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N. F. Krasnav

Fundamentals of Theory.
Aerodynamics of an
Airfoil and a Wing

Translated from the Russian by

G. Leib

Mir Publishers Moscow

First puhlished 1985
Revised {rom the 1980 Russian edition

JlaA8TeJII.CTBO .Bhlcmall ml(OJlat, t980

English translation, !'IIir Publishers. t985

YaClb I
OCHOBbl leopHH
AapOAHHaMHKa npOljJHn. H Kpblna

cBwcwB.a WKonu
anl:~~i~I~~~m;~i~e:~~~h:~~le~fl~:11~r~~~:tt~~~ ~~ ~t~0~~~~~;11'a,~~~kd;sf:;~f
mooeru craft. The funclnmentllb of nl'rodynamics are u~ed in stu{lyinf,;' the exter-
nal Dow over \"ariou~ bodies or the motion of air (a ga~l inside various objects.
Engineering success in the tields of aviation, artillery, rocketry. ~pace night,
motor vehicle tran~port. nnd so on, i.I~. [ields that perlnin to the flow of air
or a ~as in some form or other, depends 011 a lirm knowledge of aerodynamicti.
The present textbook, in ,uldition to the general law~ of ]]o\\' of a fluid,
treats the application of aerodynamics, chiefly in rocketry anll modern hi~h
,peed aviation. The book conHist.:; of tll'O parts, each forming a separlltp mlume.
fhe tirst of Lllem concerns Ihl' fUlulaml'ntal concepts and definitions of nero-
dynamirs and tht- th(>ory of flo\\' over all airfoil alld a wing, il\cllldin~ an un-
stead.I' Ilo\\' (Chapter~ 1-9), while the ~C('l)nd desfTibl'~ the aerodynamic design
of craft and their individual parts (Chapters 10-15). The tll'O p;lrts are (le~igned
for u~e in a two-s!'mester ('our~e of aerodynamics. although the first part can be
u~ec! indepcn<.lently by those intl'rested in individual problems of thporl'tical
Illro<.lynamics .
.-\ sound theort-tiral bad'l!:round is important to thl' s~udy of an~' ~ubject
bCl'ause (:featin' solutions of pructicul problems, ~cienti1ic re~earch, and <.lis-
covel'ies are irnpC)~sible without it. Studenl.5 should therefore del'ote special
attention to the lir~t live chapters. which deal with the run<.lamental concepts
and definitions of lwrodynamics. thp kinematics of a fluid. the fundamentals of
!luL<.l dynamks, Ill(' IIl('ory of ~hocks, and the method of ch,aracteristics used
widely in iuv!'stigatiu!!, !-uper,'onLc no\\'~. Chilpters 6 and 7, which relale to the
rlow ov{'r ail'foils, ar{' al~1) important lu II fumlamcntal ullder~talllliug of tbe
subject. Thl's!' chllptel's contain a fairly ('mnplete discussion of thr g('neral
theory of flow of a ,!l'a~ in two<.limensional space (the theory of twotlilllen5ional
now). The inrormalion on the S\lper~onic st!'ady Dow over a win~ in Chapter 8
relates directly 10 th{'se mat{'riais. The Ilerodynamic design of most modern cralt
is baser! on .<:t\l(tie,~ ot' such flow.
One of the mo~t topiral area~ of mOtlel'n aero<.lynarnic research i~ the ~t\ldy
of optimal aerodynlllllic {'ontiguralions of craft and tlu!ir sep:lratl' (isolated)
parts (the fuselagt~. wing, empcnnagl'). Therefore, ~I ~mall ~crtion ,u.5) that
~ie~\~efl~;ilt:!:};~~~ \\;~~~u~i~~ll 11~~~~HI:~1~:~t't~~or~rse~~~~:or;;:p~~t~nn:n~~~r[~:I
and methodological inform.. tion on tlw ('onversion of the llerodynamic coeffic-
ients of II wing from on!' a~pl'cl rlltio to ililother.
Th!! stully of nonstationary 'l'as floll's is a rllther well developed field of
modern thcorl,tical and practical aerodynamics. The results of this ."tudy are
widcl~' \Ised in ('alculilling the eOrcl of aerodynamic forces and moments on

craft whose motion is generally charaetl'riled by non-uniformity. and tbe nOll-

stationar~' aerodynamic characteristics tbus calcul!\ll'd afe used in the dynamics

~I~:t;~s \~lflet~eS~~~~~~~at~i~r c~~f~;i:~~ \ll~ t ~ ~sr;:f\tc~o~ .c~{~~~r)~n! ~icgd:~r~~

atives (stability derivatives) are anulysed, as is the concept of dynamic stability
~h~:~~~ ~~o~~ ~:~~ ~dWt~~1~~~~Oa{~:: ~~d~J ~ f~~Ic:~~~; ni\~~~r~~~ ~ i l~~~' t~oc~i ~
atives of a lifting surfact' of arbitrary planform, genernlly with a curved leadin!?
edge (i.e. with variable Sweep along the spaul. Both exact and approximate
methods of determining the non-stationary aerodynamic cllaracteri~tics of n
wing are given.
A special plact' in the book is devoted to the most irnl)Ortau~ theort!tical
and applied problems of high-spe(!d aerodynamic..~. including the thermodynamic
and kiuetic parameters of dissociating gases, the C!quations of motion and en('rg~',
and the theory of shocks and its relation to the IJhysicochell\ieal pro]l!rties of
gases at 1iJ.i~h temperaturE's. Considerable attention is giV>'ll Lo shock waves
(shocks), which arc a manifestation of th! specilic properties .)l supersonic flows.
The concept of the thickness of Ii shock is discu8.'!cd, and the b.)ok includes graphs
of the functioll~ characterizing changes in the parameters of it g;u.o as it pa~s('!<
through a shock.
Naturally, a textbook cannot reflect the entire diversity of problell1s facing
the science of aerodynamics. I have tried to provide the scicmtilie information
for specialists in the field of aeronautic and rocket enginCt:ring. This inform-
ation, if mastered in its entirety, should be suflicient for ~oung specialists to
cope independently with other practical aerodynamic problems that may nplK.'ar.
Among these problems., not reflected in the bOOk. are magnetogasdynamic in\'est
igations, the IIpplicatlOn of thE' method of characteristics to throe-dimensional
gas flows, ant! experimental aerorlynamics. I will be hal)p~' H study of this text'
book leads student!< to a more (omprehensi\'e, independent investigation 01
modern aerodynamics.
The book is the result of my experience te<lchinl? course.' in aerod~natnics
r:r ~~ell~E~n~aju~f~~_~oil'~;! ~~5~~~~~iif 3Nlne~~ ib~ .~o\;;~~\:;i ~;J~~. s~~c~~~~et~
in rt'SC!areh institutions, design department.". llnd HHlu~trlal entcrrrises
All physical quantities are given according to the luterMtiona System of
Units (51).
edi:i~th:.~a~~!n til;a~~~~~~ ~~~i:.~ id~~tn aOc~~~~~~fkr~~\~~~~~ ~~'~~k~~e~ ~(r ~f!ih~
valuable suggestions made by the re\'iewer, profe~sor A.\l. ~Ikhiteryan, to whom
I exprt'ss m~ profound Iilratitude.
Nikolai F. Krasnov

Chapter 1 2:)
Basic Information 1.1. }"orces Acting 00. a Moving Body 25
from Aerodynamics Surface Force 2S
Property of Prl'Mures in aaldeal Fluid 26
Innucmcc of Visco9ity 00. the Flow
o[aF~id 28
1.2. Resultant Force Action 3(i
Components of Aerodynamic Forces
lind ;\1ou1('nt.'" 36
Conversion of Aerodynamic Forees
and .\Iaments from One Coordinate
S~Hern to Another 40
1.3. Determination of Aerodynamic For-
ces and Moments According to the
Known Distribu\ion of the Pressure
and Shear Stress. Aerodynamic Coef-
Jicieuts 41
Aerodynamic Forces and ~{oments aDd
Their Coefll.clcot.9 .!i1
1.4. Static Equilibdurn and Static Stab-
ility 52
Concept of Equilibrium and Stability 52
Stlttic Longitudinal Stability 53
SULlie Lateral Stability 57
1.3. Features of Gas Flow U High Speeds 58
Compressibility of a Gas 58
Heating of a Gas 59
Stllte of Air at High Temperatures 65

Chapter 2 2.1. Approaches to the Kinematic Invest-

igation of a Fluid 71
Kinematics of Fluid
II 71
Streamlines and Pathlincs 73
.,2. Analysi!! of Fluid Pa.rticle ~1otioQ 74
2.3. Vortex-Free MOtiOD of a Fluid 79
2.4. g~~;~~li?'o!q~f~h~ Equation 80
cartesian Coordinate System 81
Curvilinear Coordinate System 82
~~t!naU~Krv~du;~~:ce of Gas Flow 86
Flow Rate Equation 88
2.5. Stream Function 89
2.6. Vortex Lines 90
2.7. Velocity Circulation 9f
Concept 9f
Stokes Theorem 92
Vortn-Induced Velocities: :
~~ ~~:t~f ~~jdn~~W3 97
Parallel Flow 98
Twu-Dimemlional Point Source and
Sink 98
TllrecDime[1Sional Source and Sink too
Doublet 100
Circulation }<'low (Vortex) 103

Chapter 3 3. L Equations of Motion of a VlscoUJ

Fluid t06
Fundamentals Cartesian Coordinates t06
of Fluid Dynamics Vector Form of the Equations of
~Iotion US
Curvilinear Coordinates flo!!
Cylindrical COOJ'dinate!l fi8
Spherical Coordinates US
Equations of 'fwoDimenslonal Flow
of a Gas Near a Curved Surface 120
3.2. Equations of Energy and Dif(wion
of a GIIS 121
Diffusion t:quation 12t
Energy Equation 124
3.3. Sys~m of Equations of Gas Dyna-
mics. Initial and Boundary Con-
ditions 129
3.4. Integrah of :'.lotion for an Ideal Fluid 134
3.5. Aerodynamic Similarity 138
Con~cpt of Similarity 138
Sinlliarity Cri~ria Taking Account
of the Viscosity and Heat Con
duction 141
3.6. Isentropic Gas Flows 149
Configuration of Gas let 149
Flow Velocity 150
Pressure, Dellllity, and Temperature 152
FI\lW or
Gas from a Reservoir 154

Chapter 4 4. t. Physical Nature of Shock Wave For--

mation 159
Shock Wave Theory 4.2. General Equations for a Shock 162
Oblique Sh:ock 163
Normal Shock 168
4.3. Shock in &he Flow of a Gu with
Contents 90

Constant Specilic lleats 1fJ!'l

System of Equatioll" 169
Formulas for Ciliculating the Param-
eters of n. Ga" Behind a shock 170
Oblique Shock Angle 176
4.4. Hodograph 179
4.5. A Normal Shock in !.he Flow of a
Gas with Constant Specilic Heat~ 184
/j.G.\ Shock at Hypersonic Velocitie:o
and Constant Spccilic Heats or a Gas i6()
/j.7. A SI10ck in a I-low of a Gaswitb Var).
ingSpccificHcat~al1d with Dissoci<l-
lion and Ionization iSS
4.t;. Helaxation Phenomena 1~3
:\on-EquilihrililIl Flows 19a
Equilibrium Procc~~es 195
Hdaxalioll E[lcct~ in Shock \raws 196

Chapter 5 ;:;.1. I::quatioTl!S for tht' \"elocity I'otential

and Stream "Ul1rtion 2(111
Method 5.2. The Caudl)" Problem 2"5
of Characteristics 5.3. Charaeterj~tk~ 209
COlllp.llihility Conditiuns 209
OelPrllliliation or Characteristics 2(19
\!;!~:~f~/.II~I~it~~nO~,rc~a:j~!~~~:~~s ior 213
Characte-ri~lic~ in a lIodograph 21 'I
Equations for CIJ1ll'acteristics in a
lIol1o/l:raph for l'artiC\llllr Cll~~S of
Ga~ Flow 219
5.-i. Outline of ~ollilion of G~s-Dj"na!Uic
i-'r'Jblems Accurdlng to the :'Ilethod of
Characteristic~ ???
5.5. A pplication of the 'lethod of Cllarac-
t('fisties to the ::lulution 0\ tiw Prob-
lem on :-;hapinr; \lIC :\n7Jle~ 01' Super-
:iOnic Wind Tunnel, 230

Chapter 6 G.1. TIlil! .\irfoil in an Incolnpre!sible

Flow 234
AirfoilBnd 6.2. Transverse Flow uH'r a Thill l'iate 24')
Finite-Span Wing 6.3. Thill Plate at lIli .\ngle of Attack 2~3
in an Incompressible SA. Finite~Span Willg in an Incompres-
Flow 5ihle Flol\ 2'19
6.;. \ring with Optimal PllUlionn 258
<:;()nV(' .. ~ioll uf Coe!Jicil'nt~ (v a"~1 (',\".I
Irom One Willg .bpe-ct [(nIIO tf)
.\nother :!as
Chapter 7 7_t. SUbSOllic Flow UI"('f a Thill .\IIj,)il 264
l.ine(lrization of the EqllaliulJ 101
An Airfoil in a IhC' Velocity Potellli;1I :!G~
Compressible Flow IlelatioD Between the l'.I1,l1l1l'tef~ oj
t'h~~rlff~~i ~~er a:(\ 1:;~:':~:~!t~iTj LI~ 2tiG
7.2. Khristianovkh lJethud 269
Content of the llethod 1G!1
Conversion of the Pressure Coefficient
for an Incompressible Fluid to the
Number M.., > 0 271
Conversion of the Pressure Coefficient
from M"'l > 0 to M..,~ > 0 272
Determination of the Critical Num-
ber M 273
Aerodynamic Coef6.eients 274.
7.3. flow at Supercritical Velocity over
an Airfoil (M "" > M ..... cr) 274
7.4. Supersonic Flow of a Gas with Con-
stant Specific Heats over a Thln Plate 278
7.5. Parameters of a Supersonic Flow over
an Airfoil with an Arbitrary Con-
figuration 285
lise of the Method of Characteristics 285
Hypersonic .flow over a Thin Airfoil 291
Nearly l:niform Flow over a Thin
Airfoil 293
Aerudynamic Forces alld Their
Coeflicieuts 293
7.6. Sideslipping Wing Airfoil ~
Dclinition of a SideslippUl~ Wing 299
Aerodpwmic Charact('ril!.tlcs of Ii
Sideslipping Wing Aidoil 3(l1
Suction force 3(5

