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# Experiment 9 (1/3)

EXPERIMENT 9
Thermochemistry
Objective
1) To determine the molarity of sodium hydroxide solution by simple volumetric
titration and by thermometric titration.
2) To estimate the enthalpy of neutralization of sodium hydroxide (strong base) and
hydrochloric acid (strong acid) by graphical method.
Theory
During the thermometric titration, there is heat of neutralization and there will be a rise
in temperature in the solution. The temperature attained a maximum when the end-
point is reached.
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) H = -57.3 kJmol-1
Taking the relative density and specific heat capacity of the alkaline, acid and salt
solution concerned as unity, the heat of neutralization of the process is given by

## Where m= Mass of wash bottle

C = Heat capacity of plastic
T3 = The highest temperature reached by the mixture
T2 = Temperature of the acid
T1 = Temperature of the alkali
V = Volume of the acid required to reach the highest temperature
Procedure
Titrate 25cm3 of NaOH solution with 1M standard HCl solution.
Use methyl orange as an indicator.
Weigh a dry plastic bottle (or polystyrene cup).
Pipette 50cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution in a dry plastic bottle.
Record the temperature. Without removing the thermometer, add 5cm3 portions of HCl
acid successively from the burette, record the temperature after each addition and
stirring.
Calculation and Data Treatment
1. Plot a graph of temperature against the volume of acid added.
2. Calculate the standard enthalpy of neutralization for sodium hydroxide and
hydrochloric acid.
Discussion
1) Report the concentrations of NaOH found by the two methods. Comment on their
difference (if any).
2) Compare the heat of neutralization you obtained with the literature value.
H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) H2O (l) H = -57.35 kJ mole-1
Also comment on the heat of neutralization of strong base and strong acid and that
with weak base and weak acid.
* Given the heat capacity of polythene = 0.0067 4.184 J g-1 C-1.
3) Design an experiment to determine the enthalpy of neutralization with a higher
accuracy than this one.
Experiment 9 (2/3)

Class: F.6____ ( )
Name: _______________________ Date:
___________

## Title: Experiment 9 - Thermochemistry

Objective
1. To determine the molarity of sodium hydroxide solution by simple volumetric
titration and by thermometric titration.
2. To estimate the enthalpy of neutralization of sodium hydroxide (strong base) and
hydrochloric acid (strong acid) by graphical method.

## Calculation and Data Treatment

Discussion
1) Report the concentrations of NaOH found by the two methods. Comment on their
difference (if any).

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2) Compare the heat of neutralization you obtained with the literature value.
H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) H2O (l) H = -57.35 kJ mole-1
Experiment 9 (3/3)

Also comment on the heat of neutralization of strong base and strong acid and that
with weak base and weak acid.
* Given the heat capacity of polythene = 0.0067 4.184 J g-1 C-1.

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## 3) Design an experiment to determine the enthalpy of neutralization with a higher

accuracy than this one.

Sources of error

Conclusion :