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LINGUISTICS RESEARCH METHODS

SILMI HAYATY

1310732022

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

ANDALAS UNIVERSITY

PADANG

2016
A. The Background of the Study
The sections are each prefaced by introductory essays which present a history of

main trends in translation studies, establishing a context for concise expositions of the

readings and calling attention to the work of influential writers, theorists, and scholars who

are not represented by a reading. The section introductions are historical narratives that

refer to theoretical and methodological advances and occasionally offer critical

evaluations. Yet the stories they tell avoid any evolutionary model of progress, as well as

any systematic critique. I wanted to outline, however rapidly, the history of the present

moment in translation studies. And to some degree this meant asking questions of the past

raised by the latest tendencies in theory and research.


According Davidson wrote Metaphor makes us see one thing as another by making

some literal statement that inspires or prompts the insight.... in most cases what the

metaphor prompts or inspires is not entirely, or even at all, recognition of some truth or

fact.
And Martin Davies say idiom Roughly, it is a phrase (or sentence) which is

conventionally used with a meaning different from its constructed literal meaning (if it has

one). If the phrase does have a constructed literal meaning, it will thus be ambiguous. In a

systematics emantic theory there will be a theoremsp ecifyingt he constructed literal

meaning: a theorem derived in a certain canonical way from axioms specifying the

semantic properties of the phrase's constituent words and modes of combination. And there

will be a separate axiom specifying the idiomatic meaning of the phrase. An idiom has no

semantic structure rather, it is a semantic primitive.'

Base on that quotation we can understand the meaning of idiom and metaphor. In

this paper the writter will analyze idiom and metaphor of the poem. Base on my opinion

idiom is some word is not just have a general defenition but also have the other defenition

and the defenition can be change base on the contexts. Metaphor is the expression of the
word. In metaphor the writter will show their expression in nature or another form can

express their feeling. In this analysing the writter will analyze about idiom and metaphor

in The Hollow Men poem. In this era many translator use the technic to translate some

poems. And in literature is some difficult work to translate of the language and meaning of

the word. In the last thirty years a body of literature on translation theory, strongly

influenced by modern linguistics, has appeared to support and give academic

respectability to the new profession of the nonliterary translator. Each of the epigraphs in

the poem has a link to a different work of literature (see epigraph analysis). The main body

of the poem makes reference to the work of the medieval poet Dante and his epic poem

Inferno . The mention of deaths kingdoms (dream, twilight, other) refers to the different

levels of hell and the afterlife that play an important role in Dantes Inferno.
A. The Objective of the Study
The main purpose of the study are :
1. To describe metaphor and idiom of the poem from The Hollow Men by T S Eliot
2. To show what is the theme of the poem, analyze the line by line and the history of

the poem.
B. The Scopes of the Studies
In this analysis only focus on the metaphor and idiom of the poem and also try to

translate the poem line by line. Because in every line many has idiom. And in poem will

explain how the writter enter his expression in poem.

C. The Method of the Research


For this research the writter use the method from Sudaryanto (1993:57), the contents

is collecting data, analyzing data.


1. Collecting data
The data of research base on internet and also book, about poet by T.S Eliot.

With this media we can get information if the poem is very difficult to analyze and

need references to make a correct. Some critics read the poem as told from three

perspectives, each representing a phase of the passing of a soul into one of death's
kingdoms ("death's dream kingdom", "death's twilight kingdom", and "death's

other kingdom"). Eliot describes how we, the living, will be seen by "Those who

have crossed/With direct eyes [...] not as lost/Violent souls, but only/As the

hollow men/The stuffed men." The image of eyes figures prominently in the

poem, notably in one of Eliot's most famous lines "Eyes I dare not meet in

dreams".

2. Analyzing data

In analyzing data the writer use the metaphor and idiom theory to identify

part of the poem. The first analyze is about metaphor of this poem, idiom of the

poem. First analyze about metaphor to bahasa :

Metafor

We are the hollow men


We are the stuffed men
Leaning together
Headpiece filled with straw. Alas!

