THE

MOHAMMEDAN
MISSIONARY PROBLEM.

BY THE
Eev.

henry

H. JESSUP, D.D..
in Syria.

For Twenty-fouk Years Missionary

PHILADELPHIA PEESBYTERIAN BOA ED OF PUBLICATION,
:

No.

1334

CHESTNUT STREET.

Copyright, 1879, by
THE TRUSTEES OF THE

PRESBYTERIAN BOARD OF PUBLICATION.

Westcott & Thomson,
Stereotypers

and

Electrotypers, Philada.

INTRODUCTORY NOTE.

A DISCOURSE on
eral

"

The Moliammedan MisGen-

sionary Problem," delivered before the

in

Assembly of the Presbyterian Church the United States, meeting at Saratoga

Springs May 18, 1879, by the Moderator, the Rev. Henky H. Jessup, D. D., of
Beirut,
Syria,
attracted

general

attention,

and

awakened
to

a
it

desire

on

the

part

of

many

have

in print.

In compliance

with this demand, and at the request of the Presbyterian Board of Publication, Dr.
Jessup has rewritten and enlarged the discourse, and the result is here given to the
public.

PREFACE.

This

little treatise

does not profess to be

an exhaustive statement of the relations of
Islam and Christianity.
line.

It

is

a mere out-

It

is

published in deference to the

earnest request of friends
it

who have thought
this

worth preserving in a permanent form.

The map accompanying
published by the Christian

volume

is

taken from that printed in Stobart's

Islayn,

Knowledge SoThe green shading has been exciety. tended over parts of China not marked in
the
four
original,
to

indicate

the existence of

millions
is

of Moslems in that empire.

This

the

only correction made in this

map,

for

which I would express very great

obligations to Principal Stobart.

6

PREFACE.

The Arabic pronunciation
English word be written
I

of the

name

of the founder of Islam requires that the

have followed the
It
is

Muhammad, but ordinary spelling, Mothat Stobart,

hammed.
following

unfortunate

Irving,
tlie

should
so

have adoj)ted
utterly

a
as

form
"

of

name
of

wrong
in

Mahomet."

The number
world
is

Mohammedans

the

given in this work as one hun-

dred and seventy-five millions. Mr. Keith Johnston estimates it as follows
:

In Europe In Africa
In Asia
Total
It

5,974,000

50,416,000

112,739,000
..169,129,000

probably vary far from one hundred and seventy or one hundred and
does

not

seventy-five millions.

Inquiry

is

often

made

for the best

books
is

on Mohammedanism.
list

The

following

a

of the more important:

PREFACE.
1.

7

Introductory Essay of Sale's

Koran:

Lippincott.
2.

The Preface and Notes

of Eodwell's

Koran: Williams
3.

&

Norgate, London.

Sir

William Muir's Life of Mohammed:

London.
4. Stobart's

Idam and
Society.

its

Founder: Chris-

tian
5.

Knowledge
Dr.

Sprenger's

Life of

Mohammed:

Allahabad, 1851.
6.

Dr. Pfander's 3Iezan

el

Hoc: Church

Missionary Society, London.
7.

Irving's Life of

Mahomet.

8.
9.

Lane's Modern Egyptia7is. R. Bosworth Smith's Mohammed and
Harpers. Rev. T. P. Hughes's Notes on Mo:

Mohammedanism
10.

hammedanism.
11.

Osborn's

Lslam

under the Arabs:

Longmans, Green
12.

&

Co.

The Coran,

Sir William

Muir

:

Chris-

tian

Knowledge

Society.

8

PREFACE.
13.

Dr.

Hamlin's

Amoyig
to

the

Turks

:

Robert Carter
14.

&

Brother.

Burton's Pilgriynage
:

El Ifedinah
the

a7id Ifecca

Putnam

&

Co.

15.

Clark's

The Arabs and

Turks:

Dodd &
16.

Mead.
Turkish Emjyire
:

Bev. T. Milner's

Beligious Tract Society, London.
17. Report of Conference on
sions,'

Foreign Mis-

Mildmay, 1878. London.
18.

J. F.

Shaw

&

Co.,

The

Trident,

the

Crescent

and

the

Cross,
19.

Vanghan. Longmans, London. Islam and Christianity, J. M. Arnold.

Longmans.
20.

Christianity

and Islam, Stephens.
of
authorities

See also the

list

in

the

preface to Bosworth Smith's

Mohammed.

The works

of

Sjed

Ahmed Khan Baha-

dor and Syed Ameer Ali are an attempt at a refutation of Sir William Muir's indict-

ment of Mohammedanism, written by MosThere is a great assumption of learnlems.

PREFACE.
ing and a
so2-)histical

y
tlie

defence of

Koranic

teachings with regard to slavery, polygamy,
divorce and the degradation of

woman.

The
ject
It is

multiplication of books on this sub-

shows

growing imjDortance. our earnest hope and prayer that
ethical bearings of Islamism

its

this

revival of interest in the historical, theological

and

may

result in a

new

practical interest in the spir-

itual welfare

of the
for

Mohammedan
the Christian

nations.

It
to

is

high time

Church

ask seriously the question whether the last command of Christ, "Preach the gospel
to

every creature," concerns

the

one

hundred and seventy-five millions of the

Mohammedan
16, 1879.

world.

HENEY
MOI^TROSE, PeNNA.,

H. JESSUP.

July

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

A. D.

570. Birth of
590.

Mohammed,

at

Mecca.

Gregory I. becomes bishop of Eome. 597. Mission to the Saxons in Britain.
609.
622.

Mohammed
The
Hejra,

proclaims his pretensions.
or
flight

of

Mohammed

from Mecca to

Medina.
632.

Death of Mohammed.

632.

Abu

Bekir,

first

caliph or successor of

Mohammed.

636. Capture of Jerusalem

by the caliph
by Omar.

Omar.

640. Capture of Alexandria

711.

Tharyk

crosses the straits

from Africa

to

Europe, and

calls the

mountain Jebel Tharyk (Gibraltar).

732. Battle of Tours

Martel
lem.
786.

;

Abd-er-Kahman defeated by Charles Western Europe saved from becoming Mos;

Haroun er-Kashid, caliph

of Baghdad.
prince.

1063.

Alp Arslan, Seljukian Turkish

1299,

ooQ

Eeign of Othman, founder of the Ottoman dynasty.
Perfection of art of printing in

1452.

Mentz by Guttenburg,

Faust and
10

Schoefier.

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.
1453. Capture of Constantinople by
of

H
II.
;

Moliammed

exodus

Greek

scholai-s to

Southern Europe.

1492. Discovery of
1492, July 2.

America by Columbus.
defeated

Boabdil (or

dinand at
1517.

Abou Abdallah) Granada end of Moslem
;

by Fer-

rule in Spain.

Ottoman sultan Selim
caliphate

I.

conquers Egypt, wrests the
line

from the

Arab

of Koreish through
it

Motawekkel Billah, and
sultana;

transfers

to the

Ottoman

Ottoman caliphate never acknowledged by

Persian or Moorish Moslems.
1683. Final

check of Turks at gates of Vienna by John
;

12 Sobieski, king of Poland, Sept. saved from Moslem rule.
1856.

Eastern Europe

End

of

Crimean War; Treaty of Paris;
interfere

European
affaii-s

agreement not to
Turkey.
1878. Treaty of Berlin
;

in

domestic

of

independence of Bulgaria secured

;

Anglo-Turkish Treaty; England occupies
agrees
to

CyprusTurkey

defend

the

frontier

of

Asiatic

against Eussia,

on

condition

that the sultan exe-

cute fundamental reforms in Asiatic Turkey.

CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM COMPARED.

"

Go ye

into all the world,

and j)reach

the gospel to every creature."

Mark xvi. 15.
until they

The Aggressh^e
Command.
"Fight thou against them
pay
tribute

by

right of subjection,

and
ix.

they be reduced low."
29.

Koran, chap.

"There
between

is one God and one Mediator God and man, the man Christ
ii.

The Motto.

Jesus." 1 Tim.

5.

"There

is

no God but God, and Mo-

hammed
"

is

his apostle."

Love your enemies." Matt.
Lord of
all

v. 44.

"O
The Treatment
OF Enemies.

creatures!

O

Allah!

destroy the infidels and polytheists, thine

enemies, the

enemies of the

religion!
their

Give

them

and

their

families,
etc.,

women,

their children,

as booty to
!"

_

—Mohammedan Missionary Prayer.

the Moslems,

O

Lord

of all creatures

12

THE MOHAMMEDAN

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
A

T

the beginning of

tlie

seventh century

^^

there occurred two events of

momentous

importance.

Though

geographically remote

from each other, and not often associated in the mind of the Christian student, they were
providentially related in the most intimate

manner, as bearing upon the welfare of the race and the future development of Christ's

kingdom in the world.

One was
ligion

—the other the

the rise of the

Mohammedan

re-

christianization of the

Saxon race in
It is

Britain.

the purpose of the writer in the

following pages to show the evident plan and

providence of

God

in the past, present
13

and

14

THE MOHAMMEDAN
Anglo-Saxon Chrisworld.

future relations of the
tian race to the

Mohammedan

God
Islam
;

has been preparing Christianity for

he

is

Christianity.

now preparing Islam for The Roman power and the

Greek language prepared the way for the coming of Christ and the giving of the gospel to the world. Anglo-Saxon power and
the Arabic language, the sacred language of the Koran, are prejoaring the way for giving the word of Christ, and Christ the the millions of the

Word,

to

Mohammedan world. The Mohammedan religion arose, in

the

providence of God, as a scourge to the idolatrous Christianity and the pagan systems
of Asia and Africa

—a

protest against poly-

theism, and a preparation for the future con-

version to a pure Christianity of the multi-

tude

who have

fallen

under

its

extraordinary

power.

The
"

religion of Islam has been styled the

quarantine of the nations," and in the apit

prehension of Christian faith

must be

re-

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
garded as a step in advance of
all

15

pagan and yet falling far sliort of tlie systems, morality and spirituality of the gospel, and
destitute

of any

provision

for

human

re-

demption.

When
motto,
"

Gibbon declared that the Islamic
There
is is

no God but God, and Mo-

hammed
its

his apostle," asserts
lie,"

an "eternal

truth and an eternal

he truly expressed

duplex and inconsistent character.

Mohammed
A. D.,

unfurled his standard in 622
fled

when he

from Mecca

to

El Medina
is

("the city").
the

This Hejra, or "flight,"
of the

beginning

Mohammedan

era.

The

religion of Islam spread rapidly over
" Sword of God," Khaled, the
cities

Arabia, and thence northward over Palestine

and Syria.
captured the

and towns of Syria
churches

;

ten

thousand

Christian

were

either

destroyed or

converted into
cities

Mohammedan

mosques.

The

of Syria and Palestine

to-day are filled W'ith mosques whose architecture betrays their Christian origin.

The

16

THE MOHAMMEDAN

splendid mosque of Amweli, in Damascus,

was the church of
the mosque of

St.

John the Baptist;
was the

Aksa

in Jerusalem
;

church

of

Justinian

and

the

world-re-

nowned mosque of Constantinople was the
church of Agia Sophia.

Sweeping into Africa, the scimitar of the Moslems carried the Koran into Egypt, far up the Nile, across Northern Africa to Tunis,
Algiers and Morocco
;

and

in

711

a. d. the

Mohammedan
Straits

general

Tharyk
side,

crossed

the

into

Europe, and
"

called

the great

rock on the northern

from his own

name, Jebel Tharyk,

now

called,

mountain of Tharyk," by a corruption of the Arabic

words, Gibraltar.

In twenty-one years the Moslems had subjugated Spain, but in 732 their progress
into

France was checked by Charles Martel,
in the battle of Poictiers defeated the

who

invading army and saved Western Europe

from becoming a

Mohammedan

province.
is

The

history of the Ai-abs in Spain

too

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
familiar to need

17

more than a mere

allusion,

but
that

it is

in

a significant coincidence in history the year 1492 the very year in

which Columbus discovered America, and thus opened a new field for the growth and
development of that christianized Anglo-Saxon race which was destined to wield so mighty

an influence upon the future of the Mohammedan nations Ferdinand overthrew the

last

at the gates of Granada, and the Moslems were driven

Spanish

Mohammedan army

back into Africa.
it

In the following century was a common proverb in Spain, " As hard
find
as

to

Mohammed

in

Spain," showing

that the

Moslem occupation of more than

seven hundred years in Spain was at an end

Turning northward from Arabia, the political and literary power of Islam reached its highest glory in Baghdad under
for ever.

the Caliphs.

This was the golden age of Arabic literature. The Caliphs used their
wealth and power in translating into Arabic the best classics of Greece. Translations of

18

THE 3I0HAMMEDAN
and Euclid and

Plato, Aristotle, Hij^pocrates

other authors into Arabic found their

way
and

down the Mediterranean
France
;

into

Spain

and there are in the University Library of Paris more ancient Arabic manuscripts than can be found in the
whole Turkish empire.

The armies

of the Prophet

quests subdued in
istan,

by rapid conturn Persia and Afghan-

and overran a large part of India. Thence they moved on through Central
and to-day there are four millions of Moslems in China, of whom two
;

Asia into China

hundred thousand
of the Flowery

live in

Peking, the

cajDital

Kingdom.

A

new

factor

now appeared

in history.

The Tartar Turks,
tral Asia,

a pagan race from Cen-

conquered the empire of the Arab and were conquered by its religion caliphs, they became Mohammedans. Then began
;

the

struggle

between the
the
tottering

rising

Ottoman
of

power
Greeks.

and

empire

the

Step by step, the Turks

pushed

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.

19

the Greeks to the westward, and in the year

1453,

Mohammed

II.

unfurled the standard

of the Prophet on the towers of ConstantinoIn the previous year (1452) the art of ple.
printing was perfected by Guttenburg, Faust

and

Schoeffer, preparing the wa}^ for the re-

vival of letters.

The

capture of Constanti-

nople in 1453 threw the Greek scholars of the East into a panic at the advance of the
infidel host,

and not a few of them
bearing with

fled to

Southern

Europe,

them the

Greek language, Greek literature and the Greek New Testament. Many were appointed professors in the universities of Italy and Southern Europe, and thus awakened an instudy of the Greek and prepared the way for the development of Bible study and the translation of the New Testament
terest in the

into the

languages of Europe in the time of the Reformation.

The Mohammedan Turkish power now
attempted the conquest of Europe from the East, as the Mohammedan Moorish power

20

THE MOHAMMEDAN
tried
it

had
til

from the West.

It

was not unfinally-

the year 1683 that the Turks were

defeated on the 12th of September at the
gates of

Vienna by

Sobieski,

and the Mos-

lems were driven back across the Danube.

In the year 1878, by the terms of the Treaty of Berlin, and as the result of the

Kusso-Turkish war, the Turkish territory in Europe was narrowed down to a mere
belt extending across

from the Black Sea

to

the Adriatic, including East Boumelia (or

Southern

Bulgaria),

Macedonia,

Thessaly

and Albania.

The

caliphate, or succession of
to the

MohamIn

med, belongs legally
Koreish,
the

Arab family of
Prophet.
I.,

family of

the

conquered Syria and Egypt, and brought with him to
Constantinople Motawekkel Billah, the
titular caliph of the family of
last

1517 the Turkish

sultan, Selim

Abbas.
"

From

this descendant of
fifth caliph

Dahir Billah, the thirtyjorocured the
rio-ht

of Baghdad, Selim

cession of his claims,

and obtained the

IIISSIONARY PROBLEM.
to

21

deem himself the shadow
Since

of

God upon

earth.

then the

Ottoman padisliah

has been hekl to inherit the rights of Omar and Haroun, and to be the legitimate com-

mander of the

Faithful, and, as such, pos-

sessed of plenary temporal

and

spiritual au-

thority over the followers of Mohammed.'"''

