U.S.

Department of Justice

National Drug Intelligence Center
Product No. 2007-L0848-001 February 2007

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

Product No. 2007-L0848-001

National Drug Intelligence Center

Table of Contents
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Key Judgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Primary Cannabis Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Cannabis Cultivation Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Outdoor Cultivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Indoor Cultivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Violence, Countersurveillance, and Camouflage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Associated Environmental Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Eradication Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Intelligence Gaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Appendix A. Primary Cannabis Cultivation Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Western Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Outdoor Planting and Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Primary Indoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Outdoor Planting and Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Primary Indoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Outdoor Planting and Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Primary Indoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Outdoor Planting and Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Primary Indoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Appalachian Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Outdoor Planting and Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Indoor Cannabis Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Tennessee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Outdoor Planting and Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Primary Indoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 i

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

West Virginia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Outdoor Planting and Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Primary Indoor Cultivation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Appendix B. Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

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U.S. Department of Justice

National Drug Intelligence Center

Assessment
26 February 2007 •

Product No. 2007-L0848-001

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007
Purpose
The Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007 is a national-level strategic assessment of cannabis cultivation and marijuana production in the United States. This assessment addresses major trends in domestic cannabis cultivation, both indoor and outdoor, with a focus on cannabis cultivation operations in primary areas of production at the state and county levels. This assessment addresses wide-ranging issues regarding cultivation operations, including planting and harvesting seasons; use or presence of weapons, booby traps, and countersurveillance; resultant environmental damage; and the operational trends of drug trafficking organizations and other criminal groups. This assessment draws upon reporting and data provided by the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the National Marijuana Initiative (see text box on page 2), and numerous federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. Domestic outdoor cannabis cultivation by Mexican DTOs is most prevalent in remote and isolated areas of U.S. public and private lands, primarily in California, Oregon, and Washington. Mexican DTOs are expanding cannabis cultivation operations eastward, including into some areas east of the Mississippi River, such as North Carolina and Tennessee, in order to increase their role in domestic marijuana distribution and to be closer to eastern drug markets. Many Mexican criminal groups that have established grow sites in new areas of the country maintain direct contact and affiliation with larger DTOs in California and Mexico and maintain a level of coordination among operating areas, moving labor and materials to the various sites—even across the country—as needed. Indoor domestic cannabis cultivation is increasing as criminal groups attempt to avoid intensified outdoor eradication, reduce their risk of detection, and produce higher potency marijuana to increase their profits. Caucasian criminal groups are the predominant indoor producers of marijuana in the country; they are particularly active in the Appalachian Region. Domestic cannabis cultivation by Asian DTOs at indoor locations is increasing, a particular concern because many are wellorganized, Canada-based groups that produce and distribute high potency marijuana.

Key Judgments
• Domestic cannabis cultivation has increased sharply since 2000 as more drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) relocate cannabis cultivation operations from Mexico and Canada to the United States. These DTOs are relocating to reduce the risk of marijuana seizure or loss during crossborder transport, gain direct access to local drug markets, and achieve higher profit margins for domestically produced marijuana, particularly higher-grade marijuana. 1 •

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

National Marijuana Initiative The National Marijuana Initiative (NMI), funded by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), was established in 2001 to coordinate federal, state, and local agencies in areas that produce the largest amounts of marijuana in order to significantly reduce cannabis cultivation. The Initiative is specifically intended to foster partnerships among agencies in states where DTO operations impact federal lands. The NMI is designed to assist in the investigations of DTOs operating in the seven primary cannabis cultivation and marijuana production states (often referred to as the M7 states): California, Hawaii, Kentucky, Oregon, Tennessee, Washington, and West Virginia. The NMI supports law enforcement efforts in identifying the infrastructure of marijuana DTOs through expanded investigations and collection of intelligence in an attempt to disrupt and eventually dismantle the organizations.

Violent incidents by outdoor cannabis growers against law enforcement and the presence of weapons at outdoor grow sites are increasing, most likely because of increased law enforcement pressure and eradication. Rising law enforcement pressure— although clearly a concern to cultivators as evidenced by increasing violence and weapons—has not yet stemmed the increase in domestic cannabis cultivation, either outdoors or indoors. Rather, DTOs are simply adapting their methods (relocating to new areas, changing their growing cycles, and growing higher potency plants both indoors and outdoors) in order to continue operating in the United States while maintaining their profits.

factors have contributed to a continued increase in domestic cannabis cultivation, an assertion seemingly supported by an overall increase in detection and eradication of outdoor cannabis during that time period (see Table 2 on page 3). Recent increases in domestic cannabis cultivation have been accompanied by improved cultivation techniques that produce higher potency marijuana, a practice that, if more widely used by DTOs, could significantly increase the prevalence of higher potency marijuana in the United States.

Primary Cannabis Cultivation Areas
According to national marijuana eradication data and law enforcement reporting, there are two primary outdoor cultivation regions in the United States: the Western Region, composed of California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington, and the Appalachian Region, composed of Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia. Eradication data for 2006 show that 89 percent (5,262,065 of 5,901,880) of outdoor plants eradicated in the United States were eradicated in these seven states (see Table 3 on page 4, and Map 1 in Appendix B). These states consistently sustain high levels of outdoor cannabis cultivation because their climates are conducive to cannabis cultivation. As a result, cultivators—especially Mexican DTOs in the Western Region and Caucasian independent growers in the Appalachian Region—have 2

Overview
Following September 11 and the resultant increased border security, law enforcement reporting indicates that DTOs—primarily Mexican but also Canada-based Asian DTOs (see Table 1 on page 3)—had moved many of their cannabis cultivation operations into the United States in an attempt to reduce the risk of marijuana seizure during cross-border transport. Since then, however, DTOs have recognized additional benefits of domestic cannabis cultivation, such as direct access to local drug markets, which enable them to be more responsive to market demands, and higher profit margins for domestically grown marijuana. These

Product No. 2007-L0848-001

National Drug Intelligence Center

Table 1. Primary Cultivators in Leading Cannabis-Growing Areas
Region State Kentucky Appalachian Region Tennessee West Virginia California Hawaii Western Region Oregon Washington Alabama Arizona Other Areas of Interest Florida Georgia North Carolina
NA–not applicable

Outdoor Caucasian DTOs, criminal groups, and independent growers Caucasian DTOs, criminal groups, and independent growers Caucasian DTOs, criminal groups, and independent growers Mexican DTOs and criminal groups Polynesian DTOs, Asian and Caucasian criminal groups Mexican DTOs and criminal groups Mexican DTOs and criminal groups Caucasian criminal groups and independent growers Mexican DTOs and criminal groups NA Caucasian criminal groups and independent growers Caucasian DTOs, criminal groups, and independent growers

Indoor Caucasian independent growers Caucasian independent growers Caucasian independent growers Asian and Caucasian DTOs and criminal groups Asian and Caucasian groups Asian and Caucasian DTOs and criminal groups Asian and Caucasian DTOs and criminal groups NA NA Caucasian and Cuban DTOs and criminal groups NA NA

Table 2. Domestic Cannabis Eradication, Outdoor and Indoor Plant Seizures, 2000–2006
2000 Outdoor Indoor Total 2,597,798 217,105 2,814,903 2001 3,068,632 236,128 3,304,760 2002 3,128,800 213,040 3,341,840 2003 3,427,923 223,183 3,651,106 2004 2,996,225 203,896 3,200,121 2005 3,938,151 270,935 4,209,086 2006 4,083,433 403,322 4,486,755

Source: Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.

established long-standing, entrenched growing operations. Other areas of increasing significance with regard to cannabis cultivation include Alabama, Arizona, Georgia, 3

and North Carolina; these areas have recently experienced significant increases in outdoor cultivation.

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

Table 3. Outdoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated in Primary Outdoor Production States 2005–2006
State
California Kentucky Tennessee Hawaii Oregon Washington West Virginia Seven-State Total National Total

Table 4. Indoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated in Primary Indoor Production States 2005–2006
State
California Washington Florida Hawaii New Hampshire Five-State Total National Total

2005
2,914,193 734,351 462,904 251,163 84,493 137,319 56,758 4,641,181 5,546,509

2006
3,674,069 557,628 483,231 188,742 187,548 115,459 55,388 5,262,065 5,901,880

Percent of Change
+26.1 -24.1 +4.4 -24.9 +122.0 -15.9 -2.4 +13.4 +6.4

2005
107,047 32,936 45,217 3,950 304 189,454 270,935

2006
203,559 43,416 36,172 12,358 11,085 306,590 403,322

Percent of Change
+90.2 +31.8 -20.0 +212.9 +3,546.4 +61.8 +48.9

Source: Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program; U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Source: Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression program; U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Table 5. Total Cannabis Plants Eradicated in Primary Production States, 2005–2006
State
California Kentucky Tennessee Hawaii Oregon Washington West Virginia Seven-State Total National Total

Indoor cannabis cultivation appears to be most pervasive in western states, primarily in California and Washington (see Table 4, and Map 2 in Appendix B). Eradication data for 2006 indicate that 61 percent (246,975 of 403,322) of indoor plants eradicated nationally were eradicated in California and Washington alone. Cannabis is cultivated by a variety of growers, including Caucasian criminal groups and independent dealers; however, cultivation by Canada-based Asian DTOs is increasing significantly. Law enforcement reporting indicates exceptionally high levels of cannabis cultivation (indoor and outdoor combined) in California, Kentucky, Tennessee, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington, and West Virginia. Total cannabis eradication suggests that these seven states constitute the most significant cannabis cultivation states overall (see Table 5, and Map 3 in Appendix B).

2005

2006

Percent of Change
+28.3 -24.2 +4.3 -21.2 +111.8 -6.7 0.0 +15.3 +8.4

3,021,240 3,877,628 736,991 463,557 255,113 91,829 170,255 57,600 558,756 483,342 201,100 194,453 158,875 57,582

4,796,585 5,531,736 5,817,444 6,305,202

Source: Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program; U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

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National Drug Intelligence Center

Cannabis Cultivation Trends
Outdoor Cultivation Some Mexican DTOs are shifting cannabis cultivation away from intense eradication areas—even into eastern states—a shift that may enable these DTOs to further increase domestic cannabis cultivation. Mexican DTOs are relocating some of their operations to locations north and east of their principal operating areas in California, seemingly to avoid improved aerial detection and eradication in the state. This move will enable them to increase cultivation in remote areas that have never been cultivated. In 1999 Mexican DTOs began relocating some of their operations from northern California into Oregon, Washington, and central Idaho. In 2003 Mexican DTOs established more cannabis grow sites in Idaho and in areas east of the Mississippi River, such as remote areas of Arkansas and Georgia. Recently, these groups have established outdoor grow sites in other areas of Arizona and in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. Mexican cannabis growers operating large-scale grows east of the Mississippi River are increasingly being linked to Mexican DTOs operating in California and Mexico, suggesting a coordinated effort with respect to domestic cannabis cultivation by Mexican DTOs that now spans the United

States. Many of these groups maintain direct contact and affiliation with larger DTOs in California and Mexico and maintain a level of coordination among operating areas, moving labor and materials to the various sites—even across the country—as needed. Mexican DTOs’ extensive use of public lands for cannabis cultivation is increasing, even in areas that generally are not considered conducive to planting and growing cannabis. Mexican DTOs commonly grow cannabis in remote areas of public lands, where there is limited law enforcement presence. The occurrence of cannabis cultivation on public lands has increased significantly over the past several years, largely the result of increased domestic cultivation operations by Mexican DTOs. In 2005 cannabis cultivation on National Forest System (NFS) lands nationwide rose sharply, reaching the highest levels ever observed by law enforcement—a 49.6 percent increase from 744,276 plants eradicated in 2004 to 1,113,446 plants in 2005. This trend continued in 2006 as eradication rose an additional 26 percent between 2005 and 2006 (1,403,023). More cannabis plants were eradicated in national forests in California than in any other state nationwide in 2006 (1,133,563, or 81 percent of total NFS eradications), with

Cannabis Cultivation in Arizona: An Increasing Concern Elevated cannabis cultivation and eradication totals in Arizona in 2005 were somewhat surprising to some law enforcement officials because of the large amounts of Mexican marijuana available within the state. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the Arizona High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA), law enforcement authorities are continuing to see an influx of cannabis cultivation operations in the state. In 2005 law enforcement authorities seized 115,215 plants from seven sites in the Coconino and Tonto Forests, according to NFS data. As of November 30, 2006, approximately 21 cannabis cultivation operations and a total of 72,549 plants were eradicated from Arizona national forests. Moreover, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, approximately 12 of these sites were tended by Mexican foreign nationals. Despite the apparent decline in the number of plants seized between 2005 and 2006, the number of sites eradicated increased, and the area in which operations were eradicated expanded to cover three national forests (see Maps 4 and 5 in Appendix B). NFS data indicate that in 2006, 21 cultivation sites were eradicated in national forests in Arizona: 17 in Tonto, 2 in Prescott, and 2 in Coconino.

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Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

most plants eradicated within the mountainous areas of Mendocino National Forest of northern California (405,399), followed by San Bernardino National Forest (157,994). NFS also reports significant cannabis eradication in national forests beyond California, specifically in Daniel Boone National Forest in Kentucky (148,828); and in Tonto National Forest in Arizona (65,947). No Mexican DTO activity has been reported in Kentucky (see Table 6, and Map 6 in Appendix B). Following consecutive annual record-level eradication since 2004, some cultivators who previously limited their operations to areas with optimal weather, elevation, and slope characteristics have relocated to areas where growing conditions are less conducive to cannabis cultivation. For example, Department of the Interior (DOI) officials report that some cultivators are relocating from coastal areas that are wellsuited for growing to California’s inland foothills and more arid areas, planting under lowcover brush such as chaparral. Cultivators are also relocating to other nonconducive growing areas outside of California, including eastern Oregon, eastern Washington, eastern Idaho, and the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. Despite relocating to nontraditional growing areas, cultivators must maintain access to a water source. For instance, law enforcement reporting from San Bernardino County, California, indicates that a several-thousand-plant grow was found covering nearly 2 square miles after officials responded to a wildfire in Little Morongo Canyon. Although this area is particularly arid, the grow site was within a mile of a natural spring. Law enforcement officials expect that grow sites will continue to be established by cultivators at remote sites in nontypical growing areas as eradication efforts continue in traditional growing areas.

