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AN ERROR ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS ABILITY IN USING ARTICLES AT

THIRD SEMESTER IN STAIN Curup

A. Background of the research


Language is essential part in our life. Every day, we can communicate or
interact to other person by using language. So, they know about our meaning.
Language consists of two, written and spoken. Written emphasize to know grammar
and structure system correctly. Meanwhile spoken must not be able to grammar or
structure of language, essentially we know the meaning of discussion. In our country,
most of people use bahasa Indonesia as their daily communication. There are some
descriptions of language. Language is a system of sounds produced by our vocal
apparatus and received by our auditory apparatus. The existence of language is very
important for human life. It means that language has many functions. As stated by
Keraf language is used as media of expressing, communicating, holding integration
and social adaptation, and holding social control. Many kinds of languages are used
for local communication, national communication, regional communication, and even
international communication such as English.1
In general, the most popular language is English, because it is the most widely spoken
language in the world. English is used by most of people from different country who
have different language as well. It becomes the most important international
communication medium, most of people use English to communicate with other
English speakers. English is studied formal and informal all over the world including
Indonesia because it is divided both form. In Indonesia, English becomes the first
foreign language that is studied by Indonesian. It is taught not only in formal but also
in non formal learning institute. People are interested to study English because it
becomes important part in humans life. So they take part and join in formal or non-
formal learning institution to master English. They have to study it because it has
become the most important tool in communication. Because of these reasons,
Indonesian government applies it as the first foreign language that must be studied by
students.
At the first time they learn English, students have introduced how to speak and
remember simple English vocabularies. The purpose of this matter is to know Basic
1 Keraf, Gorys. 1970. Komposisi Sebuah Pengantar Kemahiran Bahasa. Jakarta: Nusa Indah p.2

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English before they study specific part from it in the next class. It is given for children
that emphasize to give attention on vocabulary enrichment and not in grammar. They
have got grammar material start from junior high school. Some students get problems
when they are studying English grammar because the grammars are different with
their daily communication. They make some errors when they try to use English in
speaking and writing. Some students get problem to arrange sentences correctly. They
still confuse to make good sentences. They just translate Indonesian into English in
the meaning. Teachers have to explain it because there are some differences between
Indonesian and English grammar. Each of them has different rules.
And in this paper the researcher take the article as the main problem to
discussed because the English articles (a, an and the) are considered to be the most
frequent words in English. Master said that in Corpus studies the article the is shown
to be the most frequent word in English and a to be the fifth most frequent word. 2And
Berry state nearly eight and half percent of the English text contains the and
a.3Depending on these statistics, it is obvious that the English articles are a significant
part of English language.
In other side Master also said that the English articles system is one of the
most difficult part of English grammar for the EFL/ESL learners .So, it is not fully
acquired by them.4In line Kim and Lakshmana also said that ESL/EFL learners need
more time to acquire the article system than any other grammatical forms. According
to Armingayo there are many students still confused to use some part of grammar like
using articles. They often make some errors when they are using articles in sentences
such articles a, an, or the.5And also in wallstreetenglish mentioned that article is
one of common error that often encountered toward student in writing English.6

2 Master, P.(2002).Information Structure and English Article Pedagogy. System Vol.30.p.331-348

3 Berry, R. (1993). Articles. London: HarperCollins.

4 Master, P. (1990) Teaching the English Articles as a Binary System. TESOL Quarterly .Vol.24(3) ,p. 461-478

5 Armigayo,blogspot:Kesalahan Dalam Berbahasa Inggris,Retrived,may,02,2014, from


http://arimigayo.blogspot.com

6Wallstreetenglish,blogspot:Analisis Pemerolehan Bahasa,Retrived,may,06,2014,from


http://pribadiuntuksemua.blogspot.com

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In ELC Poylu also mentioned some part of studentscommon error that often
occurred in using article, such as:7
1) General and Particular
Articles are not normally used with uncountable or plural nouns if the meaning
is general.
Example:
The life is sweet.
Life is sweet.
My brother loves the animals.
My brother loves animals.
Compare
We expect this program to educate children. (children in general)
Her husband used to be an authority figure to the children.
(particular children)
Oil doubled in price during the crisis (oil in general)
The oil will be delivered tomorrow (particular oil).
2) Classifying Nouns
A/an is usually used with nouns indicating the group or type someone/something
belongs to.
Example:
She's administrator.
She's an administrator
Mr. Callaway is an officer and trustee
3) Uncountable Nouns
Some uncountable nouns are used with a or an to express
a) 'a type' of or 'a portion of'
Example:
A fluid for cleaning photocopiers
A coffee please