The

Persians and

this claim,

and

at the close of the

Moors, however, reject Kussian

war not a few even of the Arab muftis declared that the caliphate

had been

forfeited

by the

inglorious defeat of the Turks,

and

should now return to the Arab family of Koreish.

The above

is

a brief epitome of the rise

and geographical extension of the religion It now extends from the Pacific of Islam. Ocean
at

Peking

to the Atlantic in Sierra

Leone, over one hundred and twenty degrees of longitude, embracing one hundred

and seventy-five millions of
* Freeman
:

followers.
p. 158.

Its

The Saracens,

22

THE MOHAMMEDAN

votaries are diverse in language, nationality

and customs, embracing the more civilized inhabitants of Cairo, Damascus and ConstantinojDle, as well as the wild

nomad

tribes

of Arabia, Turkestan and the Sahara.

The
of

evangelization of these vast, organ-

ized, fanatical

men

is

and widely-extended masses one of the grandest and most
earth.
It is a

inspiring problems ever brought before the

Church of Christ on

work

of surj^assing difficulty, which will require a new baj)tism of apostolic wisdom and
energy, faith and love.

But
with

He who whom "a

sitteth

on the throne, and

thousand years are as one

day," will prepare the

way
is

in his

own

wise

and gracious time. ing the way and it
;

already preparour purpose to notice the remarkable interposition of the divine
is

He

providence in raising up in the two great branches of the Anglo-Saxon Christian family, in

Great Britain and the United States

of America, the political, religious and ed-

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
ucatioiial

23

means and appliances which are

tending to bring the
to Christ.

Mohammedan

world

We
when

shall thus see

how

the christianization

of the Saxon race in Britain just at the time
the

Mohammedan
j)lan,

religion arose in the

East was a divine
for the

the remedy provided

growing moral disorder, the "rod
to

blossoming" for future displays of the divine

power as well as the divine love

man.
This great
before the

Mohammedan problem
in the

lying

Church of Christ

imme-

diate future, connected with its fulfillment

of the great missionary commission of
divine

its

Head

for the world's salvation, will

tax the intellect, the faith, the wisdom, the
zeal

and the

self-denial of the

whole Church

in every land.

How

are

we

to

reach the

one hundred

and seventy-five millions of Mohammedans spread over one hundred and twenty degrees
of longitude, from the Pacific in China to

24

THE MOHAMMEDAN

the Atlantic in SieiTa Leone, embracing vast
nations speaking thirty different languages,

with diverse climates, customs and traditions,
yet unified and compacted by a common faith which has survived the shocks and conflicts

of twelve hundred years?

This problem
as never before

is

even now pressing

itself

tian

upon the attention of Chrisscholars and divines, and within a few

years the literature of the subject has grown from a few standard and well-known books
to a vast

number of

treatises, essays,

papers

and

stately volumes,

written

in

Germany,
United
testi-

France,
States,

England, India
while
the
missionaries

and

the

observations

and

mony

of

and

travelers

have

thrown a flood of light upon the moral, religious and theological, as well as the
civil

and

political,

status

of

this

mighty

system.
It
is

our purpose in these pages to present

a mere outline of the relations of Islam to
Christianity as illustrated

by those

features

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
in Islam as a system

25
state of the

and in the

Eastern AVorld, which are unfcworahle to the acceptance of Christianity, together with those

which are favorable.

It is not possible to treat

the subject in an exhaustive

manner within
to gather

the present limits, but we

may hope

together the salient points, that

we may the

better estimate the nature of the contest before us.

CHAPTER
§ I.

I.

THE UNFAVOKABLE FEATUEES.

The

first

difficulty lies in the

union

between the temporal and spiritual power in Islam.
It
is

a politico-religious system.

tan

is

the caliph of

Mohammed

Tlie suli. e.

his

successor.

king of

He is the prophet and priest and the Mohammedan world. The laws
imams and Mohammedan
scimitar was the precursor

of the empire are based on the Koran, the
decisions of the
tradition.

The

and supporter of the Koran when Mohammed and his successors first propagated the

new

faith.

In the fifteenth century the Crescent ruled from Burmah on the east to Mogadore on
the Atlantic, and
the
all

name
26

of Islam.

Europe trembled at In the Turkish em-

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
pire the imperial

.

27

army

is

a religious army,

the great national festivals are religious festivals,

testimony
is

is

a religious act, and

Mo-

hammedanism
political

thus entrenched in the very
organization of the empire.

and

civil

Apostasy from the
thus in
state.
is

Mohammedan religion is Turkey treason to the Mohammedan
convert to Christianity from Islam

A

arrested as a renegade from the conscrip-

tion.

The

military authorities will insist that

they care nothing for the man's religion, hut he must he arrested as a traitor. This politico-religious alliance in the
is

Turkish empire

in accordance

with the
law,

letter
is

and the

sj^irit

of

Mohammedan

and

the great ob-

stacle to the evangelization of the

Moham-

medans.
§ II.

The second

feature in Islam unfavoris

able to missionary success

the divorce be-

tween morality and religion.

The Koran
Confucius.

is

not wanting in moral pre-

cepts, nor are the

Vedas

or the writings of

Yet

it

can be said that what-

28

THE MOHAMMEDAN
Koran
is

ever in the

true was taken from
is

the Bible, and what
is

not from the Bible

either false or frivolous.

an intensely formal and ritual system, a religion of works outward works,
Islam
is

not affecting the heart or requiring transformation of the
life.

Fasting, the jDilgrimfive times a day, tes-

age to Mecca, praying
tifying

"There
is

is

no God but God, and
apostle,"

Mohammed
ablutions,

his

almsgivings,

genuflections,

circumcision

and

repeating the one hundred names of God,
are

some of the

rites

and

acts

by which

the believer purchases Paradise.

One who
part,
is

fulfills this ritual,

in whole or in

a good Muslim, even though not to

be believed under oath.
Beirut was said by an

Dr. Eli Smith of
to be a

Arab

very holy
religion;''''

Yn.?^^,^' But, poor man!

he had no

that

is,

no observance of an outward
of Islam are of the

ritual.

The good works

lips,

the

hand and the outward bodily act, having no connection with holiness of life, honesty.

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
veracity

29

and

integrity.

An Arab

liigliway-

robber and murderer was once brought for trial before a Mohammedan pasha, when the

pasha stepped down and kissed his hand, as the culprit was a dervish or holy man who

had been on several pilgrimages to Mecca, and had been known to rej^eat the name of

God As

(Allah) more times in a day than any

other man.
their

fers to
lost all

whole idea of deen, or religion, rethe outward and ceremonial, they have
conception of the spiritual nature of

religion,

and language

itself is so

perverted
to

that

when

spiritual ideas

are

meant

be

conveyed, or attempted to be conveyed, to

them, they apprehend only the outer husk, the very shell, while the inner sjDiritual

meaning

is

lost.

"The

minutest

change

of posture in prayer, the displacement of a single genuflection, would call for much

heavier censure than outward profligacy or
absolute neo-lect."*
*
Stobart, p. 237.

30
§ III.

THE MOHAMMEDAN
The
its
is

third unfavorable feature

in

Islam

is

Ishmaelitic intolerance.

There

no precept in the Koran enjoinIt

ing love to enemies.
charity

teaches kindness,

and

forgiveness

of
It

injuries,

but

only to Mohammedans. of universal benevolence.

knows nothing

Islam
"its

is

an Arab, an Ishmaelitic, faith

hand against every man."
all else

Mohamme-

dans "glory in the name Ismailee.
the people
;

are kajirs,

They are infidels. MoAll

hammed
things

—Islam, slavery or
tribute.

offered to

men

their choice of three

death.

who do

not accept Islam are looked upon as the legit-

imate servants of the true believers, and must

pay them
stated

The

Circassians, lately de-

ported by the sultan from Bulgaria to Syria,
" on their arrival that they had killed off the little kafirs in Bulgaria, and were now fleeing

from the 'Big Kafir,' the Muskobe, and that if the Eussian kafir came as far south
as Syria they should massacre the Christians

of Syria, and then

flee

a second time."

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
In the
university
great
in

31

Mohammedan
mosque
all

missionary

the

of

Azhar
of the

in

Cairo, Egypt,

where ten thousand students
parts

are

assembled from

Mo-

hammedan

world, studying the

Koran and

preparing to teach it throughout Asia and Africa, a missionary prayer is offered every evening in which the whole ten thousand
unite.

The
it
:

following

is

a

literal

transla-

"I seek refuge with Allah from Satan the accursed! In the name of Allah,
tion of

the Compassionate, the Merciful

!

O

Lord
the

of

all

creatures,

O

Allah

!

destroy the in-

fidels

and

polytheists,

thine
!

enemies,

enemies of the religion
their

O
and

Allah

!

make
their
;

children
!

orphans
their

defile
slip

abodes

Cause
their

feet

to

give

them and
and
their

families, their

households

women,

their children their

and their

relations

by marriage,
their

brothers

and

their

friends,

possessions

and their

race, their wealth
to

and their lands, as booty the Moslems, O Lord of all creatures!"

-32

THE MOHAMMEDAN

In the eighth Sura of the Koran, verse 40, are these words: "Fight thou against them,
till

strife

all

of

it

be at an end and the religion be So also in Sura ix. 29 God's."
:

Fight thou against them p. e. the Christians and Jews] until they pay tribute by right of subjection, and they be reduced
low
"
(i.

"

e.

utterly humiliated).

On
sultan

a

recent public

occasion

in Beirut,

after the official reading of a firman of the

Abd-ul-Hamid guaranteeing absolute equality and liberty to all the sects of the
empire, and granting to the Christians the right of military service and office, the
pasha,

an

enlightened

and

liberal

man,

asked an old

Mohammedan
to close the

sheikh of the

orthodox school
prayer.

ceremony with

All the company arose, when the sheikh, a venerable, white-bearded dignitary,
stepped forward and prayed as follows
Allah, grant the victory to
"
:

O

His Imperial

Majesty the

sultan

Abd-ul-Hamid Khan.
Rus-

Destroy

all

his enemies, destroy the

3nSSI0NABY PROBLEM.
sians;

33

O
in

Allah, destroy

tlie infidels.

Tear

them
them

in tatters, grind

them

in powder, rend

fragments,
the

because they

are

the

enemies of

Mohammedans."

He

was

then about to proceed when the mufti, or
chief interpreter of the Koranic law, stepped

forward, stopped
ear,

him and whispered
"
:

in his

the

O Allah, destroy when he proceeded enemies of the Mohammedans, because
tlie

they are also the enemies of and of the Jews. Amen."

Christians

This was an

orthodox

Mohammedan

prayer, such as the

orthodox constantly use, and this venerable sheikh was unable to grasp the idea that Christians and Jews have any other right
but the right of serving the faithful and being cut off in answer to their prayers.

This

spirit

of intolerance has engendered

a haughty, overbearing feeling

and deportis

ment toward

all others,

which

intensified

in proportion to their

own
is

ignorance.

Mo-

hammedan

arrogance

encouraged by the
iii.

assurance of the

Koran (Sura

106)

:

"Ye

34

THE 3I0HAMMEDAN
up

are the best nation that hath been raised

unto mankind."
prove that

What more

is

needed to

tliey are superior to all others?
little

They know
science or

or nothing of geography,
civilization.

European

Their ex-

clusive spirit appears in a striking
in

manner

the

Turkish

imperial

law

forbidding

Christians from entering the army, as the

army

is

" composed of the
is

fliithful,"

whose

business

to fight for the faith.
political

This law

has occasioned the greatest
terial loss to

and ma-

the sultan,

who has

thus alien-

ated and embittered millions of his Christian
subjects.

Whenever Islam holds
it

the sword

it

uses
all

for the oppression

and humiliation of

infidels,

but when

it

loses the military confatalistic sullenness.

trol it
§

submits with

IV. The fourth unfavorable feature in
is its

Islam

destruction of the family through

polygamy and concubinage.

One has

said

{Stobart, p. 229)

that

"an

evil code of ethics, enjoined by the national

3IISSI0NABY PROBLEM.
faith

35

and accepted, by its appeal to a divine origin, as the final and irrevocable standard
of morality, presents an insuperable barrier
to the

tion."
tlie

regeneration and progress of a na"

Yet such

is

the

position

which

Koran has taken."
distinctly

Mohammed

sanctioned
to

polygfour

amy, allowing each

Muslim
and

take

legal wives (Sura iv. 3),

in addition to

these, as concubines, the slave-girls

"

which

their right

hands possess" (Sura Ixx. 30)

that

is,

reality,

" In purchased or captured in war. the number of wives is practically

unlimited, as divorce and exchange are al-

lowed with

little

or

no

restraint."

"The
without

husband

may

divorce

his

wives

any assigned reason and without warning,

may

rebuke,

and the

and scourge them, dishonored wife has almost no
imprison
redress."

means of
twice

"The husband may
twice

divorce

and
if

take

back

the

same woman, but

he a third time divorce

her, she cannot again

become

his wife

till

36

THE MOHAMMEDAN
have
married
(cohabited

she

with)

and

been
(Sura

divorced
ii.

from

some

other

man

"

230).

Ordinarily,

the

poorer

Mohammedans

content themselves with one wife, but what

peace and domestic happiness can there be where the wife may at any moment be

turned aw\ay by the caprice of her hus" band ? Some Mohammedans make a
habit of continually changing their wives."
"

young men who have had twenty and thirty wives, a new one every three months ;" and there is

One author speaks

of

nothing in the Koran
brutal course of action.
trine

to

prevent such a The Koranic doc-

of

sanctity
izes

polygamy utterly destroys the and purity of the family, brutal-

the

man and

degrades

the

woman.

It

has

amy
tions.

been gravely claimed that polyglessens sensuality, and is an advance
civilized
is

on the morality of

Christian naIt

The

contrary
its

true.

has made
the

sensuality

in

most beastly forms

MISSIONABY PROBLEM.
rule,

37
It

and

not

the

exception.

nproots

the

family economy, order and
fosters

discipline,

and

unrestrained

passion

and

lust.
it

No
tue,

intelligent

Mohammedan
it

defends

on

the ground that

promotes

domestic vir:

happiness

or

family discipline
its

it

is

defended on the ground of stitution in the Koran.
It
is

divine in-

the opinion of Sir William
"

Muir

that

woman
cised ence,

more freedom, and exera healthier and more legitimate influpossessed
institutions of

under the pagan

Arabia

before the time of

Mohammed

than under

the influence of Islam."

Stobart quotes the

language of Sallust with regard to the practice of polygamy among the ancient Moors

and Numidians:
for a

"No

one marries a

woman

companion par iter omnes viles sunt;^^ and the same may be said of Mohammedan

women
medan
firmly

to-day.

Polygamy

is

a mighty ob-

stacle to Christianity in all lands,

Mohamit

or pagan,

and nowhere

is

more

entrenched than among those

who

38

THE MOHAMMEDAN
it

defend

on the ground of a positive divine

ordinance.

There naturally results from polygamy § V. Fifthly, the degradation of ivoman.

The Moslems
superior
are
in

say that

"women

are only

craft

and

cunning."

