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An equilibrium represents a state in a process when the EXAMPLE:1 During bottling a carbonated beverage was made by
observable properties such as colour, temperature, pressure, CO2 at a pressure of 4.0
concentration etc. do not show any change. saturating flavoured water at 00C with
A. Types of equilibrium atm. Later, the bottle was opened and the soft drink is allowed to
Equilibrium is of two types
i. Physical equilibrium ii. Chemical equilibrium come at equilibrium at 250 C with air containing CO2 at a
Physical equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical processes is called physical equilibrium.
B. Chemical equilibrium pressure of 4.0 101 atm. Find the concentration of CO2
Equilibrium associated with chemical reaction is known as
in the freshly bottled soda and in the soda after it had stood open
chemical equilibrium.
and come to equilibrium. The Henrys constant for aqueous
Types of physical equilibrium
Physical equilibrium is of three types
solution of
CO2 are
i. Solid-liquid equilibrium
Ice water 00 C , k =7.7 102 mol L1 atm1
Rate of melting = Rate of freezing
At 250 C , k =3.2102 mol L1 atm1
ii. Liquid-gas equilibrium
Water vapours SOLUTION: For opened bottled soft drink.
Rate of vaporisation = Rate of condensation
iii. Solid-gas equilibrium C=kP=( 7.7 102 mol L1 atm1) ( 4.0 atm )=0.308 mol L
It occurs only in those solids which sublimise on heating.
For example: Ammonium chloride, iodine, camphor. For freshly bottled soft drink
NH 4 C l ( s ) NH 4 C l(g) C=kP
2. EQUILIBIUM RELATING TO DISSOLUTION OF C=( 3.2 102 mol L1 atm1 ) ( 4.0 104 atm )
Equilibrium between a solid and its solution is indicated by 1.28 105 mol L1
saturated solution.
The maximum amount of the solute in grams which dissolves in PHYSICAL EQUILIBRIA
100 g of the solvent at a given temperature to form the saturated
A. Solid liquid equilibrium is obtained only at a particular
solution is known as the solubility. Solubility of the solid in
solution is constant at constant temperature. temperature. This temperature is the melting point of solid of freezing
The equilibrium may be represented as point of the liquid.
Sugar (in solution) Sugar (solid) B. In liquid gas equilibrium, the pressure of the vapours of the
Equilibrium between a gas and its solution in a liquid liquid above the liquid surface is called vapour pressure. It is constant
The equilibrium may be represented as at a given temperature. At equilibrium the molecules in two phases
CO2 ( g) CO 2 (present in solution) have equal kinetic energy. Addition of salt flowers the vapour pressure.
Some features of physical equilibrium
Henrys law Process Conclusion
The mass of gas that dissolve in a given mass of a solvent at any
temperature is proportional to the pressure of the gas above the Liquid Vapour PH O
2 constant at given
surface of the solvent. Mathematically,
m p or m=k p (k is a constant) H 2 O(l) H 2 O(g) temperature

Solid Liquid Melting point is fixed at

constant pressure

H 2 O (s)

H 2 O(l)