Table 6. Top 10 National Forests for Eradication of Cannabis Plants on National Forest System Lands, 2006
National Forest 1. Mendocino 2. San Bernardino 3. Daniel Boone 4. Shasta-Trinity 5. Sequoia 6. Los Padres 7. Tonto 8. Stanislaus 9. Sierra 10. Plumas State California California Kentucky California California California Arizona California California California Total Plants Eradicated 405,399 157,994 148,828 118,797 89,585 80,796 65,947 65,072 60,866 55,673

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Mexican DTOs in California are producing higher potency marijuana from cannabis cultivated in some large outdoor grow sites, the result of improved cultivation techniques. In 2006 law enforcement reporting from several agencies revealed that some Mexican DTOs that had previously produced marijuana with average THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) levels of 2 or 3 percent from outdoor cultivated cannabis began achieving 8 to 12 percent THC levels by applying growing methods typically used by indoor growers of high potency cannabis. These DTOs typically use only select seeds from Mexico, prepare the seedlings in greenhouses, plant the seedlings outdoors before late April, separate male from female plants prior to pollination, and use high-nitrogen fertilizer. Moreover, these DTOs are increasingly using cloned starter plants (see text box), irrigation systems composed of black polyethylene (also known as PVC) drip lines extending to each plant, and pesticides. The higher potency marijuana produced from outdoor plants in California often is comparable in quality to 6

Product No. 2007-L0848-001

National Drug Intelligence Center

U.S. Public Lands U.S. Department of the Interior The DOI is the primary conservation agency in the United States and manages 525 million acres of land (23 percent of the land in the country), including 523 miles along the 3,987-mile U.S.– Canada border and 782 miles along the 1,952-mile U.S.–Mexico border. The DOI comprises five bureaus with law enforcement authority—the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), National Park Service (NPS), Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and Bureau of Reclamation (BOR). Indian reservations are federal lands held in trust for the Indian Nations. U.S. Department of Agriculture National Forest System National Forest System lands, managed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, consist of 191.6 million acres of federally owned reserves composed of 155 national forests and 22 national grasslands in 42 states and Puerto Rico. NFS lands adjoin approximately 700 miles of the U.S.–Canada border and nearly 60 miles of the U.S.–Mexico border. Cloned Starter Plants Cloned starter plants enable cannabis cultivators to select higher quality plants and avoid male/female pollination, thereby raising potential THC content. Cloning a cannabis plant is accomplished by simply taking a cutting of a select plant, allowing the cutting to sprout roots, and then planting it as a seedling, thereby creating a plant of the same genetic makeup as the parent plant. The use of clones also ensures that the plants will be well-established with a root system when planted, thereby increasing the chance of a successful maturation process. Cloned starter plants are increasingly being grown in California and Oregon and, to a lesser extent, in Appalachian states, including Kentucky and Tennessee.

Canada-produced BC Bud1 and commands twice the price of commercial-grade Mexican marijuana available in the region. Although data regarding the number of eradicated, higher potency outdoor grow sites are not available, this practice still appears to be limited but is likely to increase as other Mexican DTOs and U.S. Caucasian cannabis growers adopt these methods. Outdoor cannabis cultivators are adapting their cultivation and harvesting methods in order to maximize profits and reduce the risk of eradication. In 2006 law enforcement officials in several areas of the country, particularly California and Tennessee, reported that cultivators were changing their cultivation process from a single planting to two-crop plantings

with shortened growing cycles. Cultivators achieve two growing cycles by planting specific cannabis strains that mature faster or by planting seedlings earlier in the spring. Cultivators in California, for example, are planting cannabis that buds earlier than most varieties and matures as early as June or July. Cannabis that is cultivated in the spring is harvested in early July, and the plot is replanted, allowing for an additional harvest in September or October. Additionally, law enforcement officials have reported that cultivators are harvesting as many plants as practical, including marginally mature plants, immediately prior to the height of eradication season or before eradication efforts move into the area, in order to avoid the risk of an entire crop seizure (see Figure 1 on page 8).

1. BC Bud, which originally referred to sinsemilla grown in British Columbia, has become synonymous with highgrade marijuana from Canada. The THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) content of BC Bud ranges from an average of 10 to 15 percent but can be as high as 30 percent.

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Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

areas of Appalachia have increased in recent years; however, cultivation also appears to be increasing as cultivators relocate to areas where eradication efforts are less intense. Indoor Cultivation Domestic indoor cannabis cultivation is increasing in some areas of the country as growers attempt to avoid outdoor eradication and attain higher profits through production of indoor-grown, high potency marijuana. According to law enforcement reporting, vigorous outdoor cannabis eradication has caused many marijuana producers in areas of California and Tennessee to relocate indoors where production is more concealed (see text box titled Indoor Grow Sites on page 9). In addition to a reduced risk of detection, indoor cannabis cultivators benefit from higher profits because cultivation is a year-round process with four to six harvests per year and controlled conditions that enable growers to produce high quality marijuana that commands higher prices in most drug markets. For example, according to drug price data from the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) December 2006 National Illicit Drug Prices, domestic midgrade marijuana grown outdoors in Los Angeles sold for $700 to $750 per pound, whereas high potency marijuana sold for $2,500 to $6,000 per pound. This price difference is common in drug markets throughout the country. These factors have contributed to the sharp increase in indoor cultivation reported by law enforcement, evidenced by a 71 percent increase in indoor plant eradication from 2001 (236,128 plants) to 2006 (403,322 plants). Moreover, the number of indoor sites seized increased 38 percent from 2001 (2,379 sites) to 2006 (3,286 sites). Many Canada-based Asian DTOs that cultivate cannabis at indoor grow sites are relocating from Canada to the United States. Canada-based Asian groups (primarily ethnic Vietnamese and Chinese groups) are operating 8

NDIC

Figure 1. Crop harvested prior to eradication efforts in Napa County, California, September 2006.

Outdoor cannabis cultivation by Caucasian criminal groups in western states is relatively low compared with that of Mexican DTOs; however, cultivation by Caucasian growers in Appalachian states is high and may be increasing. While Mexican DTOs dominate cannabis cultivation in western states, Caucasian criminal groups and independent growers control most cannabis cultivation in the Appalachian Region. Most of the criminal groups operating grow sites in Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia are typically composed of three to eight Caucasian males who are related along family lines. In fact, many of these family-based groups have been involved in marijuana cultivation and trafficking for decades, spanning several generations. Moreover, cannabis cultivation by Caucasian growers is often accepted by the local populace as a means for supplementing incomes in economically depressed Appalachian communities. Eradication efforts in many

Product No. 2007-L0848-001

National Drug Intelligence Center

Indoor Grow Sites Indoor cultivation sites range from a single closet to entire houses or buildings that are converted into sophisticated grow operations. Indoor cannabis cultivators frequently employ advanced agricultural practices such as plant cloning; hydroponics; automatic light metering, irrigation, and fertilizing; and refined insecticides to enhance the rate of growth. Hydroponics is a particularly effective cultivation method, especially at indoor locations; however, it is not always preferred by growers over traditional soil cultivation. In fact, law enforcement reporting indicates that soil cultivation is preferred over hydroponics by some groups, including Asian DTOs operating indoor grows in Washington and Cuban DTOs operating indoor grows in southern Florida.

harvesting only four to six high potency crops. In many instances, these DTOs spend thousands of dollars to modify and equip their indoor grow sites. For example, Asian DTOs purchase and install advanced hydroponic growing equipment such as grow lights, automatically timed watering and fertilizing systems, and exhaust systems with large charcoal HEPA filters. Sophisticated operations often bypass electric meters, thereby eliminating high-energy usage readings, large electricity bills, and possible law enforcement scrutiny.
Seizure of Asian Indoor Grow Operations in Elk Grove, California On August 29, 2006, law enforcement authorities reported that over 10,000 marijuana plants were seized from 14 Elk Grove, California, area residences as part of an investigation into Asian DTO-operated indoor marijuana growing operations in the San Francisco Bay area. According to DEA, the electricity to each home had been rewired to bypass the electric meter, thereby creating a significant fire hazard (see Figure 2 on page 10).

an increasing number of indoor grow sites within the United States, predominantly in the Pacific Northwest and throughout much of California. However, indoor grow sites are emerging in northeastern states, including those in New England. To this end, preliminary law enforcement reporting suggests that some of the Asian-operated indoor grows in New England are linked to Asian organizations based in Canada. The emergence of Asian-operated indoor grows in northeastern states parallels the recent appearance of grow sites controlled by Asian DTOs in eastern Canada (Ontario and Quebec) reported by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)— Asian-operated grow sites typically have been located in western Canada (British Colombia). The extent of this activity has been difficult for law enforcement to establish, since most Asian DTOs that cultivate cannabis in the United States are tight-knit, family-based groups that are difficult to infiltrate. Asian DTOs often conceal their indoor operations by purchasing or renting houses, modifying the structure for the purpose of cultivating high-grade cannabis, and quickly abandoning the premises after 9

Cannabis cultivation in Florida has increased dramatically in recent years, led by an increasing number of indoor grow sites operated by Cuban DTOs and criminal organizations. Indoor cannabis cultivation occurs in many counties throughout Florida (see Map 7 in Appendix B) and greatly exceeds that of outdoor cultivation in Florida, according to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE). The predominance of indoor grows in Florida is evidenced by the number of indoor seizures (36,172 plants) compared with outdoor seizures (10,354 plants) in 2006 (see Table 7 on page 10). The FDLE further reports that the number of indoor cannabis grows operated by Cuban organizations in South Florida has increased sharply and is the leading cause of the increase in indoor grow seizures between 2001 (210) and 2006 (384). Cuban organizations

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

City of Elk Grove, California, Police Department

Figure 2. Hazardous electrical diversion in an Elk Grove, California, indoor cannabis grow site.

Table 7. Number of Cannabis Plants Eradicated in Florida at Indoor and Outdoor Grow Sites, 2001–2006
2001 Indoor Outdoor Total 15,151 13,055 28,206 2002 19,506 18,348 37,854 2003 21,442 16,302 37,744 2004 21,879 6,127 28,006 2005 45,217 29,646 74,863 2006 36,172 10,354 46,526

Source: Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.

reportedly operate indoor grows throughout Broward, Collier, Hendry, Miami-Dade, Palm Beach, and St. Lucie Counties in Florida. Cuban-operated indoor grows are not highly sophisticated but are somewhat advanced, often utilizing partial residence grows, single-room air conditioners or multiple air conditioningunits concealed behind fences, and insulated walls and windows designed to conceal the heat signature produced by grow lights.

protected by potentially life-threatening booby traps. These operations pose a particular threat to unwitting visitors, hunters, and hikers who often enter the remote areas where grow sites are located and are confronted—and sometimes fired upon—by armed guards. Cannabis growers, particularly Mexican DTOs in California and Washington, are becoming more aggressive in protecting cultivation sites. Since 2003 the number of armed encounters between law enforcement officers and cannabis grow-site operators in California and Washington has significantly increased. Cannabis cultivators are employing armed guards who are strategically stationed at elevations above the grow site in order to detect approaching law enforcement scouts—usually one or two officers scouting remote areas for grow sites. Over the past 3 years these guards, 10

Violence, Countersurveillance, and Camouflage
Cannabis cultivation operations are deliberately located by growers in remote areas of public and private lands to lessen the chance of discovery from passersby or law enforcement. These sites are often concealed by camouflage and protected by armed guards conducting countersurveillance. Some sites are also

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armed with weapons ranging from pellet guns to assault rifles, have increasingly engaged law enforcement officials in armed standoffs and, on several occasions, have exchanged gunfire with law enforcement scouts. These guards attempt to repel the patrols long enough for crop tenders to harvest as much of the cannabis as possible before a larger law enforcement contingent returns to eradicate the site. According to law enforcement officials, armed individuals are increasingly protecting cannabis crops because of their high value, increased competition with other growers, and increasing eradication pressure, and because many crop tenders, who are illegal aliens, must harvest the crop as payment to a Mexican DTO for their entry into the United States. Armed encounters between grow-site operators and private citizens reportedly are infrequent; however, the likelihood of such encounters is increasing, particularly since DTOs are establishing more outdoor grow sites on public lands, including national parks and game lands, especially in northern California. One such confrontation occurred in October 2006, when a man hunting in a remote location within the Mendocino National Forest was fired upon by four individuals after he inadvertently approached the edge of a cannabis grow site. Additionally, in June 2006, two individuals near a grow site in a remote area north of Covelo, California, were shot and killed. The use of unattended booby traps by Mexican DTOs at large outdoor cultivation operations in western states has decreased over the past several years—armed guards are now preferred. Until the mid- to late 1990s, Mexican DTOs frequently protected outdoor cannabis grow sites from intrusion with potentially lethal booby traps. Typical booby traps included fishhooks strung from trees, rat traps configured with shot gun shells designed to discharge when tripped, trip lines, and animal traps. Since the late 1990s, however, cultivators have increasingly employed armed guards, and at larger plots they often employ 11

several additional individuals (typically two who tend the site on a rotating basis). As a result, law enforcement officials are encountering fewer booby-trapped sites. However, unlike law enforcement officials in western states, the Kentucky State Police (KSP) reported an increase in booby trap use in smaller, usually unattended, outdoor cannabis plots in 2006. Growers in Kentucky, predominantly Caucasian independent growers, use a variety of booby traps, including punji sticks (see Figure 3)—which may be camouflaged by leaves and brush or incorporated into pits— and explosive devices to reduce the risk of crop theft.
U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service

Figure 3. Punji stick boards seized from cannabis cultivation operations in Kentucky, 2006.

The use of camouflage and countersurveillance by outdoor cannabis cultivators is common and often effective. Law enforcement reporting from leading cultivation states, including California, Kentucky, and Oregon, indicates that grow-site operators commonly camouflage marijuana crops by planting cannabis under tree canopies to conceal the crop from aerial surveillance. Some cultivators also camouflage their crops by commingling cannabis with legitimate crops. Tents and equipment used by plot tenders also are often camouflaged with netting or painted in camouflage colors and patterns. To further evade detection, cultivators often employ methods of countersurveillance to monitor activity in their

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

area. The plot tenders’ most common method of countersurveillance is simply patrolling a grow site to observe any human activity. Additionally, the Oregon Department of Justice reports that some plot tenders in that state are beginning to sweep trails leading to grow sites free from signs of foot traffic; they later check trails for footprints as a method of monitoring movement in the area.

erosion. The cost of restoring land damaged by such outdoor cultivation is significant; the National Park Service estimates that for every acre of forest planted with marijuana, 10 acres are damaged, and further, the cost to repair and restore an outdoor cultivation site is approximately $11,000 per acre. Outdoor cannabis cultivators are diverting streams and creeks for irrigation, sometimes draining natural streams and wetlands. Outdoor cannabis plots typically are irrigated with intricate watering systems. Cultivators often dam up streams and redirect the water through plastic gravity-fed irrigation tubing to supply water to individual plants (see Figure 5 on page 13). Average size marijuana plots—approximately 1,000 plants—require up to 5,000 gallons of water daily. This high demand for water often strains small streams and damages downstream vegetation that depends on consistent water flow. For example, on October 4, 2006, law enforcement authorities eradicated a 1,200plant cultivation operation in San Ramon, Contra Costa County after Park Rangers were alerted that water was no longer running in a nearby mountain stream. Cultivators had diverted the stream, building a reservoir for crop irrigation.