"There
and

three classes of j)ersons

religion

— Bedawin

who have no
muleteers
that

Arabs,

women."

Mohammed

declared
hell,

when

he looked down into

he

found the

greater part of the wretches confined there
to

be

women.

The whole Mohammedan

treatment of
tion

that

women rests on the assumpwoman cannot be trusted. Woenter

men
nor
rare
to

are not allowed to eat with their hus-

bands, to
to

the

floor

of the

mosques

read

cases.

Koran, except in very Should a woman be allowed
the
is

learn the Koran, she

placed in one

room with her female

attendants, while the

teacher, a blind sheikh, sits in the adjoin-

ing room and teaches her orally through
the half-opened
door.

The very meanest

IIISSIONABY PROBLEM.

39

have in Paradise eighty thousand servants, seventy- two houris, or girls
will

Muslim

of

Paradise,

besides

the

wives he had in

this world,

though

it is

the general opinion

that the wives

of this world will

be ex-

cluded from the society of their husbands
in

Paradise, and go into

a separate

place

of happiness.
affirm that
"

The Koran

does

distinctly

God

will bring the believing

men and
xlviii.

the helieving the

women

'neath whose trees "
5)
;

into gardens " rivers flow (Sura

also,

Male and female

believ-

ers shall enter Paradise,

nor shall they be

wronged the skin of a date-stone." But even on the su23position that the

Koran

allows

women

a reunion with their

husbands, what a monstrous perversion of all a woman's ideas of virtue, honor and
self-respect,
to

be told that she

is

to

be

but the secondary character in
dent beauty and attractiveness Ali Bey says (1807)
:

a celestial

hareem of seventv-two houris of transcen!

"As

the Prophet

40
lias

THE MOHAMMEDAN
not assigned any place for

women
give

in Lis

Paradise, the

Mohammedans

them no

places in the mosques,

and have exempted
of

them from the

obligation

frequenting

the public j^rayers."

The Moslem women

are not instructed in religion.

Woman
She

is

a mere toy and

pander

to

man.

is

kept

closely
if

veiled,

threatened with

dire

judgments

she allows a

man

to see

her

face, beaten, despised, kept in degradation.

No Mohammedan

will allude to a

woman

in the presence of other

men

without beg-

ging pardon of those present for mentioning so vile a subject, just as he would do if
alluding to a dog, a hog or a donkey.
I

know

of nothing which so

stirs

the indig-

nation of a Christian civilized
find himself in the

man as to company of men call-

ing themselves decent members of society, and yet unable even to mention the name
of his

own revered mother without begging
for introducing so
to

pardon of those present
vile a subject.

I

am happy

say that I

3IISSI0NABY PROBLEM.

41

have never degraded myself by yielding to so repulsive and abominable a custom. If
a

Mohammedan

finds

himself

obliged

to

mother or daughter in the presence of other men, he will speak of her in the masculine gender, as, " he is
wife,

mention his

sick" or "he

is

absent," etc.

Women
tion.

are kept in seclusion

and subjecthe

I was once present in the study of

Dr.

Van Dyck

in Beirut

when

Moham-

medan
called.

mufti, or suprem^e judge of the city,

After the usual formal salutations

he informed Dr.
a

Van Dyck
Said
" he,

that there was

sick

man

at

his house

who needed im-

mediate

care.

He

has

fever,

headache and great pain. Will you come and see him at three o'clock?" Dr. Van

Dyck
he?\"

"
replied,

Yes, I will

call

and

see

The mufti was

S]3eaking of his wife,

or one of his wives,

and yet he would not

speak of her in the feminine gender, but called her "a sick man."

The Moslems by degrading woman have

42

THE 3I0IIAMMEDAN
In a recent
book'"'

degraded tliemselves.

on

woman

in Turkey,

which exposes many of

the vices and abominations of the polyga-

mous hareem-system of the Moslems, the
author
corps
represents

one

of

the

diplomatic

of

Constantinople as
"

colleagues,
tate to

saying to his Enlightened men do not hesilike a cancer,
social system.
is

avow that polygamy is eating into and destroying our

To
felt

rid us of such a scourge

the special

work of

a patriot.

It should be the heart-

wish of every Mussulman to undertake
it;

and accomplish

for the advantages

may say the blessings which result from monogamy are immense, and we know how
to

—we
I

appreciate them.

For

my own
a radical

part,

could

heartily wish that
set

reform

were

on

foot in our social system,

and

that the emancipation of
to

woman

could lead

the

abolition

of polygamy.

No
will

doubt

the day will come
* Les Femmes en Turquie.

when women

walk

Par Osman Beg, Major Vladimir

Andyovich.

Paris

:

Caiman Levy.

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
unveiled through the
society as they
streets,
;

43

and go into
!

am

old,

do in Europe but, alas I and shall never live to see that

happy day."
speaking of mixed marriages the same author says, " The Koran permits a

In

Mussulman
that

to

marry a Christian

—forbids
sense of

*Moslem women should be joined to "This law bears the Christian husbands."
of
its

seal

Semitic origin in the

lowering woman, who is regarded in herself as but a little cipher. Woman, in her

husband's view,

is

but a

field

;

and in

this

way

a

Moslem may

|)Ossess

himself of the
its

object without worrying

himself as to

produce.

As

a field can have neither faith
its

nor intellect nor will of
be

own,

it

would

absurd

for

about what a
wishes
:

man woman
a

to

occupy himself
thinks
or

believes,

she

is

absolutely nothing but her
"

master's domain."

The Koran
wives are your

says

(Sura

ii.

223)

:

Your

field ;"

and, as

Osman Beg

44

THE MOHAMMEDAN

SO clearly sliows, they are treated as

having no more rights or honor or respect than a field. Sura iv. 38 says "Men are superior
:

women, on. account of the qualities with which God hath gifted the one above the
to

other."
.
. .

"

Virtuous

women
to
fear,

are

obedient,

but chide those for whose refractor-

iness

ye have cause

and scourge
well kept

iliemr

Whatever other injunction of the
is

Koran

disobeyed, this one

is

by the Moslems. Wife-beating, that most repulsive and degrading practice, being enjoined in the Koran, be thought not even
is

so

common

as to

worthy of remark.
hareem-life
in

Osman ^^%,
observes
seraglio
"
:

in

describing

the seraglio of the sultan in Constantinople,
Discipline
is

maintained in the

by

repressive measures

and corporal
in, etc.

2:)unishments.

The

first

consist in a refusal

of permission to go out, being locked

Corporal punishments are designated by the verb to ahandje, which signifies the basti-

nado on the

soles of the feet.

In the pres-

3IISSI0NABY PROBLEM.

45

ent century the reforming spirit lias penetrated everywhere, and the bastinado has

undergone a sensible diminution,
for the person

at

least

of the sufferer.

The

prac-

tice of striking young girls upon the soles of their feet, with the risk of laming them,

has been quite abandoned. Blows are given be hard to say with it would elsewliere
:

precision on
is

what part of the person.

It

well understood that rods are substituted

for the stick."
It is asserted that the liareem of the sul-

tan Abd-ul-Medjid

numbered not

less

than

one thousand
all

women and girls, who Moslem women are, uneducated,
their tempers

were, as
profane,

slanderous, capricious, never trained to control

tongues for a moment. One can imagine the moral and social condition of woman in such a home,
or
their

or such a caricature of a home.

The

rod,

the scourge,
cipline.

is

the only instrument of disare treated
like animals,

Women

and behave like animals.

46
It
is

THE MOHAMMEDAN

.

the testimony of history that the
are responsible for the whole

Mohammedans
to

zenana-^j^iem. of India, and that previous the
irruption

of

the

Moslem Moguls

enjoyed than since that time. vastly greater liberty It is the Moslem theory that woman can
never, in any time, place or circumstances,

(Mongols)

the

Hindoo

women

be trusted
suspected,

;

they must be watched, veiled,
secluded.

Ali

Beg
of

"

says

:

I

have
"

often

seen

the

people
their

Morocco

present the
"

sultan with

daughters;"
sisters ;"

he has married two of his own

decorum

requires

that

Mohammedans

never speak of women." Girls and women are not counted in taking the census.

A

man having

daughters, and no

sons, regards

himself as childless.
It is fair to
its

judge any religious system by
domestic family-life, by
;

fruits in the

its

treatment of

woman Mohammedanism is

and, tried by this test,^
a failure.

What

worse

condemnation of Islam can be found than

3nSSI0NABY PROBLEM.
the
"

47

Koranic

precept

wliicli

scouroino' of disobedient

women

enjoins "
?

the

Alas for the eighty-five millions of Mohammedan women living without consolation
§

and dying without hope! VI. As a natural result of

their treat-

ment of woman, we
ffvoss immoi^ality.

find in Islam, sixthly,

The Eev.

J.

Vaughan,
be

for nineteen years

a missionary in India, says:

"However
for,

the
we,

phenomenon
after

may
with

accounted

mixinofor

Hindoos and Mussulyears

mans

nineteen

back,

have

no

hesitation in saying that the latter are, as

a whole, some degrees lower in the

social

and moral

scale

than the former."

In these days, when so much has been written about the high ethical tone of
Islam,
subject,
reiterate

we

shall

speak
as
it

plainly
is.

on

this

unpleasant
the

We

would
that

position

already

taken,

polygamy has not diminished

licentiousness

among

the

Mohammedans.

The

sin

of

48

THE MOHAMMEDAN
is

common among them as to make them in many places objects of dread to their neighbors. The burning
sodomy
so

denunciations of the
first

apostle

Paul in the

chapter of Romans, verses 24 and 27,

Mohammedan lands to-day Wherefore God also gave them up to uucleanness men with men working that which is unseemly,
are applicable to tens of thousands in
*'
:

;

.

.

.

and -receiving
In
the

in themselves that

recompense

of their errors which was meet."
city

of

Hamath,

in

Northern

Syria, the Christian population even to this

day are afraid
to

to allow their

boys from ten

fourteen years of age to appear in the

streets after sunset, lest

they be carried off

by

the

Moslems

as victims of the horrible

sodomy. Mohammedan j)ashas surround themselves with fair -faced bo^^s,
practice of

nominally as scribes and pages, when in reality their object is of entirely another
character.

ing in

young English lord, travelSyria some years since, entered the

A

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
Turkish baths in the
he was
as
set

49

city of Tripoli,

when
assail

upon by a number of Moslems,
of

the

men

Sodom attempted
of the

to

the

angelic

guests

righteous

Lot,

and only with the greatest difficulty did he effect his escape from their brutal hands. They were arrested, bastinadoed and
sent
to

the

Acre

penitentiary.

A

crime so abominable, unspeakable and incredible, instead of being checked by Mo-

hammedanism,

is

fostered

by

it,

and

it

is

one of the scourges of
ciety.
§

Mohammedan

so-

VII. Another of the untoward features
is

of Islam

untruthfulness, or, in plain lan-

guage, lying.
It
is

often asserted that the

a

class

are

truthful

—more

Moslems

as

so

than their

Greek, Armenian and Maronite neighbors in Turkey. There can be no question that

nominal Christian populations are far enough from the scriptural standard
the

"Truth

is

fallen in the streets,

and equity

50

THE MOHAMMEDAN

cannot enter"

—but there

is

little

to choose

between the different
I have

sects

in this respect.

known men among
is

the

Moslems

comparatively truthful, but as a rule truthtelling

one of the "
find

lost arts."

It is rare

even

to

a

man who

can be believed

under oath, although the Orientals have a superstitious fear of an oath. Perjury is
too

common

to

be noticed, and even
of the

the

kadis, or judges

Koranic law, are

notoriously corrupt and venal. According to their law, none but Mohammedans can
testify in courts of law,

and

scores of false

witnesses can be found in

any large Moslem
is

town or

city,

although testimony
"

regard-

ed as a religious act offered in the presence

and

to the very

face of

God."

Although the Koran enjoins care for the poor and the orphan, no poor man can secure his rights
in a

Moslem

court,

where

everything is done by bribery. There seems to be an utter collapse of restraining power

on the conscience where personal interest

is

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
involved, and the spectacle of a

51

man

always

telling the truth on principle was something unknown in the East before the revival of

evangelical Christianity.

Their highest and most solemn oath is "by the beard of Mohammed." But in
these latter days they have found an oath

of even greater binding force, and

now

in

important

cases

they swear ''by the ivord

of an EnglulimanP § VIII. Another obstacle

in Islam

is

the

Koranic misrepresentation
of the person

and perversions
Christ.

and teachings of

is

In Mohammed's day (Sura v. 116) Jesus asked whether he said to men, "Eeceive
as

me and my mother
God."
Also,

two Gods besides
certainly infidels

"They
is

are

who

say

God

the third of three."

Moof

hammed saw
"theotokos"

the

pseudo-Gospels
to

full

prayers and hymns of praise
of

(mother was in those days converted into Trinity
a positive tritheism, regarding the Father,

Mary, the God), and the

62

THE MOHAMMEDAN

.

the Son and the Spirit as tliree distinct Gods.

There

is

reason to suppose that

Mohammed

inferred
his

from the Mariolatry prevalent in

time that the Trinity consisted of the Father, the Son and the Virgin Mary
!

Whether we

believe that he sav/ the
it

New
it

Testament, and wilfully gave
interpretation, or that

a Jewish

through Jewish
equally
true

he only heard of and Arian sources, it

is

that the

Koran

greatly misIt calls

represents the character of Christ,

him "Christ

tlie

Word

of God," and yet

denounces those who
"repudiates
Christian
nature,
all

call

him God, and
his

the leading dogmas of the

faith."

"It attacks
death,

divine
ig-

denies

his

and

utterly

nores

the

sufferings
xliii.

redemption purchased by his and death on Calvary." Sura
"

59
a

asserts that

Christ

is

none other
with

than

servant

whom God

favored

the gift of prophecy."

Yet

there

is

a plain contradiction in the
to the

Koran with regard

death of Christ.

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
Sura
iv.

53

156

asserts that

"

the Jews did not
iii.

really kill
serts that

him," while Sura

47,

48

as-

God

"
said,

O

Jesus, verily I will

cause thee to die, and I will take thee

up

unto me."
to explain

The Moslem
away the

doctors, in order

latter verse, claim that
still

the death of Jesus
at his second

is

future,

and that

coming into the Avorld before the Last Day he will die; and in the city of Aledina, in the "Hujrah," or chamber
where
is

Mohammed
for

is

buried, a vacant

tomb

left

"Saiyidna lesa ibn
Jesus, the son of

Mariam"

(our

Lord

Mary), where

at his

second coming, on the fulfillment of
is

his

mission, he

to

be buried.

Stobart,

p. 145.
§

IX. Another obstacle
vital in Islam.
is

is

the aggressive

splint still

While

it

true that

Mohammedans do
sell
it

not distribute the Koran, nor even
to

an unbeliever, there

still

exists
spirit

not a
of the

little

of the old Crescentade

seventh century.

We

have already alluded

54
to

THE MOHAMMEDAN
the great

Moliammedan missionary uniits

versity in Cairo, Egypt, with

ten thou-

sand

pupils

and three
as

hundred Moham-

medan sheikhs

teachers.

and fundamental study is the Koranic literature, such as Arabic grammar,
prosody, logic, rhetoric, with
history

The central Koran and the

and

laws.

Mohammedan These young men live
studying, eating and

in ascetic

simplicity,
floor,

sleeping on the
selves at a cost

and boarding themof not far from four cents
are

a day.

They
to

trained

in

the

Koran,

and

fitted

hammedan world
ters of the

go forth throughout the Moas teachers and interpre-

Koran.