-Chapter 8 ~.I. Linearized Theory of Supersonic Flou'

OIW a Finite-Span Wing 308
A Wing in Linearil.;ltioll of the Equlltion for tile
a Supersonic Flow ]'oteulial Fllnction 308
Boundar,I' Connitions 310
~1~;nVO~I~~f~rorp~J~u?;~:sal a~dluX~r~~
dynamic Coerticients 313
l"eatures or S\lprr~(llli(' Flow over
Wings 3t5
8.2. :'.ll!thod of Sourc,,~ 317
fI..a. Wing with It S~mmelri~ Airfoil and
Triangulu l'lanforlll. (2 -u, eYa '" U) 321
!~~r~ o~~~~i~ih:d~:nd witb It Sub 321
Triangular Wing Symmetrie about
lhe 'xAxis with Subsonie Leadinl~
Edges 326
Scmi-Inlinill' Wing with a Supel'S(Jnic
Edge 328
Triangular WingSym.metrie about the
x-Axis with SupersoDlc Leading Edges 330
8.1i. Flow over a Tetragonal Symmetrk
Airfoil Wing with Subsonic Edges
at II Zero Angle of 'Attack 331
8.5. Flow over a Tetragonal Syruruetri"
Airfoil Wing with Edges~of Different
(Subsonie and Supersonic) 343
Contents 11

Leading aud ~Ii,]d!e Edges are Sub-

sonic Trailing l~lIgo: 15 .supersonic :y'J3
Le~ding Ed~e is Subsonic, .\liddle
and Trailing Edgo:s are Supersonic 345
Wing with ,\ll Supl'r~Ollic Edges 346
General I{el,llioll for Calculating
the Drag 350
8.6. l'ic!d of Applicatiun of tht Source
~Iethod 3,ll
8.i. Doublet Vi~tributio!\ ~lptLiOJ 3,l3
So!!. fo'lo\\- OH'r .:J. Triallg"lllar Wing with
SubsoniC' Lrading Eligt'~ ~
fUI. Flow o\,l'r u Ill'xagOlml Wing \\'ith
:'Ilbl'uni(' LcadilJg Dild Supersoni<'
hailing I':dgc~ 366
!:l.lo. Flow o\'rr II Ih'Xil!>!"onal Wing with
~npl'nllni<' Ll'ildillg and Trailing
Edgl's 3;2
Kit. l)rHIt of Wing!! with S\lb~onic Lead-
in~ fo:dlft!s ' 381
fI,12. :\l'rodynamir Cilaruclerislil'S or a
Hcctanl.,rular Wing :-IE!5
fI.I:J. Ih'\'('r'"'~-t'low :\Il'lhllll 391

Chapter 9 !'I.I. G('ner.d Ihla\itJlls ror ll)(' ,\crtlttyna-

lllic Ct1('rtil"il'n\s 395
Aerodynamic !l.2. '\nal~'si~ of :-'tabilil,\' l)erh'ulivc$
Characteristics .In,] ,\l'rot! ,'u3mic C~)('lIki(lnl~ 398
01 Craft in !I.a. Con\"('n-ion' of ~labilily Ikri\'atin~
Unsteady Motion 1I1)I,n ;1 Chall!!l' in IiiI' ro~ilion of
til(' [,'m'n' Ih'dncti!))} Centrl' 1,04
!l.Ii. l'artirulHI' C3~('$ of \lotion 1,116
LOIH>:iludinal and Lateral \Iotion~ 4,,6
'\lotlO]] of the C(,lltre of 'lass anll
Hot;i\ioll ahout It 411,
l'itrhill>! \lolioll ,i08
!'I.~'.lU~lIa!ni;' ~tJ.lJilit~ !itO
Uelllll\wII 4111
Stabilil,- Cllara'-tcri"lir~ 413
ItG. Ba~k l\('latiun,; for Ln>:<U'adl Flow 1iG
:\l!l'nd,\'namit" COl'fliclent.:< 41G
Caurh,I""Lu:.(rnlll!t' Inll'g-ral 4:20
Waw Equ;ltioli 423
!I.i. BU'<-i(" \Ielhod~ of Sul\'illl.l :\on-
Shilwilafl" Problem~ 425
'1('liwd (if ::;our~e.!' 4;Q
!I.a ~~~~~~i;~~~r:fhod of Caleulating tile 428
Stability DerivatiVe,", for a Wing in
an IncompreSsible flow 43t
\"elucil\' Field of an Oblique Horse-
shoe Vorlex 431
\'ortt'X \lod('1 of a Wing 436
Calclilation of Cireliialory Flo",' 439
,\crod)'namic Characteristics 440
Ih'[ormation of a Wing Surface 451
innuence of Compressibility (the
Number .11",,) on ~oll-StatiODary flow 452
9.9. l"lIsteady Supersonic Flow over II.
Wing 456
9.10. Properties of .l.erodynaruic Deriv-
atives 478
9.11. Approximate .\iethods for Determin-
ing the ~on-Station8ry Aerodynamic
Characteristics 488
Hypotheses of I1armonicity and Sta-
tionarity 488
Tangent-Wedge :\Iethod 489

Referenc:es '93
Supplementary Reading
Name Index '"
Subjed Index
Aerodynami.cs is a complex word originating from the Greek
words all!' (air) and 6e"a~lLa (power). This name has been given to
a scien<:'e that, being a part of mechanics-the science of the motion
of bodies in general-studies the la\\'~ of motion of air depending on
the acting forces and on their basil" establishes special laws of the
interaction between nil' and a solid bod)' mO\'ing in it.
The practical problems couia'onting mankilld in cOlilleclioll with
flightf' in heavier-than-air craft provirl(>d an impetll$ to the de\'elop-
ment of aerodynamics as a f'cieJlce. The$e prol>letllf' were associated
with tht' determination of the forces and motllellt:-; (what we call
the aerod)'namic forces and momentf') acting Oll Itlo\'ing bodies.
The main task in investigating tile action of forr(>f' "'fl.." calculation
of tile bnoyancy, or lift. force.
At the beginning of its de\'elopment, f1erod~'llamic~ dealt with
tlte ill\'estigation of the lllot.ion of air at quit(> low speeds becalL:<CJ
aircraft at that time lwei a low flight ~peed. It if'. quite uatmal that
aerodynamics was founded theoretically on hydrodynamics-the
science dealing wHh the motion of a dropping (incompressible)
liquid. The cornerstones of this science were laid in the 18111 century
by L. Euler (1707-1783) and D. Bernoulli (1700-1782). memberf'. of
tho Russian Academy of Sciences. In his scientific treatise "The
General Principles of \Iotion of FlUids" (in Russian-1755), EHler
for the ILrst time derived the fundamental differential equations of
motion of ideal (non-viscous) fluids. The fundamental equation of
hydrodynamics establishing the relation between the pressure and
speed in a now of an incompressible fluhl was {lisco,'ered by Ber-
nOlllli. He published this equation in 1738 in his workf'. "Flnid
Mechanics" (in Rllssian).
At low night speeds. the inlluenc,e 011 the nature of Illotion of air
of such its important property a,.; compressibility is negligibly
small. But lhe developml'nt of artillery-rifle and roc!,el-and high-
speefl aircraft mO\'e{1 to thp forefront the task of studying the laws
14 Introduction

of motion of air or in general of a gas at high speeds. It W,HI found

that if the forces acting on a body moving at a high speed are cal-
culated on the basis of the laws of motion of air at low ~peeds. they
may differ greatly from the acLuBI forces. It became lle('e~~ary to
seck the explanation of this phenomenon in the nature itself of
the motion of air at high speeds. It consist!:! in a change in its Eiensity
depending on the pressure. which may be quite ('ollsiderable at such
speeds. It is exactly this change that underlies the property of COnI-
pressibility of a gas.
Compressibility causes ft change in the internal energy of a gas,
which must be consid('red when Cuiclllating the parameters rlNer-
mining the motion of the fluid. The change in the internal energy
associated with the parameters of state and t.he work that a ('Olll-
pressed gas ('an do upon expansion is determined by the lirst law of
thermodynamics. Hence. thel'modynamic relations were tlsed in the
aerodynamirs of a compressible gas.
A liquid IHld Hir (a gas) differ from each other in their physiral
properties owing to t.heir mole(,ular structure being different. Digres-
sing from tlH'se features. we ('1111 take into account only the hasic
difference lletween a liquid and a gas associated with the deb11'ee of
their compressibility. A('c_ordingly, ill aerohydromechanics, which
deals with tJH! motion of liquids and gases, it is customary to lise
the term fluid to (Iesignatc both a liquid and a gas, distinguishing
between an incompressible and a compressible fluid when necessary.
Aerohydromeclumics trents laws of motion common to both liquids
and gases, which made it expedient and possible to combine the
studying of these laws within the bounds of a single science of aero-
dynamics (or aeromechanics). In addition to the general laws ('ltal"aC-
terizing the motion of fluids. there are laws obeyed only by a gas or
only by a liquid.
Fluid mecha.nics :<tudies lilt' motion or fluids at a low speed at
which a gas beha"e~ practically like all incompressible liquid.
In the:=;e ('onditions, the enthalpy of a gas is large in comparison
with its kinetic energy, and one does not ha\'e to take aC('Olll1t of
the change in the enthalpy wHh a change in tho speed of the flow,
Le. with a {'hange in the kinetic energy of the fluid. This is why
there is no need to lise thermodynamic concepts and relations in
low-speed aerodynamks (hydrodynamics). The mcrhanics of a gas
differs from that of a liquid when t.he gas has a high speed. At ~l1ch
speeds, a gas flowing ovcr a craft experiences not only a chango in its
density, but also an increase in its temperature that may result in
variol1s physicochemical transformations in it. A substantial part of
the kinetic. energy associated with the speed of 8. flight is converted
into heat and chemical energy.
All these features of motion of a gas resulted in the appearance
of bigh~speed aerodynamics or gas dynamics-a special branch of
Introduction 160

aerodYllamic~ studying the laws of motion of air (a ga!ol) at high

subsonic and supersonic speed~. and also the laws of intcractioll
betweell a gas and a body trayelling in it at such speeds.
One of the founders of gas dynamics was academi<"ian S. Chaplygin
(1869-1942), who in 1902 published an olltstanding sdentific work
"On Gas Jet-OJ" (in Russian). Equations are derh'ed in this work that
form the theoretical foundation of modern gas dynamics and entered
the world's science lmder the uame of the Chaplygin equat.ions.
The development of theoretical aerodynamics was attended by
the creation of experimental aerodynamics de"oted to the experi-
mental investigation of the intera,1-ion between a body and a gas
flow past it with the aid of nriolls tcdlllical meaJllo; slI,h as a wind
t.unnel that imil-lIl.c tlw now of ail"\I'afi.
Under the guidllnce of professor S. Zhllko\"sky (1817-Ht!1). the
first aerodynamk laboratories in Hus."'ia wcre el'e,tpd (at t.hc ]\IOSt'OW
Statc University, the Mosrow Higher Tcehnical College. and at
Ku,l!ino, lIear Moscow). In 1\118, the Central "\l'roh:-'drodynftlllic
Instit.ute (1's.'\(;'I) was organized hy Zhukovsl.:y's iuit.intive with tlte
(Iirect aid of V. L('uin. At prcselll it is olle of the major world ,enlres
fo the sciplJ('c of al'l"odYlIfllIlirs h(>ariug Ihe )Iallie of :\. Zh\lko\"~kr.
The developmcnt of adatioll, artillery, amI rocket.I'Y. and t.he
mntllring of the theoretical fllndamcntnls of aerodynamirs changed
the nature of acrodynamk instal latiolls, from the first, comparath'ely
small and low-speed wind tunnels up to lhe giant high-speed tunnels
of TsAGI (HMO) and mocil'rn hypcrsonit" installations, and also special
facilities ill whirh a snpersonir. now of a beated gas is artificially
created (what wC call high-temperature t.unnels. I-tho,k tUllnels, pJasma
instaJIatioJls, ek,).
The nature of tbe il1terartioll between a gas and a hody moving
in it may vary, At low speeds, t.he interactioll is mailll~' of a fm'('e
nature. With a growth ill the speed, the force interartion is attended
b~' of the surface owing to heat transfer from the gas to the
body: this gives rise to thermal interaction. At YCry high spce<ll-l,
aerodynamic healing is so great that it may lead to failure of the
material of It c,raft waH becanse of its fusion or sliblimatioll alld. as
a result, to Lhe entrainment of the destroyed material (ablation)
and to a dUllige in the nature of heating of the walL AerOiIYllamk
heating may also ,ause chemical interaction b<'twcell a ,:olifl wtlll
aud t.he gas flowing OW!l' it. al-l a result of whidl the Silllle ('ffe,t of
ablation appears. High flight spl'edl-l may also (:uIH;e Ilhlntiull n!'l a
result of mecbanicallnteraction hetween the gm; and a moving hody
consisting in erosion of the material of a ' .... all and dnlllng"(' to it~
The inve~tiguliou of all .kind::: of intel,{\(tion hNwl'l'lI il gas and
a ('raft allows one to perform aerodynamir ,alcnlatiolls fI~so{'jatl'd
with Die evaluation of the quantitative ("riteria of thil-l interartion.
16 Introdudion