Associated Environmental Damage
Outdoor cannabis cultivation, particularly on public lands, is causing increasing environmental damage. Outdoor cannabis cultivation poses significant environmental concerns for law enforcement and other public agencies. Grow site operators often contaminate and alter watersheds; divert natural water courses; clearcut native vegetation; poach protected wildlife; discard garbage, nonbiodegradable materials, and human waste at deserted sites; and create wildfire hazards. Moreover, the National Parks Conservation Association (NPCA) reports that while preparing land for cannabis cultivation, growers commonly clear the forest understory, which allows nonnative plants to supplant native ones, adversely affecting the eco-system. They also terrace the land—especially in mountainous areas—which results in rapid

Dangerous Poisons From Mexico Polluting California National Forests According to NFS and California Bureau of Narcotics Enforcement Campaign Against Marijuana Planting (CAMP), law enforcement officials are increasingly encountering dumpsites of highly toxic insecticides, chemical repellants, and poisons (see Figure 4 on page 13) that are produced in Mexico, purchased by Mexican criminal groups, and transported into the country for use at their cannabis grow sites. Although similar chemicals could be purchased in the United States, many Mexican DTOs are simply using Mexican chemicals rather than purchasing bulk quantities locally, which could alert law enforcement to their cultivation operations. Cultivators apply insecticides directly to plants to protect them from insect damage. Chemical repellants and poisons are applied at the base of the cannabis plants and around the perimeter of the grow site to ward off or kill rats, deer, and other animals that could cause crop damage. These toxic chemicals enter and contaminate ground water, pollute watersheds, kill fish and other wildlife, and eventually enter residential water supplies.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Environmental Protection Agency.

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U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service

Figure 4. Toxic insecticide bottle found Figure 5. Reservoir used in a cannabis cultivation operation in at a cannabis cultivation operation in the Shasta-Trinity National Forest in 2006. California, 2006.

Eradication Estimates
Precise estimates regarding the number of cannabis plants not eradicated during the most recent eradication season are not feasible, owing to many factors. The amount of marijuana cultivated in the primary states and counties is determined by three factors that are used to calculate the quantity of marijuana available in the United States: domestic cannabis eradication totals, cannabis plant yield estimates, and the effectiveness of cannabis eradication. Estimates vary greatly with respect to each of these critical factors. Therefore, a true and accurate point estimate of the amount of cannabis not eradicated within the primary cultivation states is not possible. Although a precise estimate of cannabis not eradicated is not possible, general estimates can be made and ranges calculated using available eradication data. For example, in the model in Table 8 on page 14,2 the total number of plants eradicated is derived by adding the estimated number of eradicated plants reported by

Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program (DCE/SP), Forest Service, and DOI. According to these sources, an estimated 6.3 million plants were eradicated in 2006. Assuming a plant yield of 1 pound per plant (448 grams), approximately 2,825 metric tons of potential marijuana were destroyed through domestic cannabis eradication in 2006. Law enforcement reporting indicates that eradication programs destroyed 30 to 50 percent of cannabis plants during the 2006 season. Based on these estimates and assumptions, between 2,825 and 6,592 metric tons of marijuana were not destroyed during 2006 (see Table 8 on page 14). Combining known eradication statistics with estimates of cannabis not eradicated results in an estimate of total potential domestic cannabis cultivation ranging from 5,650 metric tons to 9,417 metric tons.

2. This model was adapted from the Marijuana Availability Model used by the Drug Availability Steering Committee.

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Table 8. Estimated Number of Cannabis Plants Not Eradicated, 2006
Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006 (mt) DCE/SP USFS/DOI Total Eradication Rate=> Potential Marijuana Not Eradicated (mt) 4,486,755 1,818,447 6,305,202 30% 6,592 (70%) 40% 4,236 (60%) Potential Marijuana Eradicated (mt) 2,010 815 2,825 50% 2,825 (50%)

Intelligence Gaps
Law enforcement efforts over the past several years have provided significant insight into the nature and extent of cannabis cultivation and marijuana production in the United States. However, intelligence gaps do exist, primarily: • The extent of DTO and criminal group involvement in the Appalachian region is unknown because cannabis cultivation is largely rooted in generations of families within insular communities. Eradication statistics are underreported in some areas because no requirements exist for such reporting. Some counties do not have agreements with DCE/SP, and therefore eradication totals are not recorded to the DCE/SP program.

Mexican DTO involvement in outdoor cannabis cultivation operations is significant; however, determining the extent of their involvement in many areas of the country is difficult because law enforcement resources are insufficient to fully investigate these groups. Limited information as to the domestic cannabis cultivation operations of Asian DTOs and criminal groups—a result of the insular nature of the communities— degrades accurate analysis as to the full extent of their operations in the United States.

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Appendix A. Primary Cannabis Cultivation Regions
The following section addresses primary cannabis cultivation areas, planting and harvesting seasons, organizations involved, and major trends and developments in outdoor and indoor cannabis cultivation operations in each primary cultivation state. The primary cannabis cultivation areas are located in two distinct regions: western states and Appalachia. Because many cultivation trends are consistent among states within these unique regions, the summaries of each primary cultivation state are grouped by region.

Western Region
California Cannabis cultivation and marijuana production operations are extensive throughout California, particularly in northern California. Outdoor cannabis cultivation is increasing dramatically in the northern region of the state, primarily because of expanded cultivation by Mexican DTOs; as a result, the area is becoming one of the most significant outdoor cannabis grow areas in the state. Indoor cannabis cultivation also appears to be increasing. The increase is primarily attributed to the demand for higher potency marijuana. However, some law enforcement officials in California report that the increase is partly the result of California Proposition 215 (commonly referred to as the medical marijuana law), which has negatively impacted marijuana-related prosecutions, resulting in a perception among many indoor growers that law enforcement is reluctant to seize plants or arrest growers.
Outdoor Planting and Harvesting

California Cultivation Statistics
Primary cultivation area: Entire state Top five cultivation counties: Lake, Shasta, Mendocino, San Diego, Riverside 2006* Total plants eradicated: 3,846,017 Total outdoor plants eradicated: 3,668,744 Total indoor plants eradicated: 177,273 2005 Total cannabis plants eradicated: 3,021,240
*County-level data represent January through November 2006 and include reporting from the Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

The primary cannabis planting, growing, and harvesting seasons for southern, central, and northern California are similar and typically occur from April through October. Cannabis seeds or seedlings are planted in spring, usually in April or May, and tended through the summer; they reach plant maturity in September or October. However, this time frame can differ if cultivators plant early by operating cannabis seed beds in an indoor operation for subsequent seedling transfer to outdoor gardens as soon as the threat of frost has passed. Moreover, law enforcement officials have reported a relatively new trend in which cultivators are harvesting the crop or the bud from the plants as early as July to maximize profits and avoid possible loss through law enforcement seizure during late season eradication operations.
Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas

Outdoor cannabis cultivation operations, once concentrated in central and southern California, are becoming increasingly prevalent in the remote regions of northern California, particularly in Lake, Shasta, and Mendocino Counties. Eradication data indicate that between 2005 and 2006, increases in eradication in northern California counties overshadowed moderate increases occurring in southern

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Campaign Against Marijuana Planting (CAMP) CAMP is a multiagency law enforcement task force managed by the California Department of Justice, Bureau of Narcotics Enforcement, and composed of local, state and federal agencies. CAMP agents are broken into five teams covering northern, central, and southern California regions. CAMP members are assisted in their eradication efforts by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, the California National Guard, the California Department of Fish and Game, the California State Parks, and dozens of county sheriff agencies and local police departments.

counties. Outdoor cannabis eradication in northern California appears to be most prevalent in the following adjacent counties: Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Humboldt, Lake, Lassen, Mendocino, Placer, Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou, Solano, Sonoma, Tehama, Trinity, Yolo, and Yuba (see Table 9 on page 17). This increase is attributed primarily to Mexican DTOs expanding operations northward into more remote areas of national forests and private lands, particularly mountainous areas, to avoid law enforcement detection and discovery through aerial surveillance. However, counties in southern California, primarily San Diego County, but also Riverside, Santa Barbara, and Ventura Counties posted significant increases in cannabis eradication in 2006, albeit less than northern counties (see Maps 8, 9, and 10 in Appendix B).
Primary Indoor Cultivation Areas

Indoor cultivation operations in California dramatically increased over the past several years, as a result of increased law enforcement pressure on outdoor cultivation, successes in aerial eradication, and improved technology for detecting outdoor grows. Indoor operations are generally conducted by Caucasian independent growers, typically males between the ages of 25 and 35, generally cultivating an average of 200 to 300 plants per cultivation cycle. Significant quantities of cannabis plants—primarily from Caucasian-operated indoor grows—were seized in Humboldt, Alameda, Mendocino, Sacramento, and San Francisco Counties in the first 11 months of 2006 (see Table 10 on page 17). Additionally, law enforcement reporting indicates a continuing trend of typically larger, multithousand-plant indoor grows operating in Humboldt County contributing to a rise in overall eradication. In fact, DCE/SP data indicate that Humboldt County had the highest reported number of indoor plants eradicated between January and November 2006 (31,508), increasing 19 percent from 26,411 plants in 2005 (see Maps 11 and 12 in Appendix B). Although Caucasian criminal groups and independent dealers are the primary indoor cultivators in the state of California, law enforcement reporting indicates that Asian DTOs and criminal organizations are increasingly cultivating the drug indoors in several areas of the state. Asian organizations have been identified in central and northern California—specifically the San Francisco Bay area. For example, an Asian organization was recently discovered operating indoor grow sites in 41 residences in the Sacramento and Stockton, California, areas. These indoor operations were typically located in residential housing within suburban neighborhoods in which entire houses had been converted into highly sophisticated cultivation operations.

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Table 9. Number of Outdoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated Top 10 Counties in California, 2006*
County 1. Lake 2. Shasta 3. San Diego 4. Mendocino 5. Riverside 6. Tehama 7. Fresno 8. San Bernardino 9. Tuolumne 10. Santa Clara Outdoor Cannabis Eradicated 346,415 264,287 241,449 239,076 210,005 191,863 172,075 136,595 126,706 125,947

Source: Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program; U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. *Data for 2006 represent January through November 2006.

Table 10. Number of Indoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated Top 10 Counties in California, 2006*
County 1. Humboldt 2. Alameda 3. Mendocino 4. Sacramento 5. San Francisco 6. San Diego 7. Sonoma 8. San Mateo 9. San Luis Obispo 10. San Joaquin Indoor Cannabis Eradicated 31,508 29,428 17,443 16,901 12,745 10,849 9,080 7,980 7,499 6,100

Source: Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program. *Data for 2006 represent January through November 2006.

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Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

Hawaii Hawaii has long been a primary source area for high potency marijuana; however, law enforcement pressure and increased interdiction efforts have led to a slight decline in overall marijuana production in the state in recent years. Despite increased law enforcement focus, local and Polynesian DTOs, Asian and Caucasian groups, and independent dealers continue to cultivate cannabis, primarily on the island of Hawaii.
Outdoor Planting and Harvesting

Hawaii Cultivation Statistics
Primary cultivation areas: Hawaii and Maui Counties Top two cultivation counties: Hawaii and Maui 2006* Total plants eradicated: 187,707 Total outdoor plants eradicated: 175,730 Total indoor plants eradicated: 11,977 2005 Total cannabis plants eradicated: 255,113
*County-level data represent January through November 2006 and include reporting from the Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Because of the tropical climate in the Hawaiian Islands, cannabis is planted and harvested yearround. The suitable climate combined with nutrientrich soils provides optimal cultivation conditions for growers to plant and harvest marijuana at any time of the year. As a result, no distinct planting or harvesting seasons exist.
Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas

Despite considerable decreases in outdoor cannabis eradication rates in Hawaii since 2001, the state consistently ranks among the top four states for the amount of cannabis eradicated each year. Law enforcement reporting indicates that most cannabis is cultivated on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Kauai, and Oahu—four of the eight separate islands composing the state. In addition, according to eradication data, domestic marijuana is cultivated primarily on State Division of Land and Natural Resources lands in Hawaii and Maui Counties. DEA Honolulu District Office reports that of the 159,702 plants eradicated from outdoor grow sites in the state of Hawaii from January through November 2006, 75 percent were cultivated on public lands owned by the state of Hawaii. Specifically, NPS reports significant cannabis cultivation in the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawaii. Outdoor cultivation operations are conducted primarily by local and Polynesian DTOs and Asians, as well as some Caucasians, particularly those who have relocated to Hawaii from the U.S. mainland (see Maps 13 and 14 in Appendix B).
Primary Indoor Cultivation Areas

Indoor cannabis cultivation in Hawaii occurs less frequently than outdoor cultivation; however, indoor cultivation appears to be stable or possibly increasing. According to DCE/SP, the number of plants eradicated from indoor operations increased sharply from 314 plants in 2002 to 3,519 in 2003 and increased again in 2005 to 3,950. Moreover, DEA Honolulu District Office reports that the number of indoor cultivation sites seized increased from 13 in 2005 to 37 as of October 31, 2006. Local Hawaiians, Caucasian independents, and Asian organizations operate most indoor grow sites in Hawaii (see Maps 15 and 16 in Appendix B).