Solute (s) solute Concentration of solute in

solution is constant at a

(s ) sugar given temperature

Reactions in which all the reactants and products are in one phase is
Gas (g) Gas (aq) [Gas (aq)]/[Gas (g)] called homogeneous reaction.
is constant at a given N 2 ( g )+3 H 2 (g) 2 NH 3 (g)
temperature For example:
CO2 ( g) CO 2 (aq) [ Reaction in which the reactants and products are in more then one
CO2 ( aq ) /[CO 2 ( g ) ] phase is called heterogeneous reaction.
For example:
CaCO 3 ( s ) CaO ( s ) +CO 2( g)
is constant at a given
4. GENERAL CHARACTESTICS OF EQUILIBRIA INVOLVING A. The observable properties of the system become constant once the
PHYSICAL PROCESS equilibrium is reached.
The equilibrium is obtained only in the reactions carried in closed vessels.
A. At the equilibrium, the measurable properties of the system become
C. The equilibrium is of dynamic nature.
A catalyst cannot alter the equilibrium point.
B. The equilibrium is dynamic in nature.
The free energy change at equilibrium state in zero.
C. The equilibria involving gases can be attained only in closed
F. In a reversible reaction, chemical equilibrium can be attained from
either sides.
D. At equilibrium, the ratio of the species present in two different
Check Your Grasp
phases is constant at a constant temperature. 1. A reaction reaches a state of chemical equilibrium only when
For example: A. the reactants and the products are reacting
CO2 ( g ) CO 2( aq) System, B. the concentrations of the reactants and products become equal.
C. The products react together at the same rate at which they are formed.
[ CO2 ( aq ) ] /[ CO2 ( g ) ]= constant
D. All the reactants and the products are in the same state of matter.
2. When
H 2 and I 2 are mixed and equilibrium is attained,
This is known as equilibrium constant.
E. At equilibrium, the concentrations of the different substances then
involved become constant at a constant temperature.
A. Amount of HI formed is equal to the amount of
H 2 dissociated
F. The value of equilibrium constant represent the extent to which the
process proceeds before equilibrium is achieved. B. HI dissociation stops
Chemical equilibrium can be attained in eversible chemical reactions D. none of these.
carried in closed container. Gaseous species escape from an open 8. LAW OF MASS ACTION
vessel and the equilibrium cannot be attained. According to law of mass action the rate of a reaction is directly
proportional to the product of the molar concentrations (active masses)
CaCO3 ( s ) CaO ( s ) +CO2 ( g) of the reactants with each concentration term raised to the power equal
to the number of times that reactants appear in the balanced chemical
Red Alert
At equilibrium, the rate of forward reaction becomes equal to the rate equation.
of backward reaction. At equilibrium state, Rate of forward reaction x A+ yB mC +n D
= Rate of backward reaction. It is shown graphically as follows: According to law of mass action:
B y
Rate of forward reaction, x
r f [ A ]

y It is an equation which gives the relationship between standard free

A x energy change ( G0 ) of a reaction and its equilibrium constant
r f =k f
Where is rate constant for the forward reaction ( p).

D n
C m G0=RT In Kp
Rate of backward reaction, D ,r b=k b The value of the equilibrium constant does not depend upon the
C m initial molar concentrations of the reactants and products. However,
r b it depends upon their molar concentrations in the equilibrium state.
Addition if reactants or products donot change the value of the
k b is rate constant for the backward reaction. At equilibrium constant.
For a reversible reaction, the equilibrium constant for the backward
equilibrium, reaction is inverse of the equilibrium constant for the forward
Rate of forward reaction = Rate of backward reaction. reaction.
7. In the equilibrium reaction involving the dissociation of Red Alert
CaCO3 ( s ) CaO ( s ) +CO2 (g) D. Properties of K
When the equation is revered, the new equilibrium constant is 1/K.
The equilibrium constant is given by When equation is divided by 2, the new equilibrium constant is

P caO .

PCaCO 3 iii. When the equation is multiplied by 2, the new equilibrium constant
PCaO / PCaCO PCO is K .
C. 3 D. 2

iv. When the equation is divided in two steps, the new equilibrium
A. Variation of K with temperature constant is
K=K 1 K 2
Equilibrium constant varies with temperature. Its variation
with temperature can be described by the following relation The value of equilibrium constant gives an idea about the extent to
which a reaction has processed at a given temperature before
H T 2T 1
K 1 2.303 R T 1 T 2 ] equilibrium. is attained.
E. Estimation of extent of reaction:
Numerical value of equilibrium constant reflects that how far the
Where H= Enthalpy change, K 1 and K 2= reaction proceeds before the equilibrium state is reached.
If K c >10 , products predominate over reactants. If K c is
Eequilibrium constant at temperature
T 1 and T 2
very large, the reaction proceeds nearly to the completion.
If K c <10
, reactants predominate over products. If
K c is
R= Universal gas constant. This equation is known as
very small, the reaction proceeds hardly at all.
Vant Hoff equation.
B. The different form of above equation is iii. If
K c is in the large 103 to 103 , appreciable
dK p H 0
= concentrations of both reactants and products are present.
Na2 SO 4 . 10 H 2 O( s)
C. Vant Hoff reaction isotherm
Na2 SO 4 ( s )+ 10 H 2 O(g) For the equilibrium,

K p=4.08 1025 . If the vapour pressure of water at


0 C is 4.58 torr, at which relative humidities will 1/2 O2 ( g ) NO 2 ( g ) , K 1
A. NO ( g )+
Na2 SO 4 be deliquescent (absorb moisture) when exposed to
2 NO 2 ( g ) 2 NO ( g ) +O2 ( g ) , K 2
the air at 0 C essentially.
The equilibrium constants
K 1 and K 2 are related as
K p=4.08 1025 A.
K 2=1/ K 1 B.
K 2=K 1 /2
2 2
K p=P H O=4.08 10
C. K 2=1/ K 1 D. K 2=K 1


