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CHAPTER 4: THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT o Short term effect on Metabolic

4.1 Life on Land Imposes Unique Constraints o Long term influence on
evolution and distribution of
o Greatest constraint imposed by plants and animals
terrestrial environments 4.2 Plant Cover Influences the Vertical
Air is less dense than water
Distribution of Light
o Results in lower drag (frictional
resistance) on movement of Vertical Gradient of Light
organisms o Affected by absorption and
o Increases constraint imposed by reflection of solar radiation by
gravitational forces plants
o Another constraint in terrestrial Leaves
environments o Affect light that comes in
Diffusion o Shape of leaves and orientation
o Process where water readily affect it
evaporates from the surfaces of o Measure of leaves would be
cells Leaf Area Index
o Doesnt happen if air is m2 leaf area / m2 ground
saturated with moisture area
Water Balance the greater the LAI, the
o Balance of water between lower the quantity of light
organisms and their surrounding reaching that surface
environment LAI increases as you
o Major factor in evolution of life move from the canopy to
on land the ground of the forest
- Adaptations of plants: Beers law
o Aerial parts of most plants Describes
Stems and leaves are
relationship of Light
coated with a waxy
and LAI
cuticle Photosynthetically Active Radiation
Prevents water loss
Waxy cuticle prevents
o Wavelengths used by plants as a
gas exchange
source of energy in
Terrestrial plants
have pores on o Varies through plant canopy
surface o Visible light (400 700 nm)
(stomata) that o Transmittance of PAR is less
allows gases to than 10%
diffuse o Transmittance of Far-Red
- Terrestrial Animals Radiation (730 nm) is greater
o Acquire water through Ratio of red to far-red
eating/drinking radiation decreases
- Terrestrial Plants through canopy
o Passive process of acquiring
This shift in
spectral quality of
Kelp Forests
light affects
o Grows in dense stands
o Anchored to the bottom production of
sediments Phytochrome
o Afloat by gas-filled bladders
attached to each blade Phytochrome
Temperature & Moisture
o Pigment that allows a plant to Action of living
perceive shading by other plants organisms
o Influences patterns of growth Natural body of earth
and allocation composed of:
Angle of Leaf Mineral
o Affects amount of light it Organic matter
absorbs Supports plant
o Perpendicular Leaf growth
Absorbs 1 unit of light o Accdg to Hans Jenny the Pioneer
energy (per unit leaf of modern Soil Studies (waw
area/time) nerd alert hahah jk)
o 60 degree leaf Soil is the Stratum below
0.5 units the vegetation and above
o Angle of leaf may affect in
hard rock
various forms depending on No formal definition
location o Soil is not abiotic since it has life
High-Latitude Regolith
environments o Layer of unconsolidated debris
Sunlight angles are over hard unweathered rock
low; canopies o Where soil is formed
displayed at angle
will absorb more 4.4 Formation of Soil Begins With Weathering
Soil Formation
Tropical Areas
o Begins with weathering of rocks
Angled leaves are
and minerals
also ideal to reduce
o Weathering
great water loss in Mechanical destruction of
the afternoon rock materials into
Seasons may also affect the Leaf Area
smaller particles as well
o Dry Season
Increased light availability as chemical modification
Mechanical Weathering
at ground level
o From interaction of several
o Spring
Leaves are just forces
o Combined action of wind, water
expanding, incoming light
and temperatures
in forest floor greater
Water freezes and cracks
4.3 Soil is the Foundation upon Which All rocks
Terrestrial Life Depends Wind wear away the
Soil o Rock surfaces flake and peel
o Medium for plant growth away
o Principal factor controlling fate o Break down into small particles
of water Chemical Weathering
o Natures recycling system o Presence of water, oxygen and
Breaks down waste acids from organisms and
products of plants and organic matter
o Formal Definition
Natural product formed
4.5 Soil Formation Involves Five Interrelated
and synthesized by
Weathering of rocks
5 Factors of Soil Formation
o Parent Material o Topography
o Climate o Time
o Biotic factors

