You are on page 1of 14

Ultrasonic Test Procedure

Castings, Carbon, Low-Alloy,
and Martensitic Stainless Steel

IFA 93-07-14 00
Purpose App. Chk. Pre.
Client Date Rev.
Of Issue Contractor

name Project
ClientNumber: Date: 93-07-14
Page 1 of 12 Contractor Number:
Rev: 00
Atmospher Number:


This document and the information disclosed are the property of mapna md1 and are not to b
used to furnish any information for making of documents or apparatus except where approved
by written agreement.

Tabulation of Revised Pages

07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 Page 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 Page
51 X 1
52 X 2
53 X 3
54 X 4
55 X 5
56 X 6
57 X 7
58 X 8
59 X 9
60 X 10
61 X 11
62 X 12
63 13
64 14
65 15
66 16
67 17
68 18
69 19
70 20
71 21
72 22
73 23
74 24
75 25
76 26
77 27
78 28
79 29
80 30
81 31
82 32
83 33
84 34
85 35
86 36
87 37
88 38
89 39
90 40
91 41
92 42
93 43
94 44
95 45
96 46
97 47
98 48
99 49
100 50
1- SCOPE ................................................................................. 4
2- REFERENCE ........................................................................5
3- GENERAL ............................................................................. 5
4- PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION ............................................5
5- SURFACE PREPARATION ....................................................5
6- EQUIPMENT ........................................................................6
7-CALIBRATION ......................................................................7
8- SCANNING ..........................................................................8
9- EXAMINATION ....................................................................9
10- ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA ...................................................9
11- RECORDS ........................................................................11
12- Product Marking.............................................................12
1- Scope:
1.1-This procedure describes the general requirements for Ultrasonic
examination of Castings, Carbon, Low-Alloy, and Martensitic Stainless
Steel, as may be required by the specification or under.which
component is being designed and manufactured.
1.2-This procedure provides the materials, equipment, personnel
qualification, examination process, evaluation, record and acceptance
standards for project name Project which fabricated in Atmospher Company.
1.3- Ultrasonic examiantion shall be performed in accrodance with
the procedure which shall as a minimum contain the requirement of
table T-421 as below:

2.1-ASTM A 53/ (Reapproved 2002)
2.2- API 5L (2004)
2.3- ANSI, ASME Sec.V article 4 & 5 (Edition 2007)
2.4- ANSI recommended practices No.ASNT-TC-1A for NDT personnel
qualification and certification (1996 Edition with 1998 Ad.).
2.5- IPS M - PI 190-2- (2004)
2.6- Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, 2000
2.7- International Standard ISO 12094

3.1-Basic requirements and terms used
When this procedure is specified by a referencing code section, the
ultrasonic method described in this procedure shall be used with
ASTM A 53 (Reapproved 2002),ASME code section V-article 1&4&5-
Edition 2007
3.2-Examination coverage(scan overlap)
Each pass of the search unit shall overlap minimum 10% of the
transducer(piezo-electric element) dimension perpendicular to the
direction of the scan.
3.3- Rate of search unit movements
The rate of search unit movement for examination shall not exceed 6
inch/sec(150 mm/s).
4- Personnel qualification:
The N.D.T personnel whose performing ultrasonic examination shall be
qualified and meets the requirements of level II,in Accordance to
ASNT-SNT-TC-1A-1996 ED. with 1998 Addition.

5- Surface preparation
5.1- Time of InspectionThe final ultrasonic acceptance inspection
shall be performed after at least an austenitizing heat treatment and
preferably after machining. In order to avoid time loss in production,
acceptance inspection of cast surfaces may be done prior to
machining. Machined surfaces shall be acceptance inspected as soon
as possible after machining. Repair welds may be inspected before
the postweld heat treatment.

5.2- Surface Finish:

5.2.1- Machined SurfacesMachined surfaces subject to ultrasonic
inspection shall have a finish that will produce an ultrasonic response
equivalent to that obtained from a 250 in. [6.3 m] surface. The
surface finish shall also permit adequate movement of search units
along the surface.
5.2.2- Casting SurfacesCasting surfaces to be ultrasonically
inspected shall be suitable for the intended type and quality level of
inspection as judged acceptable by a qualified individual as specified
in (ASTM A53)
5.2.3- Surface ConditionAll surfaces to be inspected shall be free of
scale, machining or grinding particles, excessive paint thickness, dirt,
or other foreign matter that may interfere with the inspection.
5.2.4- Position of CastingThe casting shall be positioned such that
the inspector has free access to the back wall for the purpose of
verifying change in contour.