b) A particular/specified meaning.
Example:
A knowledge of English
A good sleep
However, some nouns cannot be used like this
Example:
We're having a good weather.
We're having good weather.
You've made an excellent progress.
You've made excellent progress.
She speaks a good English.
7 Poylu,edu: The Grammar And Usage,retrived,may,09,2014,from http://elc.polyu.edu.hk/fyp/html/article.htm

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She speaks good English.
4) Other Determiners
Articles are not used with other determiners.
Example:
The my fieldwork supervisor.
My fieldwork supervisor.
Room for improvement to the those services.
Room for improvement to those services.
5) Proper Nouns
Articles are not usually used with proper nouns (names)
Example:
Wei Man is from the Shenzen.
Wei Man is from Shenzen.
6) Prepositions of Time, Place and Movement
In some common fixed expressions with prepositions of place, time and
movement, the countable nouns do not take an article as they usually would
Example:
to/at/from + school/university/college,
at home,
to/in + bed/church/prison/hospital
by car/bus/helicopter/camel
on foot.

7) Statements/Exclamations
In exclamations, a/an is used with countable nouns after 'what'
Example:
What extraordinary situation!
What an extraordinary situation!
Uncountable nouns in exclamations do not take an article
Example:
What a rubbish he talks!
What rubbish he talks!
In this case there is correlation to the goal of learning English, Tarigan said an
error in using language is one of problem that often occurred in study language
include study language as second language or as first language and its annoyed the
goal in study language.8Base on those statement I can conclude that article is one of
the problem that should be solved for the teacher to make the goal of learn English can
we get successfully.
English Department in STAIN Curup is one of prodi which focus in study
about English education. So, their student they should avoid an error in using article
because it can be their problem for the purpose in teaching English, From this reason,

8 Academia,edu:Analisis Keslahan Berbahasa,retrived,mei,10,2014,from


http://www.academia.edu/5782653/Makalah_Analisis_Kesalahan_Berbahasa

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the writer will analyze about students ability to use grammar especially articles. And,
the result can be consideration for the lecture in STAIN Curup in teaching English.
Because base on my pre-observation there are many students who often error in using
article.In addition after doing interview with writing teacher in STAIN Curup,
Student at third semester also have problem in using article when they accomplish
task of writing.9and then I am also do interview to the teacher structure Sarwo Edi, he
said that there are many English student that often do error in using article within
speaking and writing,10 Whereas, according to syllabus they had learnt about using
article in structure one. Here, the writer will make a research with title An Error
Analysis On Students Ability In Using Articles At Third Semester In STAIN Curup

B. Limitation of problems
To make this research be valid the writer would like to limit on this study as
follows:
1. The research focuses on the ability to use articles a, an, and the, for students of
third semester English department in STAIN Curup.
2. The factors that influence the ability to use the articles a, an, and the, for students
of third semester English department in STAIN Curup.
C. Statement of Problem
To analyze the problem students ability in using articles, the writer formulates
the problem as follows:
1. How far is the ability of the student at third semester in STAIN Curup in using
article a, an, and the?
2. What factors which influence students ability in using articles a, an, and the, for
students at third semester in STAIN Curup.
D. Objective of Study
The objectives of the study of this research are as follows:
1. To know the ability of the student at third semester in STAIN Curup in using article a,
an, and the.
2. To know the factors which influence students ability in using articles a, an, and The
for students at third semester in STAIN Curup.
E. Benefit of Study
The result of this research is expected to be useful in two dimensions,
theoretically and practically:
1. Practically