Ilamely, with determination of tile aerodynamic forces and moments,

heat transfer. and ablation. As posed at present, this problem con-
sists not only in determining the overall aerodynamic quantities
{the total lift force or drag. the total heat flux from the gas to a sur-
face, etc.), but also in evaluating tile tlistribution of the aerodynamic
properties-dynamic and thermal-over a surface of an aircraft
moving through a gas (the pressure and shearing stress of friction,
local heat fluxes, local ablation).
The solution of such a problem requires a deeper investigation of
the flow of a gas than is needed to determine the overall aerodynamic
action. It consists in determining the properties of the gas charac-
terizing its flow at each point of the space it occupies and at each
The modern methods of studying the Dow of a gas are based on
a number of principles and hypotheses established in aerodynamics.
()ne of them is the continuum hypothesis-the assumption of the
continuity of a gas fiow according to which we may disregard the
intermolccular distances and molecular movemeuts and consider
the continuous changes of the basic properties of a gas in space and
in time. This hypothesis follows from the condition consisting in
that the free path of molecules and the amplitude of their vibrational
motion are suffici~ntly small in comparison with the linear dimen-
sions characterizing flow around a body. for example the wing span
and the diameter or length of the fuselage (or body).
The introduced continuum hypothesis should not contradict the
-concept of the compressibility of a gas, although the latter should
seem to be incompressible in the absence of intermolecular distances.
The reality of a compressible continuum follows from the circum-
stance that the existence of intermolecular distances may be dis-
regarded in manyinvostigations, but at the sarne time one may assume
the possibility of the concentration (density) varying as a result of
a change in the magnitude of these distances.
In aerodynamic investigations, the interaction between a gas
and a body moving in it is based on the principle of inverted Row
according to which a system consisting of a gas (air) at rest and a
moving body is replacod with a system consisting of a moving gas
and a body at rest. When one system is replaced with the otlier, the
condition must be satisfied that the free-stream speed of the gas
relativo to the body at rest equals the speed of this body in the gas
at rest. The principle of inverted motion follows from the general
principle of relati'\'ity of classical mechanics according to which
forces do not depend on which of two interacting bodies (in our case
the gas or craft) is at rest and which is performing uniform rectilinear
The systt'm of differential equations underlying the solution of
problems of flow over objects is cllstomarily treated separately in
Introduction 17

modern aerodynamics for two basic kinds o[ motion: frt'(' (in\'isrid)

flow and flow in a thin layer of the gas adjacent to a wnll or bound-
ary-in tho boundary layer. where motion is {'onsidered with (1('('01111 t
taken o[ viscosity. This dh'ision of a nO\\' is based on the hypothesis
of the ab$encc of the I'f'v('rse innupnce of the boundary layer on the
free flow. According to this hypothesis, the parameters of IJl\'i!'icid
flow. i.e. on the outer !'iurface of the bOllndaryla~'er. are the same as
on a wall in the absence of this layrr. .
Th.e linding of the aerodynamic parameters of craft in unsteady
motiol! dlarar\.r> by a ehango in the kinematic parameters with
time is usually a \'ery intricate t.a.'lk. Simplified ways of solving this
problem are used lor practical pllrposcs. Such simplification is pos-
sihle \vllen the change occllrs .~lJfJi('ienlly slowly. Thif: is chararterif:tic
of IlHlIlY craft. "'hell determining thcir aerodrnamic chn.racteristits.
w(' ran pro('('ed rl'om the hypolhe!iis o[ steadiness in accordanee
wilh which the:-;(' dl,II'(H'tcristic~ in unsleady lIlotioll nrc assumed to
be thl' ~alllC;JS ill ~teallr Illolion, ilud are determined by the kinematic
pnraml'ler.<; of Ihis ll1olioll {It 11 gh'cn inst.anl.
\rhell performing lIero(lynaml(' experiment.s ali(I cnklliations.
account must be Ilikell of \"ari01ls dl'CIIIlHllanc9S n~~ociatcd with. the
ph~'sical ~imilitllde of the llow phenomena being studi('!!. Aerodyna-
mic C;llcuiatlOlls of fll\l-~rfllc (T11.rt (rod,;et!'. airplanc:-;) arc based on
prelinlinary wiue;;pr();ul iJ1H'sligatiolls (theoretical and experimeutal)
of flO\.... over models. The ('ouditions tll(lt ml}.~t Ill' ohsl'n'ell in such
investigations Oil models III'C fOllud in tile th('or~' of dYl1allli('. simili~
tude. allll t.ypical aud convenient paramel('I".~ dl'll'rLllillillg the basic
conditions of the proce:-;scs being studied arc f'_~[<lhlish('d. They are
called dimensionless numbers or similarity criteria. Till' modern
problems of similarit~ and also th(' theor~' or (lilll('II.~iolls widely
used ill aerodynami\!-; are ;.:et ont in a fl1ndaIllenlnl worl, of f\('ademi.-
cian L. Sedov titled "Similarity and Dimensional \[clhods ill \fec.h~
anies" [11.
Aerodynamics. figllratively !-;peaking, is a Illllitibranch science. In
accordan('e with tile needs of the rapidly developing aviation. rocket,
and cosmic engineering, more or less clearly expre>i;.:ed basic scientific
trends have taken in aerodYlLamics. They are (lSSOCiflled with
the aerodynamic investigations of craft as a whole and their illdi\i~
dual structural elements, and also of the most characteristi\. kiuds
of gas flows and processes attending the flow over a body. It is qnite
natural that any classification of aerodynamics is conditional to
a certain extent becauso all these trends or part of them are inter-
related. :"-Jevcrtheless, such a "branch" specializa(.ion of the aero~
dynamic science is of a practical interest.
The two main paths along which modern aerodynamics is deve-
loping can be determined. The first of them is what is called force
aerodynamics occupied in solving problems connected with the
18 Introduction

force action of a fluid, i.e. in iillding the distribution of the pressure

and shearing stress over the snrface of a craft. and also with the
distribution of the resultant aerodynamic forces and moments. The
data obtained are used for strength analysis of a craft as a whole
and of individual elements thereof. and also for determining its
flight characteristics. The second path includes problems of aero-
thermodynamics and aerodynamic heating-a science combining
aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer alld studying
flow over bodies in connection with thermal interaction. As a result
of these investigations, we find the heat nuxes from a gas to fl wal1
and determine its temperature. These data are needed in analysing
the strength and designing the cooling of erflfl. At the Sflille time.
the taking into account of tlte changes in the properties of fl gAS
flowing over a hody under the influence of high temperatures allows
us to determine moro precise!)' the quantitative criteria of force
interaction of both the external flow and of the houndary layer.
All these problems are of a paramount importance for very high
air speeds at which the thermal processes are very illtensiv(!. Even
greater complicaliolU; are introduced into the solution of sudl prob-
lems, however, because iL is associated with t.he need to take into
consideration the chemical processes occurring in the gas, alld also
the influence of c.hemiral interaction between the gas and the material
of t.he wall.
If we have in view the range of air speeds frolll low subsonic to
very high supersonic ones. then, as already indieated, we can separate
the followillg basic regions in the science of inve~tigatilJg flow: aero-
dynamics of an incompressible fluid. or fluid mechanics (the Mach
number of the flow is M - 0). and high-~peed aerodynamics. The
laLLer, in tllfn, is divided into subsonic (M < 1), transonic (M ~ i),
supersonic (M> 1) and bypersonic (1)1 ~ 1) acrodynamics. It must
be noted that each of these branches studies flow processes that are
characterized by certain spedflc features of flows with the indicated
:\Iac.h nnmbers. This is why the investigation of such flows can be
hased on a different mathematical foulldation.
'Ve have already indicated that Aerodynamic investigatiolls fire
hased on a division of the [Jow ncar bodies into two kinds: free (extE'r-
nal) inviscid flow and the boundary layer. An independent section
of aerodynamics is devoted to each of them.
AerodynamiCS of an ideal fluid st.udies a free flow and investigates
the distribution of the parameters in inviscid now over a body t.hat
are treated as paramet.ers 011 the boundary layer edge and, cOlisequE'lI t-
ly, arc the bOllndary conditions for solving the differential equations
of this layer. The inviscid parameters inclnde the pressure. If ,ve
know it.s distribnlion. we can find t.he relevant resultant forces and
moments. Aerodynamics of an ideal fluid is based on Euler's
fundamental equations.
Introduction 19

Aerodynamics of a boundary layer is one of the broadest and illost

dc\'e-Iopcd sect,iolls of the sden('o of a fluid in mot.iOIl, 1t. studies
\'is('ous gllS now in 1\ bOlilldal'Y laym', The 1'oluliOIl of [he problem of
flow in a boundary III:,-'cr makes it possihlc 10 lind Ih' di1'tributioll of
the shearing stresses and. ("onscIllIcully, of the resultant aerodynamic
fof("l's IIlid momcnts (',\USNI hy fl'klion. It also make::: it. possihl(> to
(",II("lIia(.r. the tra!lsfer of helll from Ihe gas nowing o\"el' a hody to a
houndary, The ('on('lusi(Jn~ of t.he bOlludarr la,..'cr theory ('illl also
ill.' used Cor corrL'('ting lhc ~ollllion 011 in\"iscicl now, pm'lklllarly for
lililling the corrert ion to tile pre!'.'1llre distrihution rlllC 10 Ille iunllen('e
of the boundm'y layer,
The modC!rll Ul(!oryof tht' hOlludary layer is hased Oil fundalllental
iln'csligat.ions of A, XIl"ier, G, Stokc!ot, 0, HeYl101ds, L. PI'andtl, and
T, "Oil Karmali, ,\ substantifll ('outribut.ioll to the de\"elopment of
the boundary Illycr theory was lUade h)' the So\'iet ~cientists A, Do-
I'OdnitsYII. L, Loihi,yansky, A. :'Ilelnikov, 'X, Kochin. (i, Petro,',
V, SII'llminsk~'. atlll otllrol'!-', TIIC'Y !"l'eat.ed a harmouium: theol'Y of
the boundary laycl' in a compl'e~sib)e gas, worked alit. method!! of
('alrlllilting til(') no\\' of a \"i!-'cou~ nuid o\"er "arious hodi('s (t\\"o- and
thl't'c-dimensionlll), in\"estigilted problem!> of tJle transition of a
laminill' I>oundlu'y layel' into a tlll'bulcnL one, and studied the com-
plkalc:i pl'Ohll'llI~ of tllfhulent lIlotion.
In ilel'odYlUunil' iH\'cstigatiotls in\"olving low airspeeds, the
thermal proe(lSS(l!-t in the hOUtHlil!')' layer do not havC! to bro taken
illio ,H'('Olltll ul'('aw<e of tlwit' low iut.enllity, "'hen high !oipl'Nis arc
iuvoh-ed, howen'l', lIt'rount Illlt:-;t be taken of heat transfer and of
tite influence of the high hOlllldllry layer temperatur('!'! 011 rrktioll,
It i!'l quile natltral tbat abumlallt attention is being gi\"en to Ihe
:'!ollltion of slldl problem!;. especially recently, In t.he SO"iet L'nion,
professors L, Kalikhman, I, Kibei. V, lye\"Jev and others al'e develop-
iug the gas-dynamic theory of Ileal. transfer, stlldying tllc ,'is('olls Row
0\'("1' ,'arious bodic!'! ot high I("mpel'ature!'! of the boundal')'layer, Simi-
lar prohlems arc also heing :o:ol\"ed by U Ilumber of foreign scien-
AI hypersouic flow speptls, the prohlt'ms of 1I("l'oclyuflmic heilting
111'(' liot the only on(l~, That ionization Q('t'III'S fit sneh sp('eds because
of the J1igh temperat.ures and the gas begins to ("(lIuluct ele<"lridty
('illlSell lIew probll'lIIs a~!'!ocialtd with control of till' plllllma flow with
thc ~id (If 11 magnetic. lieJd, When df'~rihillg the prOl'CI"!:.I!!' o[ inlel'-
a('tion of 11 moving body witlt pla!!-ma, the rcle"alli. flCl'otirunmic
('ulrulation!'l musl1.ak(, into flCCOllitt (.ll'("tromagu('1 i(' [()rc'('~ in addition
10 gas-rlynamk. one!'. The!<c pl'ohlf.'lU!; ,ue lIlllcli("d in magnC!-togas-
The motioll of fluills ill flceOI'(lnllt'l' with til(' COlllinlllUIl hypothe-
sis !-tnt out ubove is considerCtI in n :::pccial hl'au('/t of iICt'o(IYllamic:;-
('flillinutlm aerodynamics. :\hny thooretical (ll'ohlems or Ihis branch
20 Introduction

of aerodynamics (tre treated ill a fundamental work of L. Sedo\':