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Oregon Outdoor cannabis cultivation appears to be increasing in Oregon, including on public lands, primarily because of an increase in outdoor cultivation by Mexican DTOs operating large-scale cannabis grow sites.
Outdoor Planting and Harvesting

Oregon Cultivation Statistics
Primary cultivation area: Northwestern region of the state Top five cultivation counties: Jackson, Grant, Josephine, Wheeler, and Linn

2006* Oregon’s temperate climate, rich soil, and vast Total plants eradicated: 139,409 expanses of remote, forested areas are particularly Total outdoor plants eradicated: 134,191 conducive to outdoor cannabis cultivation. Outdoor Total indoor plants eradicated: 5,218 cannabis cultivation in Oregon typically spans the months of May through October; however, weather 2005 conditions and the use of seeds and cloned starter Total cannabis plants eradicated: 91,829 plants can extend or reduce the growing season. In the eastern region of Oregon—east of the Cascade *County-level data represent January through November Mountains—cultivation operations begin as early as 2006 and include reporting from the Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the March or April, although most planting usually Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. occurs in May. Weather conditions during the growing months significantly influence the harvest time, but plants typically are harvested during August and September. West of the Cascades, sites are usually planted in June, tended through summer, and harvested in September and October. Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas

The number of large-scale outdoor marijuana grow sites in Oregon is increasing and will quite likely continue to increase as Mexican DTOs currently operating in the state expand their operations. Several counties in Oregon—particularly in the southwestern section of the state—have been identified by law enforcement as counties experiencing significant Mexican DTO-controlled cannabis cultivation. In addition to Mexican DTOs, Caucasian criminal groups and independent growers cultivate cannabis outdoors; however, Caucasian-controlled grow sites are generally much smaller and contain fewer plants. According to eradication data and law enforcement reporting, most outdoor cannabis cultivation in 2006 appears to have occurred in Jackson, Grant, Josephine, Wheeler, and Linn Counties (see Table 11 on page 20). Many of the cannabis cultivation operations in these counties have been located on remote lands in national forests and on tribal lands, primarily in the northwestern section of Oregon. Areas where cultivation has been particularly high include the Deschutes, Siskiyou, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman National Forests and Native American tribal lands, including the Umatilla Indian Reservation (see Maps 17 and 18 in Appendix B).
Primary Indoor Cultivation Areas

Indoor cannabis cultivation in Oregon is much less prominent than outdoor cultivation. According to the Oregon Department of Justice, indoor cannabis eradication is highest in Multnomah, followed by Lincoln, Douglas, and Marion Counties (see Table 12 on page 20). Most indoor cannabis grow sites are controlled by Caucasian criminal groups and independent growers; however, anecdotal reporting indicates that Asian organizations have become increasingly involved in indoor cultivation over the past year. Caucasian criminal groups and independent growers typically operate indoor grow sites that average 50 to 100 plants per cultivation cycle, particularly in the Portland area (see Maps 19 and 20 in Appendix B). 19

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

Table 11. Number of Outdoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated Top 10 Counties in Oregon, 2006*
County 1. Jackson 2. Grant 3. Josephine 4. Wheeler 5. Linn 6. Coos 7. Union 8. Tillamook 9. Douglas 10. Lane Outdoor Cannabis Eradicated 50,995 20,138 15,739 12,000 11,113 7,899 4,800 2,988 2,836 2,531

Source: Oregon Department of Justice; Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program; U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. *Data for 2006 represent January through November 2006.

Table 12. Number of Indoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated Top 10 Counties in Oregon, 2006*
County 1. Multnomah 2. Lincoln 3. Douglas 4. Marion 5. Lane 6. Wasco 7. Benton 8. Klamath 9. Jackson 10. Coos Indoor Cannabis Eradicated 1,639 883 475 444 335 287 260 257 205 162

Source: Oregon Department of Justice; Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program. *Date for 2006 data represent January through November 2006.

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Washington Cannabis cultivation is increasing in Washington. Outdoor cannabis cultivation is expanding primarily because of increased cultivation by Mexican DTOs. Indoor cultivation—particularly in the Puget Sound area—also is increasing, as a result of an influx of Canadian-based Asian DTOs experienced in indoor cultivation techniques.
Outdoor Planting and Harvesting

Washington Cultivation Statistics
Primary cultivation area: Eastern section of the state Top five cultivation counties: Yakima, King, Franklin, Chelan, and Stevens 2006* Total plants eradicated: 133,778

Total outdoor plants eradicated: 101,339 Planting and harvesting times differ greatly in Total indoor plants eradicated: 32,439 Washington, depending on the location in the state; Washington, much like Oregon, is divided into two 2005 distinct east and west sections that are separated by the Total cannabis plants eradicated: 170,255 Cascade Mountains. In the east, planting begins as early as March or April, with most planting occurring *County-level data represent January through November in May. Depending on the weather conditions during 2006 and include reporting from the Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the the summer months as well as other factors, including Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. the use of cloned seedlings versus seeds, crops typically are harvested between August and September. West of the Cascade Mountains, planting and harvesting occur later in the year. Planting typically begins in June, and harvest occurs in September or early October. Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas

Cannabis cultivation in outdoor sites is most prevalent in eastern Washington because of the area’s climate. Large outdoor growing operations in eastern Washington, which typically are controlled by Mexican DTOs, are usually located in remote areas near water sources on federal or state lands. Counties reporting the highest plant eradication for 2006 include Yakima, Franklin, Chelan, Stevens, and Benton (see Table 13 on page 22). The Northwest HIDTA reports that the counties accounting for much of the outdoor cannabis cultivation in the state—which are largely the counties with the highest eradication—are Yakima, Chelan, Franklin, Grant, Benton, Douglas, and Ferry. Following the seizure of a single 64,000-plant plot on the Yakima Indian Reservation in 2004, many cultivators stopped planting large plots and now plant several smaller plots instead to reduce their losses if a plot is eradicated. Cultivators also commingle cannabis plants with legitimate crops such as corn and olive trees to conceal cannabis plants (see Maps 21 and 22 in Appendix B).
Primary Indoor Cultivation Areas

Indoor cannabis cultivation sites are typically operated by Caucasian independent growers and are more common in urban areas. However, some Vietnamese DTOs have relocated their high potency indoor cannabis cultivation operations from Canada to the Puget Sound area, primarily to avoid seizures of their marijuana at the U.S.–Canada border. As a result, there has been an increase in the availability of higher potency marijuana in local drug markets. King, Pierce, and Snohomish Counties are the primary indoor cultivation areas for Asian DTOs and criminal groups, according to reporting from the Northwest HIDTA, DEA, and other law enforcement agencies. These counties are also among the highest overall indoor cannabis eradication counties in Oregon (see Table 14 on page 22, and Maps 23 and 24 in Appendix B).

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Table 13. Number of Outdoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated Top 10 Counties in Washington, 2006*
County 1. Yakima 2. Franklin 3. Chelan 4. Stevens 5. Benton 6. Grant 7. Grays Harbor County 8. Walla Walla County 9. Douglas County 10. Klickitat County Outdoor Cannabis Eradicated 51,730 15,382 7,802 4,677 4,163 4,019 3,319 3,102 1,588 1,389

Source: Northwest High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area; Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program; U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. *Data for 2006 represent January through November 2006.

Table 14. Number of Indoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated Top 10 Counties in Washington, 2006*
County 1. King 2. Whatcom 3. Pierce 4. Spokane 5. Stevens 6. Snohomish 7. Clark 8. Kitsap 9. Skagit 10. Thurston Indoor Cannabis Eradicated 17,618 2,298 2,077 1,688 1,650 1,488 1,366 1,095 484 441

Source: Northwest High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area; Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program. *Data for 2006 represent January through November 2006.

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Appalachian Region
Cannabis cultivation in the Appalachian Region of the United States occurs primarily in portions of Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia. A relatively high poverty rate in these areas contributes to an acceptance of cannabis cultivation by many local residents. In some Appalachian counties, more than 30 percent of the population lives in poverty, and in impoverished communities some residents regard marijuana production as a necessary means of supplementing low incomes. In these communities cannabis cultivation is often a multigenerational trade as young family members are introduced to the trade by older members who have produced the drug for many years. Kentucky
Outdoor Planting and Harvesting

Cannabis growers in Kentucky typically cultivate plots between March and October; however, several factors, including the weather and the use of cloned starter plants, can extend or reduce the growing season. Cannabis planting in Kentucky typically starts in March. However, because the winter of 2006 was very mild, many growers who started their plants indoors were able to transplant the seedlings outside much earlier than in most years. Kentucky State Police Marijuana Suppression Unit reports that approximately 10 to 15 percent of all cultivators start their plants indoors. No discernible differences exist for planting and harvesting times in various regions of the state.
Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas

Kentucky Cultivation Statistics
Primary cultivation area: Southeastern section of the state Top five cultivation counties: Knox, Bell, Leslie, Letcher, and Clay 2006* Total plants eradicated: 527,820 Total outdoor plants eradicated: 526,691 Total indoor plants eradicated: 1,129 2005 Total cannabis plants eradicated: 736,991
*County-level data represent January through November

2006 and include reporting from the Domestic Cannabis Most outdoor cultivation in Kentucky occurs in the Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the southeastern section of the state on remote areas of Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. public and private lands; however, increased and improved eradication efforts have led some growers to shift their operations to counties with less eradication pressure. The highest eradication totals were reported in the southeastern section of Kentucky from January to November 2006 in the following counties: Knox, Bell, Leslie, Letcher, Clay, Perry, Breathitt, Wayne, Knott, and Whitley (see Table 15 on page 24). The focused eradication in these counties has contributed to a shift toward cultivation in other counties. For example, law enforcement reporting indicates that cultivation in Breathitt County is increasing after years of decreased cultivation, largely because of eradication pressure in surrounding counties. In addition, since 2003, cultivation has been increasing in areas where commercial logging is occurring, especially in the Daniel Boone National Forest. After land has been cleared as a result of logging operations, criminal groups and independent growers use the space for cannabis cultivation. Most cannabis cultivation operations in Kentucky are composed of families or small groups rather than large DTOs. These groups typically plant smaller plots, having averaged 67 plants per site in 2006 (see Maps 25, 26, 27, and 28 in Appendix B).

Indoor Cannabis Cultivation Areas

Eradication data and law enforcement reporting reveal that indoor cannabis cultivation is limited in Kentucky but may be increasing. According to DCE/SP data for 2006, 1,027 plants were eradicated 23

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

from 35 indoor grow operations in Kentucky as of November 30. However, law enforcement agencies report that they have been unable to locate several other indoor grow sites operating within the state. Eradication data indicate that the limited indoor cultivation in the state occurs primarily in Greenup, Bullitt, Meade, and Nelson Counties (see Table 16, and Maps 29 and 30 in Appendix B). Table 15. Number of Outdoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated Top 10 Counties in Kentucky, 2006*
County 1. Knox 2. Bell 3. Leslie 4. Letcher 5. Clay 6. Perry 7. Breathitt 8. Wayne 9. Knott 10. Whitley Outdoor Cannabis Eradicated 48,670 39,877 37,848 35,814 30,580 30,344 29,847 24,327 23,026 20,188

Source: Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program; U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. *Data for 2006 represent January through November 2006.

Table 16. Number of Indoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated Top 10 Counties in Kentucky, 2006*
County 1. Greenup 2. Bullitt 3. Meade 4. Nelson 5. Fayette 6. Hardin 7. Larue 8. Boone 9. McLean 10. Jackson
*Data for 2006 represent January through November 2006.

Indoor Cannabis Eradicated 256 216 124 103 83 67 62 27 27 24

Source: Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.

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Tennessee
Outdoor Planting and Harvesting

Cannabis cultivation operations in Tennessee generally extend from March through October; the primary planting season is late March and early April. However, some cultivators have been able to harvest a first crop in June and replant for a second crop. Generally, September and October are the prime harvesting months. Harvesting times in Tennessee do not differ from one region of the state to another.
Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas

Tennessee Cultivation Statistics
Primary cultivation areas: Cumberland Valley and Smokey Mountains in the northeastern and southwestern sections of the state Top five cultivation counties: Warren, Cumberland, Fentress, Morgan, and Wayne 2006* Total plants eradicated: 662,135 Total outdoor plants eradicated: 662,024

A great amount of high potency marijuana is proTotal indoor plants eradicated: 111 duced in Tennessee by local Caucasian producers for 2005 sale both within and outside the region. Primary outTotal cannabis plants eradicated: 463,557 door cultivation areas are located in remote areas with good growing climates, such as the Smokey Mountains *County-level data represent January through November of southeastern Tennessee and the Cumberland Plateau 2006 and include reporting from the Domestic Cannabis of northeastern Tennessee. The numerous streams, Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. creeks, and rivers within these areas help provide cultivation sites with the necessary water to support plant growth during the summer months. Of the top five cannabis eradication counties in Tennessee in 2006, four were located in the Cumberland Plateau: Warren, Cumberland, Fentress, and Morgan. On the extreme western side of the Highland Rim in the middle section of the state, Wayne, Hickman, and Lawrence Counties also reported high plant eradication in 2006 (see Table 17). Although Table 17. Number of Outdoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated Top 10 Counties in Tennessee, 2006*
County 1. Warren 2. Cumberland 3. Fentress 4. Morgan 5. Wayne 6. Van Buren 7. Hickman 8. Grundy 9. Lawrence 10. Campbell Outdoor Cannabis Eradicated 181,671 88,919 43,828 42,121 40,641 37,308 27,853 26,757 26,553 19,662

Source: Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program. *Data for 2006 represent January through November 2006.

25

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

these counties account for most of the cultivation in Tennessee, significant cannabis cultivation occurs in other counties, but it fluctuates from year to year. In fact, counties where cultivation has been dormant for several years have reemerged as significant sources of marijuana. For example, the number of cannabis plants eradicated in Sequatchie County in the Cumberland Valley—a county where cultivation had been low for several years—increased from 783 plants in 2005 to 10,846 plants in 2006, according to DCE/SP data (see Maps 31, 32, 33, and 34 in Appendix B).
Primary Indoor Cultivation Areas

Indoor cannabis cultivation in Tennessee is limited. In 2005, DCE/SP data showed that only 653 plants were seized from 3 counties and most (611 plants) were seized in Cocke County, followed by Montgomery County (33), and Campbell County (9) (see Map 35 in Appendix B). As of November 2006, DCE/SP did not report any indoor grow operation seizures in the state of Tennessee. Although indoor cultivation is limited, law enforcement has seized advanced indoor grow operations in past years (see text box). Although not reported to DCE/SP, the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (TBI) seized a single indoor grow operation in Franklin County in June 2006, resulting in the eradication of 111 plants.
Indoor Cannabis Operation Seized From Cave Under Residence In December 2005 the 15th Judicial District Task Force (JDTF), assisted by the 18th JDTF, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Lafayette Police Department, and the Trousdale County Sheriff’s Office seized a sophisticated indoor cannabis operation in Hartsville, Trousdale County, Tennessee. The indoor operation was located in a man-made cave cut into the limestone under and adjacent to a private residence and was capable of producing six grows per year. Law enforcement officials seized 853 plants under cultivation. The entrance was sealed with a hydraulic door, and the growing area was equipped with custom irrigation systems and lighting, as well as humidity control devices.