9 Interview with Miss.Nastity as Writing English teacher in STAIN Curup

10 Interviewed with Mr.Sarwo Edi as Structure English teacher in STAIN Curup

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The result of this research is beneficial for the students as reference in learning
language related on the use of articles A, An, and The. Apart from that, this research is
also beneficial for knowing some common mistakes caused by the use of the articles.
The result of this research is very important for English teachers. It can help them in
language teaching learning process. By studying the result of this research, hopefully
the students will know about using articles a, an, the correctly.
2. Theoretically
Theoretically, this research is expected to describe about articles A, An, and
The, explanation of each article, key words to identify ways to use article a, an, and
the correctly.
F. Definition of Key Terms
To avoid misinterpretation and make easy to understand the title of this
research, the writer would like to clarify and explain the terms used in this study as
follows:
a. Error
According to Klassen, error is form of structure that the native speaker
finds unacceptable and wrongly used in linguistic context.11
b. Analysis
According to Hornby analysis is the study of something by examining
its parts and their relationship a statement of the result. 12 From the quotation
above, analysis is the study of errors done by student at third semester in
STAIN Curup.
c. Student
Students in this research are person who had learnt about article in
structure one and opportunely they are student at third semester.
d. Ability
Means possession of the qualities mental and psychology to do
something or get something done. Qualities are skills that person has. They
use these skills to achieve their aims. Ability is combination between intention
and effort.
e. Article
Article is part of grammar in English there are three articles a, an, and
the. A or an is used when an unidentified specimen is introduced. The is used

11 Klassen, j.(1991)using student errors for teaching, FORUM, Vol.29,p.23-34

12 Hornby, AS. 1995. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English.London:


Oxford University Press.p.38

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when the noun which follows names an identified specimen, that is when it is
believed that the hearer knows which person, place or thing the noun refers to.

G. Review Of Related Theory


In this chapter, the writer will explain the related theories or definition about
error analysis, students ability, grammar that focusing on articles a, an and the.
1. Error Analysis
In the course of learning and using foreign language, one of the most
inhibiting factors in appears of making mistakes and errors. The making of errors
is a sign that the students have not mastered the rules of the language being
learned. Language learning as any other human learning involves making
mistakes and errors. Brown states that the mistakes, misjudgment, miscalculation
and erroneous assumption from an important aspect of learning of skill and
acquiring information. Anyone attempts to acquire something by making mistakes
and errors. The child who learns his native language makes countless mistake with
his linguistic knowledge. However, he gradually manages to produce acceptable
spec hand justify it after a series of errors.13
Since language is process that involves the making of mistakes and errors,
errors are considered as the product of learning. It is important for the English
teacher to realize that errors made by learned need to be analyzed correctly in
order to arranging learning strategy effectively. In addition, it is important to
discuss error analysis to underscore the relevance of such analysis for teaching
English as a foreign language. Such an analysis becomes the key for foreign
language acquisition. According to Sanal, error analysis is a study to identify, to
describe and systematically to explain the learners error by using any of the
principles and techniques provided by linguistics. It can be said that error analysis
as a process based on analysis of the students errors.14 Whereas, Brown as cited in
Sanal asserts that error analysis is the activity to observe, to analyze and to
13 Brown, H. Douglas. 1992. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching. New Jersey:
Prentice-Hal Inc.p.164

14 Sanal, Fahretin. 2007. A Learner Based Study on Second Language Lexicology of Turkish
Students of English, Doctoral Thesis, Cukurova University. Retrivied on March, 2012.p.597

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classify the students errors for conveying something of the system operating.
Practically, error analysis can be a very useful device of a foreign language
teaching program. Errors provides feedback, they tell the lecturers something
about the effectiveness of their teaching materials and their teaching techniques.15

2. Errors and Mistakes


An error is different from mistake, so it is crucial to differentiate both of them.
Corder as quotes by Kinsela states that an error is typically produced by people
who do not yet fully command some institution a listed language system. 16 Based
on Corder, errors are breaking the role, due to lack of competence such as
knowledge of the language, which may or may not be conscious. As they are due
to lack of competence they tend to be not correctable. 17According to Erdogan, a
learner makes a mistake when writing or speaking because of lack of attention,
fatigue, carelessness, or some other aspects of performance. Mistake can be self
corrected when attention is called. In other words, a mistake is a slip that the
learner can self correct whereas an error is what a learner cannot self correct. 18
From those definitions above, the writer can also conclude that a mistake is
just a slip that the learner forgets the right form. While, an error is a deviation
made by the learner because he/she does not know the rule and will make it
repetitively. To distinguish between an error and mistake, Ellis as mentioned by
Erdogan also suggests two ways. The first one is to check the consistency of
learners writing, if he sometimes uses the correct form and sometimes the wrong
one, it is a mistake. However, if he always uses it incorrectly, it is an error. The
second way is to ask learner to try to correct his own deviant utterance. When he
is unable too, the deviations are errors, while he is successful, they are mistake.
Indeed, learners often make mistakes in the process of foreign language
learning. Thus, it is still not a big deal when the learners commit the mistake
15 Ibid sanal 597

