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Prefabricated Steel Roadway Bridges

Conference: Bridges Southeast Asia


03-04.08. 2010

Design, Construction and Maintenance


of Prefabricated Steel Roadway Bridges
in Indonesia
Dipl.-Ing. Zdenek Fukar

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Prefabricated Steel Roadway Bridges Content
Requirements for Prefabricated Bridges
Influence factors for structure type selection
Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia
Indonesian standards for loads, safety factors
Selected topics of truss design
Concrete deck, damages and their prevention
Erection and quality inspection
Regular inspection and maintenance

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Prefabricated Steel Roadway Bridges Content
Requirements for Prefabricated Bridges
Influence factors for structure type selection
Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia
Indonesian standards for loads, safety factors
Selected topics of truss design
Concrete deck, damages and their prevention
Erection and quality inspection
Regular inspection and maintenance

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Requirements for Prefabricated Bridges

predefined roadway cross section, span variation


and increment by roadway authority
optimized requirement for storage space
easy transport and handling without heavy
equipment
robust against damages
easy part identification
erection with unskilled workers without heavy
equipment

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Requirements for Prefabricated Bridges

modular bridge system concept


with interchangeable members between the spans

optimized number of elements keeping bridge


economical
optimized space requirement for storage and
transport
clear identification and easy logistic

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Requirements for Prefabricated Bridges

modular bridge system concept


with interchangeable members between the spans
erection might not be done by bridge supplier

must be safe against wrong erection

interchangeable members must be safe against


wrong erection (one beam size=one bolt group)
supplied with comprehensive erection and
maintenance manual

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Prefabricated Steel Roadway Bridges Content
Requirements for Prefabricated Bridges
Influence factors for structure type selection
Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia
Indonesian standards for loads, safety factors
Selected topics of truss design
Concrete deck, damages and their prevention
Erection and quality inspection
Regular inspection and maintenance

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Influence factors for structure type selection

typical and standardized road section


land topography
geology and foundation methods
environmental loads (earthquake sensitive zone)
erection method and available erection
equipment

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Influence factors for structure type selection

Land topography
majority of bridges over rivers with big water level
fluctuation (flood), less over railway or other
roads, majority in low land

required small constructions height =>


structures with bottom roadway deck

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Influence factors for structure type selection

Geology and foundation methods


majority soils with low bearing capacity
pile foundation methods

bridge systems causing vertical support forces

no arched structures
no frame structures

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Influence factors for structure type selection

Environmental loads (earthquake sensitive zone)


Indonesia is divided in 6 zones with coefficient for static
lateral loads from 0.23 to 0.07 (zone 1-6)
multiplied with importance factor 1.0 or 1.2

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Influence factors for structure type selection

Environmental loads (earthquake sensitive zone)


steel bridges are much lighter than concrete
bridges
light superstructure minimize the longitudinal
and lateral forces on abutments due to the
earthquake
saving cost in the pier and the pile foundation

In total cost steel bridges are economic even for


shorter spans

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Influence factors for structure type selection

Erection method and available erection equipment


no heavy erection equipment available
limited lifting capacity with manual derrick
cranes, limited mobile crane availability 20-40ton

light bridge members

no welding on site

HSFG bolted connection on site

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Influence factors for structure type selection

Erection method and available erection equipment


structure shall be suitable for:
cantilever erection method using the same
structure as counter span
cantilever erection method with temporary support
erection with temporary support

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Prefabricated Steel Roadway Bridges Content
Requirements for Prefabricated Bridges
Influence factors for structure type selection
Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia
Indonesian standards for loads, safety factors
Selected topics of truss design
Concrete deck, damages and their prevention
Erection and quality inspection
Regular inspection and maintenance

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Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia

Typical roadway sections (Standard Bina Marga)


A - type : 1m + 7m + 1m national roads
1.0m 7.0m 1.0m

2% A-TYPE 2%

B - type : 0.5m + 6m + 0.5m regional roads


0.5m 6.0m 0.5m

B-Type
2% 2%

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Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia

Short span (15m) 20m 30m (40)m:


composite bridges (span increment 5m)

Medium span (30m) 40m 60m (100)m:


truss bridges (span increment 5m)

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Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia

composite bridges span (15m) - 20m - 30m - (40m)

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Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia

Composite bridges (15m) 20m 30m (40)m


concrete roadway deck as structural element
=> economical solution

quality control of reinforcement quantity and


layout and of concrete grade are essential for
proper function

not suitable for rural areas

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Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia

Composite bridges
use of 5 girders (B-type) and 6 girders (A-type)
=> possible deck repair with division of roadway
reinforcement grade BTJ400 fy=400MPa
concrete deck on formwork
concrete mix usually on site
concrete grade: cube 30MPa
design without temporary support even temporary
supports are used for steel erection because they
are without proper foundation which settles under
the concrete load loosing the support effect

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Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia

Truss bridges (30m) 40m 60m (100)m


most common type of bridge

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Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia

Truss bridges (30m) 40m 60m (100)m

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Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia

Truss bridges (30m) 40m 60m (100)m


most common type of bridge
fulfilling most criteria for prefabricated bridges
modularity
indentical roadway members in all spans
interchangeable truss members though spans
light single bridge parts => easy handling
easy erection with bolted connections on site

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Prefabricated Steel Roadway Bridges Content
Requirements for Prefabricated Bridges
Influence factors for structure type selection
Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia
Indonesian standard for loads, safety factors
Selected topics of truss design
Concrete deck, damages and their prevention
Erection and quality inspection
Regular inspection and maintenance

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Indonesian standard for loads, safety factors

Indonesian standard (SNI) for load:


Truck: 50ton/lane * 1.3 impact
D-lane load: variable UDL 9-5kN/m2
KEL 49.0 kN/m
The variability of UDL represents the dynamic
impact
KEL is multiplied by impact 1.4 (L<=50m)
1.3 (L>=90m)

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Indonesian standard for loads, safety factors

Indonesian standard: Truck 50.0 ton

AASHTO HS25-44: 40.5 ton

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Indonesian standard for loads, safety factors

UDL load: comparison SNI AASHTO HS25-44


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UDL: comparison SNI <=> AASHTO HS25+44
SNI-UDL [kN/m2]

16 AASHTO HS25-44 - UDL*Impact

ULS=1.8*SNI-UDL [kN/m2]
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UDL load [kN/m2]

ULS=2.17*AASHTO HS25-44 -
UDL*Impact
12

10

4
0 10 20 30 40 50 L[m] 60
Span 70 80 90 100

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Indonesian standard for loads, safety factors

KEL load: comparison SNI AASHTO HS25-44


Nominal values (SLS)
80

70

60
load [kN/m]

SNI KEL*impact [kN/m]


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AASHTO HS25-44 - KEL [kN/m]

40

30

20
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
span L [m]

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Indonesian standard for loads, safety factors

Decisive design combination


AASHTO
SNI
16th edit.

dead load steel 1.1 1.3

concrete asphalt 1.3 1.3

asphalt resurfacing 2.0 1.3

live load 1.8 2.17

wind load 1.0 -

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Prefabricated Steel Roadway Bridges Content
Requirements for Prefabricated Bridges
Influence factors for structure type selection
Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia
Indonesian standard for loads, safety factors
Selected topics of truss design
Concrete deck, damages and their prevention
Erection and quality inspection
Regular inspection and maintenance

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Selected topics of truss design

A. gusset plate design - method of sections


B. interaction of truss and deck

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Selected topics of truss design

A. Gusset plate design - method of sections


1. check strength of GP at the end of each member
(conventional method of strength in tension, compression,
shear)

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Selected topics of truss design

V1-2+V3-4+V2-3>Pd
V1-2+V3-4 = shear strength
Pd
30 V3-4 = tension/compression
V1-2 strenght (using L` for Fcr )
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V2-3
V3-4
V5-6 > Pd
L` V5-6 = tension/compression
strenght (using L` for Fcr )
V5-6

check section 5-6 check section


tension/compression 1-2 + 3-4 in shear +
2-3 in tension/compression

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Selected topics of truss design

A. Gusset plate GP design - method of sections


1. check strength of GP for each member
(conventional method of strength in tension, compression,
shear)
2. check shear of GP in section A-A near chord

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Selected topics of truss design

1. A-A through last


row of bolts
2. VA-A > Pd,i,x + Pd,i+1,x
Pd,i,x Pd,i+1,x
VA-A = shear strenght using
VA-A
A A
LA-A * GP thickness