"Continuum :\lechanirs" (ill HII~:-iall-a textbook for universities) [21-
It must he noted that the continuum hypothesis holds only for con-
ditiolls of flight at low altiludes, i.e. in dense layers of
the atmo:-phcre where the mean free path of the air molecules is
small. At high altitlldes in (',ond itions of a greatly rarelied atmosphere,
the free path of molecules becomes <Illite signilicant, and the air can
no longer be considered as a continuum. This is why lhe condnsiolls
of continuum aerodynamics are nol.. \'alid for such conditions.
The interaction of a rarefied gas with a body moving in it is
studied in a spccial branch of aerodynamics-aerodynamics of
rarelied gases. The rapid development of this science during recent
years is due to the progress in space explorat.ion with the aid of
artiliciaJ satellite.'! or the Earth and rocket-pl'opellfld vehicle~. as
well as in various types of ro('ket systems (ballisLic, intercontinental,
global missiles, etc.) performing flight.s near the earth at very high
The conditioll!>: of flow O\'er craft 8ud. cOII~(>lluently, their aero-
dynamic c.hara(~teriRlics \'<lr)' depending on how the parameters of
the gas change at fixed points 011 a surface. A hroad class of flow
problems of a practical ~ignilicallce ('till he solved. as alreadynole(l,
in steadr-sLllte aerodynamicR, presuming thA~ the parameters are
independent of the time at these polntR. When studying flight !';tabil-
ity. however, uc('ount must be taken of the ullsteady nature of flow
due to the lion-uniform airspeed. aml of vibration.'! or rotation of the
craft. because in those conditions the flow over a body is characterized
by a local change ill its parameters with t.ime. The investigation of
this kind of now relates 10 uDstf!'ady aerodynamics.
We have conshlel'ed a da!\.<;i1ication of modern aerodynamics by
the kinds of gas flows. It is obvious that within the courmes of each
of the~e branchos of aerodynamics, flow is studied as applied to
various configuratiolls of craft or their parts. In addition to such
a classilication, of interest are the branches of modern aerodynamics
for which the conrlguratioll of a craft or its individual elements is t.he
determining factor.
As regards its aerodynamic scheme, a modern aircraft in the
generalized form is a combination of a hull (fuselage), wings. a tail
unit (empennage). elevators, and rudders. When performing aero-
dynamic calculations of such combinations, one must take into
account t.he etlerts of aerodynamic illtf'rfercnce-the aerodynamic
interaction between all these clements of an aircraft. Accordingly,
in particular, the overall aerod)'namic characteristics sue.h as the
lift force. drag, or moment mus~ be evaluated as the sum of similar
characteristics of the isolated hull, wings, tail 1111it, elevators, and
rudders with corrections made for this interaction.
Hence, this scheme of aerodynamic calculations presumes a knowl-
Introduction 21

edge of the aerodynamic charaderislics of the s;eparatc constituent

parts of an aircraft.
Aerodynamic calculalions of tile> lifting plnnes of wings is the
subject of a spec'in! branch of the nerodynamic science-wing aero
dynamics. The ollt!!tlmding Russian scienlists ami mechanics)i. Zhu-
ko\':oky (Joukowski) and S. Chap1rgin arc by right. con.!liderec1 to be
the founders of the aerodynamic 1I1eory of a wing.
The beginning of the 20th centul'r WfiS noted by the remarkable
disco\'ery by Zhuko\'sky of the natllfe of the lift force of a wing; he
derived a formula for calculating this force that bears his name.
His work on the bound \'ortices that. arc a hydrodynamic mode] of
a wing was far ahead of his time. The series of wing profiles (Zhukoy-
sky wing pronles) he denloped w{'re widely used in d{'signing air-
Academician S. Chfiplygin is the author of mfiny prominent works
on wing aerodYllnmks. In 1910 ill his work "On the Presslll'f> of a
Paranel Flow on Obstacles" (in Hussian). he laid the foundations of
the theory of an inflllite-span wing. In 1922, he published the scientific
work "The Theory 01 n Monoplane Wing" (in Ru!!'sian) that sels out
tJle Ihcol'Y of a Ilumber of \.... ing proli1es (Chnplygin wing profiles)
nnd al:oo de\"elop~ the theory of 1>tability of il monoplane wing. Chaply-
gin is the founder of the theory of a finite-span wing.
The fundamental ideas of Zhuko\':oky and Chaplygin were de\-cloped
in the works of Soviet scientist!!' specializing in aerodynamics. A."soci-
ate member of Ihe USSR Al'aclemy of Sciences V. Golubev (188-1.-1954)
i1l\'estigaLed the flow past 1>hort-span wings and various kind:s of
high-lilt devices. ImportaHt rcsnlts in Lhe potential wing theory
werc obtained by aeademiciau .i\1. Keldysh (1911-1978), and also by
aeaciemic.ians 1\1. Lln'rentyev aud L. Sedo\'. Academician A. Dorod-
lIi15yn summarized the theory of the lifting (loaded) line for a side-
slipping wing.
Considerable <lehie\emenl.s ill the theory of subsonic gas flows
belong to M. Kel<lp:h aud F. Frankl, who strictly formulated the
problem or a ellInpressible flow past a wing and generalized the
Kuua-Zhukovsliy Illcorem for this casco
Arademicinll S. Khristiano\'ieh ill his work "The Flow 01 a Gas
Past a Body at High Subsonic Speeds" (in Bu.s.c:ian) 131 de\-eloped
an original and very eIfecti\'E' method for taking into account the
influence of compressibility 011 the flow over airfoils or an arhitrary
The foreign sl'icntisls L. l'rondtl (Germany) and H. GJauert
(Great Britain) 1:ltlldied tllC problem of the influence of compressibility
on flo\\' past wing.!l. They crcaLed an approximaLe theory 01 a thin
wing ill a snb~OIlic flow at " small ftllgle or aUAck_ The rCl>ult::; they
obtained can be l:onsidered as particular C Sl'S of the general theory
of flow developed hy Khristiauo\'ich.
22 Infrodudion

A great contribution to the a('rod~{nami('s of a wing wa!> marie by

academician A. \'ekraso\' (t883-UJ:i4), WIIO de\'eloped a harmonioll!>
theory of 11 lifting plane in an ullsteady now. Keldysh and La\,-
rentre" !'o\"ed the important prohlem 011 the now over a \'ibrating
airfoil by generalizing Chaplygill's method for a wing with varying
circulation. Academician Sedoy estAh1i!>hec\ general formulas for
ullsteady aerodynamic forr,C!'I and moments acting on :m arbitrarily
moving wing.
Profe!'1sol'S F. Frankl. E. Kra!>ilsllchiko\"a. and S. Falko\'ich devel-
oped the theory of steady and unstead~' supersonic now O\'er tllin
wings of various conligurations.
Important results in studying unsteady aerodynamic."I of a wing
were obtained by professor S. Uclolserko\'sky, who widely used
numerical methods and computers.
The results of aerodynamic in\'estigations of wings can be applied
to the calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of the tail unit.
and also of elevators and rudders shaped like a wing. The specifiC
features of flow over separate kinds of aerodynamic elevators and
rudders and the presence of other kinds of conlrols resulted ill the
appearance of a special branch of modern aerodynamics-the aero-
dynamics or controls.
Modern roc.ket-type craft often have the conliguration of bodies
of revolution or are close to them. Comhined rocket systems of the
type "hull-wing-tail unit" ha\'e a hull (body of revolution) as the
main componellt of Lhe aerodynamic system. This explains why the
aerodynamics of hulls (bodies of revolution), which has become one
of the important branches of today's aerodynamic science. has seen
intensive development in recent years.
A major contribution to the development of aerodynamics of hodies
of revolution was made by professors f'. Frankl and E. Karpovic.h.
who published all interesting scientific work "The Gas I)ynamir~~
of Slender Bodies" (in Russian).
Tile Soviet scientists I. Kihei alld F. Frankl. who specializefl
in aerodynamic!';. developed the method of characteristic.Oj that macie
it possihle to perform effective calculations of axisymmetric super-
sonic flow past pointed bodies of re"olutioll of an arbitrary thickness.
A gl'oop of scientific workers of the Institute of Mathematics of the
USSR Academy of Sciences (K. Babellko, G. Voskresensky, and
others) de"eloped a method for the numerical calculation of three-
dimensional supersonic now o,'er slender hodies in the general case
when c.hemical reactions in the now are taken into account. The
important problem on the supcrsonic flow over a slender COlle was
solved by the foreign specialists in aerodynamics G. Taylor (Great
Britain) and Z. Copal (uSA).
The intensivc dewllopment of mo(lern mathematics and computers
and the illlprovemeni on Ihi~ ba~is of the methods of aerodynamic
Inb-odudion 23

in\"esligations lead to greater and greater f:ucces~ in soh-ing

(:omplicaled problems of aerodynamics including the determination
of till' o"eralJ aerodynamic charac.teristics of a craft. Among them
are the aerodynamic derh'atiYes at subsonic speeds, the finding of
which a work of S. Belotserko"sky and B. Skripach 14.1 is devoted to.
In addition, approximate methods came into u~e for appraising the
effecl of aerodynamic interference and calculating the releyant
corrections to aerodynamic characteristics when the latter were
oblaim'd ill the form of an addiLi"e sum or the rde"ant characteristic's
of th(' illdi\"idual (i!lolated) elements of a craft. The solution of such
prohlems is the subject. of a special brand. of til(' aerodynamic
scieurc-interferenee aerodynamics.
At low slLper!'onic speeds, aerod:'<'lIamic heating is comparatively
small and rannot. lead to destrurtion of a <'raft member. The main
prohlem ~ol\"ed in the given <,_ase is associated with the choice of the
cooling tm' nlaintllining the required boundary temperature. More
in\"ohed pro hI ems appear for "ery high airspeeds when a mO"ing
body has a trementious store of kinetic energy. For example. if a
cralt has an orhital or e~rape speed, it is suflic-ient to ron\"ert. only
25-a!.l"" of t.hi~ energy into hell! for t.he entire lllll('rial of a structural
memher (0 evaporate, The main prohlem that appears, partie-1l1arly,
in Ol'gallizing the safe> re-entry of n cl'a[l into (he delise-layers of the
atmllsphN'e rOllsist~ in di~~ipatillg this energy so that a minimum
part of iL wilt be absoi"l)cd in I-he form of heat. b~' t.he hOlly, h was
fOlllld that blunt-Ilos('d bodies have Stich a property, Tllis is exactly
what resulted in the d('\'cloprncmL or aerOd;\'IHHnie- ~t\ldics of sllch
An important contribution to investigating the prohlems of
aerodynamics of blunt-nosed bodies was mndt' by SOl'iet scientists-
arad(>nlicitlll~ A. Dorodnilsyu, G. Cherny. 0, Ue]ol'ierkovskr. and
otil('rs, Similar investigations WI!re perrorml."tl by :\1 Lighthill
(CorN\\. 13l'it,ain). P. GlU'ftbeclian (USA), and other foreign scit'ntist.s,
Ullluting of the frout surlare must be considered in n ('ertsin
seUi'e as a way of thermal protection of a craft. The blnnted nose
experiences the most iuteush'e thermal action. therefore it requires
thNlllai Pl'ot.e<'tion to even a greater extent thaH the peripheral part
of the craft. The most effecth'c protection is i\5sociatcd with the use
of v3rioull rontings whose matarial at. the relcnwt temperatures is
gradultllr del'troyed nntl ablated. Here a con:-liderable part of the
en('rgy ~\\pplied by the heated air to the craft i~ absorbed. The devel-
opment of the theory and pract.ical methods of calculating ablation
rplal('s to a modern branch of the aerodynamic f:cience-aerodynamics
of ablating surfacE'S.
A broad range or aerodynamic problem!': is QRsociated with the
determination of the interartioll of a Ruid with a craft ha"ing an
arbitrary preset shape- ill the general ca!':6. The ~hape~ o[ cralt sur-
It Introduction

faces can also be chosen for special purposes ensuring a definite aero-
dynamic effect. The shape of blunt bodies ensures a minimum trans-
fer of heat to the entire body. Consequently, a blunt surface can be
considered optimal from the viewpoint of heat transfer. In designing
craft, the problem appears of ehoosing a shape with the minimum
force action. One of these problems is associated, particularly, with
determination of the shape of a craft head ensuring the smallest drag
at a given airspeed. Problems of this kind are treated in a branch of
aerodynamics called aerodynamics of optimal shapes.
1.1. Forces Acting
on a Movtng Body
SlII'face Force
Let us consider the (orces oxerted by a gaseolls \"i"cou$ continuum
on a mo\'ing body. This flclion coo;<;j;<;ts in the llniform dbtribution
over the body's surface of the forcp.s P n produced by the normal and
the forces P, produced by the shear stresses (Fig. 1.1.1). The surface'
element dS being considered is acted UpOJl by a resllltant force
called a surface one. This force P is rleterillined according to the
rule of addition of two vectors: P" Hnd P-r' The force P n in addition
to the force produced by the pressure. which does not depend all the-
viscosity, includes a component due to friction (Maxwell's hypo-
In an ideal fluid ill which visl'Osity is assumed to be abl'lcul., the-
action of a force on an area consi."l:; only in that of the forces produc.ed
by the normal stress (prI'SSHre). This is ob\'iolls. because if Ihe force-
deviated from a normal to the arCH. its projccLioll onto this area would
appear, i.e. a shear !itress wOIl!d exist. Thc latter, however. is absent
in an ideal fluid.
In accordance witll tlte prillciplc of inverted' flow, the errcc.l of
the forces will be the ~allle if we consider a hod\' at rest alld a uni-
form flow oyer it having H \'c-locity at infinity eqllal to the speed or
the body before in\'ersiou. We shall c.aH this \'elocity the \'cloclly
at infinity or the frccstream "clocH), (Lhc \'clodty of the lIudistUl'l:!CJ
flow) and shall dcsignate it by -V,.,,, ill contrast to V (the ,"eloeity
of the body relativc to the undisturbed now), i.e. I V I -= I V < I.
A free stream is characterized by the undist.lIrbed pilramctcrs-
the pressure por,. density P<x, and temperature T x differing from
their counterparts p, p, and T of the flow disLurbed by the body
(Fig. 1.1.2). The physical propel'ties of tJ gas (air) are also rharacLerizl'(i
by the following kinetic parameters: the dynamic \'iscosity )l- alld
the coeIlicient of heat COlldtu'lh'ity f.. (the tlJldis\lll'Led p;lrlHlwter."
al't' fI "" and j""", l'espE'cti\'cly). as WE'll as uy thermodYIll'llllic para-
26 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynllmtcs 01 lin Airfoil lind a Wing

