment.

4. Dust Air from Coating Equipment.

1. Fumes from Neutraliser and Granulator:

Two stages wet scrubbers are provided to treat

fumes. Fumes containing unreacted ammonia and
fluorides are induced to the primary stage of DV 102
Fume Scrubber where ammonia and fluorides are
scrubbed with scrubbing liquid by reaction and
After being scrubbed in DV 6102, fumes are blown
into the secondary stage of DV 6104 Dust Scrubber
where most of remaining ammonia and fluorides are
scrubbed with water and small amount of sulphuric
acid to promote the recovery of ammonia. Mechanism
of scrubbing in DV 6104 is absorption and reaction.
Therefore, scrubbing efficiency in each stage
depends upon the properties of each scrubbing liquid
and liquid / gas ratio.

2. Hot Gas From Dryer:

DV 6201 A, D Dryer cyclone and two stages wet

scrubbers are provided to recover the fertilized dust,
decomposed ammonia and fluorides. Hot gas induced
by DK 6102 Dryer Fan is, for the first, treated by DV
6201 A, D, which separate most dust from hot gas and
separated dust is returned to Recycle Conveyor. The
hot gas from DV 6201 A, D is treated in the same
manner as the fumes by DV 6103 Dryer Scrubber
and DV 6104.
3. Dust Air from Cooler and Miscellaneous

Dust Air from Cooler and miscellaneous equipment is

treated by DV 6202A,B Dust Cyclone and DV
6104. Dust Air induced by DK 6103 Dust Fan is, for
the first, treated by DV 6202A,B to separate most
dust. Separated dust is also returned to Recycle
Conveyor. Dust Air from DV 6202A,B is blown into
DV 6104 where remaining dust is scrubbed with
scrubbing liquid.


Fertilizer Product is drawn out at DT 6202 Product Hopper

where product granules overflow to DM 6211 Polishing
Screen and after being treated at DM 6206 Cooler Product
Granules are transferred to CN-1 or CN-5 via DC 6211
and DC 6212 Product Conveyors. Flow rate of product
from the Plant is determined by feed rate of raw materials.
Production rate shall be checked once in hour.

BASIS: 1000Kg/hr

P2O5 0.204
NH3 0.243
SA 0.43

P2O5 required in Prd 204.00 kg/hr

Ammonia Required in
Prd 243.00 kg/hr

SA required in Prd 430.00 kg/hr

Remaining 123.00 kg/hr

Principal Reactions:

NH3 + H3PO4 NH4 H2PO4

17 98 115

2NH3 + H3PO4 4
34 98 132

2NH3+ H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4

34 98 80 132

Side Reactions:
CaO H2SO4 O 1/2 H2O
56 98 145 9
Al2O3 2H3PO4 2AlPO4.H2O H2O
102 196 280 18
Fe2O3 2H3PO4 2FePO4.H2O H2O
160 196 338 18
2Na2O 2H3PO4 2Na2HPO4 2H2O
124 196 284 36
2K2O 2H3PO4 2K2HPO4 2H2O
188 196 348 36
40 17 57
H2SiF6 2NH3 (NH4)2SiF6
144 34 178
2MgO 2NH3 2HF 2H3PO4
80 34 40 196
2MgO 2NH3 2H3PO4 O
80 34 196 310


34 44 60 18


CaSO4.1/2 H2O kg/hr 1
(NH4)2.SO4 kg/hr 11 2
AlPO4.H2O kg/hr 11 5
FePO4.H2O kg/hr 8 3
Na2HPO4 kg/hr 0 0
K2HPO4 kg/hr 0 0
MgNH4HFPO4 kg/hr 13 6 6 2
NH4.HF2 kg/hr 1 0
Others kg/hr 8
Total kg/hr 53 8 5 2

Mole Ratio (Kg) (Kg) (Kg)

1.20 245 70 45
1.45 168 158 54

Neutralizer Material Balance:

Neutralizer Material UOM QTY N P


Water Soluble P2O5 kg/hr 189

Mole Ratio 1.20
MAP kg/hr 245 45 151
DAP kg/hr 70 45 38
Other kg/hr 53 8 15
Sub Total kg/hr 369 98 204
Filler kg/hr 631 145 0

Total kg/hr 1,000 243 204


Heat Balance:Neutraliser
Materials Temperature Qty Cp Enthalpy
Kcal/kg Deg
Inlet Raw Material Deg C kg C Kcal
Ammonia 0 243 0
PA 40 385 0.405 6235
SA Granulator: 40 430 0.345 5934
Amm.Moisture 0 1 1 0
P2O5 in slurry kg/hr 204
PA.Moist 40 149 1 5962
Mole ratio 1.45
SA. Moist 40 6 1 258
Scrubbing Recycle
water ratio 40 434 1 5 17360
Total Dryer Ammonia loss 1% 35750
After Reaction - Heat
NH3 loss Liberated:
in dryer kg/hr kg Kcal/kg of
prd Kcal
MAP NH3 required kg/hr 245 238 14 58,30
DAP Moist.NH3 kg/hr 70 0.07
310 21,79
Slurry to Granulator kg/hr 369
Amm.Sulfate 11 426 4,63
Total Slurry kg/hr 461 5
Others 4,63
H2O in slurry kg/hr 92 5
Total 89,364
Air to Granulator
Air Speed
Heat Liberated from Neutraliser m/sec Kcal0.6 125,11
Section area Granulator m2 7.06 4

Air Volume
Water Evaporation m3/hr 15250
kg 498.5
m3/MT Prd 15 3

Dry. Air Qty kg 16.559

Moist.Air kg 0.516
Heat Balance:Granulator
Materials Temperature Qty Cp Enthalpy
Kcal/Kg Deg
Deg C Kg C Kcal

Slurry to Granulator 120 369 0.33 14,603.08

Water in slurry 120 92 1 11,062.94
NH3 to Granulator 0 14 -
Moist. In NH3 0 0 1 -

Recycle material 80 5000 0.33 132,000.00

Moist. Rec.Material 80 500 1 40,000.00

Dry. Air 37 16.56 0.23 140.92

Moist. In Air 37 0.52 1 19.10

Total Heat Into the System 197,826

Reaction Heat:
Kcal/kg of
kg prd Kcal
MAP to DAP 88 132 90061

Heat Liberated from Granulator Kcal 7
Dryer Balance: Input Data
Product flow rate kg/hr 1000
Recycle ratio 5
kg/MT of
Total material to dryer prod 6000
Moisture content in dryer inlet material % 3
Moisture content in dryer outlet
material % 1
Material inlet temperature C 80
Material outlet temperature C 85
Inlet air temperature C 250
Outlet air temperature C 95
kg/kg of dry
Inlet air water content air 0.033
Specific heat of material Kcal/kg/C 0.33
Specific heat of water Kcal/kg/C 1
Specific heat of steam Kcal/kg/C 0.45
Specific heat of inlet dry air Kcal/kg/C 0.24
Latent heat of steam Kcal/kg 595
kg/kg of dry
Outlet air water content air 0.095
kg/kg of dry
Ambient air humidity air 0.02
Ambient air temperature Deg.C 35

Energy Balance: Dryer

Enthalpy of hot air inlet to dryer Kcal/kg 83.35
Enthalypy of dryer exit air Kcal/kg 83.24
Dry air required per MT of product kg/ MT of prod 1942.71
Kg dry air/ MT
G, Hot Air into Dryer Prd 5539.39
Dry air flow through dryer kg/hr 1943
Enthalpy of ambient air kcal/kg 20.309
Heat pick up by dry air in furnace kcal/hr 122465