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West Virginia
Outdoor Planting and Harvesting

Cannabis cultivation in West Virginia extends from March through October. Cannabis typically is planted in March or April, tended through the summer, and harvested in September or early October.
Primary Outdoor Cultivation Areas

West Virginia Cultivation Statistics
Primary cultivation area: Southwestern section of the state Top five cultivation counties: Monroe, Wayne, Logan, Kanawha, and Clay

The amount of cannabis cultivated in West Virginia 2006* is lower than that of other areas in the Appalachian Total plants eradicated: 64,974 Region; the marijuana produced usually is consumed Total outdoor plants eradicated: 63,809 locally. The amount of marijuana produced in West Total indoor plants eradicated: 1,165 Virginia does not come close to supplying demand 2005 throughout the state; therefore, a significant amount of Total cannabis plants eradicated: 57,600 Mexican marijuana is smuggled to West Virginia. Cannabis cultivation is often a primary source of *County-level data represent January through November income for residents in southwestern portions of West 2006 and include reporting from the Domestic Cannabis Virginia, the primary cultivation area in the state, Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the which generally is economically depressed, with an Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. unemployment rate of nearly 50 percent. This section of the state is particularly conducive to cannabis cultivation because of the vast tracts of remote, mountainous terrain in the Appalachian Mountains, consistent rainfall, and moderate temperatures during the growing season. According to 2005 and 2006 eradication data and law enforcement reporting, the primary counties for cannabis eradication include Monroe, Wayne, Logan, Kanawha, Clay, Mingo, Boone, Mason, McDowell, and Gilmer (see Table 18 on page 28). The West Virginia Metropolitan Drug Enforcement Network Teams Eradication Unit reports that it discovers an average of 600 cannabis cultivation sites each year in the southwestern region. Although most plots are relatively small, at least six sites in this region contained at least 1,000 plants each in 2006 (see Maps 36, 37, 38, and 39 in Appendix B).
Primary Indoor Cultivation Areas

Indoor cultivation in West Virginia is far more limited than outdoor cultivation; however, the eradication and investigation of indoor operations is increasing because of a rise in law enforcement resources committed to such investigations in some counties. According to DCE/SP, the number of indoor operations seized increased from 34 in 2005 to 60 in 2006, but the number of plants eradicated rose from 843 to 1,165 during that same period. Most of the plants (1,151 of 1,165) eradicated in 2006 were eradicated from 14 sites in Kanawha and Gilmer Counties (see Table 19 on page 28, and Maps 40 and 41 in Appendix B).

27

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

Table 18. Number of Outdoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated Top 10 Counties* in West Virginia, 2006**
County 1. Monroe 2. Wayne 3. Logan 4. Kanawha 5. Clay 6. Mingo 7. Boone 8. Mason 9. McDowell 10. Gilmer Outdoor Cannabis Eradicated 17,505 12,906 9,709 6,027 4,543 4,221 3,229 1,542 1,150 780

Source: Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program; U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. *As of January 2007, data for 2006 were available for HIDTA counties only. **Data for 2006 represent January through November 2006.

Table 19. Number of Indoor Cannabis Plants Eradicated Top 5 Counties* in West Virginia, 2006**
County 1. Kanawha 2. Gilmer 3. Mason 4. Boone 5. Logan Indoor Cannabis Eradicated 845 306 6 5 3

Source: Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program. *As of November 2006, data for 2006 were available for HIDTA counties only. **Data for 2006 represent January through November 2006.

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Appendix B. Maps
1. Cannabis Eradication by State, Outdoor Plants Seized, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2. Cannabis Eradication by State, Indoor Plants Seized, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3. Cannabis Eradication by State, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Arizona, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 5. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Arizona, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6. Domestic Cannabis Eradication, by State and National Forest, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7. Indoor Plants Seized in Florida, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 8. Outdoor Plants Seized in California, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 9. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in California, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 10. Outdoor Plants Seized in California, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 11. Indoor Plants Seized in California, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 12. Indoor Plants Seized in California, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 13. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Hawaii, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 14. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Hawaii, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 15. Indoor Plants Seized in Hawaii, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 16. Indoor Plants Seized in Hawaii, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 17. Outdoor Plants Seized in Oregon, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 18. Outdoor Plants Seized in Oregon, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 19. Indoor Plants Seized in Oregon, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 20. Indoor Plants Seized in Oregon, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 21. Outdoor Plants Seized in Washington, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 22. Outdoor Plants Seized in Washington, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 23. Indoor Plants Seized in Washington, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 24. Indoor Plants Seized in Washington, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 25. Outdoor Plants Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 26. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 27. Outdoor Plants Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 28. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 29. Indoor Plants Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 30. Indoor Plants Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 31. Outdoor Plants Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 32. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 33. Outdoor Plants Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 34. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 35. Indoor Plants Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 36. Outdoor Plants Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 37. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 38. Outdoor Plants Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 39. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 40. Indoor Plants Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 41. Indoor Plants Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

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Map 1. Cannabis Eradication by State, Outdoor Plants Seized, 2006
WA 115, 459
MT 6

ND 275
MN 825
SD 56
WY

ME 7 9,78

OR 187, 548

VT 1 1,24

ID 6,472

WI 5,134

NY 8,445
MI 20,913
PA 4,284

NH 793

MA 677

CT 4 RI 1,12

NV 1,704
CA 3,67 4 ,0 6 9

NE 183

IA 169
IL 5,229

UT 5,433

IN 21,122

OH 34,428
WV 55,388

NJ 987

MD 720

DE 153

CO 3,848

KS 3,303

MO 19,306

KY 557,628
TN 483,231

VA 18,632

NC 99,554

AZ 154,79 3

NM 2,502

OK 18,634

AR 12,843

SC 36,318
MS 2,346
AL 53,297

GA 65,178

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006

TX 4,899

LA 3,562

AK 262

1,000,000 + 100,000 - 999,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported Public lands

FL 10,378

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

HI 188,742
NDIC 2007022101PKB

Map 1. Cannabis Eradication by State, Outdoor Plants Seized, 2006. 31

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Map 2. Cannabis Eradication by State, Indoor Plants Seized, 2006
WA 43,4 16

MT 69 1

ND 13
MN 3,937

ME 0 2,64
VT 46 9
WI 3,2 91

OR 6,90 5

ID 33 9
WY 15 1

SD 19

MI 5,900

NY 6,021

NH 85 11 ,0
CT 41 9

MA 72 4

RI

NV 1,782

NE 341

IA

PA 8,604
OH 7,872

NJ 96 9
MD 3,790

CA 203, 559

UT 1,190

CO 3,667

IL 2,4 51
KS 436

IN 4,75 1

WV 2,194
KY 1,128

DE 14 5

MO 2,00 4

VA 1,729

AZ 53 7

NM 75 3

OK 444

TN 111
AR 680

NC 2,11 0

SC 19 4
GA 1,610

MS 53
TX 7,90 5

AL 25 7

LA 1,60 5

AK 5,901

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006 100,000 + 50,000 - 99,999 10,000 - 49,999 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

FL 36 ,1 7 2

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.

HI 12,358
NDIC 2007012402PKB

Map 2. Cannabis Eradication by State, Indoor Plants Seized, 2006. 33

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Map 3. Cannabis Eradication by State, 2006
WA 158, 875

MT 697

ND 288

ME 27 12,4
MN 4,762

OR 194, 453

VT 0 1,71

ID 6,811

SD 75
WY 151
IA 169

WI 8,425
MI 26,813

NY 6 14,46

NH 78 11,8
CT 3 RI 1,54

MA 1 1,40

NV 3,486
CA 3,87 7 ,6 2 8

NE 524

PA 12,888
IN 25,873

UT 6,623

CO 7,515

IL 7,680

OH 42,300
WV 57,582

NJ 1,956

MD 4,510

DE 298

KS 3,739

MO 21,310

VA 20,361

KY 558,756
TN 483,342

NC 4 101,66
SC 36,512

AZ 155,33 0

NM 3,255

OK 19,078

AR 13,523

MS 2,399

AL 53,554

GA 66,788

TX 12,804

LA 5,167

AK 6,163

FL 46,550

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006 1,000,000 + 100,000 - 999,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

HI 201,100
NDIC 2007012403PKB

Map 3. Cannabis Eradication by State, 2006. 35

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Map 4. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Arizona, by County, 2006

COCONINO 40
MOHAVE

Map 4. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Arizona, by County, 2006.
NAVAJO 4,476
APACHE

37
YAVAPAI 503
LA PAZ

GILA 63,713

MARICOPA 1,757

GREENLEE

PINAL YUMA

GRAHAM

PIMA 78

COCHISE

SANTA CRUZ

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

Cannabis Eradication Sites, 2006 by Number of Plants
(January through October 2006) 1 - 99 100 - 999 1,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 19,999 20,000 - 54,720 Public lands
Miles 0 20 40

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Maricopa County Sheriff's Office, Arizona Department of Public Safety, Gila County Task Force, and Phoenix Police Department.

NDIC 2007012404PKB

National Drug Intelligence Center

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Map 5. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Arizona, by County, 2005

COCONINO 17 MOHAVE 13

Map 5. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Arizona, by County, 2005.
NAVAJO APACHE YAVAPAI LA PAZ

39
MARICOPA 932
PINAL YUMA

GILA 20,965

GREENLEE

GRAHAM

PIMA 180 COCHISE 52

SANTA CRUZ 42

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

Cannabis Eradication Sites, 2005 by Number of Plants
1 - 99 100 - 999 1,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 19,999 20,000 - 54,720 Public lands
Miles 0 20 40

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Maricopa County Sheriff's Office, Arizona Department of Public Safety, Gila County Task Force, and Phoenix Police Department.

NDIC 2007012405PKB

National Drug Intelligence Center

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Mt. B a

ker 5 4

Map 6. Domestic Cannabis Eradication, by State and National Forest, 2006
Colv ille 224

WA S HIN 158,8 GTON 75

We n atc h 14,4 ee 32

Sius law

Idaho Panha ndle 22
48

Mt. H
Willa

Ump

Sisk iy o 1,00 u 0

33

qua

ood 75 m ett e 1,3 9

MONTA NA 697

NORTH DAKOTA 288

E MAIN 7 2 12,4

5

Six Riv 25,9 er s 01

Klam a 34,3 th 56

Rog ue R 4,86 iver 9

ORE G 194,4 ON 53

Wallo w Whim a an 3,000

Gallatin

6

MINNESOTA 4,762
WISCONSIN 8,425

T MON VER 10 1,7

IDAHO 6,811

Sha s ta Trin 118,7 ity 97

Las s en 8,20 0

SOUTH DAKOTA 75
WYOMIN G 151

Huron Manistee 819

K YOR NEW 66 14,4
RI

IRE PSH HAM NEW 11,878 ETTS HUS S AC MAS 1,401

N MICHIGA 26,813
IOWA 169

TIC N EC CON 1,543
NIA SYLVA PEN N ,88 8 12

UT

Me n do 405,3 c ino 99

Plum a 55,6 s 73

NEVA DA 3,486
Hum bolt/T oiyab le 1,7 53

NEBRASKA 524

EY JERS NEW 56 1,9

Stan isla 65,0 us 72
Sierr a 60,8 66

UTAH 6,623
COLORADO 7,515
KANSAS 3,739
Sequ oia 89,58 5

ILLINOIS 7,680
MISSOURI 21,31 0
Shawnee 11

INDIANA 25,87 3

OHIO 42,300
WEST IA VIRGIN 57,58 2
Daniel Boone 148,828

L AN D MARY 0 4,51
ton Was hing on rs & Jeffe 360

E WA R DELA 8 29

CAL IFO 3,877 RNIA ,628
Los P adre s8 0,79

IA VIRGIN 20,361

6
Ange le 13,17 s 4
San B erna 157,9 rdino 94

ARIZO NA 155,33 0
Lincoln & Presc ot t 6,102
Cocon ino 500

Mark Twain 166

KENTUCKY 558,756
Cheroke e 71

Ozark St. Francis 22

E TENNESSE 483,342

H NORT 1,664 NFS in 10 arolina North C 175

CARO

LINA

Clev e lan 13,47 d 8

NEW MEX ICO 3,255
Tonto 65,947

OKLAHOMA 19,078

ARKANSAS 13,52 3
Ouachita 6,302

oc hee Chattaho 183 e & O cone

bama NFS in Ala 5,377

Mar io Francis r & Sum te 1,176

n

MISSISSIPPI 2,399
Cannabis Eradication by State, 2006

IA GEOR G 66,788
ALABAMA 53,554

INA CARO L SOUTH ,51 2 36

1,000,000 + 100,000 - 999,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported
Cannabis Eradication by National Forest, 2006

TEXAS 12,804

LOUISIANA 5,167
orida 24 NFS in Fl

A FLORID 46,55 0

100,000 + 50,000 - 99,999 10,000 - 49,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration's Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

NDIC 2007012406PKB

Map 6. Domestic Cannabis Eradication, by State and National Forest, 2006. 41

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ESCAMBIA

SANTA ROSA 8 OKALOOSA WALTON 5 83

HOLMES JACKSON

WASHINGTON 20 BAY 23
CALHOUN

GADSDEN LEON

JEFFERSON HAMILTON MADISON

NASSAU 104

LIBERTY

WAKULLA 2
TAYLOR

SUWANNEE

COLUMBIA

BAKER 5

DUVAL 1,078

GULF 20

LAFAYETTE FRANKLIN GILCHRIST DIXIE

UNION 9
BRADFORD

CLAY 95

ST. JOHNS

ALACHUA 299

PUTNAM 151 FLAGLER 4

LEVY

MARION 16 VOLUSIA 16 CITRUS 6
SUMTER

LAKE 3

SEMINOLE 236 ORANGE 38

HERNANDO 170

Map 7. Indoor Plants Seized in Florida, by County, 2006

PASCO 17 PINELLAS 389 HILLSBOROUGH 146
OSCEOLA

POLK 732

BREVARD

INDIAN RIVER

MANATEE

HARDEE

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through October 2006) 10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499 50 - 99 1 - 49 None reported
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.
SARASOTA 194
DESOTO