16 Kinsela, Valerie. 1978. Language Teaching and Linguistics Surveys. New York: Cambridge
University Press.p.63

17 Corder, S.P. 1973. Introducing Applied Linguistics. England: Penguin Education.p.257

18 Erdogan, Vacide. 2005. Contribution of Error Analysis to Foreign Language Teaching. . Retrivied
on March, 2014 from Http://efd.mersin.edu.tr/dergi/meuefd/.pdf.p.263

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either in speaking or writing since they are capable to correct the mistake.
However, learning other language becomes difficult since the target language has
different system from the native language. This difference sometimes makes the
learners make errors especially in applying grammar. This is why analyzing
learners errors in learning other language would be interesting instead of mistake
analysis.19

3. Student Ability
Student in this research is student who had joint to the English structure class.
They had gotten explanation from their teachers directly or by looking for the
object study alone. They study in classroom and study for certain time. Ability
well known as skills of person to do something. In other words we get some
definitions like as a possession of the qualities mental and psychology to do
something or get something done. Qualities are skills that person has. They use
these skills to achieve their aims. Ability is combination between intention and
effort. Based on explanation above students ability is the ability to do something
correctly. The students ability can be described by knowing their error or mistake
when they do something. Error or mistake is a measurement that will show the
level of ability. Students that make many mistakes or errors have lower level than
who have no error or mistake.
Some linguist have different concept. Fromkin in Nurmina Husnu states that
the human brain is able not only to acquire and store the mental grammar, but also
access that linguistic store house to speak and understand what is spoken, meaning
they are against the grammatical rule of the language and result in unacceptable
utterances, in second language learning they occur because the learner has not
internalized the grammar of the second language. In order words, the student arise
out of lack of competence, therefore errors are systematical. Furthermore, they
make a distinction between errors, mistakes, and lapses. 20 Mistakes arise when the
speaker fails to match the language to the situation and result in appropriate
utterances. Lapses, in the other hand, arise out tiredness, nervousness; or stain

19 Ibid p.263-264

20 Nur Mina, Husnu. 2010. Error Analysis on the Profile of Students Mastery of Auxiliary To Be in the Present
tense (The Case Study of the First year Students of MTs NU Salatiga): STAIN Salatiga

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which result in slip of tongue, false starts confusion of structure, etc. Both mistake
and lapses are not systematical and belong to phenomena of performance.
Unlike the two definitions mentioned above, Dullay in Brown uses the term
errors to refer to any deviations from a selected norm of language performance,
and matter what the characteristics or causes of the definitions might be. They also
explain that the norm used to identify the errors may be anyone of the dialect of
other varieties of language the native speaker uses. 21 The terms errors, as noted by
Dullay above is used for the systematic deviations due to the learners still
developing knowledge of the target language rule, system or for idiosyncrasies in
the inter language of the learner which are direct manifestations of system with
which a learner is operating at the time. In this present study the researcher prefer
to use the definition of errors given by her on the consideration that this study is
not intended to differentiate between errors and mistakes
4. Definition of Grammar
Learning English cannot be separated from learning grammar because it
always plays the central role of a language. According to Eugene grammar is a
description of certain organizing aspects of particular language. It usually includes
phonological (sound), morphological (word composition), and syntactical
(sentence composition) points.22 Grammar is the system of rules by which words
are formed and put together to make a sentence or the study of composing some
types of word exactly to form a sentence. It is the crucial part of language.
The term of grammar will be used in this context to refer to a device that tells the
reader how to construct an infinite number of correct sentences of a language and
incorrect ones. All of them have some meaning Studying grammar helps someone
to learn about a language. Learning about a language is very different from being
able to use the language. A grammar should serve as a reference by helping
correct deviation from standard usage, and by improving clarity and style.
Particular grammar has its own system of organization, its major parts are
arranged according to the most important of English sentences, they are subject,
verb, object, and so on. According to Rinvolucry in Muttaqin he said that most of
English learners accept that the sounds of foreign language are different from
those of their mother tongue. What is much more difficult to accept is that the