6- Equipments
6.1- Examination shall be conducted with a pulse echo A-Scan
ultrasonic instrument capable of generating frequencies over the
range of at least 1 MHZ to 5MHZ. Ultrasonic instrument shall be
calibrated for the examination and shall be capable of meeting the
requirements of screen height linearity and amplitude control linearity
in paragraph 5.3 & 5.4 of this procedure.
Ultrasonic instrument shall be equipped with stepped gain control in
units of 2dB or less(according to ASME sec V-T-431)

6.2- Search units

6.2.1-Search UnitsCeramic element transducers not exceeding
1.25 in. [32 mm] diameter or 1 in.2 [645 mm2] shall be used.
6.2.2-Search Units FacingA soft urethane membrane or neoprene
sheet, approximately 0.025 in. [0.64 mm] thick, may be used to
improve coupling and minimize transducer wear caused by casting
surface roughness.
6.2.3-Calibration/TestingThe same system, including the urethane
membrane, used for calibration shall be used to inspect the casting.
6.2.4-Other InspectionsOther frequencies and type search units
may be used for obtaining additional information and pinpointing of
individual indications.
6.3-Screen height linearity
The ultrasonic instrument shall provide linear vertical presentation
within 5% (According to ASME Sec.V Edition 2007,Article 5 T-532) of
the full screen height for 20% to 80% of the calibrated screen height.
The procedure for evaluating screen height linearity is provided in
appendix 1 of article 5, ASME code Sec.V and shall be performed at
the beginning of each period of extended use(or every 3 months,
which ever is less).
6.4-Amplitude control linearity
The ultrasonic instrument shall utilize an amplitude control accurate
over its useful range to 20% of the nominal amplitude ratio, to
allow measurement of indications beyond the linear range of the
vertical display on the screen, the procedure for evaluating amplitude
control linearity is given in appendix 2 of article 5, ASME code Sec.V
and Shall be performed at the beginning of each period of extended
use (or every 6 months, whichever is less).
6.5- Couplant
SAE No.20 or No 30 motor oil, glycerin and adhesive wall paper shall
be used. Couplants may not be comparable to one another, and the
same couplant shall be used for calibration and examination. couplant
used on nickel base alloy shall not contain more than 250 ppm of
sulfur and those used on austenitic stainless steel shall not contain
more than 250 ppm of halides (chlorides plus flourides).
7- Calibration:
7.1- Vertical and amplitude control linearity has investigated according to procedure.
7.3- Calibration block:
To draw the DAC, a block with size (Diameter & thickness),
Diagram and the materials that shall be similar to that test tube
is required to produce. Figure 2 shows the calibration block
pattern. Hole TDH (way in) according to intended spec can be
selected with diameter 1.6mm or 3.2mm.
If the hole TDH is used to draw the DAC on The pipe test for
automated UT system, does not need to prepare a separate
7.3- Calibration Procedure:

Figure 2
7.3.1- Set the frequency selector as required. Set the reject control in
the OFF position.
7.3.2- Position the search unit on the entrant surface of the block
that completely encompasses the metal thickness to be inspected
(Fig. 3) and adjust the sweep control such that the back reflection
signal appears approximately, but not more than three-quarters along
the sweep line from the initial pulse signal.
7.3.3- Position the search unit on the entrant surface of the smallest
block of the series of 3 blocks selected for calibration and adjust the
gain until the back reflection signal height (amplitude) is 1.5 in. [40
mm] sweep to peak (S/P). Draw a line on the cathode-ray screen
(CRT), parallel to the sweep line, through the peak of the 1.5 in. (S/P)
7.3.4- Position the search unit on the entrant surface of the largest
block of the series of 3 blocks selected for calibration, and adjust the
distance amplitude control to provide a back reflection signal height
of 1.5 in. [40 mm] (S/P).
7.3.5- Position the search unit on the entrant surface of the
intermediate calibration block of the series of 3 blocks being used for
calibration and confirm that the back reflection signal height is
approximately 1.5 in. [40 mm] (S/P). If it is not, obtain the best
compromise between this block and the largest block of the series of
3 blocks being used for calibration.

7.3.6- Draw a line on the cathode ray tube screen parallel to the
sweep line at 0.5 in. [13 mm] (S/P) amplitude. This will be the
reference line for reporting discontinuity amplitudes.
7.3.7- For tests on machined surfaces, position the search unit on a
machined surface of casting where the walls are reasonably parallel
and adjust the gain of the instrument until the back reflection signal
height is 1.5 in. [40 mm] (S/P). Increase the inspection sensitivity by a
factor of three times (10 dB gain) with the calibrated attenuator.
Surfaces that do not meet the requirements of 14.2.1 shall be
inspected as specified in 15.3.8.
7.3.8- For inspections on cast surfaces, position the search unit on
the casting to be inspected at a location where the walls are
reasonably parallel and smooth (inside and outside diameter) and the
surface condition is representative of the surface being inspected.
Adjust the gain of the instrument until the back reflection signal
height is 1.5 in. [40 mm] (S/P). Increase the inspection sensitivity by a
factor of six times (16 dB) by use of the calibrated control or
attenuator. A significant change in surface finish requires a
compensating adjustment to the gain.
8- Scanning
8.1- Grid PatternThe surface of the casting shall be laid out in a 12
by 12 in. [300 by 300 mm] or any similar grid pattern for guidance in
scanning. Grid numbers shall be stenciled on the casting for record
purposes and for grid area identity. The stenciled grid number shall
appear in the upper right hand corner of the grid. When grids are laid
out on the casting surface and they encompass different quality
levels, each specific area shall be evaluated in accordance with the
requirements of the specific quality level designated for that area.
8.2- OverlapScan over the surface allowing 10 % minimum overlap
of the working diameters of the search unit.
8.3- Inspection RequirementsAll surfaces specified for ultrasonic
(UT) shall be completely inspected from both sides, whenever both
sides are accessible. The same search unit used for calibration shall
be used to inspect the casting.