Kami orang-orang kosong


Kami orang-orang sumpalan
Bersandar bersama
Kepala penuh sumpalan jerami. Ah!
In first line the writter use the hollow as metaphor. In this line the hollow

has meaning the man who like a stupid human when the fist world war begins.

This results in the hollow mens loss of purpose and identity.

Are quiet and meaningless


As wind in dry grass
Or rats Feet over broken glass
In our dry cellar

In this line the writter use many metaphor word to expressive his feeling.

Such as wind, grass And rats. The wind and grass it mean when the man is very

easy to influence them and they command to be a pest of the world or rubbish.
The Idiomof the poet of two part

I
We are the hollow men
We are the stuffed men
Leaning together
Headpiece filled with straw. Alas!

Our dried voices, when


We whisper together
Are quiet and meaningless
As wind in dry grass
Or rats feet over broken glass
In our dry cellar

Shape without form, shade without colour,


Paralysed force, gesture without motion

Those who have crossed


With direct eyes, to deaths other Kingdom
Remember us if at all not as lost
Violent souls, but only
As the hollow men
The stuffed men.

II
Eyes I dare not meet in dreams
In deaths dream kingdom
These do not appear:
There, the eyes are

Sunlight on a broken column


There, is a tree swinging
And voices are
In the winds singing

More distant and more solemn


Than a fading star.
Let me be no nearer
In deaths dream kingdom

Let me also wear


Such deliberate disguises
Rats coat, crowskin, crossed staves
In a field

Behaving as the wind behaves


No nearer
Not that final meeting
In the twilight kingdom
In this two part the writter can get the meaning of meaning line by line of

the poem. Is not just general meaning but is the real meaning after the writter

analze two of part.

The idiom is :

We represents western civilisation. Hollow suggests the moral emptiness of western

civilisation.
Stuffed refers back to the effigies of Guy Fawkes.
Their lack of moral substance is so pervasive that the hollow men cannot keep

themselves upright; they support each other simply to remain standing.


The head is sometimes thought to be the centre of existence in the human body. That

it is now a headpiece (an inanimate object) dehumanises the hollow men. That it is

filled with straw suggests that their lives are filled with worthlessness. Alas! shows

sorrow or dismay.
Something dry lacks life/nourishment/moisture and is consequently seen as dead or

barren. Dried suggests that the hollow men live a meaningless life and that their

voices are dry suggests that they can scarcely speak for themselves.
That the hollow men can only whisper again suggest their lack of moral substance

(see line 3).


This lines support the previous two lines. The repetition of the ss at the end of this

line and the next two mimics both the sound of whispering and the sound of wind in

dry grass (see lines 6 and 8).


Repetition of dry to emphasise the long, boring and unchanging state of the hollow

mens lives . This line is a simile that uses imagery to enforce the point of the

previous lines.
Rats are vermin and suggest disease or filth. This is symbolic of the hollow men

who suffer in the filth and decay of their lack of moral substance. The glass can be

interpreted as the glass of a broken wine bottle. (see line 10). This line continues the

simile but presents an alternate image that serves similar purpose.


Repetition of dry (see line 8). The cellar was a place to store wine due to the

appropriate temperature underground. That it is dry suggests that the cellar has no
wine. Wine is a symbol in Christianity thus suggesting the absence of religion and

moral uprightness in western civilisation.


The next two lines are a description of the hollow men. Both lines serve to convey the

meaningless life of the hollow men as each half line communicates something

impossible . The first half of this line refers to their lack of substance, the second to

their lack of emotion.


The first half of this line refers to their inability to act, the second to their lack of

expression.
The hollow men refer to those who have passed on, whether to hell or heaven is not

said directly but interpretation is mostly favourable to those in heaven.


Direct suggests purpose or meaning. Eyes are the window to the soul. Thus the

continual reference to those with direct eyes refers to the men who had a purpose in

their life and thus pass on to heaven or hell (deaths other Kingdom).
Those who have passed on would hardly remember the hollow men but if they did it

would not be as lost...