21 http://www.techne-dib.com.br/downloads/6.pdf

22 Hall, Eugene J. 1993. Grammar for Use. Jakarta Barat: Binarupa Aksara.p.3

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grammar of new language is also spectacularly different from the way of the
mother tongue works.23

5. Article
Article is part of grammar. In English there are three articles a, an and the.
a. Use of article a or an.
Djamal said article a or an is used when an unidentified specimen. The
form a is used before a word beginning with a consonant, or a vowel with a
consonant sound. The form an is used before words beginning with a vowel
(a, e, i, o, u) or words beginning with a mute h or individual letters spoken
with a vowel sound likes an MP and an SOS.24
According to Thomson a or an is used:
1) Before a singular noun which is countable (i.e. of which there is more than
one) when it is mentioned for the first time and represents no particular
person or thing
Examples:- I need a visa.
- They live in a flat.
- He bought an ice-cream.
2) Before singular countable noun which is used as an example of a class of
thing.
Example: A car must be insured (all cars must be insured).
3) With a noun complement. This includes names of profession.
Example: - It was an earthquake.
- She will be a dancer.
4) In certain expression of quantity.
Example: A couple of bird.
5) With certain number.
Example: A hundred kilometer.
6) In expression of price, speed, ratio etc.

23 Muttaqin, Muhammad. 2004. An Error Analysis of Using Adverb in Reported Speech (A case Study of the
Second Year Students of SMU Sudirman Andong Boyolali in the Academic year of 2003-004: STAIN Salatiga

24 Djamal, ET all, 2008. Improving Reading Skill in English for University Student. Jakarta:
Kencana. p.6

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Example: sixty kilometers an hour.
7) In exclamation before singular, countable nouns.
Example: What a pretty girl!
b. Omission of a/an
1) Before plural nouns.
2) Before uncountable nouns.
3) Before names of meals, except when these are preceded by an adjective.
Example: We have breakfast at eight. He gave us a good breakfast. 25
c. Use of article the
Refers to Djamal the is used when the noun which follows names an identified
specimen, that is when it is believed that the hearer knows which person, place
or thing the noun.26
As Thomson explained that the article also placed;
1) When the object or group of objects is unique or considered to be unique.
Example: - The earth
- The stars
- The sky
2) Before a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase or clause.
Example: The place where I met him.
3) Before a noun which by reason of locality can represent only one particular
thing. Example: Ann is in the garden (the garden of this house).
4) Before superlatives and only.
Example: - This is the only thing here.
- That is the most beautiful place.
d. Do not use the before:
1) Names of most countries/territories: Italy, Mexico, Bolivia; however, the
Netherlands, the Dominican Republic, the Philippines, the United States
2) Names of cities, towns, or states: Seoul, Manitoba, Miami
3) Names of streets: Washington Blvd., Main St.

25 Thomson A. J. and Martinet A. v. 1986. A Practical English Grammar. Hong Kong: Oxford University,
Press.p.15

26 Ibid djamal.p.6.

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4) Names of lakes and bays: Lake Titicaca, Lake Erie except with a group of
lakes like the Great Lakes
5) Names of mountains: Mount Everest, Mount Fuji except with ranges
ofmountains like the Andes or the Rockies or unusual names like the
Matterhorn
6) Names of continents (Asia, Europe)
7) Names of islands (Easter Island, Maui, Key West) except with island
chains like the Aleutians, the Hebrides, or the Canary Islands 27
H. Research Methodology
1. Type of research
The researcher uses a qualitative research, which is defined as a research of which
the data in the form of written or oral words that is descriptively analyzed.
Moleong says that a qualitative research deals with a kind of research which
doesnt use statistic procedures in analyzing the data. In a qualitative research, the
researcher tends to prior in accurate explanation to analyze and present what have
been found.28
2. Data source
The data of this research are taken from the result of students test. The students
do task about the using of articles. and to know of the factors influencing of ability
in using article the research use interview.
3. Method of collecting data
a. Test
The method that is used in this research to collect the data is test as
instrument of data collection. The writer gives test to the students to be done
by them.29 Test materials in this research are English sentences that must be
completed by use of articles then the writer analyze the answer of students
test.