9- Examination
9.1-Method of sizing indications
For normal & angel beam UT inspection , method of sizing
indication is half value method measurement(6dB drop) as
The size of reflectors which are large is comparison to the sound
beam diameter can be determines by edge scaning.the probe is
moved from a position which provides the optimum flaw echo to
the edge of the flaw.the point at which the echo height is half the
optimum value,i.e.where the beam axis is incident on the edge of
the flow,is marked on the testing surface.a series of such point
outline the reflector surface.
The half value length (HVL) is the distance measured on the test
object between edge point in a longitudinal direction,the half value
width(HVW) in a normal direction.
The 6dB technique involves obtaining an echo from a position
where the reflector extends across the full width of ultrasonic
beam and then moving the beam along the reflector until the echo
has fallen by half(i.e by 6dB).it is then assumed that only one half
of the beam is impinging on the reflector whose edge,therefore,lies
along the beam axis.the technique is applicable to both normal &
angel probes,and is most frequently used for the potting of
lamination in plate ,and for measuring the lengh of linear
imperfection in welds.
9.2-Scaning method
The scaning method for this procedure is manual with A-scan
10- Acceptance Criteria
10.1- According to the ASTM-A609, applicable quality level for all
product wich subject to project, would be level 7.
10.2- Rejectable ConditionsThe locations of all indications having
amplitudes greater than the 0.5 in. [13 mm] line given in 15.3.6,
when amplitude three times (machined surfaces) or six times (cast
surfaces) shall be marked on the casting surface. The boundary limits
of the indication shall be determined by marking a sufficient number
of marks on the casting surfaces where the ultrasonic signal equals
one half the reference amplitude, 0.25 in. [6 mm]. To completely
delineate the indication, draw a line around the outer boundary of the
center of the number of marks to form the indication area. Draw a
rectangle or other regular shape through the indication in order to
form a polygon from which the area may be easily computed. It is not
necessary that the ultrasonic signal exceed the amplitude reference
line over the entire area. At some locations within the limits of the
indication, the signal may be less than the reference line, but
nevertheless still present such that it may be judged as a continuous,
signal indication. Rejectable conditions are as follows and when any of
the conditions listed below are found, the indications shall be
removed and repair welded to the applicable process specification.
10.3- Linear IndicationsA linear indication is defined as one having
a length equal to or greater than three times its width. An amplitude
of in. [13 mm], such as would result from tears or stringer type slag
inclusion, shall be removed.
10.4- Non-Linear Indications:
10.4.1- Isolated IndicationsIsolated indications shall not exceed the
limits of the quality level designated by the customers purchase
order listed in Table 3. An isolated indication may be defined as one
for which the distance between it and an adjacent indication is
greater than the longest dimension of the larger of the adjacent
10.4.2- Clustered IndicationsClustered indications shall be defined
as two or more indications that are confined in a 1 in. [25 mm] cube.
Clustered indications shall not exceed the limits of the quality level
designated by the customer purchase order in Table 4. Where the
distance between indications is less than the lowest dimension of the
largest indication in the group, the cluster shall be repair welded.
10.4.3- The distance between two clusters must be greater than the
lowest dimension of the largest indication in either cluster. If they are
not, the cluster having the largest single indication shall be removed.
10.4.4- All indications, regardless of their surface areas as indicated
by transducer movement on the casting surface and regardless of the
quality level required, shall not have a through wall distance greater
than 13 T, where T is the wall thickness in the area containing the
10.4.5- Repair welding of cluster-type indications need only be the
extent necessary to meet the applicable quality level for that
particular area. All other types of rejectable indications shall be
completely removed.
10.4.6- Repair welds of castings shall meet the quality level
designated for that particular area of the casting.
10.4.7- Any location that has a 75 % or greater loss in back reflection
and exceeds the area of the applicable quality level, and whose
indication amplitudes may or may not exceed the 0.5 in. [13 mm]
rejection line, shall be rejected unless the reason for the loss in back
reflection can be resolved as not being caused by an indication. If
gain is added and back echo is achieved without indication percent
amplitude exceeding the 0.5 in. [13 mm] rejection line, the area
should be accepted.
11- Records
11.1- StencilingEach casting shall be permanently stenciled to
locate inspection zones or grid pattern for ease in locating areas
where rejectable indications were observed.
11.2- SketchA report showing the exact depth and surface location
in relation to the stencil numbers shall be made for each rejectable
indicator found during each inspection.
11.2.1- The sketch shall also include, but not be limited to, the
following: Part identification numbers, Purchase order numbers, Type and size of supplemental transducers used, Name of inspector, and Date of inspection.

12- Product Marking

12.1- Any rejectable areas (those indications exceeding the limits of
Section 11) shall be marked on the casting as the inspection
progresses. The point of marking shall be the center of the search