P10 3
Or H O =3.64 10
According to this principle, If a system is equilibrium is subjected to a
2.77 torr change in any factor (temperature, pressure, concentration), which
0 determine the equilibrium, the point of equilibrium is shifted in that
Vapour pressure of water at 0 C=4.58 torr direction which tends to nullify the effect of the change.
A. Effect of change of temperature
2.77 i. The increase in temperature shifts the equilibrium in the direction of
Hydrate will efforesce below 2.77 torr or at 4.58
the endothermic reaction.
ii. The decrease in temperature shifts the equilibrium in the directions of
Relative humidity
the exothermic reaction.
Na 2 SO 4 will be absorbing above 60.5 relative humidity.
Prediction of relative amount of reactants and products on the basis
of magnitude of equilibrium constant (K) Red Alert
i. if K <1, then, amount of reactant > amount of product Effect of temperature on equilibrium constant (K)
For endothermic reactions
ii. If K >1, then, amount of reactant <amount of product k >k i , e . , K
f b
When temperature is increased, increases.
iii. Lower the value of equilibrium constant greater will be the stability
ii. For exothermic reactions
of the compound formed. k f <k b i .e . , K decreases
iv. The units of equilibrium constant depend upon the units in whichWhenthetemperature is increased,
concentrations of the different species are expressed. iii. For the reactions having zero heat of reaction, temperature has no
Check Your Grasp effect on the value of K.
8. The equilibrium constant in a reversible chemical reaction a of change of pressure
given temperature Increase in pressure shifts the equilibrium in the direction of
A. depends on the initial concentration of the reactants decreasing gaseous moles.
B. depends on the concentration of one of the products at equilibriumDecrease in pressure shifts the equilibrium in the direction of
C. does not depend on the initial concentrations of reactants
increasing gaseous moles.
D. is not characteristic of the reaction.
iii. Pressure has no effect if the gaseous reactants and products have
k 1 and k 2 are the velocity constants of forward and
equal number of moles.
Check Your Grasp
backward reactions. The equilibrium constant K of the reaction 11. For reaction at equilibrium, Le- Chateliers principle
is predicts the effects of
k 1 k 2 B.
k 1k 2 A. temperature and pressure
B. temperature and volume
k1 k 1+ k 2 C. pressure and volume
C. k D. k + k D. only volume
2 1 2
12. Which one of the following informations can be obtained
0 on the basis of Le Chateliers principle?
10. In the two gaseous reaction (i) and (ii), at 25 C A. Dissociation constant of a weak acid
B. Entropy change in a reaction
C. Equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction
D. Shift equilibrium position on changing value of a constant.

13. The reaction

N 2 +O2 2 NO is endothermic. The C.
CO2 formed escape out

forward reaction is D. none of these.

A. Flavoured by decrease in temperature
34. For a reaction if
K p > K e , the forward reaction is favoured
B. Flavoured by decrease in pressure
C. Unchanged on hanging pressure by:
D. equilibrium point shifts by adding catalyst A. low pressure B. high pressure
14. Consider the reaction equilibrium C. high temperature D. low temperature
2 SO 2 ( g )+O2 ( g ) 2 SO 3 ( g ) ; H 0=198 kJ 35. In a lime kiln, to get higher yield of
CO2 , the measure that
On the basis of Le Chateliers principle, the condition favourable for thecan be taken is
forward reaction is A. to remove CaO
A. increasing temperature as well as pressure
B. to add more
B. lowering the temperature and increasing the pressure
C. any value of temperature and pressure C. to maintain high temperature
D. lowering of temperature as well as pressure CO2
NH 3 in the reaction D. to pump out
15. The yield of
36. In a reversible reaction, the catalyst
N 2 +3 H 2 2 NH 3 ; H =22.08 kcal is affected by A. increase the activation energy of the backward reaction.
B. increase the activation energy of the forward reaction
A. Change in pressure and temperature C. decrease the activation energy of both, forward and backward
B. Change in temperature and concentration of
H 2 reaction.
D. decreases the activation energy of forward reaction.
C. Change in pressure and concentration of
A substance which either in molten state or in aqueous solution conduct