Furnace oil required kg/hr 13


quantity of, air, dust vapor per 1000kg product

Equipment Air Kg H2O Kg Dust Kg Gas volume

screen elevator 68.08 2.12 2 72.2

oversize mill 224.75 7 8.77 219.2

screen A/B 209.99 6.55 8.19 204.2

screenC/D 209.99 6.55 6.14 204.2

recycle conveyor 436.8 13.62 12.23 426

recycle feeder 20.51 0.64 0.6 20.2

total 1170.12 36.48 37.93 1146

Ammonia from dryer cyclone 13.3 kg

Ammonia from granulator 5.97kg

Ammonia from neutralizer 15.82kg

Ammonia feed to venturi 35.12kg

Ammonia released from venturi scrubber

(35.12)(1-0.90) =3.52kg

0.90 : Ammonia recovery efficiency of venturi scrubber

recovered ammonia in dust scrubber

(3.52-1.30) =2.22kg

1.30 kg ammonia loss from stack


Dust from screen elevator 2kg

Dust from os mill 8.77kg

Dust from screen A/B 8.19kg

Dust from screen C/D 6.14Kg

Dust from recycle elevator 12.23kg

Recycle feeder 0.60kg

Dust released from dust scrubber


0.85 : Dust recovery efficiency of dust scrubber

suggestions to reduce dust emission and
ammonia recovery

Recycling Dedust Gas to the Combustion Chamber takes the heat given off by the DAP
throughout the plant and reuses it in the Dryer. There are various dedust pickup points
within a DAP plant which mainly come from the belt conveyors, screens, and elevators.
Heat is transferred from the DAP to the dedust air which heats the air to about 140F.
The dedust air then enters a cluster of cyclones followed by a baghouse so that it can be
recycled to the Combustion Chamber. The dedust system can supply about half of the
air required by the Combustion Chamber. Recycling these gases reduces the fuel oil
consumption by 1.21 lb/short ton of DAP.

A dedust system which recycles Dedust air compared to a system that does not,
contains the same amount of dedust pickup points, ductwork and Cyclones but may not
contain a Baghouse which is required to prevent solids from entering the Combustion
Chamber. The total installed cost of the Baghouse was weighted against the fuel savings
and the following results were obtained

payback period
Cost Annual Savings Rate of Payback

Rate (Millions of $) (Millions of $) Return Period

35 stph 1.0 0.4 38% 32 months IMPROVING

65 stph 1.5 0.8 51% 23 months EFFICIENCY
100 stph 2.0 1.2 60% 20 months IN TAIL

The final stage of scrubbing is in the Tail Gas Scrubber. Tail Gas Scrubber liquor
circulates at a temperature of 130-140C. This circulating liquor can be sent through a
kettle type heat exchanger to vaporize ammonia. Heat is drawn out from the gases going
through the Tail Gas Scrubber by the circulating scrubber liquor which is then transferred
to the ammonia. From the heat used to vaporize the ammonia, 70% of it comes from
cooling air and the other 30% comes from condensing water in the tail gas. The
condensed water will have be vaporized in the DAP plant so this important fact must be
implemented can be taken into account when calculating the economics of the vaporizer.
To vaporize all the ammonia, the vaporizer needs to operate at a lower pressure than
what is required at the Pipe Reactor therefore the Tail Gas Scrubber Ammonia Vaporizer
can only supply gaseous ammonia to the Preneutralizer.

The energy that goes into heating ammonia reduces the fuel oil consumption or is used
to evaporate water thereby reducing the amount of strong phosphoric acid needed in the
DAP Plant. Since a lower overall phosphoric acid concentration is needed, less steam is
needed at the concentration area which can be used for power generation at the Sulfuric
Acid Plant.

Cost Annual Savings Rate of Payback

Rate (Millions of $) (Millions of $) Return Period

35 stph 0.6 0.06 10% 120 months

65 stph 0.9 0.13 14% 85 months

100 stph 1.2 0.19 16% 76 months


Thus by introducing kettle type exchanger to vaporize

ammonia in tail gas scrubbing system and collecting dust
from various points by using deduct system the efficiency of
the operation can be improved by reducing fuel
consumption in dryer and neutralizer.