Fig. t.t.t
Forces acting on a surface ele-
ment or ~I moving body

__________ 1!.:!.:!_________ _

Fig. t,t,l
~~~~rlb~~li~l~d (::nJi~~~~b~~rno;.!
meter!): the specific heats at conslant pres.sure c p (c p .,,) and constant
volume c,. (c/.,.,) and their ratio (the adiabatic exponent) k = cplc(}
(k 00 ~ cl' <rolc,. ",).
Property of Preuures
In en Ieleel Flilki
To determine the property of pres!'lll'cS in an ideal fluid, Jet liS
take an elementary particle of the flnid having the shape of a tetra-
hedron .1foMl.lf2M3 with edge dimensions of 6o,T, tJ.y. and tJ.z
{Fig. 1.1.3) and compile eqnations of illation for the particle by
equating the product of the mas.<; of this elelllcnL and its acceleration
to the sum of the fOITes aCling on it. We .shall write these equations
in projections onto the coordinate axes. We shall limit ourselves to
the equations of motion of the tetrahedron in the projection onto the
x-axis, taking into account that the other two haye a similar form.
The product of the mass of an element and its acceleration in the
direetion of the x-axis is PIl' tJ.W dV:.Jdt, where Pay is the average
density of the fluid contained in the elementary volume tJ.W, and
dV:.;ldt is the projection of the particle's acceloration onto the x-axis,
The forces acting 011 our particle are determined as follows. As we
ha"e already pstablished. these forces include ,,,,hat we called the
surface fOI'('e. IIere it is delermined hy the action of the pressure on
the faces of our particle, and its projection onto the x-axis is
Px tJ.S x -
p" 60S" cos (n,x).
Ch, I, Basic Information Irom Aerodynamics 27

Fig. t.1.3
:"i'(Jrmall>tr('~('s acting on 11 fa('('
01 an ~'Iementary fluid Jlartid~'
hllvin~ Ihe ShllPI' of a tctl'ahed-
Allotlu'[' fOl'ce nctillgon the il>olatt'd tluid nllulI[e is the mass (body)
force proportional [0 the mR~li of th' particle ill Illis \'olume, \[ass
forccs indude gravitatinnoi ones. <Iud in parliculul' the force of
gt'i\\"ity. Another example of these forces is the mass force of an
eieetromagnetic origin. 1';l1oWIl a~ 11 Jlon{\t'rol1lotiv(' foree. thai
appeal'S ill a gal> if it is lIll electric condurtor lionized) and is in an
elel'tromaguetir rteld, Hcrc we shall not consider tlte motion of a
gali !lnder the action of SUell rOn'eli (see II :"pccifll ('OIlI':"C ill magneto-
ill thc Ullie being cOll!-;idefcd. we shall writc the pl'ojection of Ihe
mass rorrr! onlo the .1-Hxis in the forUl or Xp:o" 6. IV, denoting hy X
the pl'ojPetion of tlte' ma.<.:s fOl're reillted 10 II unit or l11aliS. "'illl lIl'-
('onnL takl'lI of these \'alocs for the Pl'OjC'(,tions or tht, surfal'e and
OIalili [orres, we obtain an eqllalion of motioll

fl;w ~Hl~""'" X!,~,. ~W ,- fl.,' 6.S, - P" 6.S" ('OS (;;.i)

where 6.S,. and I~S" arc thp <1rC'as o[ [accs .lI(I.11~.11;1 and ,llIJlI~.ll:l'
resp(lrti\"clr, cos (11,,1'), is\lit'co:-;iIlC or tll(' allg-If' hetwecn a normal n
to f~cc :\JI.'ll2,ll:1 <lnd thc J-R\b. and fI, aud p" art' Ihc Pl'l'SSlU'l'S
actiug tlU [arC." .1I,. l/~.1l:J Hud .1I1.11~.1I:., l'espt,rti\"l'ly.
Diddillg tll(~ t'lillation ohtain(',1 hy I~S,. al\(I Illldllg ill dew that

!1S, -, 6.S" ("os (1I~.r). 1f't w< paliS 0\"(>1' to the lilllit \\"itll 6.,r. !!.!I. lind
j,z telldiug to zero. COllsequcutl~'. thc [('1'111:< conillilliug ~l-V/6.S,~
will 111so tend to ZPI'O b('~'1111:;(! !!.W is l\ small qllautitr or the third
()rt\C'r. while 6.S,. is a small <jlllllltity of till' :,<('("ond o!'dC't' in ('Otll-
pal'i:"ol1 with the lillCR!' dim(,lIsiol1:< of the sUI'[ac(' l'h-'m('lli. A.'> a rt'sult,
we ha\'(' I',,' - fl" _.- 0, alld. therdor(', p". - 1'",
\\'!I('11 cOJlliiderillg til(' I'qllfltious of mo\ioll in proj('('tiolls onto I.he
y- aun ':;;I\\('li, we lind Ihnl Py ,. PI' lind p, p".
Sillt"l, ollr ,<.:ul'[ace ei{'OIf'nl with 1111' normal II is oriented arbitrarily.
\\'(> ('all al'l'i\'p a\ the follo\\'illg r()1\t'llision frOIll the r('sult:'l obtained.
The prel>li\lI'e at, <Illy poillt or a rio\\' or au ide;1i rtuicl is identical Oil
28 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 an Airfoil end eWing

all snrface elements passing through this point, i.e. it does not
depend on the orientation of these elements. Consequently. the
pre.'lSure can be treated 8S a scalar quantity depenliing only on the
coordinates of a point and the time.

InDu.aca 01 VIKOSHy
on th. Flow of fluid
Laminar and Turbulent "'low. Two modes of Dow are characteristic
of a "iseous fluid. The firsl of them is laminar Dow distinguished
by the orderly arrangement of the individual liIament~ that
do not mix with one another. Momentum, heat. and matter aro
transferred in a laminar Dow at the expense of molecular pro(',
of friction, heat conduction, and diffusion. Such a flow usnally
appears and remains stable at moderate speeds of a fluid.
If in given conditions of flow over a surfar.e the speed of the Dow
exceeds a certain limiting (critical) value of it, a laminar flow stops
being stable and transforms into a new Idnd of motion characterized
by lateral mixing of the fluid and. as a rc!;ult. by the vanishing of
the ordered. laminar flow. Su('h a flow is called turbulent. In a tur-
bulent flow, thc mixing of macroscopic. particles having velodty
components perpendicular to the direction of longitudinal motion
is imposed on the molecular chaotic motion characteri!ltk. of a
laminar now. This i!l the basic distinction of a turbulent flow from
a laminar One. Another rlistin('tion is that if a laminar 110w may be
either !lteady or unsteady, a turbulent flow in its essen('c has an
unsteady nat.ure when the ,'elority and otlll~r parameters at a given
point depend on the Ume. Acrording to the notions of the kinetic
theory of gases, random (disordered, chaotic) motion i!l c.hara('teristic
of the partieles of a fluid. as of molecules.
'WIlen studying a turbulent flow. it is convenient to deal not
with the instantaneous (actual) velocity. but with its average (mean
statistical) value during a certain time interval tz_ For example. the
component of the average velocity along the x-axis is Vx =

.,J Vx dt, where Vx is the ('omponent of the actual

= [1/(t 2 - tt)] "
velocity at the given point that is a function of the time t. The com-
ponents Vy and ~ along the y- and z-axes are expre~ed similarly.
using the con('ept of the average velocity. we can represent the aetua)
velocity as the sum V:t = V:t + V~ in whlcll F~ is a variable ad(lition-
al component known as the lIuetuation velocity component (or the
velodty Ouetuation). The fluctuation components of the velocity
along the y- and z-axes are denoted by V; and V;, respectinly.
By placing a measuriDg instrument with a Jaw inertia (for example~
a hot-wire anemometer) at the reqnirtld point of a flow. we can record
Ch, 1. Basic Ill/ormation from Aerodynamics 29

or measure tne fluctuation speed, III Cl turbnlent flo\\". tile instrllment

registers the deviation of the speed from the mean \"alllC'-the fluc-
tuation speed.
The !.:ineti<'. energr of a tllrl.l1l\enl nO\\' i:-; determined by the -"HID
of the !.:inetk. cncrgie!< \~alclllated "ccorning to the nll>an and fiuc-
tuation speeds, For a point in ljUC'.qiOll. the I,inetk energ~' of a
fluctuatiou flow can be determined as a quantity proporlionallo the
mean "alue of the mean square tll1ctuation \'elocitie~. If we resohe
1.he nne.tuation flow along the axes of 11 coordinate .~y;,lenl, the kinetic
energy of each of the components of snch a flow will be proportional
to the rel(>,'ant mean square componpnts of the Ilu('tllution velocities,
designated lly fJ, T'"7. find 1';2 [lod determinl?d from the (Ixpr('ssion

V;."!",:)"" I~~II JV~~y,t)dt


The concepts of <\\"C'rage and fim'!lIltling qoantities cau he ('x tended

to the pre~~\1!"C unu other"ai IlaL'amete)'s. The existl.'))I'e of
fluctuation velocitie!i lead$ to additional normal and !'hear :;trcsses
and to the more intensh'c lransfer of heat. anti ma~s. All this has to
be taken iuto account whell running experimenl:-!' in aerodynamic
tUIlHeis. The turhulence ill the ntmosphl?rc wa.:; fouliel to 1m relatively
small and. conseq!H;~ntly, it. should be just. as :mHdl ill the working
purt of a tunnel. An inaeascd turllulencc ,,(rech Ill .., results of an
experiment adversely. The natllff' of this innllence uepentl ..:; on the
turbulencf' 1(;\'('1 (or the initial turbui('nc('). detrrlll\(n'd from the


where V is the overall ll\'erage speed of the turbulent fiow at the

point being considered.
In modern low-turbulence aerodynamic tunnels, it is possible in
practice to reach an initial turbulence close to what is observed in
the atmosphere (e ~ 0.01-0.02).
The important characteristics of turbulence include the root
mean square (rills) fluctuations V"f;?, 1""17,
and V"'V;Z. These
quantities, related to the overall avera~e speed, are known as the
turbulence intcn-;ities in the corresponding directions and aro de-
noted as
'. ~ V~iV. ',~ VV;"iV. '. ~ VV;FiV (1.1.2)
Using these characteristics, the initial turbulence (1.1.1) can be
expressed as follows:
e=V(e~+e~+S:)/3 (1.1.1')
30 pt. I. Theory. Aerodynemics of en Airfoil end _ Wing


FI,. t.t ...

}o"Jow of 8 vist.oll$ fluid ov('J' a body:
a-51"lIpnmlle vit'w or ftl>W; ,. laminar houndary lal'l.'.:

01 the boundary itlYt".

Turbulenc(' is of a \,or(e); nature, Le. mass, momentum, and

energy Arc tran1'fel'l'ed by fluid particles of a \'OI'tC:( origin. Hence
it follows that f1l1rtnaHons nre rllara('terized by a ~latislical !l!lSO-
dAtion. The correlation eo('tl'ieient betweell f1ucluations at points
of the region of fl disl1ll'bed flo\\' being studied is a qllantitative lll(,llS-
1Ife of this M:'iociatioll. In the general form. this (',oefftrient helween
two I'AmJom fluctuating qU8utities If and 1f is written as (see 151)
R- <r/(V;p. V;p.) (1.1.3)
If there is no statist-iral aS50dation between the quantitics If and
11'. then R .. 0; iI. (on\'ersely. these quantities arc regularly ass/)-
dated. the ('orrelation ('oeffldent R .,.., 1. This characteris\.i(, of
turbulence is ('alIce! a two-point correlation cOf'flicicnt. Its expression
clln he Wl'itten Wig. 1.1.4c) for two points 1 find 2 of a fluid \'olnme
with the relevllllt f1ur_tllations V~l aud V;1 in the form
R=V~tV;zi(I/'Vj l,r~) (1.1.3')
Whell studying a tJlree-dimensional turbulent now. one usually
('onsiders fI large llumber of such coefliciellts. The ('oncept of the
turbu)('nc(' scale is introduced to characterize this now. It is delt'r-
mined by the expres.."ion

L- r
, Rdr (1.1.4)

The turbuleuce sCflle is a linear dimension characterizing the

length of the section of a flow on which fluid particles move "in
Ch. I, BlSic Information from Aerodynamics 91

Association", Le, ha\'e ~t8tistkally associated OU('.tulltiOIlS, By

loving together the points being eonsidel'ed in a tllroulent flow. in
the limit at r - 0 we can obtain a oDE'!-point corr>lation coefficient.
'Vith this condition, ('1.1.3') aequires the fOL'ln

This ('oefncip.llt rbat'ilctf'rizC!< Lhe I'ILntisl,ical assorialiou oetween
fluctuation~ at a point and. as. will he showu belo\\', tlil'C'('lly deter-
mille~ the shear slre~~ ill Il tnrhulellt flow.
Turbulence will he homogeneous if its a\"('t'aged chal'actf'ristic:s
found for II point (till' len" and iutensit,:,>' of turbulence. the OIlC-
point "orrelatioll cocflil'icnl) M(> lhc ~alllc fOl' the enlire now liu\'ilri-
an('c of tlac rharildcristk~ of tul"lmlt!Il('" in Il'flll~f(lr~), 1I0nlogC'lIcou::
tllrhllielU'c i" isotropic if it~ ('hm'a('((,"l'i~li{'s do 1I0t depend Oil the
dil'e(,tion for whi(,h Ihey 111'0 ("llIl'lilalCld (lIn'al'ian("c of the ('hal'art.el'is-
ti<'~ of tul'imlell("c in 1'0Ia(.io!1 and I'efl('('tion), Parti(,ularly. t.he
following ('()lldiLion ii" !,;Clli~r.l'd fOl' an i~olropic now:

17-' f7 V;i
If thh; condilion i!' ~llti:.::fied foJ' all poillt:.::. Ih(' IIII'bui(,II(,(, i~
homogeneous .md isotropic. For ~uch IlII'bulellce, tile constancy
of the two-point. ("orreJalioli ('oeflil'ient is I'l't.llined willi \'tll'iolls
directions of t.he )jill' ('olllle('tiug t.he t.wo points in t.he Ililid "olume'
being considt"red_
Fol' ClII isotropiC'" now. I,he ('ol'relation ('oemdent. (1.1.5) ('an be
expre:';:';ed in t.erm~ of the tnrbulen('(' le\'el f --: V~,.'t':
R=~/Vf=~(V;!e;!) (l,l.!i)
The introduction of the ("ou('rpt of t!Ycl'aged pal'ameters 01' \l1'Op-
el'ties appreciably facilitlllCs the iu\"cstigatioll of tUl'bulent flows,
Indeed, for praetical p\lI'pO~t"S, there is no need to kno\\' t.llt~ iustan-
taneo\l:'; values or the velodtie~, pressures, or ~henr ~tresscs, and we
can limit 01lrse}\"cs to Iheir time-avcragcd \"all1c~, Thc lise or a\'('I'-
aged pal'ametcr~ simplilil's Ihe relevanl ~>IJ\li.ltiOIl!; or
motiOIl (11)('
Reynolds eqllation~).
Sudl e<luation~, although they Ill'e simpl('r, indlldt1 the rml'lial
ded"OlI1\'e::: with respe('t to lime of the lWel'ag('u ,'cloC'ilr cOlllponenl:<
T-.. , 1\, Hnd T'z i)l!('aosc ill t-he gcllC'ral ease, the tllrbulent motinll i!1'
un~teady, III pl'llctical ca!:'c~, Iw\\'eH'r, lI\'erngiJlg is performed fol'
fl ~umciently long interval of time, ami 1l0W iu\'e!'tigatioll of tin
lII1~teady 110w ClUi be reduccd to tilt) im'estigation or ~Leady Ilow
(I!tlCl~i-gteady turbulent flow),
Shear Stress. Let us consider the formula for the shear sll'es:,
in a laminar flow. liNe friction appears becQu:ie of diITlIl'lioll nf the
