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# Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus

COURSE PROJECT

## Due on: 27 May 2016, Friday, 17:00

In this term project, the main parts of a shaper (Figure 1) will be designed. A shaper is a type of machine tool
that uses linear relative motion between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear
tool path. Its cut is analogous to that of a lathe, except that it is linear instead of helical. The ram is moved
back and forth typically by a crank inside the column. A shaper operates by moving a hardened cutting tool
backwards and forwards across the workpiece. On the return stroke of the ram the tool is lifted clear of the
workpiece, reducing the cutting action to one direction only.
The electric motor A (1) on the ground drives the flywheel (2) via the belt (3). The flywheel mounted on the
shaft (4) rotates at a constant angular velocity and transmits the motion to the crank (6). The crank (6) is
attached to the connecting rod (7) by the pin B (9). Similarly, connecting rods and slider (8) are joined by the
pin C (10).
Detail drawings of the shaft (4), and pin B (9) are given in Figure 2 and 3, respectively. Electric motor and
flywheel system is provided in Figure 4. The bracket welded to the slider is shown in Figure 5.
In the project do the followings in the given order:
A. Draw the free body diagrams of the following parts (neglect inertias):
1. the flywheel, 2. the shaft, 3. the crank, 4. the connecting rod, 5. pin A, 6. pin B, and 7. pin C.
B. Shaft Design
The belt forces can be calculated from the equation F1 / F2 = ef, where f is the coefficient of friction and is
the angle of wrap, shown in Figure 4.

1. Draw the shear force and the bending moment diagrams of the shaft.
2. Design the shaft for fatigue loading. Use distortion energy theory and Soderberg criteria in the design.
Note that the shaft is machined. The flywheel and the cranks are fixed to the shaft with sled runner type of
keys.

Hint: Note that the magnitude of reaction forces acting on the shaft is a function of the crank angle. You may
design the shaft as if the loadings on the shaft changes between 0 and the value corresponding to the
maximum torque case (Figure 1). In reality, for the critical locations, you need to plot the bending moment
with respect to the crank angle and angular position of the shaft and determine the critical point (crank angle
and angular position) from the 3D plot. At the maximum torque position, 12 = 100 and 13 = 135. For the
maximum torque position, the value of the maximum torque applied by the belt to the flywheel is T = 45.7
Nm and the reaction forces on the pin (pin located on the disk and shown as red in Figure1) are Fx = 1160 N
Fy = 205 N.
C. Connecting Rod Design (CB)
The angular position of the crank at the start-up can attain any angle. Note that the value of the start-up
torque does not significantly depend on the initial crank angle. This is because the motor characteristics
mainly determine the start-up torque. The cross section of the rocker is hollow square and the ratio of a side
of the square to thickness is given in the dataset.
D. Pin Design
Determine the diameter of the pin B and specify an appropriate fit for the pin. Design the pins for static case
(start-up position). Use maximum shear stress theory.
E. Weld Design
Find the size of the welds between the connecting rod and bracket welded to the slider considering fatigue
Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus
MECH307 2015-16 SPRING

## F. Make an engineering drawing of the following parts:

1. The Shaft
2. The Pin B
3. Details of the weld section

## The technical drawings should:

be prepared using CAD tools and be scaled, and
contain the tolerances in the pin design.
Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus
MECH307 2015-16 SPRING
Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus
MECH307 2015-16 SPRING