ADV MATH

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ADV MATH

© All Rights Reserved

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Partial

Differential

Equations

DALEMBERT

SOLUTION OF THE

WAVE EQUATION

Partial Differential

Equations

2 y 1 2 y

x 2 a 2 t 2

2 z 2 z 1 2 z

x 2 y 2 a 2 t 2

2 u 2 u 2 u 1 u

x 2 y 2 z 2 a 2 t

1

derivation of PDEs

Assembling the pizza ingredients

VIBRATING STRING

y s

T

y

T

x x x x x

0 x x x L x

2

ONE-DIMENSIONAL WAVE

EQUATION

2 y 1 2 y

x 2 a 2 t 2

y - displacement

x - location

t - time

gT

a (wave velocity)

VIBRATING MEMBRANE

z

x y x

y

3

VIBRATING MEMBRANE

wxy z

z wxy

SDx SDy

2 2

1 1

SDx SDy

y y y y x x x x

w weight per unit area

2 z 2 z 1 2 z

x 2 y 2 a 2 t 2

z - displacement

x , y - location

t - time

gS

a

w

4

HEAT CONDUCTION

u 85 C u 20 C

A

x

H kA du

dx

driven by temperature (u) gradient

The rate of heat flow across

a surface is proportional to

the area of the surface and

the normal derivative of the

temperature change.

(FOURIERS LAW OF HEAT

CONDUCTION)

ENERGY BALANCE

RATE OF

ENERGY control volume RATE OF

INPUT ENERGY

OUTPUT

RATE OF ENERGY

ACCUMULATION

dE

E

dt

( accumulati on in out )

5

EQUATION OF HEAT CONDUCTION

(Derivation) z

x x

2

x x

2

z z

2

+ control volume

z u x, y, z, t

z z x

2 y y

y y

y y

2 2

x

2 u 2 u 2 u 1 u

x 2 y 2 z 2 a 2 t

u - local temperature

x , y , z - location

t - time

a 2 k (thermal diffusivity)

c p

6

PDE CLASSIFICATION

2 2 2

A u B u C u 0

2

x xy y 2

PARABOLIC

B 2 4 AC 0

ELLIPTIC

B 2 4 AC 0

HYPERBOLIC

B 2 4 AC 0

WAVE EQUATION

y x ,t f x at g x at

x at x at

y x , t

2

x at

1 x' dx'

2 a x at

x y x ,0 (initial displacement)

y

x (initial velocity)

t t 0 Jean-Le Rond DAlembert

(1717-1783)

a superposition of a wave moving to the right and a wave moving to the left

7

DALEMBERT SOLUTION: Example

initial displacement initial velocity

9 x , 3 X 3 2

x 0 x 0 a 1

, otherwise

Initial condition (t = 0)

10 SOLUTION

y x, t 9

x at x at

2 2

2

f ( x) 5

0

10 0 10

x

When t>0, the disturbance splits into two parts, one propagating to

the right while the other propagating to the left, as shown below.

10

9

u( x 0)

Propagate to the left Propagate to the right

u( x 1.2)

u( x 2) 5

u( x 8)

u( x 12)

0 0

15 10 5 0 5 10 15

15 x 15

8

DALEMBERT SOLUTION: Example

initial displacement initial velocity

0 x L x 0

x 2 1 X

L

L x 0

2 1 x

L

0 x L y

DALEMBERT SOLUTION:Example

a 1 (continued)

9

DALEMBERT SOLUTION

Example y x ,t f x at g x at

2

f x exp x8

g x 0.5 exp x 2

a 1

DALEMBERT SOLUTION

EXERCISE

[1] Determine the displacement of a flexible string of length L that is

fixed at both ends. The string is released from rest with an initial

displacement of

x L x

y x ,0 x

100 L2

fixed at both ends. The initial displacement of the string is zero and its

initial velocity is

y x ,t

t

x 100

1 sin x

L L

t 0

10

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