HIGHLANDS 5

OKEECHOBEE 6 ST. LUCIE 3,750

MARTIN CHARLOTTE

GLADES 432 PALM BEACH 1,114 HENDRY 171

LEE 912

COLLIER 492

BROWARD 2,305

MIAMI-DADE 11,596
MONROE

Miles 0
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Map 7. Indoor Plants Seized in Florida, by County, 2006. 43

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Map 8. Outdoor Plants Seized in California, by County, 2006

DEL NORTE 1,257 SISKIYOU 110,199
MODOC

Product No. 2007-L0848-001

HUMBOLDT 60,892

TRINITY 118,104

SHASTA 264,287 LASSEN 20,463

TEHAMA 191,863 PLUMAS 64,555 BUTTE 50,320
SIERRA

Map 8. Outdoor Plants Seized in California, by County, 2006.
MENDOCINO 239,076 COLUSA 76,084 SUTTER 3,699 EL DORADO 31,432
ALPINE SACRAMENTO AMADOR

45
GLENN 104,689 YUBA 11,417 NEVADA 8,611 PLACER 17,044 LAKE 346,415 SONOMA 124,456 NAPA 39,257 1,015 SOLANO 56,558
CONTRA COSTA SAN JOAQUIN

YOLO 28,104

MARIN 78,816 5,501
SAN FRANCISCO ALAMEDA

CALAVERAS 10,038 TUOLUMNE 126,706
MONO

STANISLAUS 2,752 MERCED 1,948

SAN MATEO 5,850 SANTA CLARA 125,947 SANTA CRUZ 42,838

MARIPOSA 59,959

MADERA 18,598 FRESNO 172,075 SAN BENITO 45,216
INYO

MONTEREY 95,930

TULARE 119,655
KINGS

SAN LUIS OBISPO 32,358

KERN 67,156

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006)
SANTA BARBARA 41,071

SAN BERNARDINO 136,595

200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported Public lands

VENTURA 21,431

LOS ANGELES 37,053

ORANGE

RIVERSIDE 210,005

SAN DIEGO 241,449

IMPERIAL

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Miles 0
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Product No. 2007-L0848-001

Map 9. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in California, by County, 2006

Map 9. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in California, by County, 2006.
Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

47
Cannabis Eradication Sites, 2006 by Number of Plants
(January through October 2006) 1 - 99 100 - 999 1,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 19,999 20,000 - 54,720 Public lands
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and Campaign Against Marijuana Planting.

Miles 0
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100

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Map 10. Outdoor Plants Seized in California, by County, 2005

DEL NORTE 314 SISKIYOU 44,116
MODOC

Product No. 2007-L0848-001

HUMBOLDT 29,361 TRINITY 19,127
LASSEN

SHASTA 218,384

TEHAMA 81,006
PLUMAS

Map 10. Outdoor Plants Seized in California, by County, 2005.
MENDOCINO 138,084 COLUSA 281
SUTTER

49
GLENN 6,740
SIERRA

BUTTE 7,044

LAKE 136,781 YOLO 505
SACRAMENTO AMADOR

YUBA 9,518

NEVADA 424 PLACER 33 EL DORADO 22,709
ALPINE

SONOMA 107,631 NAPA 75,446 SOLANO 40,875
MARIN CONTRA COSTA SAN JOAQUIN

3,948 CALAVERAS 15,870 TUOLUMNE 35,784
MONO

11,944
SAN FRANCISCO ALAMEDA

STANISLAUS 21,962 MERCED 2,145

SAN MATEO 167 SANTA CLARA 82,106 SANTA CRUZ 11,449

MARIPOSA 5,086

MADERA 12,159 FRESNO 137,600 SAN BENITO 28,255
INYO

MONTEREY 23,498

TULARE 157,441
KINGS

SAN LUIS OBISPO 14,917

KERN 61,726

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported
ORANGE

SAN BERNARDINO 20,443 SANTA BARBARA 2,306 VENTURA 9,740 LOS ANGELES 100,236

RIVERSIDE 36,372

Public lands

SAN DIEGO 169,452

IMPERIAL

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Miles 0
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Map 11. Indoor Plants Seized in California, by County, 2006

DEL NORTE 399 SISKIYOU 553
MODOC

Product No. 2007-L0848-001

HUMBOLDT 31,508
SHASTA LASSEN

TRINITY 2,042

TEHAMA 192
PLUMAS

Map 11. Indoor Plants Seized in California, by County, 2006.
GLENN

51
BUTTE 354
SIERRA

MENDOCINO 17,443
YUBA COLUSA LAKE SUTTER

NEVADA 599 PLACER 34

YOLO

EL DORADO 350
ALPINE

SONOMA 9,080 NAPA 118 SACRAMENTO AMADOR 16,901 CALAVERAS 1,702 SOLANO 113
MARIN CONTRA COSTA SAN JOAQUIN

TUOLUMNE 126
MONO

6,100

STANISLAUS 3,663

MARIPOSA

SAN FRANCISCO 12,745 ALAMEDA 29,428 SAN MATEO 7,980 SANTA CLARA 252 SANTA CRUZ 652

MERCED 629

MADERA

SAN BENITO 596

FRESNO 5,872
INYO

MONTEREY 1,460

TULARE KINGS

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499 50 - 99 1 - 49

SAN LUIS OBISPO 7,499

KERN

SANTA BARBARA 165 VENTURA 238

SAN BERNARDINO 2,930

LOS ANGELES 2,365

ORANGE

RIVERSIDE 2,336

None reported

SAN DIEGO 10,849

IMPERIAL

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.

Miles 0
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Map 12. Indoor Plants Seized in California, by County, 2005

DEL NORTE 41

Product No. 2007-L0848-001

SISKIYOU 356
MODOC

HUMBOLDT 26,411 TRINITY 462
LASSEN

SHASTA 24

TEHAMA 547
PLUMAS

Map 12. Indoor Plants Seized in California, by County, 2005.
MENDOCINO 13,148 COLUSA 59
SUTTER

53
GLENN 42
SIERRA

BUTTE 140

LAKE 7,581 EL DORADO 369
ALPINE SACRAMENTO

YUBA 19

NEVADA 394 PLACER 104

SONOMA 11,049 NAPA 101 AMADOR 256 CALAVERAS 86
SOLANO 9
MARIN CONTRA COSTA SAN JOAQUIN

YOLO

TUOLUMNE 164
MONO

18
SAN FRANCISCO ALAMEDA

SAN MATEO 479
SANTA CLARA

STANISLAUS 2,561

MARIPOSA

SANTA CRUZ 3,521

MERCED 1,393

MADERA

FRESNO

SAN BENITO 406 TULARE 69 MONTEREY 157
KINGS

INYO

SAN LUIS OBISPO 225

KERN 1,349

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499 50 - 99 1 - 49
ORANGE

SANTA BARBARA 240
VENTURA 936

SAN BERNARDINO 2,884

LOS ANGELES 3,882

RIVERSIDE 3,462

None reported

SAN DIEGO 15,651

IMPERIAL

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.

Miles 0
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Map 13. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Hawaii, by County, 2006
KAUAI 7,565

HONOLULU 4,737

MAUI 37,814

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

Cannabis Eradication Sites, 2006
(January through September 2006) Public lands
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration's Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

HAWAII 125,614

Miles 0
NDIC 2007012513PKB

20

40

Map 13. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Hawaii, by County, 2006. 55

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Map 14. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Hawaii, by County, 2005
KAUAI 3,009

HONOLULU 6,689

MAUI 78,320

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

Cannabis Eradication Sites, 2005
Public lands
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration's Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

HAWAII 152,194

Miles 0
NDIC 2007012514PKB

25

50

Map 14. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Hawaii, by County, 2005. 57

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Map 15. Indoor Plants Seized in Hawaii, by County, 2006
KAUAI

HONOLULU

MAUI 2,158

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499 50 - 99 1 - 49 None reported
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.
HAWAII 9,819

Miles 0
NDIC 2007012515PKB

25

50

Map 15. Indoor Plants Seized in Hawaii, by County, 2006. 59

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Map 16. Indoor Plants Seized in Hawaii, by County, 2005
KAUAI 75

HONOLULU

MAUI

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499 50 - 99 1 - 49 None reported
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.
HAWAII 3,875

Miles 0
NDIC 2007012516PKB

25

50

Map 16. Indoor Plants Seized in Hawaii, by County, 2005. 61

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CLATSOP

COLUMBIA 132

Map 17. Outdoor Plants Seized in Oregon, by County, 2006

TILLAMOOK 2,988

WASHINGTON 59

UMATILLA

WALLOWA

MULTNOMAH 440

HOOD RIVER SHERMAN MORROW GILLIAM

YAMHILL 1,344

UNION 4,800

CLACKAMAS

WASCO 261

POLK 333

MARION 36 WHEELER 12,000
JEFFERSON

LINCOLN 80 BENTON 101 LINN 11,113

BAKER

GRANT 20,138

CROOK

LANE 2,531

DESCHUTES

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999

DOUGLAS 2,836 COOS 7,899
HARNEY MALHEUR

100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported Public lands
KLAMATH 303 LAKE 1

CURRY 62 JOSEPHINE 15,739

JACKSON 50,995

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration's Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Miles 0 25 50
NDIC 2007012217PKB

Map 17. Outdoor Plants Seized in Oregon, by County, 2006. 63

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CLATSOP 155

COLUMBIA 188

Map 18. Outdoor Plants Seized in Oregon, by County, 2005

TILLAMOOK

WASHINGTON 102

UMATILLA MULTNOMAH HOOD RIVER SHERMAN MORROW GILLIAM

WALLOWA

YAMHILL

UNION 13

CLACKAMAS 82

WASCO

POLK 190

MARION 98 BAKER 6,308

LINCOLN JEFFERSON

WHEELER

BENTON 44

LINN 90

GRANT

CROOK

LANE 589

DESCHUTES 7

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999
DOUGLAS 3,883 COOS 42
HARNEY

100 - 999
MALHEUR 10,676

1 - 99 None reported Public lands

KLAMATH 37

LAKE

CURRY 224 JOSEPHINE 153

JACKSON 17,835

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Miles 0 25 50
NDIC 2007012218PKB

Map 18. Outdoor Plants Seized in Oregon, by County, 2005. 65

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CLATSOP COLUMBIA

Map 19. Indoor Plants Seized in Oregon, by County, 2006

TILLAMOOK

WASHINGTON 36

MULTNOMAH 1,639

UMATILLA 5
HOOD RIVER SHERMAN MORROW GILLIAM UNION

WALLOWA

YAMHILL 24

CLACKAMAS 23

WASCO 287

POLK 6

MARION 444

LINCOLN 883 BENTON 260 LINN 63

WHEELER JEFFERSON

BAKER

GRANT

CROOK

LANE 335

DESCHUTES 95

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999
DOUGLAS 475 COOS 162
HARNEY MALHEUR

1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499 50 - 99 1 - 49
KLAMATH 257 LAKE 16

None reported

CURRY

JOSEPHINE 3

JACKSON 205

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.

Miles 0 25 50
NDIC 2007012219PKB

Map 19. Indoor Plants Seized in Oregon, by County, 2006. 67

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CLATSOP

COLUMBIA 15

Map 20. Indoor Plants Seized in Oregon, by County, 2005

TILLAMOOK 3

WASHINGTON 3

MULTNOMAH 2,198

UMATILLA 2
HOOD RIVER SHERMAN MORROW GILLIAM

WALLOWA 19

YAMHILL CLACKAMAS WASCO

UNION 115

POLK 4

MARION 242

LINCOLN JEFFERSON

WHEELER

BAKER

BENTON 65

LINN 18

GRANT

CROOK

LANE 1,095

DESCHUTES 630

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999
DOUGLAS 460 COOS 69
HARNEY

1,000 - 4,999
MALHEUR 22

500 - 999 100 - 499 50 - 99 1 - 49

KLAMATH 202

LAKE

None reported

CURRY 137 JOSEPHINE 1,362

JACKSON 262

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.

Miles 0 25 50
NDIC 2007012220PKB

Map 20. Indoor Plants Seized in Oregon, by County, 2005. 69

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Map 21. Outdoor Plants Seized in Washington, by County, 2006
WHATCOM 138

SAN JUAN

OKANOGAN

SKAGIT 243
ISLAND

PEND OREILLE 38
FERRY

STEVENS 4,677

CLALLAM 30

SNOHOMISH 245

JEFFERSON 111

CHELAN 7,802 DOUGLAS 1,588 KITSAP 203 KING 113 MASON 443 LINCOLN 8 SPOKANE 99

GRAYS HARBOR 3,319

KITTITAS 168 PIERCE 136

GRANT 4,019 ADAMS 447
WHITMAN

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported Public lands

THURSTON 168

PACIFIC 267

LEWIS 764 YAKIMA 51,730

FRANKLIN 15,382
GARFIELD

WAHKIAKUM

COLUMBIA

COWLITZ 110

BENTON 4,163

WALLA WALLA 3,102

ASOTIN

SKAMANIA 184 KLICKITAT 1,389

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

CLARK 253

Miles 0 20 40
NDIC 2007012221PKB

Map 21. Outdoor Plants Seized in Washington, by County, 2006. 71

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Map 22. Outdoor Plants Seized in Washington, by County, 2005
WHATCOM 37

SAN JUAN 95 SKAGIT 971
ISLAND

OKANOGAN 1,344

PEND OREILLE 24 FERRY 25 STEVENS 1,003

CLALLAM 22

SNOHOMISH 215

JEFFERSON 52

CHELAN 37,026 DOUGLAS 3,300 KITSAP 477 KING 32 MASON 196 LINCOLN 19 SPOKANE 457

GRAYS HARBOR 1,532
KITTITAS

GRANT 20,518
ADAMS WHITMAN

PIERCE

THURSTON 2,173

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported Public lands

PACIFIC 55

LEWIS 105 YAKIMA 14,788

FRANKLIN 8,386
GARFIELD

WAHKIAKUM

COWLITZ 62

BENTON 3,527

WALLA WALLA 2,350

COLUMBIA 1,235
ASOTIN

SKAMANIA 79 KLICKITAT 1,088

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

CLARK 685

Miles 0 20 40
NDIC 2007012222PKB

Map 22. Outdoor Plants Seized in Washington, by County, 2005. 73

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Map 23. Indoor Plants Seized in Washington, by County, 2006
WHATCOM 2,298

SAN JUAN

SKAGIT 484
ISLAND

OKANOGAN 185
FERRY

PEND OREILLE 31 STEVENS 1,650

CLALLAM 321

SNOHOMISH 1,488

JEFFERSON 406

CHELAN 51
DOUGLAS

LINCOLN 12 KITSAP 1,095 MASON 337 KING 17,618

SPOKANE 1,688

GRAYS HARBOR 250

KITTITAS 3 PIERCE 2,077

GRANT 128
ADAMS WHITMAN

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499
FRANKLIN

THURSTON 441

PACIFIC

LEWIS 193
YAKIMA GARFIELD

50 - 99 1 - 49 None reported

WAHKIAKUM

COLUMBIA

COWLITZ 47

BENTON

WALLA WALLA

ASOTIN 19

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.