32 Pt. t. Theory. Aerodynlmics of an Airfoit and a Wing

molecules attended by transfer of the momentum from one layer

to another. This leads to a change in the flow velociLy, Le. to the
appearance of the relative motion of the fluid particles in the layers.
In nccordanc:.e ,vith a hypothesis first ad\'anced by 1. Newton, the
shear slress for given conditions is proportional to the velocity of
this motion per llnit distance between layers with particles moving
Telath'e Lo one another. If the dislnnce between the layers is An.
and the relatb'c speed of the pnrtides is Au. the ratio Aul An at the
limit when An - O. Le. when the 1a)'C1'g are in contact, equals t.he
derivative (kliJn known as the normal "clocity gradient. On the basis
>of this hypothe$is. we can write N"cwton':;: friction law:


where ~ is a proportionality factor depending ou lhe properties of

a fluid. its tempeoralurc and pressure; it i1' better known as the dynamic
Tht' magnitude of !L [or a gas in aeeQl'dllnce with the rormula of
the .kinetic theory is
~ = O.499pcl (1.1.8)

At a given density p, it depends on kinetic characteristics of a gas

5u('.h as the mean free path l and the Illean speed of its molecules.
Let IlS consider friction in a tmbulent flow. We shall pro(',eed from
the simplified scheme of the appearall('e of additional frictioll forces
in turbulent flow proposed llr L. Prandtl for an incompressible
fluid. and from the semi-empirical nature of the relations introduced
for these forces. Let us take two layers in a ollc-dimensional flow
-characterized by a change in the average<1 velocity only in one direc-
tion. With this in view, we shall assume that the velocity in one of
the layers is stich that Vx =f=. 0, Vy = Vz = O. For the adjacent
layer at a distance of Ay = I' from the first one, the averaged velocity
is V ~ + (dV;r;/dy) I'. According to Prandtl's hypothesis. a particle
moving from the first layer into the second one rctains its \'elocity
v:, and, consequently, at the instant when this particle appears in
the second layer, the fluctuation \'elocity V~ = (dV)dy) I' is ob-
The momentum transferred by the fluid mass pV; dS through the
area element dS is pV~ (V;r; + V~) dS. This momentum determines
the additional force produced by the stress originating from the
fluctuation velocities. Accordingly, the shear (friction) stress (in
magnitude) in the turbulent flow duo to fluctuations is
I'. I = pV; (V, + V;)
Ch. 1. Basic Information from Aerodynamics 33

An'rngiug this e;..pression, we ohtain


l~tI-", t:~~1 .\

V;dt-i- ~

.\ V~V~dt~':flV);~,,;.pV~V;
w"~ra V:V~ \~ the a ... er:[\gNi ,-nIne ()[ till) pto(\I\C\ of t.he [\uc\,uati.on
n~lo('jties. and V~ is Ihe averaged value of the nu('lliation velocity.
Wo shall show that this vallie of the velocity equals zero. Integrat-
ing llH' lquality I"l ~ T V~ termwise with respect to t wit.hin

the Iimils from I, to 12 and then dividing it hy 12 - II' we find

_ , _ .\" V" dl:-. - '-

1.--1,.' '~-tl.
'I' V" dl - - '-
t!-t l
'\'~ V!; tit


=1'!I -:--'- '\'~ J"dt

'2-'1' 'I

Out Since, by delinition, V!I' ~ .\ 1'1/ dt, it is obvious that
V~ = ~
.,J V~ dt = O. lIonee, the averaged nduc of tIm sllCar

h~' tile relation I "[ I =

stress Jue to nllctlilltions can he expl'cs."{'fl
= pV~V:, Illat i:; the generalize,/ Heynolll:-; rorrnlila. J ts forIn does
not d()p~_tlt! Oli any spedf'lc assumptions Oil 111(' slrllr\tlre of the
Tile shear strcss determined by this (orlmdil call I)e expressed
directly in terms of t.hc corrDlation coefficient. In ,,,'col'dance with
(1.1.5), We have
IToI~ pRVv;. VV;' (1.1.9)
or for au isotropic now for which we have V~~, Vl';f.
Ittl = pRv;! ..--: pRe 2VZ (1.1.9')
According to this expression, an additional silent' stress due to
[Juctuations doos not necessarily appeal' iJl allY 110w characterized
by a certain tllrbuicnce lovel. Its magnitude depends on the measure
of the stati.::lic<ll mulual <lssocialion of the fluctuutions determined
by the correlation coefficient R.
The generalized HeYliolds formula for t-he .slrenr stress ill accord-
ance with Prandtl's hypothesis on the proportionality oC the l1uc-
tualiou "eJoeilies IV~ - aV~ a-i' (dV".-'dy). where a is a ("oellie-ientl
34 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

can be transformed as follows:

_ tit _

l:td=pV:cV;= tl~tl (d:u,..)2 j l'1ade=Pl2( d~,..)2 (1.1.10}

Here the proportionality

a has been incl uded in the
averaged value of l', designated by l.
The quantity l is called the mixing length and is, as it were, an
analogue of the mean free path of molecules in the kinetic theory of
gases. The sign of the shear stress is determined by that of the velocity
gradient. Consequently,
'. - pl' I d'V,ldy I d}'x1dy (1.1.10')
The total value of the shear stress is obtained if to the value "t')
due to the expenditure of energy by particles on tbeir collisions
and chaotic mixing we add the shear stress occurring direc.tly because
of the viscosity and due to mixing of the molecules characteristic
of a laminar flow, Le. the vallie 'tl = ~ dV:tldy. Hence,
, ~ " + '. ~ ~ dV,ldy + pl' I av,ldy I dV,Idy (1.1.11)
Prandtl's investigations show that the mixing length l = xy,
where x is a constant. Accordingly, at a wall of the body in the
flow, we have
It follows from experimental data that in a turbulent flow in direct
proximity to a wall, where the intensity of mixing is very low. the
shellr stress remains the same as in laminar flow, and relation (1.1.12)
holds for it. Beyond the limits of this flow. the stres!! "t'l will be very
small, and we may consider that the shear stres... is determined by
the quantity (1.1.10').
Boundary Layer. It follows from relations (1.1.7) and (1.1.10)
that for the same fluid flowing over a body, the shear stress at differ-
ent sections of the flow is not the same and is detel'mined by the
magnitude of the local velocity gradient.
Investigations show that the velocity gradient is the largest near
a wall because a viscous fluid experiences a retarding action owing
to ito; adhering to the surface of the body in the fluid. The velocity
of the flow is zero at the wall (sec Fig. 1.1.4) and gradually increases
with the distance from the surface. The shear stress changes accord-
ingly-at the wall it is considerably greater than far from it. The
thin layer of fluid adjacent to the surface of the body in a flow that
is charact.erized by large velocity gradients along a normal to it
and, consequently. by considerable shear stresses is tsllt'!d it bound-
ary layer. In t.his layer, t.he viscous fortes ha\'e a magnitude of the
Ch. I. Basic Information from Aerodynamics 3&

same order as all tho other foJ'("os (for example. t.he fOl'COS of inertia
alld prossure) governing motion and, therefore, taken int.o 3r.count
in t.he eqnations of motion.
A physical notion of the boundary layer can lie obtained if we
imngine the surface in the flow to he coat.e(1 with a pigment ~olHhl&
in the fluid. It is obvioHs that 111(' pigment diffll:-iel< inlo Uw nuid
and is simultaneously carried downstream. Con:;:eqnently. t.he colo-
nred zone is a layer gradually t.IIid.:.t'ning downstrctlm. The coloured
region of t.he nuid approximately coincides with I.JJC bOHO!lnry Inyer.
Thi,.:; region leaves the surface in the form of n coloured wake (see
Fig. '1.1 ...~a).
A,.:; :;:howll by observations, for n turbulent flo\\" the difference of
tile coloured region from the bonlldal'~' lay!:!r is cOlllpfll'ati\'rly:;:mall,
whereas in a laminar flow this differenco may be very significant.
J\('cordillg to theoretical and rxpe-l'imental investigationf-;. with an
increase, in the velocity. the thickuess of the layer diminishes, and
the wake becomes narrower.
The nature of the velocity dil'tributiol1 over the CI'OSS ~e(':tiol1 of
.1 boundary layer depends on whether it is lnlllinor or t.urbulent.
O\ving to lateral mixing 01 the particles and also to their collb;ions,
tJlis dist.ribution of the vriocity, more exactly of its timf"-avcraged
value. will be appreciably more uniform in a turbulent flow than in
a laminar one (see Fig. 1.1.4). The distribution of the velocities
near the surface of a body in a flow also allows liS to make the con-
clusioll on the higher shear stre!>." ill a turbulent. houndary layer
determined by the increased value of the velocity gradient.
Beyond the limits of the boundary layer, there_ is a part of the
flllw where the velocity gradients and. consequcml.l},. thr forces of
frictiol1 arc small. This part of the flow is known as the external
free Dow. In investigation 01 ali extel'nal flow. the influence of the
viseous forces is disregarded. Therefore, such a flow is also considered
to be inviseid. '1'ho velocity in the boundary layer grows with an
increasing distance from the \.... all and asymptotically approaches
a theoretical value correspouding to the Oow over the holly of an
i"viscid nuid, Ln. to UIC \'alue of the velOCity ill the exterual flow-
at the boundary of the layer.
We have- already not.ed that ill direct proximity to it a wall hinders
mixing. and. consequently, we may RSSllme that the part of the
boundary layer adjacont to the waH is in conditions close to laminar
one~. Thjs thin section of a quasilaminar boundary layer is called a
viscous sublaycr (it is also sometimes called a laminar sublayer).
Later investigations show thot fluctuations are observed in the
viscous subbyer that penetrate into it from a turbulent core, but
there is 110 correlation between them (the correlation coefficient
R ~" 0). Therefore, a('.cording to formula (1.1.9), no additional shear
stresses appear.
Boundary layer:
I_wall or a body In lbe flOWI
B-outer edgt> or tbe layer..j

The main part of the boundary layer outside 0;" the viscolls sub-
layer is called the turbulent core. The studying of the motion in
a boundary layer is associated with the simultaneous investigation
of the flow of a fluid in a turbulent core and a viscous sublayer.
The change in the velocity over the cross section of tile boundary
layer is characterized by its gradually growing with the distance
from the wall and asymptotically approaching the valne or the
velocity in the external Row. For practical purposes, however, it is
convenient to take the part of the boundary layer in which this
change occurs snIrlciently rapidly, and the velocity at the bouudary
of this layer differs only slightly from its value in the external Row.
The distance from the wall to this boundary is what is conventionally
called tile thickness of the boundary layer 6 (Fig. 1.1.5). This thick-
ness is usually dermed as the distance from the contour of a body to
a point in the boundary layer at which the velocity differs from its
value in the external layer by not over one per cent.
The introducHon of the concept of a boundary layer made possible
effective research of tile friction and heat transfer processes because
owing to the smallness of its thickness in comparison with the climen-
sions of a body in a Dow it became possible to simplify the differen-

tial equations describing the motion of a gas in this region of a flow,

which makes their integration easier.

t.l. ResuH-ant Force Action

COIIIponents of A.rocIyn.mlc Forcu
..... MOInIlnfs
The forces produced by the normal and shear stresses continuously
distributed over the surface or a body in a !low can be reduced to
a single resultant "ector RII of the aerodynamic forces and a resultant
vector M of the moment of these forces (Fig. 1.2.1) relative to a
reference point called the centre of moments. Any point of the body
Ch. 1. Basic Infonnlltion from Aerodynamics 37

FI,. U.t
Aerodynamic rorces and moments acting nn a craft in the nighl path (.Tn' Ya,
and la) and body- axis (%, y. and z) t:onrdinate systems

CHII be this centre. Particularly, when testing craft in wind tunnels,

the moment is found about olle of the points or monnling of the
model that muy coincide with the nose o[ the body, the leading
clige of Il wing, etc. When stlld~'ing real cases of the motion of such
craft ill thc atmospherc, one call determine the aerodynamic moment
about their centre of mass or some othe-r poillt that is a ceJllre of
In engineering practice, in!\tead of cOllsidering tlte vectors R.
and M, theil' projections onto the axe~ of a coordinate system are
usually wilh. Let \IS cOII.~ider the flight path lind fixed or body
axis orthogonal coordiuate I'Yl'tcm~ Wig. 1.2.1) encountcl'ed most
often ill aerodynamics. In the night path sy~t(>m. thf' aerodynamic
forces and moments are usually gh'ctI becanse the investigation of
many problems of flight dynamic!; is eonnected with the m:e of
coordinate axes of exactly !;lIch a system. Pal'ticlllHrly, it is con-
venient to write the eqll.atjon~ of motion of a eraft"s centre of
mass in projections onto these axes. The flight path axis Oz, of
a velocity system is always directed along the nlocily vector of
a craft's centre of mass. The axis 0Ye of the flight path system (the
lilt axis) is in tIle plane of symmetry and is direeled upward (its
positive direetion). The axis Oz. (the lateral axis) is direeted along
the span of the right (starboard) wing (0 right-handed coordinate
system). Tn inverted flow, the night path axis OZa eoincides with the
direr-li!")n of the now velocHy, while the axis OZa is directed along