Parent Material Color from

o Material from which soil yellowish-brown to
develops red
o May originate from: Manganese Oxides
Underlying bedrock Purplish to black
Glacial deposits (till) color
Sand/silt carried by wind Quartz, Kaolin, Gypsum &
(eolian) Carbonates of Calcium &
Gravity moving down a
slope (colluvium) Whitish and grayish
Sediments carried by
water (fluvial) Poorly Drained Soil/ Soils
Biotic Factors
with Saturation by water
o Plants, animals, bacteria and
Yellowish brown
and gray
o Plant roots
o Munsell Soil Color Chart
Break up parent material,
Standardized Color Chart
reduce erosion etc Texture
Climate o Proportion of different-sized soil
o Temperature is a big deal when
dealing with soil o Inherited from parent material
o Heat can speed up reaction and o Particles classified based on size
breakdown etc etc as:
o Leaching Gravel (particles larger
Movement of solutes
than 2.0mm)
through soil Sand (0.05 mm to 2.0
Affected by temperature,
precipitation and winds Silt (0.002 to 0.05mm)
Topography Clay (less than 0.002 mm)
o Steep Slopes
Most water-holding
More water runs off and
less enters the soil
Exchange of ions
Subject to soil erosion
o Affects pore space in soil
Plays role in movement of
o Time heals all except for soil
air and water in soil
nagweweather lang hahahaha
Finer texture, smaller
4.6 Soils have certain Distinguishing pores, greater availability
Physical Characteristics of water adhesion and
chem.. activity
o Easily defined and useful
characteristic Depth
o Things That Affect Color o Depends on slope, weathering,
Organic Matter parent materials and vegetation
Makes soil o Grasslands
dark/black Tend to be several meters
Eg. Humus deep
Oxides of Iron Soil from deep fibrous
o Forests Less organic matter than
Shallow soil A Horizon
o Alluvial Plains and Slopes Denser than A Horizon
Deep o C Horizon
Unconsolidated Layer
4.7 Soil Body has Horizontal Layers or Original material from
Horizons which soil was developed
Below the C Horizon is the
Soil Profile
o Sequence of Horizontal Layers
Easily visible
4 Horizons
o O Horizon
Organic Layer
Subdivided into:

o Surface layer
twigs and
o Middle layer
plant tissues
o Bottom layer of dark
brown to black
homogenous organic
o Aka the Humus Layer
Thinnest in summer (cos
of decomposition) and 4.8 Moisture Holding Capacity is An
thickest in fall Essential Feature of Soils
o A Horizon
Topsoil Size of Soil Particles & Spacing
Mineral soil from organic o Determine how much water can
matter (Humus) flow in
Downward movement of Saturated Soil
water resulting in loss of o More water than pore space can
minerals and finer soil hold
o Excess water drains freely from
particles sometimes
gives rise to E Horizon soil

Layer of maximum

Field Capacity
Usually in forests,
o Water fills all pore spaces held
rarely in grasslands
there by internal capillary forces
o B Horizon
o Expressed as % weight or
volume of soil occupied by water
when saturated
Amount of water retained by soil
between Field Capacity and
Capillary Water Wilting Point
o Water held between soil Field capacity and wilting
particles by capillary forces point heavily affected by
Clay soil texture
Small pores, holds o Highest in clay loam soils
more water Topography affects moisture
Sandy Soil o Water drains downslope
Large Pores, water o Higher slopes dry
drains quickly
Wilting Point 4.9 Ion Exchange Capacity is Important
o Moisture level decreases to a to Soil Fertility
point where plants can no longer
extract water
Available Water Capacity (AWC) o Charged particle

o Cations o Anion
Positive charge Negative charge
In soil (Mg2+ , Ca2+, NH4 + ) In Soil (NO3 - , SO4 2- )

Ion Exchange Capacity Smaller the ion, the greater its positive
o Total Number of Charged Sites charge, the more tightly it is held
on Soil Particles within a Volume Lyotropic Series of Major Cations
of Soil according to their strength of bonding
Ability of ions to bind on to the cation exchange sites
surface of soil depends on o Al3+ > H+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ =
charged sites NH4+ > Na+
Colloids o Higher conc of soil can
o Negatively charged particles in overcome these affinities in this
the soil prevalent in temperate series
zones (why cation exchange
dominates the area) More Hydrogen makes the soil acidic
Cation Exchange Capacity o More Al3+ also means the soil is
o Total number of negatively acidic (toxic to plants)
charged sites located on edges Result is reduced nutrient
of clay particles and humus uptake
o Negative charge enable soil to o More than pH 7 = Basic
prevent leaching of positively o Less than pH 5.6 = Acidic
charged cations
o Fewer negatively charged sites 4.10 Basic Soil Formation Processes
in soil Produce Different Soils
Nitrate and phosphate
(both anions) are not o Soil formation
retained 5 Processes that give rise to the
different classes of soil

o Laterization o Podzolization
o Calcification o Gleization
o Salinization

Laterization o Rainy conditions cause rapid

o Soils in humid environments weathering
o Tropical/subtropical regions
o Movement of water causes Creates sub layer
heavy leaching from A Horizon of
Leaching causes loss of white to gray
cations; making it acidic colored sand
o Most nutrients not taken up by Gleization
plants o in high rainfall but poor drainage
Except for Iron and (waterlogged)
Aluminum o constantly wet conditions slows
Iron Oxide breakdown of organic matter by
o Give red decomposers
color allows matter to build up
Calcification in top layer
o Evaporation and water uptake reacts with iron to form
exceed precipitation black to bluish gray
o Result is upward movement of color
alkaline salts, specifically eg. Gelisol
o Infiltration of water
Causes downward
movement of salts
Deposition and
buildup of B
Horizon (Subsoil)
o Deposits
may form
hard layer
o Similar to calcification except it
is in drier climates
o Salt deposits occur near soil
o In cool, moist climates
o In coniferous vegetation
o Organic matter creates acidic
Acidity removes cations
(iron and aluminum) in