D. Change in pressure, temperature and concentration of

N2 electricity is known as electrolyte.
Types of electrolytes
C. Effect of change of concentration A. Strong electrolytes
i. The increase in the concentration of any of the reactants shifts the The electrolyte which are almost completely ionized are called
equilibrium toward forwards direction. strong electrolytes.
ii. The increase in the concentration of any of the products shifts the For example: NaOH , KOH , HC l etc.
equilibrium towards backward direction.
D. Effect of catalyst on equilibrium
A catalyst has no effect on the equilibrium point. This is because Weak electrolytes
The electrolytes which are ionised to smaller extent are known as
catalyst increases the speed of both the forward and backward reactions to
weak electrolytes.
the same extent. It merely. It merely helps to attain the equilibrium earlier.
E. Effect of change of volume For example:
NH 4 OH ,CH 3 COOH , etc.
i. The increase in the volume shifts the equilibrium in the direction of
Expressing the strength of electrolyte
increasing moles.
Strength of an electrolyte is expressed in terms of degree of
ii. The decrease in the volume shifts the equilibrium in the direction of
decreasing moles. ionisation ( ).
iii. The change in volume will not have any effect on the reaction where
number of moles of reactants is equal to number of moles of products. Number of molecules of the
32. The gaseous reaction elecatrolytes dissociated as ions
A + B 2 C+ D+Q is most favoured at: Degree of ionisation, Total number of molecules of
the electrolyte dissolved
A. low temperature and high pressure
B. high temperature and high pressure Dissociation
C. high temperature and low pressure Separation of ions from ionic compound.
D. low temperature and low pressure Ionisation
CaCO3 CaO+ CO2 reaction in a lime kiln goes to
Separation of ions when neutral polar molecule dissolved in water.
Red Alert
completion because For strong electrolyte, is almost equal to 1. For weak
A. CaO does not react to
CO2 to give CaCO3
electrolyte, has a value smaller than 1.
B. Backward reaction is very slow

In case of a weak electrolyte at a given temperature, the degree of Acid : An acid is a substance with sour taste. It turns blue litmus red. It
ionisations is inversely proportional to the square root of the molar liberates hydrogen with active metal like sodium, calcium, magnesium
concentration or directly proportional to square root of the volume of etc.
the solution which contains one mole of the electrolyte. + +
Misconcepts Aqueous solution of an acid is characterized by H 3 O or H
The misconcept is that this law is applicable to all type of
electrolytes. The concept is that it is applicable only to weak ions.
electrolytes. Base : A base is a substance with bitter taste. It turns red litmus blue. It
For weak electrolytes has a soapy touch.
; K = Aqueous solution of a base is characterized by OH ions.
1 '
+ +B Three theories have been given to explain acidic and basic
AB A characters of the substances. These are:
A. Arrhenius concept of acids and bases
According to Arrhenius concept of acids and bases, an acid is a
And =
substance which gives
H ions in the aqueous solution whereas a
Where K is known as ionisation constant.
Red Alert
OH ions in the aqueous solution.
Ka base is a substance which gives
For weak acids : =
C i. The relative strengths of weak acids and weak bases are generally
+ compared in terms of their dissociation constants
H Strengthof base 1
And as : For weak acids: Stength of acid 2

For weak bases; =


= K b .C Strength of base 1 1 K b
and [OH ]

For weak bases: = = 1

strength of base 2 2 K b 2

Check Your Grasp

37. Ostwalds dilution law is applicable to Ka Ka Kb Kb
Where 1 , 2 , 1 and 2 are dissociation
A. strong electrolytes only
B. Weak electrolytes only a1 , a2 , and bases b1 , b2
C. non-electrolytes constants for acids
D. strong as well as weak electrolytes.
38. % ionistion of a weak acid can be calculated using the formula respectively.
a1 , a2 are the degree of dissociation for

Ka 100
A. 100 B. ( pKa pH ) acids and bases respectively.
C 1+10 Red Alert
ii. Arrhenius theory is valid for aqueous solutions only.
C. both correct D. none is correct iii. Arrhenius theory does not account for the basicity of
39. Theory of ionization was given by
substances like, ammonia which do not possess a hydroxyl
A. Faraday B. Rutherford
C. Arrhenius D. Graham group.
40. The degree of ionization of a substance +
A. decreases with dilution iv. Expressing H for weak acids
B. increases with dilution
C. may increase or decrease with dilution
D. is not affected with dilution.