SKAMANIA 251

KLICKITAT

CLARK 1,366

jk
Miles 0 20 40
NDIC 2007012223PKB

Map 23. Indoor Plants Seized in Washington, by County, 2006. 75

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Map 24. Indoor Plants Seized in Washington, by County, 2005
WHATCOM 338

SAN JUAN

SKAGIT 988
ISLAND

OKANOGAN 52

PEND OREILLE 141 FERRY 65 STEVENS 553

CLALLAM 311

SNOHOMISH 1,562

JEFFERSON 385

CHELAN 60 DOUGLAS 23 LINCOLN 28 KITSAP 949 MASON 1,893 KING 17,103 SPOKANE 2,358

GRAYS HARBOR

KITTITAS 100 PIERCE 2,005

GRANT 3

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
ADAMS

THURSTON 1,039

WHITMAN 1

10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499

PACIFIC

LEWIS 941
FRANKLIN

50 - 99
GARFIELD

YAKIMA 1,418 WAHKIAKUM 23 COWLITZ 58 BENTON 165
WALLA WALLA

1 - 49 None reported

COLUMBIA 7

ASOTIN 1

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration's Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.

SKAMANIA 102 KLICKITAT 67

CLARK 1,042

jk
Miles 0 20 40
NDIC 2007012224PKB

Map 24. Indoor Plants Seized in Washington, by County, 2005. 77

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Map 25. Outdoor Plants Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2006
BOONE KENTONCAMPBELL

GALLATIN 213 CARROLL TRIMBLE 331 5,401 HENRY 264 OWEN 322 GRANT 533

PENDLETON 48

BRACKEN 354 MASON 232 GREENUP 15

OLDHAM

ROBERTSON 190 HARRISON 355 SCOTT 110

LEWIS 1,244

FLEMING

NICHOLAS 10
BOURBON ROWAN

CARTER 1,280

BOYD 36

JEFFERSON

SHELBY 650

FRANKLIN 475

FAYETTE

BATH 155 MONTGOMERY 35 CLARK MENIFEE 29 762 POWELL 914 MADISON 470 ESTILL 686 WOLFE 1,985 LEE 9,497 BREATHITT 29,847

ELLIOTT 11,402

MEADE 1,629 HENDERSON 54
UNION

BULLITT 242

SPENCER 87

ANDERSON 191

WOODFORD 331

LAWRENCE 232

MORGAN 353

HANCOCK 77 BRECKINRIDGE 2,629 DAVIESS 24

HARDIN 1,438 LARUE 4,709

NELSON MERCER 8,310 WASHINGTON 250 6,207 BOYLE 808

JESSAMINE 79

JOHNSON 3,679

MARTIN 26

MAGOFFIN 5,865 FLOYD 5,859

GARRARD 548

WEBSTER 381 CRITTENDEN 29 HOPKINS 3,781 LIVINGSTON 1,202 BALLARD 19
MCCRACKEN

MCLEAN 285

MARION 6,848

OHIO 794

GRAYSON 153 HART 5,129 TAYLOR 1,936 GREEN 3,381 ADAIR 2,379 WARREN 310 BARREN 743 METCALFE 5,798 RUSSELL 2,087 CASEY 1,622

LINCOLN 1,077 ROCKCASTLE 4,658

PIKE 10,549

JACKSON 2,308

OWSLEY 11,119 PERRY 30,344 CLAY 30,580

KNOTT 23,026

CALDWELL 7,439 LYON 132

MUHLENBERG 698

BUTLER 283

EDMONSON 2,118

PULASKI 2,020

LAUREL 1,210

LESLIE 37,848

LETCHER 35,814

CARLISLE 7 GRAVES 316

MARSHALL 227

TRIGG 111

CHRISTIAN 890

TODD 875

LOGAN 1,279 SIMPSON 750 ALLEN 241
CUMBERLAND

KNOX 48,670 WAYNE 24,327 CLINTON 11,620 MCCREARY 1,791 WHITLEY 20,188 BELL 39,877

HARLAN 12,737

HICKMAN

FULTON

CALLOWAY 575

MONROE 12,637

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported Public lands
Miles 0 25 50 Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

NDIC 2007012525PKB

Map 25. Outdoor Plants Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2006. 79

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Map 26. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2006

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

Cannabis Eradication Sites, 2006 by Number of Plants
(January through October 2006) 1 - 99 100 - 999 1,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 19,999 20,000 - 54,720 Public lands

Miles 0 25 50

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and Kentucky State Police.

NDIC 2007012526PKB

Map 26. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2006. 81

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Map 27. Outdoor Plants Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2005

BOONE KENTON CAMPBELL 37 58 31

GALLATIN 444 CARROLL TRIMBLE 412 5,189 OWEN 324 GRANT 150

PENDLETON BRACKEN 243 115 ROBERTSON 73 HARRISON 877 MASON 66 LEWIS 3,071 GREENUP 1,405
BOYD

OLDHAM 44

HENRY 389

JEFFERSON 367

SHELBY 309

FRANKLIN 558

SCOTT 279

NICHOLAS 151 BOURBON 64

FLEMING 92

CARTER 6,492 ROWAN 606

FAYETTE

BATH 625 MONTGOMERY 75

ELLIOTT 2,177

MEADE

BULLITT 2,406

SPENCER 84

ANDERSON 41

WOODFORD 164
CLARK

LAWRENCE 2,790

MENIFEE 14 POWELL 5,620

MORGAN 60

HENDERSON

HANCOCK 5 DAVIESS 113

BRECKINRIDGE 901

NELSON 6,900 HARDIN 272 LARUE 2,688

WASHINGTON 2,096

MERCER 241

JESSAMINE 37 MADISON 1,329

JOHNSON 1,589

MARTIN 308

UNION 54 WEBSTER 118

BOYLE 92 MARION 4,967

GARRARD 1,273

ESTILL 1,555 LEE 10,202

WOLFE 3,269

MAGOFFIN 4,913 FLOYD 8,320

MCLEAN

BREATHITT 29,003

OHIO 702
CRITTENDEN LIVINGSTON

GRAYSON 288 TAYLOR 6,257 GREEN 1,967 CASEY 15,123

LINCOLN 187 ROCKCASTLE 2,426

PIKE 12,286

JACKSON 973

OWSLEY 20,019 PERRY 41,181 CLAY 9,718

HOPKINS 2,084 CALDWELL 210 LYON 71 MUHLENBERG 643 BUTLER 339 EDMONSON 269

KNOTT 20,723

HART 202

BALLARD MCCRACKEN 97 75

ADAIR 5,791 WARREN 198 CHRISTIAN 199
TRIGG TODD

PULASKI 1,773 RUSSELL 3,039

LAUREL 3,997

LESLIE 22,821

LETCHER 20,587

CARLISLE

MARSHALL

BARREN 1,216

METCALFE 5,638

LOGAN 1,108 SIMPSON 1,026 ALLEN 1,118 MONROE 11,796 CUMBERLAND 2,725 CLINTON 5,671

KNOX 21,891 WAYNE 11,925 MCCREARY 175 WHITLEY 5,494 BELL 76,161

HARLAN 50,962

HICKMAN

GRAVES 21 CALLOWAY 343

FULTON 200

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported Public lands
Miles 0 25 50 Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

NDIC 2007012527PKB

Map 27. Outdoor Plants Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2005. 83

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Map 28. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2005

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

Cannabis Eradication Sites, 2005 by Number of Plants
1 - 99 100 - 999 1,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 19,999 20,000 - 54,720 Public lands

Miles 0 25 50

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and Kentucky State Police.

NDIC 2007012528PKB

Map 28. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2005. 85

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Map 29. Indoor Plants Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2006

BOONE 27 KENTONCAMPBELL

GALLATIN CARROLL TRIMBLE OWEN HENRY OLDHAM GRANT

PENDLETON BRACKEN 19
MASON ROBERTSON HARRISON FLEMING NICHOLAS LEWIS

GREENUP 256

CARTER 2
ROWAN

BOYD

SCOTT SHELBY JEFFERSON FRANKLIN BOURBON BATH

ELLIOTT LAWRENCE

MEADE 124
HANCOCK HENDERSON

BULLITT 216

SPENCER 16

FAYETTE WOODFORD 83 ANDERSON

MONTGOMERY CLARK MENIFEE MORGAN JOHNSON POWELL MARTIN WOLFE ESTILL LEE

JESSAMINE

BRECKINRIDGE 6 DAVIESS 2 MCLEAN 27

NELSON 103 HARDIN 67 LARUE 62

MERCER WASHINGTON

MADISON 6
BOYLE GARRARD

MAGOFFIN 12
FLOYD PIKE

UNION WEBSTER

MARION LINCOLN TAYLOR

BREATHITT 3 JACKSON 24 ROCKCASTLE 10
OWSLEY KNOTT PERRY

OHIO 2

GRAYSON

CRITTENDEN 8
LIVINGSTON CALDWELL BALLARD MCCRACKEN LYON

HOPKINS

HART 2 MUHLENBERG 13
BUTLER EDMONSON

CASEY GREEN

ADAIR WARREN METCALFE RUSSELL

PULASKI 14

LAUREL 1

CLAY LESLIE

LETCHER

BARREN

CARLISLE

MARSHALL

CHRISTIAN

TRIGG 1
HICKMAN GRAVES

TODD

LOGAN

KNOX 10 SIMPSON 3
CUMBERLAND ALLEN MONROE CLINTON WAYNE MCCREARY WHITLEY BELL

HARLAN

FULTON

CALLOWAY 11

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499 50 - 99 1 - 49
Miles 0 25 50

None reported
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.

NDIC 2007012529PKB

Map 29. Indoor Plants Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2006. 87

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Map 30. Indoor Plants Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2005
BOONE KENTONCAMPBELL GALLATIN PENDLETON BRACKEN

TRIMBLE CARROLL 8 OWEN 1
HENRY OLDHAM

GRANT

33
MASON ROBERTSON HARRISON FLEMING BOYD CARTER NICHOLAS LEWIS

GREENUP 44

JEFFERSON

SHELBY 38

FRANKLIN 2

SCOTT 5

BOURBON BATH

ROWAN 2
ELLIOTT LAWRENCE

SPENCER

MEADE 1
HANCOCK

ANDERSON BULLITT

FAYETTE WOODFORD 8
CLARK

MONTGOMERY MENIFEE MORGAN JOHNSON POWELL WOLFE MADISON ESTILL LEE MARTIN

HENDERSON 63
UNION WEBSTER

BRECKINRIDGE

NELSON 10 HARDIN 24 LARUE 84 WASHINGTON 166

MERCER

JESSAMINE 18

DAVIESS 42

MAGOFFIN 11
FLOYD

BOYLE MCLEAN OHIO GRAYSON MARION

GARRARD

BREATHITT 2
LINCOLN

PIKE 13

CRITTENDEN LIVINGSTON

HOPKINS 3
MUHLENBERG BUTLER EDMONSON

TAYLOR 47
HART

JACKSON 4
ROCKCASTLE

OWSLEY

GREEN 3

CASEY 30

PERRY 160

KNOTT

BALLARD

MCCRACKEN LYON

CALDWELL 450 WARREN 39 CHRISTIAN 1
TRIGG TODD LOGAN

CLAY LAUREL

ADAIR 6
BARREN

PULASKI

LESLIE

LETCHER

CARLISLE

MARSHALL

METCALFE 147

RUSSELL 30
KNOX HARLAN

CUMBERLAND HICKMAN GRAVES CALLOWAY FULTON SIMPSON ALLEN MONROE

CLINTON 76

WAYNE 34
MCCREARY

WHITLEY

BELL

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499 50 - 99 1 - 49
Miles 0 25 50

None reported
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.

NDIC 2007012530PKB

Map 30. Indoor Plants Seized in Kentucky, by County, 2005. 89

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Map 31. Outdoor Plants Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2006

STEWART 455 LAKE 1,695 OBION 1,010 WEAKLEY 1,839 HENRY 160

MONTGOMERY 52

ROBERTSON SUMNER

MACON

CLAY 2,411

PICKETT 18,006 FENTRESS 43,828 SCOTT 2,313 CAMPBELL 19,622

CLAIBORNE 6,915 UNION 456

HANCOCK HAWKINS

SULLIVAN JOHNSON

TROUSDALE

HOUSTON 1,230 BENTON 1,387 HUMPHREYS 1,548 DICKSON 240

JACKSON 4,041

OVERTON 2,888

WASHINGTON

CHEATHAM 1,016
DAVIDSON WILSON

SMITH 502 PUTNAM 16,632
DE KALB

GRAINGER 1,002
HAMBLEN GREENE UNICOI

CARTER

DYER 745 GIBSON 939 CARROLL 362

MORGAN 42,121 CUMBERLAND 88,919 ROANE 305

ANDERSON 2,630 KNOX 21

JEFFERSON 350 COCKE 12,783 SEVIER 6,975
BLOUNT

LAUDERDALE 207

CROCKETT

HICKMAN 27,853 MADISON 496 HENDERSON 23 DECATUR 744 PERRY 1,590 LEWIS 4,288

WILLIAMSON 312

WHITE 2,437

RUTHERFORD CANNON 352 89 WARREN 181,671 VAN BUREN 37,308 BLEDSOE 2,960 RHEA 768

LOUDON 45

HAYWOOD 307
TIPTON

MAURY 317 MARSHALL 378 BEDFORD 618
COFFEE

CHESTER 103 WAYNE 40,641

GRUNDY 26,757 HARDIN 1,471 LAWRENCE 26,553 GILES 458 MOORE 408 LINCOLN 777 FRANKLIN 1,817

SEQUATCHIE 10,846

MEIGS

MCMINN

MONROE 650

SHELBY

FAYETTE

HARDEMAN 203

MCNAIRY 215

MARION 362

HAMILTON 201

BRADLEY

POLK 2,401

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported Public lands
Miles 0 25 50 Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

NDIC 2007012331PKB

Map 31. Outdoor Plants Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2006. 91

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Map 32. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2006

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

Cannabis Eradication Sites, 2006 by Number of Plants
(January through October 2006) 1 - 99 100 - 999 1,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 19,999 20,000 - 54,720 Public lands

Miles 0 25 50

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and Tennessee Bureau of Investigation.