They

are a real j)ower

in Asia
aries

and Africa, and Christian missionfind the graduates of the Azhar their
and most formidable adversaries
in

ablest

these great dark continents.

When
osition to

Stanley's letter from

Uganda was
his newly-

published in England, mentioning his prop-

King Mtesa

to

abandon

embraced Islamism and accept Christianity,

3IISSI0NABY PROBLEM.

55

and appealing
letter

to

Christendom

to

send mis-

sionaries to this great African

kingdom, the

was translated and published in the Turkish and Arabic journals, which took

up the

subject with great fervor.

A

Mos-

lem missionary society was formed in Conin the stantinople, and subscriptions raised
capital

and Syria,

hammedan

sending Arab Momissionaries at once to confirm
for

King Mtesa

in the

faith.

The outbreak

of the Russian war at the time interrupted
their plans, but
it

must be borne in mind
world
is

that the

Mohammedan

not wholly

asleep on the subject of the Christian mis-

sionary enterprises of our day.

They

are

poor in resources
tract

;

they have no great Bible,

and missionary societies to raise and expend the means and train the men but
;

they have men, zealous, hardy, fearless, who would welcome death in the swamps of
Africa
as

the

sure

passport to

Paradise,
principles

and

who

carry

their

Moslem

with them wherever they go.

56

THE MOHAMMEDAN
In Dutch India, Mohammedanism
is

ad-

vancing steadily.
the the
that

Kev.

Dr.

Schreiber of
stated

Khenish Missionary Society
"

in

London Missionary Conference
is

in

1878

there are several regions where
steadily

Mo-

winning ground, but perha23S no place can be found where that progress is faster, and at the same
time more astonishing and puzzling, than it is in Dutch India, because there it goes

hammedanism

government of a European Christian nation nay, it would

on not only in

spite of the

appear that this government itself serves to foster and forward Mohammedanism as
far
as
its

boundaries extend."
is

He

states

that

this

officials

in

work of Moslem Malay the service of the Dutch govthe
also
"

ernment.

He

says

:

There are few

proper Mohammedan missionaries in India, but every Moslem, being zealous in fulfilling his religious duties and very ardent to propagate his creed, all of them do the

work of

missionaries, especially the so-call-

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
ed
hacljis,

57

whose number increases year

by-

Mecca year on account of tlie passage to by steamer being now very cheap and easy.
In 1875 there were no
sand
six
less

than

five

thou-

hundred hadjis

(pilgrims)

from

Dutch India."
In the African continent
it

should be re-

membered
a

that the pagan tribes find Islam

much

easier creed to accept

than Chris-

tianity.

King Mtesa can
and
comes with

retain his

hunstill.

dred wives
Christianity

be a good Moslem
its

severe

moral

code^its demand of a
the world,
life
its

full

surrender of

too

upon holiness of and the pagan says, "This religion is narrow and severe for me."
insistence

One

of the weapons which the

Mohamin

medans are borrowing from Christianity
fighting

Christianity

is

the

printed page.

The freedom
British

of the press afforded by the
in

opened between the way for spirited controversy the Christians and Mohammedans on the

government

India has

58

3I0HAMMEDAN MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
of
Christianity

claims

and
"

Islam.
el

Dr.

— "The
the

Pfander wrote a book called Mezan
Balance
of

Truth

— defending
el

Hoc

Christianity

and

Koran.

exposing the errors of This was replied to in a
styled
Izliar

ponderous volume
"

Manifestation

of

the Truth

"

Hoc

in

which
assails

the author defends the

Koran and

the Bible and Christianity, quoting the oftrefuted infidel arguments from the time of

Julian

down

to

Voltaire.

This book has

been translated into Arabic and introduced
into

Egypt and
el

Syria, although the Turkish

government has forbidden the publication
of

Mezcm

Hoc.

Turkish treaty of the press and
to

new Anglowe may hope for new liberty
Under
the
for full permission to reply

Moslem

controversial attacks ujDon Chris-

tianity.

CHAPTER
It
is

II.

pleasant task to consider the other side of the picture— the features

now our

in Islam as a doctrine

and a system which

be called favorable to the future acthe Bible by ceptance of Christianity and Mohammedans, together with certain provi-

may

dential facts

which tend toward the same

consummation.
§ I.

The
is

first is

their belief in the unity

of God. This

certainly

a

great

advance
"

on

polytheism and paganism.
the
citadel, of

It is

the rock,

no God but God
of faith.

their "

strength.

There

is

The
for

a sublime expression outward reverence of the
is is

Moslems

the one God, Allah,

most

impressive.
titles

The one hundred names or
are written in letters of gold
59

of

God

60

THE 3I0HAMMEDAN

around the cornices of the riclily-ornamented rooms and courts of Damascus, Cairo

and

other
are

names

— the
the

Moslem

cities.

Among

these

Omnipotent, the Eternal,

the Infinite, the Exalted, the Hearer, the
All-present,

Good, the

Merciful,

the

Compassionate, the

King, the Only One,

the All-knowing, the Judge, the Revealer,

the Rewarder, the Searcher, the Everlasting,
etc.

In their belief of God's unity

they proclaim eternal hostility to polytheism and all association of another with God
in acts of worship.
It lias

been asserted by recent writers that
is

holiness

nowhere ascribed
is

to

God

in the
Ixii.

Koran.

This

incorrect.
is

In Sura

1

we read: "All
all

that

in the

heavens and

that

is

on the earth uttereth the praise

of God, the King, the Holy, the Mighty,

the Wise."
is is

God,

And in beside whom
the

Sura
there

lix.
is

23:

"He
:

no god

he

the King, the Holy,

the
the

Peaceful, the

Faithful,

Guardian,

Mighty, the

3nSSI0NARY PROBLEM.
Strong,
the

61

Most High."
the

And when we
identity

remember
passages

constant

between

of the

Koran and the Talmudic

and rabperversions of scriptural histories binic moral precepts, and the fact that

Mohammed had
Psalms
(as
is

either seen

or heard

the

proved from the quotation of Ps. xxxvii. 29 in the Sura xxii. 105

"And now
that

have we written

m

the Psahiis

my

servants the righteous shall inherit
it

the earth"),

would be strange indeed had he entirely omitted the title of holi/ from among the names of God. Yet it is true
that the

Mohauimedans have no conception

of a holy

God nor

of holiness of

life.

The

moral standard of
so

Mohammed

himself was

low that we cannot expect true ideas of

holiness
It
is

among

his followers.
to

impossible

determine whether

Mohammed would
stood the

not have led his follow-

ers directly into Christianity

had he under-

meaning of the New Testament doctrine of the Trinity and the divinity

62

THE MOHAMMEDAN The Moslems do
use the

of Christ.

name

"Word
the

of

God" and
The time

"Spirit of God," but

are unable to explain
terms.

what they mean by will come, and has

already come to not a few of them,

when

they will understand their need of a divine
Saviour, and cast themselves
stretched arms of Christ.
§ II.

into the out-

The second

favorable feature

is

their

reverence for the
Scri'ptures.

Old and

New

Testament

an oft-mooted question,* whether the Bible was translated into Arabic before MoIt is

hammed.

St.

Paul went

to Arabia.

Very

early there were Christian martyrs and bish-

ops in Arabia.

The

first

Arabian council

was held in 229, when Beryllus, bishop of Philadelphia, was convicted of entertaining-

wrong opinions of Christianity. Another, in 247, condemned Arabians who held that
the souls of

men

die,

and
W. H.

will

come

to life

* See Biblical Monuments.

Eule, D. D., and J. C.

Anderson.

London

:

1871-73.

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
asjain

63 natural
to

with their bodies.
that

It is

believe

the Arabian

bishops

would
the

have

insisted

on

a

due

regard

for

written

word of God.
copies

They must have
the
Scriptures,
it

had Arabic
read
the

of

or
in

Syriac

and

explained

Arabic.
It
is

said

Mohammed,

during the lifetime of between the years 569 and
that
translated
into Arabic,
to

632, Warka, the son of Nofel,
the Bible or some part of
it

but that the version
found.
It
is

is

no longer

be

hammed knew
Psalms, which
gether
in

unquestionable that Moof the Pentateuch and the
are

sometimes written tomanuscripts,

Arabic

and

that

he

had knowledge of the Gospels.
terms

In

general

he speaks of these

collec-

tively as the Scriptures.

Peland published
translation, a native

in Arabic, with a Latin

Arab account {Relandus

de Religione 3Iohammedica Ultrajecti, 1705, pp. 19-25) of the religion of the Moham-

64

THE MOHAMMEDAN
its

medans, whicli, whatever was
cides with

age, coin-

the

Koran
of

itself

in relation to

our i^resent subject, and contains an exjoress

acknowledgment
the sacred

divine

inspiration

in

books of Jews and Christians,
"
says,

as well as in their own.

divine books,"
of

it

Concerning the faith in the books

"

God

consists in our being persuaded in

our mind and confessing with our tongue
that
these
glorious

books,
to
'

which he sent
prophets,

down from heaven from God which
;

his

come
from
place

heaven,

or

sending inspiration, has

down
taken

'

without creation, and from eternity without In these books are material production.
contained the
prohibitions
threatenings,

commands of God, with
and
decrees,

his

promises

and
is

and declarations of what
is

lawful and unlawful, what

of obedience

and what

is

of

rebellion,

and where he

points out retributions both

by reward and

punishment.

word of God

All these books are the very most high a word which is

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
read with tongues, written

65
in books,

down

treasured in the minds of men.

This word

of

God

is

distinct

from

letters

and written

words, but these letters and words are call-

word of God,' because that is what they truly indicate. There are one hundred and four of these books,
. .

ed by metaphor the

'

.

of which the most high
ten; to Seth, fifty; to
to

God gave

to

Adam,
is

Enoch

(Idris), thirty;

Abraham,

ten

;

to Moses, one,
;

which

the

Law

(Tourah)

to Jesus, one,
;

which

is

the Gospel (Enjeel)
is

to
;

David, one, which
to

the

Book
is

of Psalms

Mohammed,
'

one,

which
"

the

Koran

al Furkan, or

Decider.'

He who

denies these volumes, or doubts

any part of them, whether section or sentence or word, surely he is an infidel. O
God, keep us safe from It would be difficult
infidelity !"
to

doubt that

MoTes-

hammed found

both the Old and

New

taments in the hands of the Arabs when he

gave them his own book, which he pretended to be divine. He may have heard of certain

QQ

THE MOHAMMEDAN
Jewish or
otlier

ajDOcryplial

books, and at-

tributed

them to Adam

and Seth and Enoch,

as did the Sabians.

The Koran was
could
it

not

to

he translated,

nor

he carefully read

by any but bedeclared himself

lievers in

Mohammed, wlio

the last and greatest prophet of God.

About 680 an Arab prince moved John,
patriarch of the Jacobites, to translate the four Gospels from Syriac into Arabic.

Syriac

had

lost

its

ground
of

as

a

living
affirms

lanp-uasje.

Mariana the
the
prelate

historian
Seville

that

Juan,

in

the

reign
lated

of Favila the

Goth, in

737, trans-

the Bible into the Arabic

language

with the intention of helping both Christians

and Moors.

"There

are some copies

of this translation," says Mariana, "whicl1 have been preserved even to our time, and
'

are to be seen in some parts of Spain."
Mariana,, Historia
7, cap.
3.

General de Espana,

lib.

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
"

67

When Hernando

de Talavera, archbish-

op of Granada, one of the best of men, had actually prepared an Arabic version of the
Bible
for

the

instruction

of the

Moorish

population of the city, newl}'' captured by
the

army

of

Ferdinand

and Isabella

in

1492, the cardinal and inquisitor Ximenez, the inquisitor-general Beza, and the pope, Julius II., not only rebuked Hernando for
this

godly work, but gave him a cruel penyears'

ance of three

imprisonment as an

atonement
Sir

for his sin."

William Muir has published a list of one hundred and thirty testimonies from
the

Koran

to

the divine authority of the

Old and

New

Testaments.
"
:

Among them

are these (Sura v. 77)

Oh, ye people of

the book (Jews and Christians), ye are not

grounded upon anything until ye observe the Tourah (Old Testament) and the Enjeel

(New Testament), and

that which hath

been revealed unto you from your Lord." Sura xxi. 105: "Verily, we have written

Q^

THE MOHAMMEDAN
Law, that

in the Psalms, after the

my

ser-

vants the righteous shall inherit the earth."

Sura

vi.

they to

The Jews and whom we have given
90
:

"

Christians are

the book and
iii.

wisdom and prophecy."
there
nal.
is

Sura

2:

"God!

no god but he, the living, the eterHe sent down the Tourah (Old Testa-

ment) and the Gospels from before, for the guidance of mankind." Sura v. 50 "And
:

we caused Jesus the son of Mary
in

to follow

their

(the

prophets')

footsteps, attesting

the Scripture of the Tourah, which preceded

him
is

and we gave him the Gospel, wherein guidance and light, which attests the
;

Tourah that preceded it, and a direction and an admonition to the jdIous." Sura
ix.

113:

"And whether
in the

the believers slay

or be slain, the promise of
is

God

thereujoon

true

Tourah and

in the Gospel

and in the Koran."

The only
a

serious difficulty in the

way of
the

general

reception
is

of

the

Bible by

Mohammedans

the

charge by Moslem

3nSSI0NABY PROBLEM.

69

writers that Christians have corrupted the

you can convince a Mohammedan that you have the genuine Old and
Bible.

If

New
he

Testaments mentioned in the Koran,
it

will press
it

to his lips

and
;

his forehead

and read
of copies
sold

with reverence

and tiiousands

of the Bible have already been

among them.
They
of
all

§ III.

also reverence

Christ as the
before

greatest

the

prophets

Mo-

hammed.

They always speak
Aiesa,
"

of

him

as

Sayidna
"

our lord Jesus," as they say
"

our

lord Moses

and

"

our lord

Mohammed."
in

On
cus

the great mosque of
is

Amweh
Mary

Damasand the
descend

a beautiful minaret called "the min-

aret of Jesus

the son of

;"

Moslems believe that Christ
upon
this

will

minaret at the Last
I once

the world.

knew

a

Day to judge Mohammedan

pasha to bastinado a Moslem for cursing
the
§

name

of Christ.
all

IV. Again, although they regard

70

THE MOHAMMEDAN
infidels, tliey

but themselves as
cial
resiject
'^

the

loeoijle

for Christians of a booh"" Ehel Kitah.

have espeand Jews as

At

the time of the massacre of

tlie

Chris-

1860 by a fanatical mob of Druses, Moslems, Turkish soldiers and Koords, Abd-ul-Kadir, the Algerine
tians in

Damascus

in

emir, a

man

learned in the

Koran and

of

high personal character, charged down upon
the bloodthirsty

mob

with his faithful body"

guard of one hundred Algerines, crying,
are the infidels.

Ye

Will ye massacre the peoare paying tribute to our

ple of a book,

who

sultan and theirs?"

He

turned the tide of

blood and rescued twelve thousand Christians

from a
his

terrible death,

and when the news of

noble conduct reached Christian lands
all

he received decorations from

the govern-

ments of Europe, and from the United States. § V. It is also a favorable feature that
the

Mohammedans

hate idols

and idolatry

with perfect hatred. Never was such an iconoclastic uprising

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
as that of the followers of

71

Khaled and Omar

in their conquest of Syria

and Egypt, and of successive Moslem leaders in Asia and

Africa.