All negative ions like F , C l , Br , I , OH

, CN etc.
B. Bronsted Lowry concept of acids and bases
ii. aTypes of Lewis acids
According to Bronste-Lowry concept of acids and bases, an acid is
substance which can lose a proton and a base is a substance which canMolecules having central atom with incomplete octet For example:
accepts a proton. BF 3 , A lC l 3 etc.
i. Conjugate acid-base pair: An acid-base pair which differs by a
+ 2+ 3+
proton is called conjugate acid-base pair. Conjugate acid Simple cations. For example : Ag , Cu , Fe etc.
Conjugate base + H . Molecules having central atom with empty d - orbitals for

SnC l 4 , SiF 4 , PF 5 , FeC l 3 etc.
ii. Amphoteric substance: A substance which can act both as an acid Molecules containing multiple bonds between different atoms. For
as well as base in different reactions is called amphoteric substance. O=C=O .
Water has dual role. In case of reaction with HCl water acts as a base example:
while in case of ammonia it acts as an acid by donating a proton. EXCEPTIONS
Bronsted Lowry concept is applicable to both aqueous as well as non H 2 SO 4 is a strong acid but it can even act as a base. This is
aqueous solutions.
Red Alert H 2 SO 4 is mixed with another acid which is
Comparison of relative strength of acids and bases. possible, when
i. A strong acid has a weak conjugate base and vice versa. Similary, a
stronger than it.
strong base has a weak conjugate acid and vice versa. For example : Misconcepts
Increasing order of acidic strength is The misconcept is that pH value for acid can be more than 7. The
HC l O< HC lO2 < HC l O3 < HC lO4 . HC l O4 is the 10
concept is for M HCl solution, pH is not 8, because acid

strongest acid and HC l O is a weakest acid. Order of strength solutions always have pH < 7. For this solution, pH=6.96.
For weak acid/base, the pH shall depend on its degree of ionisation.
of their respective conjugate bases is For example, pH of weak acid HA is given as

>C l O 4 ++ A
hence C lO is the strongest base.
>C l O 2
equivalent conc. C ( 1 ) C C
C lO
ii. A base in contact with a strong acid behaves as a strong base while a
base in contact with a weak acid behaves as a weak base. +
Comparison of Bronsted-Lowry and Arrhenius concepts
i. All Arrhenius acids are Bronsted acids.
ii. All Arrhenius bases are not Bronsted bases. pH=log [C ]
C. Lewis concept of acids and bases
According to Lewis concept of acids and bases, an acid is a Also since
K a of weak acid C 2
substance which can accept a pair of electrons whereas a base is a
substance which can donate a pair of electrons. H
i. Types of Lewis bases
1. Neutral molecules containing a lone pair of electrons on the central +

atom like
NH 3 , PH 3 , ROH , H 2 O etc. K a / =C=

A. pure water B. neural solution

Hene pH=log [ ]

C. basic solution D. acidic solution
56. For a solution at 298 K, the sum of pH and pOH will be equal to
A. zero
EXAMPLE B. B. fourteen
EXAMPLE:2 100 mL of 0.01 N HCl is mixed with 400 mL of 0.02N C. a negative number
H 2 SO 4 solutions at 250 C . The pH of resulting solution is D. infinity
A. 2.73 B. 3
C. 0 D. 4.1
When in a solution of acetic acid (weak electrolyte), sodium acetate

(a strong electrolyte) having same common ion
CH 3 COO is
SOLUTION: Resulting normality
N 1 V 1+ N 2 V 2 0.01 100+0.02 400
N mix = =
V 1+ V 2 100+400 added, it results in the decrease in ionization of acetic acid according
to Le- Chateliers principle and pH increases. This is called
N mix =18 103 Common ion effect.
+ + H