27 Thomson A. J. and Martinet A. v. 1986. A Practical English Grammar. Hong Kong: Oxford University,
Press.p.19

28 Moleong, Lexy. J. 2003. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT.Remaja Rosdakarya. p.3

29 Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2010. Prosedur Penelitian. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta of Current
English.p.138

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b. Documentation
Documentation is used to know the students' profile by taking data
provided and to know the situation and location of this research including the
general description of English department in STAIN Curup
c. Interview
According to fasic Interviews are normally tools for collecting data
that are used to smooth the progress of the interactive discussion between
participants of the study and the researchers. 30 After data of test were collected
the researcher doing interview to the student to know what is the factor
influencing of ability in using article.

4. Population
Suharsimi Arikunto asserts population is all respondents of the research
subject.The population of this research is all of the students of English
department in STAIN Curup at third semester.31
5. Sample
As Azwar wrote sample is part of the representative of population that is
observed.32The sample of this research is the students of English department in
STAIN Curup at third semester, and in this research I take one class of English
department at third semester.
6. Data analysis
After the data have been collected, the writer analyzes the data by identifying or
criticizing the common mistakes of using articles a, an and the in sentences.
Writer also analyzes the students ability in using the articles. And then writer
explains and writes the correct answer that is based on English grammar of
articles using. It aims to know the common mistakes and error in using article.

30 Fasick, F. A. (2001). Some uses of untranscribed tape recordings in survey research. Public Opinion
Quarterly, 41, 549 552.

31 Ibid Arikunto.p.102

32 Azwar, Saifuddin. 2010. Metode Penelitian. Yoyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.p.80

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Writer also analyzes the students ability in using article. And then writer also
analyzes the students ability in using the articles.
To know the level of students' article mastery, the writer writes the right and
wrong answer of these questions. It will be described as the table below:
The Number Of Correct Level Of English Article
Answer Mastery
41-50 Excellent
31-40 Good
21-30 Sufficient
11-20 Weak
10 Poor

References
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2010. Prosedur Penelitian. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta of Current
English.
Azwar, Saifuddin. 2010. Metode Penelitian. Yoyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.p.
Berry, R. (1993). Articles. London: HarperCollins.
Djamal, ET all, 2008. Improving Reading Skill in English for University Student. Jakarta:
Kencana.
Hall, Eugene J. 1993. Grammar for Use. Jakarta Barat: Binarupa Aksara.
Keraf, Gorys. 1970. Komposisi Sebuah Pengantar Kemahiran Bahasa. Jakarta: Nusa Indah.
Master, P. (1990) Teaching the English Articles as a Binary System. TESOL
Quarterly .Vol.24.
Master, P.(2002).Information Structure and English Article Pedagogy. System Vol.30.
Moleong, Lexy. J. 2003. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT.Remaja Rosdakarya.
Muttaqin, Muhammad. 2004. An Error Analysis of Using Adverb in Reported Speech (A case
Study of the Second Year Students of SMU Sudirman Andong Boyolali in the Academic year
of 2003-004: STAIN Salatiga
Nur Mina, Husnu. 2010. Error Analysis on the Profile of Students Mastery of Auxiliary To Be
in the Present tense (The Case Study of the First year Students of MTs NU Salatiga): STAIN

15
SalatigaThomson A. J. and Martinet A. v. 1986. A Practical English Grammar. Hong Kong:
Oxford University, Press.
http://arimigayo.blogspot.com/2012/08/kesalahan-dalam-berbahasa-inggris.html
http://pribadiuntuksemua.blogspot.com/2010/11/analisis-pemerolehan-bahasa.html
http://www.academia.edu/5782653/Makalah_Analisis_Kesalahan_Berbahasa
http://www.techne-dib.com.br/downloads/6.pdf accessed on 3 March 2014 retrieved at 11.00)

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