LA-A

check section A-A in


shear
xy

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Selected topics of truss design

A. Gusset plate GP design - method of sections


1. check strength of GP for each member
(conventional method of strength in tension, compression,
shear)
2. check shear of GP in section A-A near chord
3. check compression stress in section A-A
4. check equivalent stress in section A-A

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Selected topics of truss design

1. LA-A , eL , er
NA-A
2. MA-A= Pd,i,z*eL+ Pd,i+1,z*er
3. NA-A from cross girder or
Pd,i,z Pd,i+1,z vertical
4. z = NA-A/AA-A+MA-A/WA-A
eL er b <= cr , cr compression
A strength for b/r
A
slenderness of
check section A-A LA-A unsupported length b if
for N+M with stiffening angle use
12*t of GP for r
5. slenderness b/r <= 120
z + 6. e=(z+3*xy2)0.5 <= fy

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Selected topics of truss design

B. interaction of truss and deck


Major characteristic of Deck in Modular Bridges:
concrete deck on steel grid made of stringers and cross girders
concrete pouring using CSD- corrugated steel deck

CSD

STRINGER
CROSS GIRDER

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Selected topics of truss design

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Selected topics of truss design

Primary effect of the deck => local load:


to transfer the vehicular wheel loads to the stringers, cross
girders and to the main truss

design for bending moments in longitudinal and cross


direction
design for shear
check for punching under the wheel load

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Selected topics of truss design

Secondary effect of the deck:


interaction with the main girder

Bottom chord
elongation

deck under tension

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Selected topics of truss design

Secondary effect of the deck => global load:


due to the interaction with the main girder
in case of truss is the concrete deck situated near bottom
chord and therefore under tension

design check for crack limitation (less than 0.2mm)


deck is carrying lateral (wind) loads
additional longitudinal reinforcement might be required

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Prefabricated Steel Roadway Bridges Content
Requirements for Prefabricated Bridges
Influence factors for structure type selection
Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia
Indonesian standard for loads, safety factors
Selected topics of truss design
Concrete deck, damages and their prevention
Erection and quality inspection
Regular inspection and maintenance

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Concrete Deck Damages Deck Types

Deck Types
1. Structural concrete with reinforcement for hogging
moment and CSD h=100x4.5mm for sagging moment
a) Cross girder as non composite beam
b) Cross girder as composite beam
2. Structural concrete for hogging and sagging bending
moments, CSD h=30 t=1mm as lost/permanent formwork
(latest design)

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Concrete Deck Damages Deck Types

1. Structural concrete with reinforcement for


hogging moment and CSD for sagging moment
Additional reinforcement to cover
hogging moment over cross girder
LONGITUDINAL
LONGITUDINAL
REINFORCEMENT

CROSS
REINFORCEMENT
CROSS GIRDER Example
IN CROSS DIRECTION

STRINGER

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Concrete Deck Damages Deck Types

2. Structural concrete for hogging and sagging


bending moments, CSD as permanent formwork

Additional reinforcement to cover


LONGITUDINAL
hogging moment over cross girder
LONGITUDINAL
REINFORCEMENT

2 Layer
reinforcement
REINFORCEMENT
CROSS CROSS GIRDER
IN CROSS DIRECTION
Example
STRINGER

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

cracks appear often right after construction


cracks accelerate corrosion of reinforcing steel

damages on concrete deck


deterioration of the deck

maintenance costs increase


deck service life is shortened

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Concrete Deck DamagesDeck damages

Typical Crack Development

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Concrete Deck DamagesDeck Damages

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

1. Drying shrinkage and thermal shrinkage


2. Concrete Mix Design
3. Temperature
4. Waterproof wearing surface
5. Roadway elevation

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

1. Drying shrinkage and thermal shrinkage


due to rise of temperature during hydration and
subsequent cooling
thermal stresses due to temperature changes

appropriate concrete mix design


implementing good construction procedures
application of pouring brakes
start pouring at location of max positive bending
moment

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

1. Drying shrinkage and thermal shrinkage


Provision of pouring brakes
each panel shall not be longer than 2x deck width

Pouring of the brakes after Pour brake at


hardening of the surrounding reinforcement joint
concrete applying bonding agents