log +
+ Na
3log18 CH 3 COONa CH 3 COO
2.73 NH 4 C l to a solution of NH 4 OH
Similarly, addition of
Check Your Grasp
51. An aqueous solution whose pH=1.2 is (weak electrolyte) results in the decreases in dissociation of
A. acidic B. neutral NH 4 OH .Thus, common ion effect is defined as,
C. basic D. amphoteric
25 C is close to the suppression of the dissociation of a weak electrolyte by the
52. The pH of pure water at
addition of a strong electrolyte having same common ion.
C. 2 D. 9
53. pH of a solution is defined by the expression Acid + base salt +water
+ Different types of solutions are formed during acid base
+ H neutralisation depending upon the nature of acid and base.
A. log H B.
A. A solution of strong acid and strong base is neutral.
1 B. A solution of strong acid and weak base is acidic.
log C. A solution of weak acid and strong base is basic.
D. A solution of weak acid and weak base may be acidic, basic or
H H neutral depending upon their relative strength.
+ + Nature of solution is governed by the strong component.
Type of salts
C. log D. log
A. Acidic salts
1 1 Salts formed by the incomplete neutralisation of polyprotic acide
which still contain some acidic hydrogen are called acidic salts.
54. The term pH comes from For example:
NaHCO3 , NaHSO4 , NaH 2 PO 4 ,
A. pure hydrogen content.
B. pure voir hydrogen which implies potential of hydrogen. Na2 HPO4 , etc.
C. purity of hydrogen ions in solution.
D. name of the scientist associated. B. Basic salts
55. A pH of signifies

Salts formed by incomplete neutralisation of poly acidic bases which An indicator is a substance which is used to determine the end point in
still contain one or more hydroxyl groups. a titration. pH indicators are either weak acids or weak bases.
Zn ( OH ) C l , Mg ( OH ) C l etc . Two theories have been proposed to explain the change of colour of
For example:
C. Mixed salts give more than one anions or cations on dissolving in A. Ostwalds theory
According to this theory the colour change is due to ionisation of the
water. For example: CaOC l 2 acid-base indicator. The unionised
Sr.No. Indicator pH range Colour change form has different colour than the
ionised form.
1. Methyl orange 3.24.5 Pink to yellow
gives C l and OC l . B. Quinonoid theory
According to this theory
2. Methyl red 4.46.5 Red to yellow
Red Alert the acid-base indicators exist in
When a salt is dissolved in water to 3. Red litmus 5.57.5 Red to blue two tautomeric forms having
produce ions, the process is always different structures benzenoid
endothermic since energy is required 4. Phenol red 6.88.4 Yellow to Red form and quinonoid form. These
to break salt into ions. two forms have different colours.
Check Your Grasp 5. Phenolphthalein 8.310.5 Colourless to pink Note
57. When
NH 4 C l is added to a The colour change and the
pH range of some common indicators

solution of-
NH 4 OH Red Alert
The suitable indicators of the following titrations are
A. Strong acid versus strong base Phenolphthalein,
A. only the concentration of OH ions increases methyl red and
methyl orange
B. Weak acid versus strong base Phenolphthalein
B. only the concentration of OH ions decreases C. Strong acid versus weak base Methyl red and methyl orange.
+ - Methyl red and
C. the concentration of NH 4 ions decreases methyl orange.
D. Weak acid versus weak base No suitable indicator.
+ E. During titration with
KMnO 4 , no indicator is used because
D. the concentration of NH 4 as well as OH ions
KMnO 4 is a self indicator.
Check Your Grasp
61. The pH indicators are
58. Which one of the following is acid salt? A. salt of strong acids and strong bases
Na 2 S B.
Na 2 SO 3 B. salts of weak acids and weak bases
C. either weak acids or weak bases
NaHSO3 Na 2 SO 4 D. either strong acids or strong bases.
C. D.
59. Which one is not an acid salt?
NaH 2 PO 4 Na 2 HPO4 62. Identify the indicator used to litrate
Na2 CO 3 solution with
A. B.
C. NaCl D. Both (a) and (b) HC l
60. Neutralization of an acid with a base, invariably results in the
production of A. phenolphthalein B. dilute
H 2 SO 4
A. H 3 O B.
H2O C. methyl orange D. none
+ Hydrolysis is a process in which a salt reacts with water to form acid
C. H and OH D. OH and base.
acid + base
(VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS) Salt hydrolysis is reverse of neutralisation reaction.
Types of salt hydrolysis
There are four cases of salt hydrolysis. These are as follows:

A. Hydrolysis of salts of strong acids and strong bases

CH 3 CONH 2 and KOH
i. Examples of these salts are NaC l ,
KNO3 , Na 2 SO4 ,
71. What is incorrect about buffer solution?
A. It contains a weak acid and its conjugate base
K 2 SO 4 , KC l , NaNO3 etc.
B. It contains a weak base and its conjugate acid
C. It shows change in pH on adding small amount of acid or base
NaC l+ H 2 O NaOH + HC l D. All of the above.
Solubility equilibria for a particular salt is represented by the
++C l saturated solution of the salt at a given temperature. The
+ H state of equilibrium exists between the salt present at the

++OH bottom of the container and the ions formed in solution.
+ H 2 O Na
(ag) + aq )+ Cl
++C l AgC l(s)
AgC l ( aq ) Ag
(aq) (in solution)
H2O H + (aq)
AgC l(s) Ag ( aq )+C l
Solubility product constant ( sp)
ii. since , the resulting solution is neutral and its pH is 7.
Solubility product of an electrolyte at a particular temperature
is defined as the product of the molar concentration of its ions in

a saturated solution, each concentration raised to the power
Red Alert equal to the number of ions produced on dissociation of one
iiii. Salts of strong acids and strong bases do not undergo hydrolysis. molecule of the substance i,e., for the electrolyte.
They simply forms ions in the solution
EXAMPLE x( aq)
NH 4 F
EXAMPLE:3 Mark the incorrect statement regarding y+ ( aq ) + yB
solution A X B y ( s ) xA
A. Solution can act as a buffer solution
Kw xS yS
B. For the solution, K h= K K
b c A

C. Solution involves only anionic hydrolysis B
D. Degree of hydrolysis is equal to Kh
At equilibrium

Solution NH 4 F salt of a weak base an a week acid. It involves
y +

cationic as well as anionic hydrolysis. K sp=
Check Your Grasp
70. An acidic buffer solution can be prepared by mixing equimolar
K sp is known as solubility product constant.
amounts of
A. formic acid and sodium formate A. A salt in solution will be precipitated at a given temperature
NH 4 C l and NH 4 OH only if the product of the ionic concentration is more than its

H 2 SO 4 and Na 2 SO 4 K sp values. A salt with more than its K sp value.


B. The relative solubilities of salts in water can be compared in

K sp values. A salt with more K sp + +Cl
terms of value is more N aC l Na

A gCl( K sp =1.7 10 ) ++C l
C l H
A ( sp=7.7 10 )
g Br The concentration of C l ions increases due to ionization of

A g C l is more soluble in water than AgBr.

Application of solubility product and common ion effect Na
i. The concept of solubility product helps in predicting the
HC l . Thus the ionic product exceeds the solubility
formation of a precipitate. In general,
K sp , no precipitate is formed Cl
A. If ionic product
B. if ionic product
K sp , a precipitate is formed. product and pure sodium chloride precipitates out from the solution.
V. Salting out a soap
ii. In predicting the solubility of a sparingly soluble salt. Soaps are sodium o potassium salts of higher fatty acids. As the
A. For AB type solubility of soap in not much, any soap present in the solution is
S K sp salted out by the addition of sodium chloride, which increase the

A 2 B type +
conc. of Na ions. Thus, the ionic product of

S 3
K sp
4 +
Na exceeds the solubility product of soap and, therefore, soap
C. For
AB 3

K sp precipitates out from the solution. This is called salting out of soap.
27 Ca

D. For
A 3 B2 type PO
EXAMPLE:4 If the solubility of calcium phosphate is a
S 5
K sp

Where A is cationic part and B is anionic part. And S is the mol L1 , the solubility product is equal to
K sp is solubility product constant.
solubility, A. 6 a5 B. 72 a5

iii. In qualitative analysis C. 54 a 4 D. 108 a5

The separation and identification of various basic radicals into
) solubility product principle
different groups is based upon ( 3
and (b) common ion effect. SOLUTION: PO 4 2 ( s ) 3 Ca 2 +2 PO4
iv. Purification of common salt 3
saturated solution of impure common salt is prepared and insoluble Ca3
impurities are filtered off. HC l gas is passed through this
K sp=(3 a)3 (2 a)2=108 a5
Check Your Grasp

72. Precipitation takes place when the ionic product

A. equals the solubility product
B. exceeds the solubility product
C. is less then the solubility product
D. is almost zero.
73. Which of the following is most soluble?
A. Bi 2 S 3( Ksp=1 1038)

B. MnS ( Ksp=7 1016)

C. Cus(Ksp=8 1037)

D. Ag 2 S ( K sp=6 1051)