Violent souls, but only...
As souls too empty of meaning and moral to pass on, who...
Are fit for nothing but to be burned like the effigies of Guy Fawkes.
The hollow men cannot measure up to the souls that have passed on. To meet eyes

with someone is to recognise them as equals. Eyes again referring to the soul and

spirituality. The line also suggests that the hollow men are threatened by the

strangeness of those that have passed on; they have what the hollow men do not;

substance.
A reference to a level of hell from Dantes Inferno.
Those who have passed on do not come back.
Where the souls (eyes) of those who have passed on go...
They have hope (sunlight). They are the remnant of a meaningful civilisation (the

broken column).
This line and the next two are a description of the upper levels of Dantes afterlife.

The lines convey the peace, gentleness,...


Meaningfulness and...
Splendour of heaven.
Heaven is more serious and more difficult to reach...
Than a dying star. The star is a symbol of hope, redemption and light. The hollow

mens hopes of passing on are fading. The star can also be interpreted as a symbol of

the virgin Mary and Jesus which would suggest that Christian values are fading in

western civilisation.
The hollow men appear to fear passing on and now wish to be no nearer...
To continuing on to the next life.
They will even...
Deliberately disguise themselves from those who have already gone on.
They disguise themselves in rats coat, the rat again a symbol of disease, crowskin,

the crow a symbol of death, and crossed staves, like a scarecrow or the effigies of

Fawkes.
A reference again to scarecrows.
A reference to Dantes substanceless spirits, much like the hollow men, who were so

empty that the wind carried them away.


The hollow men emphasise their fear of passing on.
They would not face God and the souls of those that have passed on...
In the next life. Twilight suggesting a lack of light (hope).

D. Review on Related Studies


In this chapter the writter have some the some idea to analyze the poem base on the

internet information and the analyze need many interpretation between the difficult word

and the other meaning of the sentence. According Ricoeur (1977), Metaphor involves a

focus (a word that changes meaning) and a frame (the word is framed by a predicate),

producing a dialectical tension in meaning. The trope is the outcome of a debate between

predication and naming; its place in language is between words and sentences. The

metaphor is some the other way how the poet to show their expression. On the metaphor

the poet use the naming to change the word base on their interpretation, that why the

literature language is very difficult to analyze in many translator.

E. Defenition of Key Term


Metaphor
Bloor (1971) descibe metaphor relates to dialectics by exemplifying the unity and

interpenetration of opposites it epitomises the dialectical nature of thinking through the

juxtaposition of opposing concepts that alters their meaning.

Idiom

According Martin Davies Idiom is certainly an obstacle to word-by-word translation.3

The French phrase 'avoir raison' has to be translated into English as 'to be right', not as 'to

have reason'. Someone might suggest that this fact about translation goes to the heart of

the notion of idiom: an idiom is a phrase which cannot be correctly translated on the basis

of translation of its syntactically distinguished constituent words and modes of

combination. One feature of such a definition would be that whether a phrase in one

language is an idiom could only be determined relative to some chosen second language.

F. Conlusion
In this paper will try to analyze the interpretation the poem of The Hollow Men by T.S Eliot.

Such as the characteristic analysing poem base on the metaphor and idiom theory. In this case the

writter can get the real meaning and can identify where the author use the metaphor word. The

author many use the element of metaphor to naming of the word. The poem, also which is narrated

by one of the hollow men, portrays Eliots concern for a society and culture lacking in faith,

morality and humanity. The society is pervaded by a sense of alienation and the break down of

communication both with each other and within their own internal selves. This results in the

hollow mens loss of purpose and identity. The poem also written in fragments to highlight the

chaos of modern existence.


References

A. Preminger (ed.), Princeton Encyclopediaof Poetry and Poetics (Princeton, 1974), p. 494.

Scheffler,Beyond the Letter( Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979), p. 83, discussing the

intuitionistic approach to metaphor.

Catford. J. C. 1965. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Oxford: OUP.

Gray Elena. 2012. Poetry Resource. the World Scholars Cup

Waistell Jeff, 2009. Critically,Dialectically, Metaphorically. Oxford Brokes University

Webes Andreas. 32.1/2, 2004. Mimesis and Metaphor. Hamburg, Germany