38 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of on Airfoil ond 0 Wing

the span or the lell (port) wing so as to retain a right-handed coordi-

nate syslem. The latter is called a wind coordinate system.
Aerodynamic calculations can be performed in a lixed or body
axis coordinate system. In addition, rotation of a craft is usually
investigated in this system because the relevaut equations are
written in body axes. In this system, rigidly fixed to a craft, the
longitudinal body axis Ox is directed along the principal axis of
inertia. The normal axis Oy if: in the plane of symmetry and is orient-
ed toward Lhe upper part of the craft. The lateral body axis {)z
is directed along the span of the right wing and forms a right-handed
coordinate system. The positive dircction of the Ox axis from the
tail to the Ilose corresponds to non-inverted flow (Jo'ig. 1.2.1). The
origins of both cOOl'dinate systems-the night pHth (wind) and the
body axis systems-are at a craft's centre of mass.
The projections of the vector Ra onto the axes of a flight path
ooordinate system are called the drag force X., and lift force }'a'
and the side force Za. respectively. The corresponding projections
-of the same vector onto the axes of a body coordinate system are
<called the longitudinal X. the normal Y. and the lateral Z forces.
The projections of the vector }I onto the axes in the two coordi-
nate systems have the same name: the components relative to the
longitudinal axis are called lhe rolling moment (the relevant sym bois
are MXa in a flight path system and Mx in a body one), the compo-
nents relative to the vertical axis are called the yawing moment
(Mila or Mil)' and those relative to the lateral axis are called the
pitching moment (M'a or M,).
In accordance with the above. the vectors of the aerodynamic
forces and moment in the flight path and body axis coordinate
.systems arc:
Ra = Xa + Ya -I- Z. = X -7- Y -i- Z (1.2.1)
M = MXa + Mila + Mz" = M:c + Mil Ml: + (1.2.2)
We shall cOllsider a moment about an axis to be positive if it
tends to turn the craft counterclockwise (whon watching the motion
from the tip of the moment vector). In accordance with the adopted
arrangement of the coordinate axes, a positive moment in Fig. 1.2.1
increases the angle of attack, and a negative moment reduces it.
The magnitude and direction of the forcos and moments at a
given airspeed and altitude depend on the orientation of the body
relat.ive to the volocity vector V (or if inverted flow is being COII-
sidered. relative to the direction of the free-stream velocity Voe ).
This orientation, in t.urn, underlies the relevant mutual arrangement
.of the coordinate systems associated with the flow and the body.
This arrangement is determined by the angle of attack a and the
sideslip angle ~ (Fig. 1.2.1). The first of them is the anglc between
Ch. 1. Basic Inrormation from Aerodynamics 39

Fig. t.U
Determining the position of a craft in space

the axis Ox and the projection of the vector V Olito the plane xOy.
and the second is the angle between the vector V and the plane xOy.
The angle of attack is considered to be positive if the projection
of the air velocity onto the normal axis is negative. The sideslip
angle is positive if this projection onto the lateral axis is positive.
When studying a Right, a normal earth-fixed coordinate system is
used relative to which the position of a body moving in space is
determined. The origin of coordinates of this 5ystem (Fig, 1.2.2)
coincides with a point on the Earth's surface, for example with the
launching point. The axis OoY, is directed upward along u local
vertical, while the axes OoXll and OOZr coincide with a horizontal
plane. The axis Oox, is usually oriented in the direction or flight,
while the direction of the axis Ooz, corresponds to a right-handed
coordinate system.
If the origin 01 an earth-fixed system of coordinates is made to
coincide with the centre of mass of a craft, we obtain a normal earth-
fixed coordinate system also known as a local geographical coordi-
nate system Ox:y,Zg (Fig. 1.2.2). The position of a cralt relative to
this coordinate system is determined by three angles: the yawing
(course) angle 11'. the pitching angle tt. and the rolling (banking)
angle 'Y.
The angle W is formed by the projection 01 the longitudinal body
axis Ox onto tbe horizontal plano X;:Oyj (Ox*) and the axis Oxg;
this angle is positive if the axis OX;: coincides with the projection
of Ox* by clockwise rotation about the axis Oy~.
The anglo ~ is that between the axis Ox and the horizontal plane
%toze and will be positioie if this plane is below the longitudinal
40 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodyn~mks of lin Airfoil lind II Wing

body axis. The angle I' is formed upon the rotation (rolling) of a
craft about the longitudinal axis Ox and is measured in magnitude
as the angle between the lateral body axis and the (lxis OZr; dispillced
to a position correspolHJing to a zero yawing allgJ(> (or as the angle
between the axis Oz and its projection onto II horilOnlal plane-
t.he axis Oz;). If displacement of the axis Oz~ with respect to the
lateral axis occurs clockwise, \.IH~ angle "r is positi\e.
The pitching angle determines the inclinalion of a cfaft to the
borizon, and the yawing angle-the rleviation of the direction of
its flight from the initial one (for an aircraft this is the deviation
from its course, for a projectile or rocket this is the deviation from
the plane of launching).

ConversIon 01 "erocfYMllllc Forces

.. nd Moments from One Coordinate System
to Another

Knowing the angles (I. and ~, we can Call vert the components of
the force and moment in one coordinate system to components in
another system ill accordance with the rules of analytical geometry.
Particularly, the components of the aerodynamicforce and moment
in a body axis system arc converted to the drag force and the rolling
moment, respectively, in a night path system of coordinates by the
X .. = X cos (~a) + Y cos (;;:8) ---:- z cos (~8) (1.2.3)
1I1:<:a = M;J; cos (x"?a) T .My cos (Y;a) + M, cos (;;-8) (1.2.3')

where cos (;:;.9), cos (Y;a), cos (i?a) Bfe the cosines of the angles
between tlle axis OXa and the axes Ox, Oy, anil Oz, respectively.
The expressions for the other components of the force vector, and
also for the components of tho moment vector, are written in a
similar way. The values of the direction cosines used for converting
forces and moments from ono coordinate system to another arc
given in Tahle 1.2.1.
Table 1.2.1
FUglit path sHtl'U1
u'a 0,. 0,.
Ox ces et cos ~ sin a -cosasin IS
0, -sinacos~ ros. BinaslnjS
0, sin IS 0
Ch. 1. Basie Information from Aerodynamies 41

In ilcrordallce willt the datil of Taule 1.~.1, fq,s. (1.2.:{) ,lilll

(1.2.3') acquire the following form:
Xa ....., X cos a. cos ~ - Y Sill a cos ~ -- Z sill ~ (1.2.4)
.1/;1'8 -= ;\l~ cos 0: cos B - .1I y sin a cos ~ .c. .11, sill ~ (1.2.!1')

For example. for the motion of the aircrnfl .~hOWll ill Fig. 1.2.1,
Eq. (1.2.4.) yields. with the relevant signs:
-X a -' -X cos 0: cos ~ - }" sill 0: co.s Il .:- Z sin fl
The force and moment componellts* arc cou\'cl'ted ill a similar
way from a flight path to a Doll y a"is coordinate sy~tem. For example.
by using the data of Tnblp; 1.2.1, we obtain the following cOllversion
formulas for thE) longitlldinal force and the rolling moment:
X --' Xacosa.cos~ .. Y~sino:-Zaeo!-\o:~illl~ (1.1.5)
.1/,,, :-=: .1!;.:~ cos (.( cos ~ .1/ Y;, sill a. .l! l;, COS':L sin ~ (1.2.5')
We call go O\'er from II local geographical coordinate system (a nor-
mal system) to ;J body axis or flight path one, or vicc \'ersa, if we
know the cosinE'S of the angles he tween the corresponding axes. Their
vailit's can be delermined from Fig. 1.2.2 that shows t-he mutunl
arrangemellt of the axes of thel$e coorriinnl(' sysl(!m~.

1.1. Determination
of Aerodynamic Forces
and Moments According to
the Known Distribution
of the Pressure and Shear Sh'ess.
Aerodynamic Coefficients
Aerodynamic forces
lind Moment5 and Their CaeHicients

Assume that for a certnin angle of attack lind side;,lip IIllgle, and
also for given parameters of the free stream (tile speed V 00, si(ltic
pressure p"", density Poc:, and temperature T ...). we know the distrib-
ution of the pressure p and shear stress 't ov~r thp ~lIrfBCc of the body
in the flow. We want to determine the resultant values of the aero-
dynamic forces aod moments.
The isolated surface elemt'nl dS of the body experiences 1I normal
force produced by the exc(>!';s pressure (p - P dS and the tangential

Wc sllall omit the won] ,.omponents" Jx.low for bre\'ity, hu~ shall mean
it and use fonnulo3 for scalar quantities.
ActioD of pftMurC and friction
!sr~~ar) forces on an elementary

force 't dS. The sum of the projeetions of these forces onto the xaxis
of a wind (]jgnt path) coordinate system is (Fig. 1.3.1)
/\ /\
r(p- p",,) cos (n,x a) + "tcos (t,xo) dS (1.3 .1)
where n aud t are a normal and a tangent to the olement of area,
The other two projections onto the axes Ya and z. are obtained by
a sirnilar formula with the corre.sponding cosines. To find the resul-
tant forces, we have to integrate expression (1.3.1) over the entire
!.urface S . Introducing inlo equations the pressure cOPUlcicnt
p = (p - p"",)/q"" and the local friction 'actor Cj .:t = 'tlq "", where
q"" = p ... V!. 12 is the velocitv head. we obtain formulas for the drag
force, the IiCl force, and the side force, respectively:

x .. = q"",Sr ~ fp cos (~,~.H-c,. :tcos

(t.i.)JdSIS r (1.3 .2)

y~ ,.."qocSr)
" - /\ /\
r-pcos(n,y.)+c,.xcos(t,Ya)]dSISr (1.3.3)

Za = -q"",Sr 1fPCOS (;;,~.)+c, . %cos(r.i.)ldSISr


We can choose a random surface area such as that of It wing in

plan view or the area of the largest cross section (the midsection) of
the fuselnge as the charactoristic area S t in these formulas. The
intograls in formulas (1.3.2)-(1.3.4) are dimensionless quantities
taking into account how the aerodynamic forces are aHected by the
nature of the flow over a body of a given goometric configuration and
by the distribution of the dimensionless coefficients of pressure and
jfriction due to lhis flow .
. In formulas (1.3.2) for the force X . , the dimensionless quantity
,lS usually designated by c Xa and is known as the drag coeffaclent.
Ch. 1. gasic Information from Aerodynamics 43

III the othl'r two fOI'lnulos, the corresponding symbols cUa and c'a
<1m introduced. The l'",le'-onl quanti lies Me known as the aerodyna-
mic lift coefficient and thE' aerodynamic side-force coefficient. \;Vith
~I view to the obo\'e. we han'

Xli = c"/lqooSr> 1'8 = cllaq",ST> Za """ cZ/lqooSr (1.3.5)

We can oLlain generol relations for tI[(~ moments in the same way
8~ formulas (1.3.2)-(1.3.4) for the forces. Let liS consider as an example
slI('h a r('iation for !lu' pitching mom(,nt ,1[ . It is evident that the
e]('mentllry vallie of this moment d;\/zll is d~t.ermined by the sum of
thE' morrwnLs about the axis ZII of the forclls acting on an area dS in
i\ plane al right allg'ks 10 the nxi~ ZII' If the of t.he Ilrea
dS arc Ya <tnt! X a , the l'!cll1cnlary vallie of the moment is

dM~a =
- /''\
q"",Sr {(p cos In,Ya)-cr.x cos (t,Ya)lxa
- /'\ /'
-!p cos (n,x a) -;- Cr.", cos (t,x iI ) Ya} dSIS r
Integrating this cxpression over the surface S and introducing
the dimensionless pOrilt\lptE'l'

m!a .." q~;;L = .~ {If cos (n,~,J -Cr.:.: cos (~,~a)J XII

-iPcOs(~:~a)---: c,.%cos((,~)JYa} :;~ (l.:i.u)

in which L is a characteristic geometric length, we obtain a formula
for the pitching moment:
Tile parameter 1nza is called the aerodynamic pitching-moment
coefrlcient. The formulas for the other components of t.he moment
art' written similarly:
,lira = 1n~aqooSrL and MYa = m!laq",SrL (1.:3.1,)
The dimensionless parameters mX~1 and mila arc call.,d the aerody-
118rnic rolling-moment and yawing-moment cocffieieuts, respectively.
Thp. relevant Mefticients of the aerodynamic forces and moments
call nlso he introduced in a body axis coordinate system. The use of
these coefficients allows the forces and moments to be written as
X c:Jt.g""Sr, Mx = mAooSrL
Y = c"qooSr, Mil = mlllooSrL (\.3.9)
Z = cz<jooSr, A-fz = m.q ...SrL
44 pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of lin Airfoil and a Wing

The quantities cx, cy , and Cz are called the aerodynamic longitu.

dinalforce, normalforce, and lateralforce coefficients, and the
parameters m x' my. and tr/z-the aerodynamic body axis rolling
moment, yawingmoment, and pitchingmoment coefficients, respec-
An analysis of the expressions for the aerodynamic forces (1.3.2)
(1.3.4) allows us to arrive at the conclusion that each of these forces
can be resolved into a component due to the pressure and a component
associated with the shear stresses appearing upon the motion of a
viscous fluid. For example, the drag X II =- X a.p -I- X a.,. where
X a . p is the pressurl;' drag and X a.f is the frit'tion drag. Accordingly.
the overall coefftcient of drag equals the slim of the coefJicients of
pr~~:~~a~~'~ ~~:;t:oe~o~~~:~;;al:;/'~~'d -~i~~:'t~'rce coefftcients, and
also the moments, can be represented as the slim of two components.
The forces, moments, and their coefficients are written in the same
way in a body axes. For example, the longitudinal-force coefficient
C x "- cx. p . C x .', where c x . p and X".r arc the coefftcients of the