When

the king of Lahore in the

year 997 begged

the victorious

Mahmoud

of Ghuzni to spare the temple of Tannassar,

the

most holy place, the very Mecca,

of the Hindoos,
followers of

Mahmoud replied that " the Mohammed were vowed to root
The
shrine of the god was

out idolatry."
pillaged

and the image of Juggoom smashed into a thousand atoms, which were sent
to

pave the

streets

of Ghuzni,

Mecca and

Baghdad.
statues
still

The

old

Greek

and

Roman

remaining in Syria, Palestine and Egypt in the time of Mohammed were
throw^n down, decapitated and defaced.
less

No

than ten thousand Oriental Christian
filled

with pictures and images were condemned to the same fate as idol

churches

shrines,

and

either

destroyed

pulled down

or purged of idols

by being and con-

verted into mosques.

72

THE 3I0HAMMEDAN
The same
spirit

marks

tlieir

course to-day

in

Central Africa, in Dutch India and in

China.

For ages

they

believed

that

all

were equally idolatrous in the use of images and pictures as ohjects of
Christians

worship, and

they hated all alike. It is only within the past half century that they have learned that there is a vast body of
Christians

who

believe in Christ

and hate

idolatry as earnestly as themselves.

When
to will

the

time

comes
it

for

their

conversion
it

Christianity, as

must come,

not

be to Latin or Greek Christianity, but to the simpler and purer form of the Protestant evangelical
§
faith.

VI. Another
is

characteristic of

Moham-

medans

their reverence for law.
religious,

Their laws are

embodied in the

Koran, the Sunna and the opinions of the imams. They are trained to obedience to
law.
better

Many

of their laws are good, though

nomad

adapted to a primitive pastoral or state of society than to the modern

3IISSI0NABY PROBLEM.
state

73

with

its

commercial and international
is

relations.

Intense as

their adherence to

the Koran, yet

when the

existing governas in

ment, whether

Mohammedan

Turkey,
a

or Christian as in India, enacts a law, they
are ready to obey,

and whenever there

is

seeming conflict between the old Koranic law and the modern code, their muftis stand
ready with legal opinions to reconcile the
apparent or real contradiction, set aside the This regard for old and legalize the new.

law makes them readily acquiescent in the existing order of things, whether the ruler
be
§

Mohammedan
VII. Again,

or Christian.
it is

greatly in favor of the

Mohammedans
total abstinence

that as a rule they jDractice

from intoxicating drinks. One of the chief reasons which moved
to

Mohammed
w^as

prohibit

the

use

of

wine

undoubtedly to make them different from Christians, Jews and pagans, all of

whom
of the

used wine.

Abstinence on the part
is

Moslems

a part of their ritual.

74

THE MOHAMMEDAN
are promised rivers of wine in Para-

They
dise,

but forbidden

its

use on earth.

The

orthodox will hardly cultivate grapes, fearing the evil
coffee as
effects

of wine.

The

use of

a universal beverage in the East

has had

much

to

do with the temperate
;

habits of the joeople

coffee is

always

offer-

ed to guests and transient
are

callers.
class,

There

many
the

of

the

official

especially
to

among
rule.

Osraanli Turks,

who drink

excess, but they are the exceptions to the

I

have

known

the

Mohammedan

pashas repeatedly to shut up every grogshop in the town, and only allow them

opened

by the protests of some European consul whose proteges were enagain
traffic.
is

gaged in the § VIII. It
in
lieve in the

also

an important element
all

Mohammedan

character that they

be-

need of a religion and in the
respect for a

certainty of future retribution.

They have no
710

man who

has

religion.

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
§

75

lute

IX. The doctrine of fate, and of absosurrender to the decree and ivill of

God, are elements of strength in the Moslem character.

In times of pestilence, when others
the Moslems stand
at their jiosts.

flee,

What-

ever

may
in

be said of the wisdom of remaincities

during a pestilence when a salubrious mountain-climate is near
ing

crowded

and

accessible,

one cannot

fail

to

admire

their fearless firmness in the
ger.

hour of dan-

This doctrine of

fate

may

yet play

an important part in restraining the fanatical passions of the

Moslem multitude when

great
to

movements toward Christianity begin take place among them. Were the Arab
to

Moslems

hear to-morrow that the sultan
it

himself had become a Christian,

is

not
be,

unlikely that the only thought would

"It
dar,

is

the decree of

God;" "It
will

is

miihod-

kismet ;^^
!"

"Let the

of

God be
in

done
^

X. Another favorable

feature

the

76
case
is

TEE MOHAMMEDAN
tlie

predominant and growing influ-

ence of Christian natio7is in
countries.

Mohammedan

In
ruled
all

the

fifteenth

from Burmah
Asia
less

century the Crescent to Gibraltar and in

Central

and
than

Northern
fifty

Africa.

Since then not

millions of

Mohammedans have The Moslem rule.
ul -Kadir,

passed under Christian
princes of India yield
;

loyal obedience to a Christian queen

Abd-

the

Damascus
France
;

on

emir of Algiers, lives in a pension from Christian

the

emir Abd-er-Kahman of At-

cheen in Sumatra has just been exiled, on a pension from the Holland government,
to

reside

in

Mecca

;

and

the

family

of

Schamyl, the Circassian chief, are under to say Kussian support and protection

nothing of the other Central Asian chiefs

who are now subjects of Kussia. Of the estimated one hundred and seventy-five millions of Mohammedans in the
world

3nSSI0NABY PROBLEM.

i

i

England
France

in India

rules over 41,000,000

Eussia in Central Asia
in Africa in

" "

6,000,000

2,000,000
1,000,000

Holland

Java and Celebes "

Under

Christian governments, 50,000,000

It is religiously
infidels,

wrong

to

pay tribute

to

and yet nearly one-third of the Mohammedan world is under infidel rule.
It is generally

conceded that the
is

political

power and unity of Islam
remaining
is

to-day the chief

pillar of its strength.

When

this

broken, and Moslems can no longer col-

lect tribute

from

infidels,

wage against them
polygamous and enforce their

successful wars, replenish their

hareems with

slave-girls,

own
and

politico-religious calendar of fasts, feasts
civil regulations
sect,

own
falls

they will

upon others than their be far more accessible to

argument and reason.
will fall.

When
their

the scimitar

their confidence in

own system
Rev. T. P.

A highly-educated

Mohammedan
to

Egyptian recently remarked

78

,

THE MOHAMMEDAN

" Hughes, an English missionary,
ligent

No
is

intel-

man

believes in the teaching of the

Moslem

divines, for our religion

not in

keeping with the progress of thought." Islam is losing its vital power in its old seats. Mr. Hughes justly remarks: "The

Arabian projihet

over-legislated, and, as
it is

we

now
foot

see in

Turkey,

impossible for civ-

ilized

Mohammedans

to

be tied hand and

by laws and social customs which were intended for Arabian society as it existed
twelve hundred
contrary,

years ago

;

whilst,

on the
spirit,

Christianity

legislates

in

and can therefore be adapted to the spiritual and social necessities of mankind in
the various stages of
civilization."
§

human thought and

XL

Another interesting feature in the
is

relations of Islam to Christianity
that, widely

the fact

extended as
it

is

the

Mohammedencircled

an

religion,

is

com'pleteJy

by

Anglo-Saxon, Christian
power.

'political

and

civil

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.

79

England holds
;

Gibraltar, Malta

and Cy-

controls the navigation of the Suez prus Canal and the Eed Sea holds Aden on the
;

south coast of Arabia

;

the whole of India,

with three hundred millions of people, of

whom

forty-one millions are
;

Mohammedans

;

Singapore and Hong-Kong the island-world
of Australia
Natal,
the
;

New

Zealand, Cape

Colony,

Transvaal
colonies of

and

Sierra

Leone

;

and to-day
tian

men

are

Anglo-Saxon Chrispushing their way inward
to

from the eastern coast of Africa

that

great lake-region of Central Africa discov-

ered by Burton, Baker and Speke, LivingAnd not only does stone and Stanley.
British

power

thus

encircle

Islam,

the

queen of England ruling over more Mohammedans than the sultan and the shah
combined, but there
less
is

another fact of no

importance which will have a direct It is bearing on the future of Islam.
this
:

the

— English the

that

everywhere the Moslems

hold

— Angliz

in

the

highest

80
esteem.

THE MOHAMMEDAN

At
to

the

time of

the

annual

pil-

grimage

Mecca, when hundreds of thou-

sands of pilgrims often meet together from all parts of Asia and Northern Africa, they

compare notes and interchange views with
regard
to

their

respective

countries.

The

Mohammedans

of India testify to the Mos-

lems of the West that they have in India a just what no other Moslems possess

government and an incorruptible judiciary. " We have British judges who Say they
:

decide according to the law and the

facts,

whom
a

no money can
is

bribe,

and before Avhom

Hindoo

a poor

man heard Mohammedans
that

good as an Englishman, and as good as a rich man." I have
as

in Syria say,

"

Would
is

we had

British judges here!"

This con-

fidence in English veracity
so decided that

and integrity

ago
"

stated, in

Lord Macaulay his essay on Lord

forty years
Clive, that
is

the entire history of British India

an

illustration of the great truth that the
efficient

most

weapon with which man can en-

3nSSI0NARY PROBLEM.
counter falsehood
is

81

truth.

During a long

course of years the English rulers of India,

surrounded by

allies

and enemies

whom no

engagement could bind, have generally acted with sincerity and uprightness; and the
event has j^roved that sincerity and uprightness are wisdom. English valor and English

intelligence
to

have done

less

to

extend

and

preserve our Oriental empire than No oath which superstiEnglisli veracity.
tion can devise,

no hostage however j)recious, inspires a hundredth part of the confidence which is produced by the Yea, yea and
'

'

*Nay, nay' of a British envoy. The greatest advantage which a government can
possess
is

to

ernment

in

be the one trustworthy govthe midst of governments
trust.

which nobody can

This advantage

we enjoy

in Asia."

And

this

to-day to a tenfold greater

advantage the English enjoy degree than in

the days of Lord Macaulay.

Wherever an

Englishman

or

an American

may

travel

82

THE MOHAMMEDAN
(for
tliey
call

amoDg Mohammedans
religion)
tality.

botli

Angliz, as having the same language and

he

will

be received with hospi-

Let him journey among the Koords of Armenia, the Shea Moslems of Persia,
the Bedawin Arabs of the Desert, the more
cultivated

Mohammedans

of Damascus, Cairo

and Baghdad, the semi-savage and fanatical Yezbeks of Asia Minor, the hardy mountaineers,

of Albania, or the merciless Circassians
scattered all over the Turkish empire,
his English

now
and

everywhere ensure him a friendly welcome. At the close of the late E,usso- Turkish
will

name

war,

when

the victorious legions of Bussia

crossed the Balkans, the tens of thousands

of Circassians

who had been engaged

before

and during the war

in the massacre of the

Bulgarian Christians and the pillage of their towns and churches fled panicstricken toward
Constantinople and the Bosphorus. Nearly three hundred thousand of these wild fanatics

threatened the peace of the capital, until

3nSST0NABY PROBLEM.

83

the sultan, at the urgent request of the Euro-

pean ambassadors, ordered their removal by steamer to Asiatic Turkey. Fifty thousand

were assigned fifty thousand

to Syria, to

and two hundred and
to

Asia Minor, and,

our dis-

may, the Austrian Lloyds steamers began to land them by thousands at the Syrian ports.
Twenty-five hundred were landed in Beirut

and quartered in the mosques and khans, and afterward sent to Damascus and vicinity.

Seventeen thousand were

landed at
of

Tripoli

and sent

to

the region

Hums

and Hamatli.
I was at the port of Tripoli in March,

1878,

when

five

thousand Circassians were
steamers,

landed

from two Austrian

and

walked down
ican

to the shore with the

Amer-

missionary,
sight.

strange

Mr. Hardin, to see the A crowd of their emirs

or chiefs
barkation.

stood

by us watching the de-

armed

;

All of these immigrants were each one had a sword, dagger, rifle
Colt's

and two

navy

revolvers.

I

asked

84

THE MOHAMMEDAN
to

one of the chiefs

show me

his revolver.

He handed me

one,

and

as

I returned

it

he patted my shoulder and said, "Angliz? El Angliz wa es Shirkas sowa-sowa." He
spoke
"
in

Turkish,

and

a
it

native
into

standing

by

translated
?

Syrian Arabic
:

Are

you

English
are
all

The
I

English

aiid

CirGassimis

oner

did not feel

complimented by the kind declaration, but it was a relief to know that these wild
creatures,

who
do

hate

the

Russians
little

with
for

deadly hatred
the
sultan,

and have
hold
the
for

regard

English in the
this fact

highest

esteem.

But

they

would form an element of the most menacing character in the population of Syria. When the port of Batoum was ceded to

Russia the

Mohammedan

Lazis of the virefused

cinity, to the

number of thousands,

to evacuate the

town, and prepared for war.

The sultan in vain ordered them to leave. At length a word from the British ambassador
in

Constantinople induced

them

to

3IISSI0NABY PROBLEM.

85
to

abandon

hostilities

and

return

their

homes

in

peace.

They swear by the word of an Englishman, and loak on the English as their
friends.

At

the

opening of the Afghan

war the

official

Mohammedan
declared
that

journal of
if

Constantinople

the

Af-

ghans fought England they would forfeit the confidence and sympathy of the whole

Mohammedan
fighting

world, the

as

they
of

would
the

be

against

friends

Mothe

hammedans.
Another
confidence
fact

which has

increased
in

of

Mohammedans

Syria in

the Angliz has been the residence

among

them of some
blest style

representatives of that no-

and stamp of man, the British

Christian merchant.

More potent than
of missionaries

the

sermons or the been the
silent

tracts

has

influence

of British mer-

chants I might name, who, in the temptations of trade, the crookedness,
duplicity

and corruptness of native merchants and

86

THE MOHAMMEDAN
have
maintained
the
their

officials,

integrity

untarnished,
sacred

until

highest and

most
even
the

oath
the
is

a

Moslem
by
to

can

swear,

above

oath

the

beard

of

Prophet,

by the

ivord

of an English-

man

pure-minded and upright Britons who have thus taught the corrupt and immoral Orientals that

!

All

honor

those

there are

even- to

men who will stand to their word their own loss, and whose word
!

becomes the synonym of truth, integrity and purity
I once

stood

in a

Moslem shop
a
his

in the

ancient

Hamath and overheard

Mohamword by

medan near by emphasizing
and he
finally

the most solemn oath he could

command,
by
the

clinched

his

assertion

swearing on the word of Mr.

B
in

,

Englishman
This

in Beirut.

extraordinary

confidence

the

English, taken in connection with the recent British protectorate extended over
Asiatic

Turkey,

is

an

element

of

the

MISSIONABY PROBLEM.
greatest importance
in the

87

future relations

of Christianity to Islam.
It
is

not a mere accident that so
of

many
chief

millions

men,

or

at

least

the

nations
their

among them, should
to

have

given

confidence

the

leadins;

Christian

colonizing

and

civilizing

power

of

the

world.
§

XII.

And

connected with this
Christicmity
in

is

their
the

belief

that

Pi'otestant

is

purest form
nearest
in

of faith

the

world,
to

the
their

doctrine

and worship

own.

Up

to

a

comparatively late period the
all

Moslems looked on
creature - worshipers

Christians as alike
idolaters.

and

They They

have now found out their mistake.
say that the truth the Book.
a Protestant
is

and worships

man who tells God and follows
a

They

perceive that Protestants

alone are zealous in the distribution of the
Scriptures,

and that they abhor every

trace

and vestige of creature-worship.