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

2. Concrete Mix Design


There is tendency that:
Decks with lower cement content are less
cracked
Decks with lower water content are less cracked
Recommendation 0.36-0.38

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

3. Temperature
There is tendency that:
Deck cast in high temperatures is more likely to
be cracked

due to the high temperature in Indonesia is cooling


treatment during concrete hardening important
to lower the surface evaporation rates lay wet
blankets early 15-20min after concrete finishing
pouring shall start early morning or at night

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

4. Why waterproof wearing surface?


concrete is porous with unavoidable hair cracks
this allows penetration of water and CO2 and
attack the reinforcement bars
the resulting reinforcement corrosion expands
and destroys surrounding concrete

Objective
stop the water and CO2 penetration by
waterproofing membrane
increased life time expectancy

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

5. Roadway elevation
The road elevation must be smooth without sudden
changes in the slope
between the approach ramp and the bridge
between the each bridge in multi span bridges

Objective: optimized impact factor


and the load on the concrete deck
increased life time expectancy

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

Smooth elevation of multi span bridge

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

The specification for bridges on National Roadways


requires remaining camber on bridges in range:
min L/600 max L/300

roadway elevation must be planed anticipating


remaining camber of the bridge (L300 - L/600)
e.g. remain camber = L/500, span L=50m
h= 4*L/500 => h=0.4m
s= 8/500 => 1.6%
1 ,6 %

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

Smooth roadway elevation

Not correct Bridge remaining camber

Approach ramp
Angle difference

Smooth elevation
Correct

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

Roadway elevation with approach ramp settlement

Wheel load
+
impact
wheel
load

Movement

bridge deck
ramp

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Concrete Deck DamagesCrack factors

Height difference between approach road and bridge

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Prefabricated Steel Roadway Bridges Content
Requirements for Prefabricated Bridges
Influence factors for structure type selection
Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia
Indonesian standard for loads, safety factors
Selected topics of truss design
Concrete deck, damages and their prevention
Erection and quality inspection
Regular inspection and maintenance

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Erection and quality inspection

Crane lifting of preasembled sections to temporary supports

Pre-assembly of first 10m- Lifting in of second 10m-module by


module crane and connect with bottom chords
Lifting in of the last 5m Third 10m-module lifted in and
module connected with bottom chords

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Erection and quality inspection

Cantilever Erection with temporary supports

Part of Truss System as


Main Span Bridge Being Erected Counterweight Bridge

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Erection and quality inspection

Cantilever Erection with temporary supports

Cantilevered + Temporary support


Cantilevered + Temporary support Cantilevered + Temporary support

Final Erection (Multi Span Steel Truss Bridge)

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Erection and quality inspection

Launching method (supports under nodes only!)


Launching Track and Launching of the
Rollers first bridge section

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Erection and quality inspection

Bolt installation and pretension


only HSFG (friction grip) bolts must be used in bridges
force is carried by friction not by bearing (no slip of the
bolts)
correct pretension of the bolts on site is important to
achieve correct function of the bolts
pretension is applied using calibrated torque wrench with
torque moment limiter
Pt Pt

F/2

F/2

Pt Pt

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Erection and quality inspection

Calibration of torque
moment to achieve correct
pretension force on site
(Wilhelm Skidmore device)

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Erection and quality inspection

Use correct bolt length according drawings

wrong bolt length


bolt too short
corect bolt length thread in shear
bolt 2 threads plane
over nut

wrong bolt length


bolt too long
pretension might
not be possible

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Erection and quality inspection

Correct bolt tightening sequence => correct camber

use centering drift


pins

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Erection and quality inspection

Correct bolt tightening sequence

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Erection and quality inspection

Bearing installation
bottom chord elongates / nodes rotate due to the load

Movement Movement
+ rotation + rotation

install main bearings after


concreting of deck to avoid
excessive bearing deformation
resulting in quick damage of the
bearing

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Erection and quality inspection

Quality inspection
Check of steel structure:
all components are correctly installed
all bolts are installed with correct length
all bolt are pre-tensioned by specified force
and torque moment
document initial camber before concreting
free longitudinal expansion before concreting

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Erection and quality inspection

Quality inspection
Check of reinforcement:
quality (grade, mill certificates)
quantity
correct placement min concrete cover
sufficient fixation of the reinforcement