NDIC 2007012332PKB

Map 32. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2006. 93

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Map 33. Outdoor Plants Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2005

STEWART 241 LAKE 777
OBION

MONTGOMERY 634

ROBERTSON 482

MACON

CLAY 10,918

PICKETT 12,413 SCOTT 1,341 CAMPBELL 18,365

SUMNER 255 TROUSDALE 375 JACKSON 1,724 OVERTON 250 FENTRESS 55,781

CLAIBORNE 4,334

HANCOCK 60
HAWKINS

SULLIVAN

JOHNSON 2

WEAKLEY 624

HENRY 1,762

HOUSTON 1,096 BENTON 1,801 DICKSON 1,520 HUMPHREYS 1,581

CHEATHAM 1,572
DAVIDSON

SMITH 267 WILSON 89 DE KALB 185 RUTHERFORD 42 CANNON 1,165
WARREN PUTNAM

UNION 6,156 ANDERSON 105 KNOX 2,197 ROANE 1,420

GRAINGER 1,291 HAMBLEN 4,275 JEFFERSON 14,607 COCKE 30,745 SEVIER 5,177

WASHINGTON 107 GREENE 6,500 UNICOI 8

CARTER 504

DYER 411 GIBSON 380 CARROLL 926

MORGAN 10,482 CUMBERLAND 88,961

LAUDERDALE

CROCKETT

WILLIAMSON 128 HICKMAN 14,645 MADISON 105 HENDERSON PERRY 90 DECATUR 6,390 211

WHITE 206

HAYWOOD 47
TIPTON

MAURY 273 LEWIS 3,511 MARSHALL 102

BEDFORD

VAN BUREN 31,851 BLEDSOE 6,867

LOUDON BLOUNT

RHEA 6,548 MCMINN 2,400 MONROE 3,928

CHESTER 229

COFFEE 86 GRUNDY 16,163 SEQUATCHIE 783
MEIGS

SHELBY

FAYETTE 103

HARDEMAN 185

MCNAIRY 954

HARDIN 1,840

WAYNE 24,697

LAWRENCE 15,371

MOORE

GILES 3,541

LINCOLN 235

FRANKLIN 1,295

MARION 618

HAMILTON 218

BRADLEY 1,200

POLK 981

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported Public lands
Miles 0 25 50 Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

NDIC 2007012333PKB

Map 33. Outdoor Plants Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2005. 95

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Map 34. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2005

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

Cannabis Eradication Sites, 2005 by Number of Plants
1 - 99 100 - 999 1,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 19,999 20,000 - 54,720 Public lands

Miles 0 25 50

Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and Tennessee Bureau of Investigation.

NDIC 2007012334PKB

Map 34. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2005. 97

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Map 35. Indoor Plants Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2005

STEWART OBION WEAKLEY HENRY HOUSTON

MONTGOMERY 33

ROBERTSON SUMNER

MACON

CLAY

PICKETT CLAIBORNE SCOTT

HANCOCK

SULLIVAN JOHNSON HAWKINS WASHINGTON

LAKE

TROUSDALE CHEATHAM SMITH DICKSON DAVIDSON WILSON

JACKSON

OVERTON

FENTRESS

CAMPBELL 9
UNION GRAINGER HAMBLEN

CARTER

GREENE DYER GIBSON CARROLL WILLIAMSON LAUDERDALE CROCKETT HICKMAN RUTHERFORD CANNON LOUDON HAYWOOD TIPTON CHESTER MADISON HENDERSON DECATUR PERRY LEWIS MARSHALL GRUNDY MOORE LAWRENCE GILES LINCOLN FRANKLIN MARION HAMILTON BRADLEY POLK MEIGS SEQUATCHIE WARREN MAURY BEDFORD VAN BUREN BLEDSOE COFFEE MCMINN MONROE RHEA BLOUNT PUTNAM MORGAN UNICOI ANDERSON JEFFERSON DE KALB WHITE CUMBERLAND ROANE SEVIER KNOX BENTON

HUMPHREYS

COCKE 611

SHELBY

FAYETTE

HARDEMAN MCNAIRY

WAYNE HARDIN

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499 50 - 99 1 - 49 None reported
Miles 0 25 50 Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program.
NDIC 2007012335PKB

Map 35. Indoor Plants Seized in Tennessee, by County, 2005. 99

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HANCOCK

BROOKE

Map 36. Outdoor Plants Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2006

OHIO

MARSHALL

MONONGALIA WETZEL MARION TYLER PRESTON MINERAL PLEASANTS TAYLOR DODDRIDGE WOOD RITCHIE BARBOUR TUCKER GRANT HARRISON HAMPSHIRE JEFFERSON BERKELEY MORGAN

WIRT

GILMER 780
JACKSON CALHOUN

LEWIS 197
UPSHUR

HARDY

MASON 1,542
ROANE

RANDOLPH

BRAXTON 753

PENDLETON

PUTNAM

CABELL 491 KANAWHA 6,027

CLAY 4,543

WEBSTER

POCAHONTAS NICHOLAS

WAYNE 12,906

LINCOLN 686

BOONE 3,299

FAYETTE GREENBRIER

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported Public lands
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

LOGAN 9,709 MINGO 4,221
WYOMING RALEIGH

SUMMERS

MONROE 17,505

MCDOWELL 1,150

MERCER

Miles 0
NDIC 2007012436PKB

25

50

Map 36. Outdoor Plants Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2006. 101

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HANCOCK

BROOKE

Map 37. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2006

OHIO

MARSHALL

MONONGALIA WETZEL MARION TYLER PRESTON MINERAL PLEASANTS TAYLOR DODDRIDGE WOOD RITCHIE BARBOUR TUCKER GRANT HARRISON HAMPSHIRE JEFFERSON BERKELEY MORGAN

WIRT

GILMER 780
JACKSON CALHOUN

LEWIS 197
UPSHUR

HARDY

MASON 1,542
ROANE

RANDOLPH

BRAXTON 753

PENDLETON

PUTNAM

CABELL 491 KANAWHA 6,027

CLAY 4,543

WEBSTER

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

POCAHONTAS NICHOLAS

WAYNE 12,906

LINCOLN 686

BOONE 3,299

FAYETTE GREENBRIER

Cannabis Eradication Sites, 2006 by Number of Plants
(January through September 2006) 1 - 99 100 - 999 1,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 19,999 20,000 - 54,720

LOGAN 9,709 MINGO 4,221
WYOMING RALEIGH

SUMMERS

MONROE 17,505

Public lands
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and West Virginia National Guard. 50

MCDOWELL 1,150

MERCER

Miles 0
NDIC 2007012437PKB

25

Map 37. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2006. 103

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HANCOCK 9

BROOKE

Map 38. Outdoor Plants Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2005

OHIO

MARSHALL 188

WETZEL 38
TYLER

MONONGALIA

MORGAN 14
MARION

PRESTON 1 MINERAL 46

BERKELEY 31

PLEASANTS 83 DODDRIDGE 105
HARRISON

TAYLOR

HAMPSHIRE

JEFFERSON 9

WOOD

RITCHIE 1,186 WIRT 595

BARBOUR 838 LEWIS 52 UPSHUR 90 RANDOLPH 80 BRAXTON 69

TUCKER 441

GRANT

HARDY

GILMER 43 MASON 2,016 JACKSON 3,971 ROANE 192 CALHOUN 188

PENDLETON

PUTNAM 114
CABELL

CLAY 581 KANAWHA 8,512 NICHOLAS 49

WEBSTER

POCAHONTAS 180

WAYNE 7,531

LINCOLN 1,382

BOONE 3,948

FAYETTE 473 GREENBRIER 1,155

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported Public lands
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

LOGAN 8,254 MINGO 1,284 WYOMING 2,024 RALEIGH 805

SUMMERS 203

MONROE 143

MCDOWELL 9,363

MERCER 472

Miles 0
NDIC 2007012438PKB

25

50

Map 38. Outdoor Plants Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2005. 105

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Map 39. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2005

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
200,000 + 100,000 - 199,999 10,000 - 99,999 1,000 - 9,999 100 - 999 1 - 99 None reported

Cannabis Eradication Sites, 2005 by Number of Plants
1 - 99 100 - 999 1,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 19,999 20,000 - 54,720 Public lands
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and West Virginia National Guard. 50

Miles 0
NDIC 2007012439PKB

25

Map 39. Outdoor Plants and Sites Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2005. 107

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HANCOCK

BROOKE

Map 40. Indoor Plants Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2006

OHIO

MARSHALL

MONONGALIA WETZEL MARION TYLER PRESTON MINERAL PLEASANTS TAYLOR DODDRIDGE WOOD RITCHIE BARBOUR TUCKER GRANT HARRISON HAMPSHIRE JEFFERSON BERKELEY MORGAN

WIRT LEWIS HARDY UPSHUR

GILMER 306
JACKSON CALHOUN

MASON 6
ROANE BRAXTON

RANDOLPH

PENDLETON

PUTNAM WEBSTER CABELL CLAY

KANAWHA 845
NICHOLAS LINCOLN WAYNE

POCAHONTAS

BOONE 5

FAYETTE GREENBRIER

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2006
(January through November 2006) 10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499 50 - 99 1 - 49 None reported
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program. Miles 0 25 50

LOGAN 3
RALEIGH MINGO

WYOMING

SUMMERS MONROE

MCDOWELL

MERCER

NDIC 2007012438PKB

Map 40. Indoor Plants Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2006. 109

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HANCOCK 2

BROOKE

Map 41. Indoor Plants Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2005

OHIO

MARSHALL

WETZEL 20
TYLER

MONONGALIA

MORGAN 4
MARION PRESTON MINERAL

BERKELEY 31 HAMPSHIRE 24

PLEASANTS TAYLOR DODDRIDGE WOOD RITCHIE

HARRISON 10

JEFFERSON 52

BARBOUR 2
WIRT

TUCKER 10

GRANT

LEWIS 128
GILMER UPSHUR

HARDY

JACKSON MASON ROANE

CALHOUN

RANDOLPH 4
BRAXTON

PENDLETON 64

PUTNAM 67
CABELL CLAY

WEBSTER

KANAWHA 135
NICHOLAS LINCOLN WAYNE

POCAHONTAS

BOONE

FAYETTE 20 GREENBRIER 65

Cannabis Plants Eradicated, 2005
10,000 + 5,000 - 9,999 1,000 - 4,999 500 - 999 100 - 499 50 - 99 1 - 49 None reported
Source: Drug Enforcement Administration Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program. 50

LOGAN

MINGO

RALEIGH 205

WYOMING

SUMMERS MONROE

MCDOWELL

MERCER

Miles 0
NDIC 2007012441PKB

25

Map 41. Indoor Plants Seized in West Virginia, by County, 2005. 111

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Sources
Federal
Executive Office of the President Office of National Drug Control Policy High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas Appalachia Arizona Demand Reduction Office Post Seizure Analysis Team Atlanta Central Florida Central Valley California Marijuana Investigative Team Chicago Gulf Coast Hawaii Houston Lake County Los Angeles Michigan Milwaukee Nevada New England New York/New Jersey Northern California North Florida North Texas Northwest Ohio Oregon Philadelphia/Camden Puerto Rico/U.S. Virgin Islands Rocky Mountain South Florida Southwest Border Washington/Baltimore National Marijuana Initiative U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service National Forest System

113

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services University of Mississippi Potency Monitoring Project U.S. Department of Homeland Security Immigration and Customs Enforcement U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Criminal Division Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force Drug Enforcement Administration Atlanta Field Division Boston Field Division Caribbean Field Division Chicago Field Division Dallas Field Division Denver Field Division Detroit Field Division Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program El Paso Field Division El Paso Intelligence Center Houston Field Division Los Angeles Field Division Miami Field Division Newark Field Division New Orleans Field Division New York Field Division Philadelphia Field Division Phoenix Field Division San Diego Field Division San Francisco Field Division Sacramento District Office Seattle Field Division St. Louis Field Division Washington, D.C., Field Division Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys U.S. Attorneys’ Offices Federal Bureau of Investigation U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Indian Affairs Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Reclamation National Park Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

114

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State
Alabama Alabama Bureau of Investigation Marijuana Eradication Program Alabama National Guard Arizona Arizona Department of Public Safety Arizona State Land Department Gila County Task Force Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office Phoenix Police Department Arkansas Arkansas State Police California California Department of Justice Bureau of Narcotic Enforcement Campaign Against Marijuana Planting Narcotic Information Network California National Guard California Secretary of State Connecticut Southington Police Department Florida Domestic Marijuana Eradication Program Florida National Guard Office of Agricultural Law Enforcement Florida Department of Agricultural and Consumer Services Florida Department of Law Enforcement Miami-Dade Police Department Port St. Lucie Police Department Kentucky Kentucky State Police Marijuana Suppression Unit

115

Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007

Oregon Oregon Department of Justice Tennessee Lafayette Police Department Tennessee Bureau of Investigation Governor’s Task Force for Marijuana Eradication Tennessee Judicial Drug Task Forces 15th Judicial District Task Force Trousdale County Sheriff’s Office Texas Texas Department of Public Safety Domestic Marijuana Eradication Program Washington Valley Narcotics Enforcement Team Washington State Patrol West Virginia West Virginia Army National Guard West Virginia State Police Bureau of Criminal Investigations Canada Government of Ontario Department of Justice Canada Legislative Assembly of Ontario Montreal Police Department Royal Canadian Mounted Police

116

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Cover photos: BNE, NDIC, and Southington Connecticut Police Department

031007

319 Washington Street 5th Floor, Johnstown, PA 15901-1622 • (814) 532-4601 NDIC publications are available on the following web sites: ADNET http://ndicosa LEO home.leo.gov/lesig/ndic RISS ndic.riss.net INTERNET www.usdoj.gov/ndic