This fact

88

THE MOHAMMEDAN
comthe

will not be without its weight in the

ing

missionary age

of

work among

Mohammedans.
§

XIII. Another important
the

fact in con-

nection with the relations of Islam to Christianity
is

reposed

confidence beginning to he in American missionaries by the

people

and

the

rulers

in

Mohammedan

countries.

Forty years since no Mohammedan sheikh would teach the sacred Arabic to a foreigner,
yet the leading Arabic
in Syria aided Dr.

Mohammedan scholar Van Dyck for years in
are studying Arabic

the translation of the Bible into Arabic, and

now Mohammedan boys
sion-schools.

under Christian teachers in American mis-

In the sad battle-summer of 1860, that bloody year of massacre and civil war, Mr.

Calhoun of the Syria mission was at his station in Abeih (Ahbay), Mount Lebanon.

That town
families of

is

the

home

of several

noted

Druse beys and sheikhs.

The

MISSIONABY PROBLEM.

89

Druses and Maronites were in deadly strife, and the Maronite men had all fled to Beirut,
leaving their

women and

children behind.

Before leaving, however, they brought all their treasures to the house of Mr. Calhoun.

Bags and bundles of gold coin and jewels, silk raiment and household treasures, were
brought and thrown down in the court of Mr. Calhoun's house, without a receipt and
with scarcely a label
safe.
;

and there they were
on.

The war went

Day by

da}^ vil-

lages were

burned and the whole country
stories of

was sickened with dreadful
massacre and outrage.

bloody

Yet every morning

and evening the Druse beys and sheikhs called at Mr. Calhoun's house to assure him
that no one should molest him, and that not

a house in Abeih should be burned or injured.
tide

They kept

their word.

Then

the

turned.

All Europe was aroused by

the news of Syrian massacres, and a British
fleet

and a French army of six thousand The French army troops came to Beirut.

90

THE MOHAMMEDAN
into

moved

Lebanon, and with

it

the refu-

gee Maronites returning full of vengeance
against the Druses.
to

The Druses now

fled

Hauran,

east of the Jordan.

But before

leaving they in turn brought their treasures,
their gold

and jewels,

to the

house of Mr.

Calhoun

for safety.

Durino' the late Husso-Turkish war the

town of Eski Zagra fell alternately into the hands of the Russians and the Turks. The

American

missionaries,

Messrs.

Bond and

Marsh, had conducted themselves with such prudence and kindness toward all parties
that

when

the city was given over to massa-

and conflagration the Mohammedan neighbors not only protected them from
cre, pillage

the uplifted sword of a Circassian, but went
to

the Turkish military head-quarters and
a

obtained

guard of regular
during

troops,

who

watched

over them

that

terrible

night of July 31, 1877. An old Moslem^ hadja (teacher) pleaded with the Circassian robber until the sweat ran down his
face,

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
and

91

finally bribed liim to leave the premises

undisturbed.
treated

The Turkish governor

also

the missionaries

with the greatest

kindness, and they escaped, after great privation and suffering, safely to Constantinople.

At

a

recent

dedication

of a

Protestant

Syrian village, where the workmen had been molested by some of the
edifice in a

church

"baser sort" of

Mohammedans and

a riot

had been threatened, twelve of the principal Moslem sheikhs and old men attended the
dedication-service, joining in the singing

and

behaving with the greatest decorum.

They

had come

to

show

their regard for the mis-

sionary and to
occasion.

ensure good

order on the

The town

of Zeitoon in Asia

Minor

is

a

rough mountain-village, inhabited by Armenians, all of whom are armed, brave and
resolute,
to
kill

and

for years not only threatened

any missionary or Protestant who should visit them, but defied the Turkish

92

THE MOHAMMEDAN

government itself. Years passed. They were subdued by the Turks, and some of them
embraced the gospel. At length the exactions of the Turkish local rulers became intolerable.

One hundred men
money

took up arms,

refused to pay the

levied

upon them,

attacked the
their

j^olice,

released a multitude of

townsmen unjustly imprisoned, and

took refuge in the mountain-fastnesses.

The

Turkish
to

governor subdue Zeitoon again. Moslem fanaticism was appealed to, and a massacre was immi-

local

telegrai^hed for troops

nent.

Just at that time Kamil Pasha, one
officials,

of the most enlightened of Turkish

long governor of Beirut, and

who

has a son

in the Beirut College, was waly, or governor-

general, of the province of Aleppo,

which

included Aintab, Marash and Zeitoon.

He

telegraphed to Bev. H. Marden, the American

missionary in Aintab, requesting him to go to Zeitoon and act as commissioner from the

arrange peace with the Zeitoon rebels without a resort to arms.
to

Turkish government

IIISSrONARY PROBLEM.

93
set

Mr. Mardeii accepted the proposal, and
fastnesses of the
;

out for Zeitoon, attended through the robber-

mountains by a Turkish

cavahy-guard but when they reached the confines of Zeitoon the guard turned back

and Mr. M. went on
received.

alone.

He

was kindly

The wild people
in the

of Zeitoon,

who

had no confidence

Turkish govern-

ment, had perfect confidence in the misThe Turkish waly, who had no sionary.
confidence
in

the

Zeitoonites,

trusted
full

imcon-

plicitly in the missionary.

After

ference with the Zeitoon people by day and

with the rebel chiefs by night, peace was
settled.

The arms and

horses captured from

the
to

police were given up to Mr. Marden, be taken back to Marash. All agreed

to submit to the

that they be relieved from oppression.

government on condition Mr.

Marden's report was accepted. The army was recalled, the local governor removed, a
Christian governor appointed over the town,

and the waly telegraphed

his thanks

and the

9^

THE MOHAMMEDAN

thanks of his government for what he had
clone in the interests of peace

and humanity. Quite recently Dr. Barnum, an American

missionary in Kharpoot, Eastern Turkey, has been appointed by the Turkish govern-

ment

as a

member

of the board of education.
filled

A volume
§

might be

with facts and

incidents illustrating the same general truth.

Again, in the eonjlict between civilization and barbarism Islam must be
the loser.

XIV.

The

religion of

Mohammed and

its

legal

code are adapted to a simple pastoral or nomad state of society. It is not only 7iot
adajyted to
tion, but
is

modern commerce and
in
direct
conflict

civiliza-

with them.

Interest,

commissions and banks are conthe
letter

trary

to

and the

spirit

of

Mo-

hammedan
ly illegal.

law.

Quarantines are religiousyet there are an Imperial

And

Ottoman Bank, a code of new laws regulating interest, notes, commissions and commerce,

and a system of

rigid

quarantine

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
has

95

been established throughout the Moempire.

hammedan
officers

The

sultan

and
to

his

are

constantly
or
leo'al

obliged
decisions

obtain

new
what

fetwas
is

leo-alizino;

religiously

illegal

and contrary

to

the convictions and

belief

of the readers of education

of the Koran.

The advance
knowledge
will

and

popular

expose

the

absurdities of

many

parts of

Mohammedan
to

doctrine and practice.
ject the

It is a sin to sub-

sacred

name

of

God

pressure teach

in a printing-press.

Geography
fast

will

them that there

are quarters of the globe

where the observance of the

of

Eama-

dan would be impossible, and the growth
of Christian
political

power

will

convince

them that the Jehad, or
the
time.
§
faith,

religious
for

war
the

for
last

has

been

fouglit

XV. Another

fact
is

which places Islam

at a disadvantage

the superior facilities

and methods in

the

hands of Christians^

and which are the outgrowth of Christian-

96
for

THE MOHAMMEDAN
the

ity,

propagation

of the

Christian

religion.

The Moslems have no
cieties,

tract ©r Bible so-

and nothing corresponding to any extent to our modern missionary literature
material

and

and

intellectual

appliances

for enlightening

and benefiting the world.
translated.
It

The Koran cannot be

may

be paraphrased, as in the Urdu, the Javan and 3Ialayan languages, but only when interlineated
is

in the Arabic original.

There

no attempt to print and distribute the Koran. There are no Koran societies or
funds.

to

They a known
scorn

will

not even

sell

the book

unbeliever.

Ordinarily they
to

would
their

the
to

proposition

explain

system

a Christian.

Their chief

propagandism in our day is among rude and barbarous tribes, as in Africa or the
East Indies, where the iconoclastic
carried
spirit,

by

force of arms, enables

them

to

force their doctrines
§

upon the
favorable

peoj^le.

XVI. Another

fact bearing

3nSSI0NARY PROBLEM.
on the future of Islam
Bible
is
is

97

the fact that the

now

translated into the Arabic, the
tlie

sacred huiguage of

Koran, and into the

Osmanli Turkish, the court language of the
sultan, the caliph of

Mohammed.
first

More than
of

fifty

years ago the

band
the

American missionaries
little

landed

on

then
of

known and
They
difficult

inhospitable

shores

Syria.

found

themselves

con-

fronted
strano'e

Arabic language, customs and the united and . des-

by the

perate

hostility

of

Christian
rulers.

ecclesiastics

and Mohammedan
population

The

Christian
intel-

was

sunken

so

low in

lectual attainments that hardly a

Maronite

Greek could be found capable of giving instruction in the Arabic language and
or
;

such

w^as the fanatical exclusiveness

of the
of
to

Moslem ulema

that for years

not one

them would teach the Arabic grammar

a European, or even to a native Christian.

There were no readers excepting the Mo-

hammedans taught

in

the

medrisehs

at-

98
taclied
to

THE MOHAMMEDAN
the

mosques, and no books but

Arabic manuscripts of a religious or scholastic

character.

The

missionaries

offered

to

the

Mohammedans
and
the

two

things

the

Bible

Christian

religion.

The
made

Bible was the old Arabic translation

by the Propaganda in Bome and printed The Moslems replied " This in London.
:

Bible cannot be the word

of

God

;

bad
as
to

grammar cannot be inspired. And Christianity, we have lived among
tians
for

Chris-

twelve

hundred

years,
at

and we
Greeks

want no such

religion.

Look

and

Marouites

churches to

bowing down in their pictures and images, offering and abjectly kisshomage the work of
There
is

incense, burning candles

ing
their

in

idolatrous

own hands.
!"

no God but

God

What

were the missionaries
:

to

do?

Two

things were to be done the Bible

the one, to translate

anew

into the

Arabic language

;

and the other, to found a pure evangelical

3nSSI0NARY PROBLEM.

99

Church
show
to

in the

Turkish empire which would
the
Christian
in

the
in

Mohammedans
j^urity,

religion

its

a pure morality,
idolatry

and

in

worship

free

from

and
have

creature-worship.

These

two things
until

been

done.

An

evangelical

Church was
there
a

formed.

It has

grown
all

are

a

hundred evangelical churches, with
bership of thousands,

mem-

over the empire,

and the Armenian, Greek and other Oriental churches are agitated with plans and
projects
for

reform

brought
enlightened
schools

forward

by
edu-

their

young
in

men

and
or

cated

Protestant

inspired

with the influence of Protestant literature

and enterprise. The work of Bible translation was undertaken at an
early

day, and

after

twenty

years of labor by those distinguished Arabic
scholars, Drs. Eli

Smith and Van Dvck, the

Arabic Bible was completed in 1865. The Bible has also been translated into ten other
languages in the empire
;

and

it is

a signifi-

100

THE MOHAMMEDAN
ill

caDt fact

the providence of

God

that just
affairs,

at the present juncture

of political

when, by the Treaty of Berlin, liberty of conscience has been asserted to be the law of
the Turkish empire, the revised translation
of the Bible
into the
for

Osmanli Turkish
the

is

printed

and ready

Mohammedan

Turks.

The

preparation of the Bible in the Arabic

language and in the various vernacular dialects of the

Moslem

nations gives the Chris-

tian a vast advantage in the

coming strugtesti-

gle with Islam.

We

not only have the
to the

mony
the

of the

Koran

Scriptures, but

Scriptures

themselves in a translation
accurate, printed
in a cheaj)

classical

and

and

attractive form, electrotyped

and printed

from duplicate plates in New York, London and Beirut, and ready for the whole Arabicspeaking and Arabic-reading world.
in this appears the

And
in

providence of

God

wide spread of the Arabic language. Wherever Mohammedanism has extended
the

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
it

101

carried with

it

the Koran, and the
it

Koran
of in-

has carried

with
to

the

Arabic lanouao-e.
doctrine

According
spiration,

the

Moslem

every sentence, word, letter and
the

vowel-point in

Koran was

written in
to to

heaven by the finger of God and given the angel Gabriel, by whom it was given

Mohammed.
be translated.
guage.

The

inspiration thus resting in

the very words and letters, the

Koran cannot

The Arabic

is

the sacred lan-

If you would ensure the acceptance

of the Bible by a

Mohammedan,

offer it to

him
of

in

the sacred Arabic.

Sixty millions

men speak

the Arabic as their vernacular,

and one hundred and seventy-five millions
read the Koran, if at
all,

in

the Arabic.

The new Arabic Bible
^Mohammedans with
them regard
Testaments,
purity.
it

is

looked upon by the

reverence, and

many

of

as the long-lost

Old and

New

now recovered

in their orioinal

The Bible

is

now

entering the ranks of

Islam throughout Africa and Asia.

From

102

THE MOHAMMEDAN'
in

Peking

China

to

Sierra

Leone on

tlie

hundred and twenty degrees of longitude, this living word of life is being distributed and read. We believe
Atlantic, throughout one
that the day
is

not far distant

when
But

the Bible
it

will be sold in

Mecca

itself.

is

not

a
is

little

gained when

w^e

can say that there
in Asia or Africa

hardly a

Mohammedan
"The

who, when he reads in the Koran the words
already quoted,

promise of

God

is

true

in the Tourah and
find that

in the Gospel," cannot

Tourah and Gospel already

trans-

lated into the sacred Arabic of the
if

not in his

own
and

vernacular.

It is

Koran, on sale

in

Arabic in Jerusalem and Damascus, in
Cairo,
in

Alexandria

Constantinople

and Aleppo, in Mosul and Baghdad, in Teheran and Tabriz, in Delhi and Agra, in
Calcutta and

Bombay,

in Shanghai,

Canton

and Peking, in Zanzibar and Khartoom, in Algiers and Tunis, in Liberia and Sierra
Leone.
In addition to the work of Bible trans-

3IISSI0NAIiY
lation

PROBLEM.

103

and

distribution, the

missionaries in

Syria and other parts of Turkey have pre-

pared and published in the language of the people hundreds of volumes of religious,
educational and scientific books, have opened

hundreds of common

schools, besides found-

ing five colleges, nearly a dozen female seminaries, six theological seminaries
ical

and a med-

college.

These schools have stimulated

other sects and communities to found schools

of their own, so that the work of popular

education

is advancing with great rapidity. There are now" in Syria proper, not in-

cluding

Palestine

or

Asia

Minor,

eleven

thousand children in evangelical schools, of whom nearly one-half are girls. In the
city of Beirut alone are nearly nine thou-

sand

children

in

the

various

schools,

of

whom

thirty-three

hundred are under ProtTw^enty years ago there

estant instruction.

were not probably three hundred children at school in that entire city. There are now in
Beirut twelve printing-presses, of which five

104

THE MOHAMMEDAN
to Protestants.

belong

There are nine news-

papers and magazines, of which six are Protestant.