Issue permit to start concrete pouring

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Erection and quality inspection

Quality inspection
Check of concrete:
control of concrete mix, recording of concrete
mixture for each batch
10 Slump tests per one mixture
min 3 core sample test per each mixture
proper concrete consolidation using vibrators
check of concrete treatment during hardening
specification of Bina Marga standard applicable
to the structure

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Prefabricated Steel Roadway Bridges Content
Requirements for Prefabricated Bridges
Influence factors for structure type selection
Prefabricated steel bridges in Indonesia
Indonesian standard for loads, safety factors
Selected topics of truss design
Concrete deck, damages and their prevention
Erection and quality inspection
Regular inspection and maintenance

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Regular inspection and maintenance

Purpose of Inspection and Maintenance


technical supervision of the bridge
determination of the actual degree of
serviceability, durability and structural safety
to describe possible repair methods

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Regular inspection and maintenance

Inspection and Maintenance Program


three different levels, depending on the intervals
and extent of the investigation:

1.Continuous Observation
2.Regular Control
3.Detailed Investigation

RVS 13.71 (Guidelines and Instructions for Road construction, Austria)


Monitoring, Inspection and Examination of Civil Engineering
Structures Road Bridges

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Regular inspection and maintenance

1. Continuous Observation:
ca. every 4 Months while walking across the bridge
covers damages, which can easily be recognized visually
unusual deflections, cracks, loose parts, damages
from vehicle impact
cracks and deformation in the deck, asphalt,
expansion joint
clean debris collected on truss members and around the
bearings
settlement of abutments and piers, shear failure of soil
bearings condition, check possibility of free thermal
expansion

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Regular inspection and maintenance

2. Regular control:
ca. every 2 years
to determine, to report and to assess the state, condition
and serviceability of all structural elements of the bridge in
a more detailed way than Continuous Observation
visually inspected by experienced engineers
Report has to include:
new faults/damages since the last inspection
immediately necessary measures to fulfill safety and
serviceability requirements
measures to repair the damages
report about the state and condition of the structure,
compared to the report of the last inspection

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Regular inspection and maintenance

3. Detailed Investigation:
every 6 -10 years
aims to determine, to report and to assess the state,
condition and serviceability of all structural elements of the
bridge and possible changes in a very detailed way
by an engineer, who is experienced in bridge assessment,
who knows about the static situation and who is able to
judge about static consequences of damages to safety,
durability and serviceability of the structure.

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Regular inspection and maintenance

3. Detailed Investigation:
Position and height control of the structure
Movements and deformations of piers, abutments and walls
Effects of water
Shear failure of soil, settlement of surface
Corrosion damages and corrosion protection
Bolts (loose bolts, pretension in truss and below deck)
Check visually, and if necessary with magnifying glass and
MT welds, especially those ones with high fatigue stresses
free movement of bearings, expansion joints

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Regular inspection and maintenance

3. Detailed Investigation Report:


made by the engineer who did the inspection
serviceability and load bearing capacity of the structure
new faults/damages since the last Investigation
report about the state and condition of the structure,
compared to the report of the last Detailed Investigation.
immediately necessary measures to fulfill safety,
serviceability, durability requirements and time schedule
for the measures
measures to repair the damages
special orders for the next Regular Control
necessary Special Investigations
year of the next Detailed Investigation

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Credits and Literature

Credits and Literature:


Mr. Herry Vaza, Subdit Teknik Jembatan, Bina Marga
John M. Kulicki, Ph.D., P.E., Joseph E. Prickett, P.E. ,
David H. LeRoy, P.E.: Structural Steel Designer's
HandBook: AISC, AASHTO, AISI, ASTM, AREMA, and
ASCE-07 Design Standards, Fourth Edition
Homepage of Ohio Department of Transportation
National Centre for Transportation and Industrial
Productivity
Mr. Jun Murakoshi Structure and Bridge Department
Asahi, Japan

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Thank you for your attention

PT. Waagner Biro Indonesia


Talavera Office Park 11th Floor | Jl. Let. Jend. T.B. Simatupang Kav. 22-26, Jakarta 12430, Indonesia
Phone +62 21 7592 4355 | Fax +62 21 7592 4358 | sellmebridges@ptwbi.co.id | www.waagner-biro.co.id
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