The number
tlie

of pages of Arabic
press in Beirut in

printed at

American

the year 1877 was 12,630,000, and the whole

number

of pages printed from the

first

has

been 172,441,000.

In addition
others which
it

to

all

these

statistics,

and

we have not

space to mention,
is

should be borne in mind that there

a

gradual leavening process going on in society throughout the East, removing the old prejudice against Protestant Christianity a won;

derful

awakening of the popular mind
;

in

favor of female education

a desire for books
a

and periodical
read
the

literature;
;

willingness to

Bible

a

relaxation

of

priestly

and

ecclesiastical opposition
;

and persecuting
prepa-

j)Ower
ration

and,
for

in

fine, a

widespread

the

preaching and teaching of
such
as

evangelical

truth,

has

not been

known
§

since the days of the apostles.
lastly, it is

XVII. And,

the univei^sal

3IISSI0NABY PROBLEM.

105

belief of the lloslems that in the latter clay

there

will

be

a

universal
true
faith

ajjostasy
will

from
to

Islam,
exist.

when

the

cease

The

signs of the latter day are various,

and among them that the sun will rise in the w^est, and a cold, odoriferous wind blow from
Syria which will sweep away the souls of
believers
all
is

and the Koran

itself

There

no prophecy or expectation that all the world will be converted to Islam. The old
doctrine of carrying the

Koran by

force of

arms into

all

nations

is

going into disuse.

In Christianity the belief that the w'orld belongs to Christ is a tremendous power,
giving
life

and hope
Christ

to the

Church.

promises

of

and

his

The command to

teach all nations imply that all nations are
to

be taught. The promise to Moses, given in the darkest hour of Israel's history and
confirmed

with the oath of the Almio-htv,
as

"As
be

truly
filled

I

live,

all

the
of

earth

shall

with

the

glory

the

Lord"

106

MOHAMMEDAN MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
21), lias been ringing tlirougb
in all ages,

(Num. xiv. the Church

and

is

a pledge that

God's glory and the religion of Christ shall ill] the whole earth.

The Mohammedan has no such
is

hope.

the victim of a pessimist philosophy.
it,

He He
and

hates idolatry, and will fight against

thus clear away the rubbish of paganism and

prepare the
~

way
is

in a

measure for Christiana

ity

;

but

it

with him

work of despe-

ration. Every new province wrested from Mohammedan sway, every new defeat of

Mohammedan

arms,

every new exhibition

of Christian superiority in civilization and
in moral, intellectual
is

and material

progress,

only a

new proof of the rapid approach

of the inevitable apostasy.

CHAPTER
§

III.
of the British

XVIII. Prohahle
have

effects

Protectorate over Asiatic Turkey.

We
fidence

already

alluded

to

the
in

conthe
fact

reposed

by Mohammedans
races.

English-speaking
involves us,
race

This

great

who

represent the Anglo-Saxon

among

the people of the East, in great
It

responsibility.

throws an immense re-

sponsibility

upon the churches, the public
and eventful
times.

men and

the government of Great Britain

in these critical

Such

confidence, the growth of years, the result

of great overruling providences, the key to the hearts and the minds of millions of

our race, should
abused.
It
is

be wisely used, and not but one step in that great
is

march and progress of events which
107

to

108

THE MOHAMMEDAN
on
to

lead

results

the

most wonderful in

the future history of the Church.

In
causes

the

wise

providence

of

God, who
to

even the wrath of

man

praise
al-

him, an Anglo-Saxon Christian queen,
ready the ruler of
forty-one
millions

of

Mohammedans
the world as

in India,

stands

the protectress

up before of the whole

Turkish empire in Asia. As we are not writing from the political standpoint, but
only from the position of students of the divine providence, Ave cannot but look on with wonder and gratitude to God. The question has already passed from the do-

main of mere

politics

to

that of a
fact,

great

and momentous providential

to

which

we do well

to take heed.

With

all these

things in view

—the

geore-

graphical ligion, the

extent of the

Mohammedan
and

work of

literary

religious

preparation expansion of Anglo-Saxon Christian power

already apcomplished, the vast

and population, and the confidence

felt

by

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.

109

Moslems everywliere

in

the

religious

and

civil institutions
let

of Protestant Christianity

us

inquire
results

what
lilvcly

are
to

some of the
flow

beneficial

from the

new

policy

of the

British

government in

the Turkish empire.
I.

ful

which joyous and grateacclamations will arise from millions of
result, for

One

the oppressed, will be the abolition of the

exaction and extortion inseparably connect-

ed with the system of farming the tithes of the agricultural productions of the empire.
It
to
is

difficult for

an Anglo-Saxon freeman

comjDrehend what is meant by collecting the tithes in the Turkish empire. The

attention of
to

Europe has often been the horrors and outrages incident
of

called
to this

relic

barbarism.

Many

of

the

most

humane and honest
lition.
it,

of the officers of the
its

sultan have tried in vain to effect

abo-

The

sultan
effect.

himself

has

proposed

but to no
is

In practical working
this

it

somewhat

after

foshion

:

Some

no
wealthy

THE MOHAMMEDAN
Syrian,
at

desiring

to

increase

his

weahh
attends

the

the

expense of his conscience, annual auction at the head-

quarters of the province and bids for the
privilege

of
in

collecting

the

tithe,

we
If
at

will

suppose,
tithe

the

Baalbek
is

district.

the
five

of that

district

estimated

thousand pounds, he will bid six thousand

pounds for the privilege of collecting five thousand pounds. At harvest -time the
wheat and barley of each village are gathered on the village threshing-floors. Aftei
the tedious labor of threshing and winnowfinished the grain
air,

ing

is

lies

in heaps

in

the open
Qiiultezim

awaiting the arrival of the
the
tithes.

of

Days
peoj^le

pass

on

and he comes
desperate.
is

not.

The
is

become

The
;

last year's

exhausted

there

supply of wheat no bread in the

village; the children are

hungry.

Finally,

the old

men

of the village go as

humble
come
to

petitioners to beg the

multezim

to
is

their relief.

He

answers that he

— busy

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
lie

Ill
least

cannot come for a month, or at the

a fortnight.
in
vain.

They beg and
length they

entreat, but all
offer

At

him onecome.
be

eighth of the
is

crop if he will
If

He

inexorable.

the

district

remote

from the influence of Europeans, they may
be obliged
extortioner
finally
to

give

the

merciless
or

one-fifth,

one-fourth,
;

even

one-half, of their crop
cision there
is

and from his de-

no appeal.

He

is

accom-

panied by armed horsemen, and the people liave no way but silent, desjDairing
submission.

And
tians.

tliis

system of
of a

extortion

falls

as

heavily on the Moslems as on the ChrisI

know
distant

Mohammedan

village

from the city of Tripoli, Syria, in which the entire income of the people w^as derived from their fruit. The
not far
village

was surrounded with orchards and
of
olive,
fig,

gardens
apricot,

mulberry,

quince,

orange,

lemon,

pomegranate

and

plum

trees,

and luxuriant vineyards.

For

112
several
this

THE MOHAMMEDAN
successive

years

tlie

tax levied on
entire

villasje
all
its

exceeded
fruit,

the

income
were

from

and

the

people

borrow money at thii'ty percent, interest from the Tripoli usurers to
obliged
to

pay the

tax.

Such a
endured.

state of things

could
the

not lono- be
villa2;e

The men of
tree in

assembled and decided what to do.
cut

They

down every
and then
are

and around
the
extor-

that- village, "
tioners,

said

to to

What

you going

do now?"

I rode

by

that village with

my
to

brother the

following year, and the sight of that scene

of

desolation
stone.

was

enough
"

bring

tears

from a

I thought,

What

will those

poor people do?"
I would like to be the messenger to go
that

through

ojDpressed

empire

and pro-

claim to the people that this diabolical sys-

tem of

tithino; is to

be abolished for ever.
this

The
will

abolition
as
life

of

inhuman system
to

be

from the dead
of

the op-

pressed

subjects

the

sultan,

and

the

JIIISSIONARY

PROBLEM.

113

word
towns

has

already
villages

gone
of

out through the
that

and

empire
of
is

that

through

the
this

intervention

Christian
to

England
this

dreadful

curse

be for

ever removed.
result
to

Did no other good
the
late

than

from

war,

it

would

seem
II.

be enough.
second result will be the curbing of

A

the numerous wild and semi-barbarous tribes

which

infest

large districts of the empire.

These are the Koords, Yezidees, Turkomans,
Nusairiyeh, Ismailiyeh, Bedawin Arabs and
Circassians.

The

destructive

and

irritatino'

pitting these tribes against one " " divide et-impera principle, another, on the

policy of

has kept the peaceably-disposed peasantry in terror and the empire in constant danger
of conflagration.

That same

respect

for

England and the British people to which we have alluded above will prove a potent
aid in keeiDing these wild, discordant tribes
in order.

When

the Circassians arrived in Svria in

114

THE 3I0HAMMEDAN
entire

1878 the
filled

Christian
lest these
fit

population

was

with alarm,

wild

Mohamme-

dan

spoilers should see
list

to

add the Syrian

Christians to the

of their victims.

When

I left Beirut, on the 11th of April, 1878, the

most of them had been removed
terior,

to the in-

but the gravest apprehensions were expressed by both Christians and Moslems
as
to

their

future

behavior.

The

subject

gave me more

anxiety than any other one feature in Syrian affairs on my departure for America.

But the Anglo-Turkish
pelled these alarms.

treaty

has dis-

The

British consular

throughout the empire can calm these turbulent spirits almost by a word. They believe in the Angliz with
agents and other
officials

a tenacity of faith that

is

amazing.

The same

fact is true of all the wild

Mos-

lem and semi-pagan

tribes of the
is

empire.
other
;

The English name
difficult as the task

a

spell.

No
them

nationality has such power over

and,

may

seem which Britain

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.

115

has undertaken in keeping that empire in order, she can do it with wonderful facility,

when any
III.

other nation or people might

fail.

A

third result will be actual liberty
to

of conscience
tianity.

Modem

converts to
liberty

Chris-

Heretofore,

this

has not

existed.

Moslem converts have

either been

secretly put out of the way, officially ban-

ished or forcibly thrust into the
treated with cruelty

army and
Accord-

and

injustice.

ing to a well-known fetwa or legal opinion of the Mohammedan muftis, "all the sects
of infidelity are
one."
It

matters not to

them how many Armenians, Greeks, Jews
or Maronites become
Protestants,
as

they

simply pass over from one infidel sect to But when a Mohammedan beanother.

comes a Christian the case
utterly different.

is

regarded as

The army of the sultan is It caliph of Mohammed.
believers.

the
is

army of the
present

an army of

No

Christian

up

to the

year could be admitted to

it,

for

how can

116

THE MOHAMMEDAN
infidel fight the battles of the

an

Prophet?

The
it

militaiy conscription

being thus con-

Mohammedans, them as a grievous and regarded by heavy burden which they are all bound to
is

fined to the one sect of the

share.

Wiienever, therefore, a

Mohammedan

becomes a Christian, he puts himself outside
the military population liable to the conscription.

He

is

a deserter, a renegade from
his country, guilty

the draft, the

enemy of

of high treason, and hence punishable with
death.

The

officials

who
Not

arrest
is

him

in such

a case would deny that he

account of religion.
ished for
treaso7i.

at all

punished on he is pun;

As

long as the military
to

system of the empire continues
clusively a sectarian
this
state

be exsystem,

Mohammedan
will

of

things

continue.

The

sw^ord thus

hangs over the heads of Mosto Christianity,

lem converts

although the

"death-penalty" is nominally abolished. But when once the late firman of the
sultan
is

executed and Christians are ad-

iMISSIONAB Y
mittecl to the

PB OBLEM.

117

army, this regime of terrorcease.

ism and persecution will

No

matter

how many Mohammedans become
they will
still

Christians,

be liable to the conscription,

and the one great official ground of persecution will have passed away for ever. That
the enrollment of Christians in the
wdll

army

speedily be brought about under the advice and protection of Great Britain I

have no question. In India at the present day there is freedom of oral and printed discussion between
Christians and

Mohammedans.

It does not

compromise the government nor endanger the public peace. Moslems have the right
to argue against Christianity,

and Christians

to argue against Islam.
all are satisfied.

It is fair play,

and

Up

to the present

time in

Turkey, Mohammedans have printed books against the Bible and the Christian religion,

and we have no right or privilege of replyAs we have already stated above, 3Ieing.
zan
el

Hoc, a Christian argument against

118
Islam,
is

THE MOHAMMEDAN
a
proliibited

book, but Izhar el
against

Hoc, a

bitter

invective
is

the Bible

and

Christianity,

printed and circulated

by Moslems without restraint. All that we ask is fair play and
to all

protection

men

in worshiping

God

according to

the dictates of their

own

consciences.

Under

the wise and firm and resolute protection of
British
representatives,

the

Mohammedans

of Turkey will soon learn to respect the religious sentiments of those who rely for the

defence of their cause on argument and not

on the sword, and Moslems converted
Christianity will be unmolested.

to

lY. There
of the press.

will

be

new and

real liberty

The

present restrictions ujoon

the press are a clog and a barrier to the Criticism of the inexpression of opinion.
justice
is

and venality of government

officials

Liberty of the punished as a crime. press in such a state of society must differ

in some respects from

what

it

is

in Great
is

Britain and the United States, but there

MISSIOXABY PROBLEM.

119

room

for

reform of the most fiuiclamental

character,

and there can be no doubt that
will

in this
effected.

respect a thorough reform

be

A
the

respectable

and well

-

known

foreign

resident in the empire was
certificate

obliged to

bring
of
a
to

of

half

a dozen

chiefs

police

that
in

he
their

had

never

committed
finally

crime
bring a
in

districts,

and

certificate that his portrait

was not
scoun-

the

"

"

rogue's

gallery

of noted

drels

of the city, before
to

he could obtain

permission

establish

a

important press in the threatened with being shut

An newspaper. empire was once
up
a
for

six
tract

months

for

having

printed

little

on the duty of
evil

telling the

truth and the

gravamen of the charge was that the tract was an attack
of
lying.

The

on the government.
Until the journals of the empire are
al-

lowed

to publish

and expose the ways and
officials

crimes of corrupt

there will be

lit-

120
tie

THE MOHAMMEDAN

hope of reform. Nothing will so surely and rapidly do away with bribery and corruption as a free and protected press; and this we are sure will result from the British
23rotectorate.

V. Another

result will be

a

new

devel-

opment and extension of the means and
appliances

of

education.

We
to

would

not

withhold credit from those
is

whom
to

credit

due among the

officials

of the Ottoman

•government who have striven
education

promote There throughout the empire. are a few who, by word and example, by

attending the public examinations of native

and foreign

schools,

own
done

children to
all

and even sending their them for education, have
to

in their

power

help in the edu-

cation of the

people.

Conspicuous among

Midhat Pasha, the new governorBut these men are the^ general of Syria. honorable and honored exceptions. There
these
is

are vast districts of the empire destitute of
schools,

and the higher

institutions

now

ex-

3nSSI0NAEY PROBLEM.
isting are crippled in their influence

121

by the want of the proper governmental encourHere is room for immediate, agement.
easy and most useful reform, and there
is

every reason to exjDCct that a new era is about to dawn on the Turkish empire in the multiplication, enlargement and elevation

of the existing schools, to the

incal-

culable benefit of the people

and the ad-

vancement of

light, truth

and true religion
of
vital

among them.
VI.

Another

essential

reform,

necessity,
to

and yet among the most certain
is

be made,

judiciary and

the reconstruction of the the admission of Christian

testimony in the courts.

What would

be said of a law which should
admissible in the courts

make no testimony
less it
tist

of Great Britain and the United States un-

were offered by members of the Bapor Methodist Church ? Yet this is the

state of things in

Turkey.

Testimony

is

a

religious

act,

and the mahhameh, or Mo-

122

THE MOHAMMEDAN
is

.

liarameclan court,

a court of religious law.

None,

therefore, but reputedly religious per;

sons can be allowed to testify
Christians,
infidels,
it

and

as all

Jews and Pagans are classed as is impossible for them to offer

testimony.

And

such

is

the case in Tur-

key.

Firman

after firman

has guaranteed

to the Christians the right of testifying in

the courts, but the right

is

still

withheld.

The~ most respectable Christian in Beirut may enter a court and give evidence, but
it

will be recorded that

so

made a

statement as

Khowaja So-andBut if the follows."
Moslem donkey-

''

lowest and most worthless driver
is

brought into court and gives evidence on the other side, it will be recorded
"

that
to

His lordship the Sayyid Ali
of God,''
etc.

testified

the face

Consequently,

whoever has a case
heed
to

in court

must take good

provide himself with

Mohammedan

witnesses, or

have no hope of success. The firmans of the past must be executed he
will
first

in fact before there will be the

elements

3nSSI0NAEY PROBLEM.
of true equality in Turkey.
this will

123
insist

To

upon

be the most

important and, I be-

lieve, the cheerfully-performed,

duty of those Great Britain in carrying out who represent
the

new Anglo-Turkish
question

treaty. this

In intimate connection with
the

stands Often,

of a pure judiciary.

when hearing
tation

of the high, unsullied repu-

tation of British judges in

and

repuechoed and proclaimed by Moslems Hindoos wherever they go I have

India

—a

longed and prayed for some divine interposition
to

which would give a British judiciary the long-wronged and despoiled people

of Turkey.

And

not unfrequently have I

heard

in Syria give utterance with the greatest earnto the same longing
estness.

Mohammedans
I have

known important

cases tried

in the enlightened city of Beirut before a

judge who could neither read nor write his own language, the Turkish, and who, al-

though the

trials

were conducted in Arabic,

could neither speak nor write Arabic.

The

124

THE MOHAMMEDAN

venality of the kadis or judges is well illustrated in the popular story constantly told by the Arabs of Syria in their coffee-houses

and their homes.
sheikh

It

is

as

follows:

The

Omar had a case in neighbor Mohammed. He
and placed a small poin in
the kadi assured

court against his
visited the kadi

his hand,

when

him

that on the trial the

following day the case should be decided in

Meantime, Mohammed, hearing of Omar's success, went to the kadi's house
night bearing thirty gold dinars, each having on it the image of an old man
leaning on a
refused
staff.

his -fevor.

at

The

porter at the door

admittance until he had him one of the golden coins. He given then ushered him into the presence of the
kadi,
pieces.
to

Mohammed

gave the twenty-nine The kadi at once assured him that
before,

whom he

he had not understood the case
the
decision

and

should

now be

in

his

favor.

was astounded the next day in seeing his opponent victorious, and asked the kadi

Omar

MISSIONARY PB0BLE2L
for the reason.
is

125

Said the kadi,

"The

reason

this:

new evidence has appeared.

Last

night after dark twenty-nine venerable old men, each leaning on the top of a staff, came
to

my

house and

testified to

Mohammed's claim." "Yes," added the porter, "and one of them was too old and
infirm to ascend the stairway, so he remained

the validity of

with

me

at the door."
illustrates the

This story
the
alas
!

popular idea of

character of their judges;
too true.
salaries of the highest

and

it

is,

The

judges are con-

temptibly small, and, as they are obliged to
live respectably, they
ries

supplement their sala-

by

selling justice to the highest bidder.

thorough reorganization of the judiciary, with courts of appeal in the hands of British judges, would be a blessing of unspeakable value to millions in Turkey.

A

Let

us pray that so great a blessing may not be withheld when it is in the power of Britain
so easily to bestow
it.

126

THE MOHAMMEDAN
last benefit

:

VII. The

we

shall

mention as

resulting from the
virtual and,

new

state of things is the

we

trust, final

abandonment of

the policy of non-intervention.

When

the

European powers

in

1856 bound themselves

in solemn treaty not to interfere in the do-

mestic concerns of the Turkish empire, they
entailed

upon the people of Turkey a regime of suffering which none could desire to be
restored or perpetuated.
for me, nor
It is not necessary

would

it

be becoming, to impugn

the motives of those

who made

that agree-

ment.
is

It has

passed into history.
a cause

But

it

a comfort and

of gratitude

to

think that the woes, the massacres and the
disorders suffered to go on in that empire

under the non-intervention policy

will not

now be

likely ever to occur again.

In the year 1860, during the civil war of Lebanon, when the Druses and Turkish
soldiers fraternized with the

Moslem populace in the plan of massacring and exterminating the Christian and foreign popula-

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
tion of Syria,

127

news reached us in Beirut

that about eight

and

Protestant
in

hundred Greek, Maronite Christians, disarmed and
Hasbeiya, were

confined

the castle of

surrounded

ready to the Turkish colonel sat at the gate waiting to give them the signal to enter on the

by a Druse ai'my wlio stood massacre them in cold blood, wdiile

work of
British

destruction.

Dr.

Eddy and Dr.
to the to

Bliss of the

American mission went

consul-general,

and asked him
kawass

furnish

them wdth an armed
to the

or

janissary from the British consulate to go
w^ith

them

rescue of the beleaguer-

ed Christians.

A

kawass of the American

consulate would have been of no use, and,

owing to the state of the country, have been certain death to them

it

would
have

to

gone an hour's ride from the city alone. But a kawass from the British consulate

would
W'here,

given ample protection anyand both Druse and Moslem would
presence
of two such

have

have respected the

128

THE MOHAMMEDAN
with the
representative

men accompanied

of the British consulate.

They appealed to the consul as the only person in Syria who could have aided them
in saving seven

hundred men from massacre.

But he

felt

obliged to decline their request.

He

he sympathized with the poor men " hut he was exposed to danger and death,
said
officially

forbidden

to

interfere

in the do-

mestic affairs of the Turkish empire^

He
felt

had no option by the
fate.

in the

matter, and,

bound

principle

of

non-intervention,

obliged to leave the poor wretches to their

few days after a crowd of men came running to the door of my house in Beirut.

A

They were leading along a shocking-looking
specimen of humanity, covered with matted It was clots of blood from head to foot.

Jebran Hoslab, one of the few survivors
of the dreadful massacre of Hasbeiya.
said

He

on a signal from the Turkish colonel the Druses rushed into the castlethat

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
gate and
fell

129

like wolves

upou the unarmguns
to

ed Christians.

Laying

aside' their

save their ammunition,
victims

they hewed their in pieces with their swords and
striking

battle-axes,

down Abu Monsoor,

the Protestant deacon, while in the act of

praying for his murderers. Jebran escaped by throwing himself down and covering
himself with dead bodies, and at midnight let himself down from a window in the
castle-wall,

and escaped

across

the

moun-

tains

to

Tyre, wdience he came to Beirut

in

an Arab schooner.

That was the working of the principle A more humane and of non-intervention.
noble - hearted body of

men

could hardly

be found than the British consuls in Tur-

key

as a class, but

how

often the inflexible

principle of non-intervention has compelled

from doing what their own humane instincts would have prompted them

them

to refrain

to do,

none could speak more eloquently than

themselves.
9

130

THE MOHAMMEDAN
to

Now, thanks be
the wrath of
j)YQi

Him who

iiaketh even

man

to praise him, if I inter-

aright the

new

policy of the British

government, that feature at least of nonThere intervention is for ever at an end.
will be

no more Syrian massacres, no more

holocausts of

human
now

victims

in Hasbeiya,

Deir

el

Komr and
will

Damascus.
concur, in

Humanity
the good

and policy

providence of God, under the benign sway of a Christian queen, in restraining that
"

remainder of wrath

"

which has so

often

burst forth like a pent-up volcano.

These and many other incidental benefits, which time will not allow us to mention,
will

no doubt flow from the new order of

things

now being inaugurated
it

in the East.

Well does
clusion,

become us

to inquire in con-

What

are the moral

and
state

religious

of things which rest upon the Christians of Great
obligations arising from this

Britain and

America?

3IISSI0NABY PROBLEM.

131

A

great w^rk has been initiated

by the

missionaries,

American and

British, ah-eady

on the ground. It will be the duty of the American churches to increase the number
of their missionaries, to supply their colleges

and seminaries with an

able,

experienced

and devoted corps of instructors; to push forward the work of missionary itineracy to increase the efficiency of the press and
;

the extent of Bible distribution
native ministry
;

;

to train a

the

invitations

and in every way to meet of Divine Providence, and
effectual

enter the

"wide and

doors" which

are opening on every side, even though there be " many adversaries."
It
is

not an easy task for

me

to suggest

what are the
and
sisters in

duties of our British brethren

a crisis like the present in the
that

East.

Would

my

feeble voice

could

be heard

among
sincerity,

all

those

who

love

our
to

Lor4< in
r^iay

calling

upon them
of

earnestly
in

for

the

salvation

the

perishing

that

interesting

land!

See

132
to

.

THE MOHAMMEDAN

it,

Christian

men and women,

that the

be present guarantees of religious liberty that converts to carried out in very deed

Christianity from every sect

and

nationality

in that empire be assured of protection
liberty to read

and

and practice the word of

Give a cheerful support to your own brethren and sisters who are engaged in
God.
various parts of that empire in preaching the gospel and educating the young.

You would have
which greeted
April,

rejoiced

to

see a sight

when

eyes on the 11th of last I met on the premises of an

my

Arab English lady in Beirut a company of bid me farewell on my girls assembled to
Fifteen hundred departure for America. Arab girls, from the ages of six to sixteen,
stood

around me, three hundred of them
girls.

Mohammedan
different

One

after

another the
of praise
to

schools

sang

hymns

Christ, and at the close of a brief address to them in Arabic we united together in

prayer.

Just before that I had received a

3nSSI0NABY PROBLEM.
farewell letter signed

133

by eight hundred and
children,

seventy-five

Arab Sunday-school

bidding me an affectionate farewell. Shall not these Christian laborers and enterprises

be sustained?

In the nev7 growth of the missionary and educational w^ork in the East new endowments,

new

scholarships and

will be needed.

If the

new buildings demand for schools

and books has been great and increasing under the old regime, what may we not
anticipate
for the

under the new

?

The demand

English language and an English
Heretofore British Christo aid the exist-

education, already great, will become greater year
tians

by

year.

have wisely preferred

ing American missions

in the

Turkish em-

pire, instead of comj^licating the

work by
con-

establishing separate missions of their own.

We

rejoice in this proof of fraternal

fidence

and Christian

love.

Let us work on

thus together. Let the two great branches of the christianized Anglo-Saxon race go

134

THE MOHAMMEDAN
in
liauci

hand

to

the great work assigned

us in the evangelization of the

Mohamme-

Let us go on in the Spirit of our Lord and Master, which is the Spirit
of love.

dan world.

We
to

have thus sketched in rapid outline

the salient points in the relations of Islam
Christianity.

God

has been preparing

Christianity for Islam, and

paring Islam for

now he is preThe probChristianity.

lem now demanding the attention of the Christian Church and the Christian ministry

everywhere
to

is,

How

to

give

greater

efficiency

missionary

agencies

already

employed

in

Mohammedan
new
forces

countries,

and
to

how

to

bring

and appliances

bear upon Islam.

The

Christian

indifference

Church cannot regard with the welfare of one hundred and

seventy-five millions of our race.

The moral
the pitiful

degradation, the spiritual blindness, the deep
religious needs of so

many men,

3IISSI0NABY PROBLEM.
condition of
that
tian
like

135

Moslem women, the want

of all

we hold dear and
a provision for

sacred in the Chris-

home, and the utter lack of anything

human

redemption,

should awaken our deepest sympathies and enkindle new zeal in every Christian breast.

We

have only begun
world.
is

to

work

for the
is

Mo-

hammedan
God's word
are

The
;

prospect

cheering.

ready
is

the j)romises of Christ

overturning among the nations, and every turn in the wheel of providence moves the nations forward, while
;

ours

God

Mohammedan
greatest

prestige

idly out of sight.

and power sink rapIn the Russian war the

enemy of
in

the Moslems inflicted one
political

crushing

defeat on the

power of

Islam, and

the

Afghan war England,

the greatest friend of Islam, has inflicted
another.

and

Christian missions are planted in around the very citadels of Islam.

Converted Moslems in India are ordained
ministers

of
in

the

gospel.

Thousands
purchased

of
the

Moslems

Turkey have

136
Christian

THE MOHAMMEDAN
Scriptures.
edifices

Church -bells from
echoing the very minarets of towns
pashas are send-

Christian

are

muezzin-cries from

the

and

cities.

Mohammedan

ing their sons to Christian schools and colleges,

and hundreds of Mohammedan

girls

are being educated

by Christian teachers in

the pure morality and the inspiring hopes

of the gospel.
girls

One thousand Mohammedan
are

to-day

receiving

instruction

in

Christian schools in Syria alone.

In conclusion, I know of no better summary of the crowning, imperative want of
the

Mohammedan
who

world,

and of
in

all

the

missionaries

are

for its conversion to Christ,

engaged laboring than that con-

tained

in the terse expression of

my own

beloved instructor in the Union Theological

Seminary, the now sainted Henry B. Smith,
contained in the synopsis of his System of Christian Theology the belief in "an in-

carnation in order to a redemption."

This

MISSIONARY PROBLEM.
is

13-7

the great truth which

Mohammed

utterly

failed to grasp,

and which

his followers for
after

twelve
in vain.

centuries

have been groping

Let every Christian missionary insist upon the great scheme of redemj)tion, the atoning
sufferings
;

and death of Jesus the son of
feels,

as

Mary many have

and when the Mohammedan
already
felt,

that he

is

a lost

sinner and under the righteous displeasure

of

an offended God, he will gladly and
take
faith

gratefully

refuge
that

in

the

conviction

and the
from
sin,

man

needs a Saviour

and that Jesus the son of Mary in order to be a Saviour must also be the

Son of God.

A famous
permission

Bedawin sheikh from the land
asked
steam
the
see

of Bashan once visited Beirut, and
to

the

American

printing-press.

I

took

him through
type-easting,

various parts of the building and

showed
type-

him the
setting,

processes

of

electro typing,

lithographing

and

138

MOHAMMEDAN MISSIONARY PROBLEM.

bookbinding; and at lengtb we entered tlie He stood with his Bedawin press-room.

companions gazing in mute wonder

at the

steam-press with revolving cylinder rolling

out the printed sheets with the greatest rapidity and precision.
for a time,
said,

He

stood in silence

and

at length

turned to

me and

"Khowadja, you Franks have conIn that reon a
I
re-

quered everything but death.
spect
level,

you
for

and the Bedawin stand
death conquers
us
all."

plied,

"Yes, we are conquered by death,
is

but there
for

One who has conquered death
for

you and

me

—our Lord and
is

Saviour

Jesus Christ."

My
all

brethren, that
need.

the gospel

which

That gospel of salvation through Christ let us preach at home and
abroad, until

men

the

kingdoms of

this

world

are become the

kingdom of our Lord, and

he

shall reign for ever!

THE END.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

LIBRARY

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not
j^

remove
the

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this

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from

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