longitudinal forces due to pressure and friction, respectively.
The components of the aerodynamic forces and moments depending
on friction arc not always the same as those depending on the pressure
as regards their order of magnitude. Investigations show that the
inflnence of friction is more appreciable for flow o\'er long and thin
bodies. In practice, it is good to take this influence into account
mainly when determining the drag or longitudinal force.
When a surface in a flow has a plane area at its tail part (a hottom
cnt of the fuselage or a blunt trailing edge of a wing), the pressure
drag is llsllally divided into two more components, namely, the-
pressure drag on a side surface (the nose drag), and the drag dlle to the
pressure on the base cul or section (the bast' drag). Hence, the overall
drag and the relevant aerodynamic coefficient arc
Xa, = Xa,n -+- Xa.b -!. X a" and cx~ = c"a.1I ~ C:tn.b -+- c:t n,'
When determining the longitudinal force and its coefficient, wr-
X = Xn + X b -I- Xl and Cx = Cx ... + C:t.b ..:... C:t.f
In accordance with Fig. 1.3.1, we have
Xb= -qot> JF;,dS
b and C.~.b ~ q:~r

where Pb = (P.b - poo)/qot> (this quantity is negative because a

rarefaction appears after a bottom cut, i.e. Pb < pool.
Characteristic Geometric DimE'nsions. The absolute value of an
aerodynamic coefficient. which is arbitrary to a certain extent.
Ch. 1. Basic Information from Aerodynamics 45

:~~e~!':ic vicw of a wing:

I,.-c~ntr" chord, bt-till chord.
lind b-Iocal chord

depends on the choice of the characterigtic geometric dimensions

S rand L. To facilitat.e practical calculations. however, a characterb~
tic geometric quantity is dlOsen beforehand. In aerogpace technology,
the area of the mid-section (the largest cross section) of the body
Sr = SlIllri is usually chosen ag the characteristic area, and the
length of the rocket is taken as the characteristic linear dimension L.
In aerodynamic calculations of aircraft., t.he wing plan area S r .=
= Sw, tlle wing span l (the distance between tlw wing tips) or the
wing chord b arc adopted as the clHlracteristic (Iim('nsions. By the
chord of a wing is meant a length equa! ") the distance between the
farthest points of an airfoil (section). For n wing with a rectangular
pianform, the chord equals the width of the wing. In practice, a wing
usually has a chord varying along its span. Either the mean gPOmc:tric
chord b = b m equal to b m ~ Swfl or the ml'an aerodynamic chord
b = b A is taken as the characteristic tlimengioll for such a wing. The
mean aerodynamic chorl] is determined ag the chord of the airfoil
of an equivalent rectangular wing for which with an identical wing
plan area the moment aerodynamic characleristics are approximately
the same as of tlw given wing.
The length of tile mean aerodynamic chord and the coordinate of
its leading edge are determined as followg (Fig. 1.:l.2):
I b',

When calculating forces and moments according to known aero-

dynamic coefficients, the geometric dimensions must be used for
which these coefficients were evnluated. Should guch calculations
have to be performed for other geometric dimensions, the aero-
dynamic coefficients must be preliminarily converted to the relevant
geometric dimension. For this purpose, one mnst use the relations
C1Sl = C 2 S 2 (for the force coeflicients). and TnISIL I = Tn 2S 2 {'2 (for
the moment coefficients) obtained from tilC conditions of th(' constancy
46 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynemics 01 en Air/oil end eWing

Fill. t.3.l
Constructing 8 "polar of the first kind of a craft:
a-e'l'a vs. a: /.I-Cyll. vs. a; c-polsr ot hrst kind

of the forces and moments acting on the same craft. These relations
are used to fmd the coefficients C 2 and m 2 , respectively, converted to
the new characteristic dimensions 8 2 and L 2:
c2 = c1 (8 1 /8 2 ), m 2 = ml (8 1 L I /8 2L 2)
where the pr~vious dimensions 8 1 , L] and aerodynamic coefficients
c1 ' ml , as well as the new dimensions 8 2 , L2 are known.
Polar of a Craft A very important aerodynamic characteristic
~h:;af~~i \.f:~;atl~~~~s~r~:I~tf:~ ~~t=Zea~ t~e ~?f~~~da~r~~e f:r~:: o~~
which is the same, between the lift and drag coefficients in a flight
path coordinate system. This curve, called a polar or the first kind
(Fig. 1.3.3c) is the locus of the tips of the resultant aerodynamic force
vectors Ro acting on a craft at various angles of attack lor of the
vectors of the coefficient ella of this force determined in accordance
with the relation en~ = RII./(S rq (m)1.
A polar of the first kind is constructed with the aid of graphs of
C!f A versus ct and cVa versus ct so that the values of C!fa and cJlll Me
laid off along the axes of abscissas and ordinates, respecthely. The
relevant angle of attack ct, which is a parameter of the polar in the
given case, is written at each point of the curye.
A polar of the first kind is convenient for practical use because it
allows one to readily flDd for any angle of attack such a very import-
ant aerodynamic characteristic of a craft as its lift-to-drag ratio

If the scales of (or Y a) and C!fa (or X.) are the same, the quan-
tity K equals the slope of a vector drawn from the origin of Coor(Ji-
Ch. I. Basic Information from Aerodynamics 47'


o 'x
))rag polar or the second kind

nates (the pole) to the point of the polar diagram corresponding to the
chosen angle of attack.
We can usc a polar to determine tbe optimal angle of attack "oPt
corresponding to the maximum liftlo-drag ratio:
K maz = tan "oPt (CUO')
if we draw a tangent to the polar from the origin of coordinates.
The characteristic poinls of a polar include the point cllamaz
corresponding to the maximum Jifl force th.d is achieved nl. tIle
critical angle of attack Ct cT ' We can mark n point on the- curve deter-
mining the minimllm drag coefficient cX.amlll and tht' corresponding
values of the angle of all lick and the lift coeflicient.
A polar is symroetl'k llbout the axis of ah::cissas if a craft has
horizontal symmetry. For .such n craft, the vattIC of ex min ('orre-
sponds to a zero lift force, c lla = O. ' .
In addition to a polar of the flrst kind. a polar or the second kind
is sometimes used. It dWers in that it is plolLecl iii a bo(ly axis
coordinate system along \.... bose axis of abscissas the \"alues of the
longitudinal-force coefficient COl' arc laid off. and along the axis of
ordinates-the normal-force coefficients cy (Fig. Ut4). This curv6
is used, particularly, in the strength analysis of craft.
Theoretical anel experimental investigation~ show that in the
most general case, the aerodynamic coefficients depclul ror a given
body configuration and angle of attack on dimensionless variables
such as the Mach number Moo = V oolaoo and the Rernolds number
Beoo = V ooLPoo/p,oo. In these expressions, a_ is the speed of sound
in the oncoming Dow, poo and ~oo arc the density and dynamic vis-
cosity of the gas, respectively, and L is the length of the body.
Hence. a multitude of polar curves exists for each gh'cn craft. For
example, for a definite number Be oo we can construct a family of
such curves ench of which corrC!>ponds to a definit.e value of the
48 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil arKt a Wing

Fig. U.S
Determination of the centre of pressure (a) and aerodynamic centre (b)

velocity Moo. The curves in Figs. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 corrospond to a fixed
value of Re"", and determine the relation between cYa and cra. for
low-speed nights (of the order of 100 mis) when the aerodynamic
coeflicients do not depend on Moo.
Centre of Pressure and Aerodynamic Centre. The centre of pressure
(CP) of a craft is the point through which the resultant of thc
aerodynamic forces passes. The centre of pressure is a conditional
poinL because actually the action of fluid results not in a concen-
trated force, but in forces distributed over the surface of the moving
body. It is customarily assumed that for symmetric bodies or ones
close to them this conditional point is on one of the following axes-
the longitudinal axis of the craft passing through the centre of mass,
the axis of symmetry of a body of revolution, or on the chord of an
Accordingly, the longitudinal force X is arranged along this axis,
while the centre of pressure when motion occurs in the pitching
plane is considered as the point of application of the normal force Y.
The position of this centre of pressure is usually determined by the
coordinate xp moasured from the front point 011 the contour of the
body in a [Jow. If the pitching moment ill: about this point and the
normal force Yare known (Fig. 1.3.5a), tho coordinate of the centre
of pressure
A moment Mz tending to reduce the angle of attack is considered
to be negative (Fig. 1.3.5a); hence the coordinate xp is positive.
Taking into account that
M:=mzqooSrb and Y=cyqooSr
we obLain
Ch, 1. Buic In/ormation from Aerodynamics 49

The dimensionless quantity Cp dermed as the ratio belwcell the
distance to the centre of pressure and the characLerisLic length of a
body (in the gi ....en case the wing chord b) is called tlte centre-of-
pl'e~ure coefficient. With small angles of attack, wlten the lift
and nOl'mal-force coefficients are approximately equal (c Ya ~ c y ),
we have
In the case heing considered of a two-dimensional fio\\' past a
body, Lh(' pitcldng-molllent cocfflcieuts in wint.l (Right path) and
body axis coordinate sy.<.;Lcms are the same, i.e, ntza moll. =
Fol' a symmetric airfoil whclI at 0: _ 0 1110 quantHies C,I ant.l m z
simliitatll'ollsly takE:> all zero Y[llnes in accordance with the expres-
Cy = (iJc,/oa) a, lnz = (ilmz.:aa.) IX

holding at small angles of attack (llCl'e the (leri\'llti\'es (jcl/.'O(l. and

omz'da are COJlstant qU<llltities 1.It"l Cim be delermiued for an angle
of attack of a ~ 0), the cot!fJidetlt c p equtlls a constlHlt ,'all1e not
(Iependiug Oil the angle of ;lu.u;k:
Th~ ndue of the co(!rlicicnt f.'p and of the dillll'lI~i()1l1l''''~ cnordinflle
of III~ centre 01' 1ll<\$S -:;c)[ -, :1'(')[ I, can 1)(' II~pd to {Iplc'rmilll' the
pitclilng-momenl ('ol'ftirients id)O'l1 tllis c<,rlll'\'
In\'esligation.~ ~how Lllat in real c()t1diLiollS of nuw, :\11 appreciable
di~pla('eUlent of the centre of preSSllfC (:an he oh.~{'l'yc{1 in craft even
upon a .slight change in lhe angle~ of atlnd, Thi~ i~ c::;peciuJly lIolice-
able in craft with all asymmetric conflgllration or upon deflection of
an elevator, which di::;l.urbs the existing symmetry, III these ron-
ditions, the celltl'e of pressure is not cOllvenient for llSC' as a cha1'ac-
teristic point in e" the position of Lhe resultant of the Ilcro-
d.\'1l8mic foree" and the tlppearin~ pitching Illoment ahoul the ('entre
of lIlass. In these condHions, it is more cOll\'enient to a.o:;sess the
flight pl',~ of a ('raft a(:cording to the aerodynamic c('JllI'e
location. To reveal the meaning of this concept, let U~ t'oll.!'idcr an
asymmetric airfoil and e,[lluate the moment J/zl! about all al'hill'iU'r
poillt F" with thl' coordinate :t'Jl 011 \.Iw (",hortl of the airfoil, II follows
from Fig', '1,3,50 HUtt



~~a!i~ between the moment -or 0.2 mz
coefficient mz and normalforee
coefficient ell lor an uymmet
ric aircraft

or, since -Yxp = ..lf z is the moment ahout the front point 0, we
Jl zlI = YX n + Mz
Going over to aerodynamic coefficients, we obtain
mzn = cil (x,/b) + m% (1.3.15)
For small angles of attack when there is a linear dependence of
m; on cil of the form
m~ = m;()";' (iJmzIiJc Il ) Cv (t.3.16)
we obtain

where m t () is the coeffident of the moment about a point 011 the
leT'~~g s:~~da~~':n=i~ ~~~f:1~j3:~termines the increment of the
moment associated with a change in the normal-force coefficient.
If we choose the point Fa, on a chord whose coordinate XII = XF.
is determined by the condition (see Fig. 1.3.5b)
the coefficient of the moment abont this point will not depend on
1ti;i:n;~i'::t ~~l ~:~:~I)t~~J!~~:~~:~~~; ::n7~1 (~C) ~?~~~a;[V~~ab~iJ;:
The aerodynamic centre is evidently the point of application of the
additional normal foree pl'oduced by the angle of attack (the coef.
licient of this for(,e is (Oc,/OCt.) a = cial. The pitching moment
about an axis paS$ing through this pOint does not depond on the
Ch. 1. Basic Information from Aerodynamics e1
augle of attack. Sudl a point is called the angle~of~attackaerodynaDlie
('Clltre or a craft. 'rhe centre of pressure and the aerodynamic centre
are reIn ted by the expression
Cp = -c;-= (1.3.19)

~~~d~l'co~r;eq~e;t'ii.U/~he ~:I~tr~ ~r~:~!~irCe ~~~I:~d:t~~~tlt '71~~ ;;r~

dynamic centre.
Expression (1.3.19) holds, however, for a spl101etric configuration
provided with all elevator deflected through a certain angle Be (see
Figs. 1.2.2 and 1.:-:1.5). In this case, the moment coefficient is
and the normal~rol'ce coefficient is
where mf _. i)m~.:a':./., c~;,...: iJc/rJa, m~~' umz:dB". illlll c!e =
'-- (lcy,'dB".
If a conJigHl"Mioll j:; liot ~rllll\lell"ic, lhen
III 1 = m:o -:- 1n1a ...!... m~f"Be (1.:J.22)
ell = cyo c:a: c~e(\ (1.3.23)
The point of applicalioll of th(> normal force dm' to the cle ...atol
defit;'('U(}TI angle nud proportional to this angle is known as the
t'lcutordt'11ection aerodynamic ct'ntre. The moment of the forces
about. a lateral axi~ pa~sing through lhis centre is e"ideutly indL"-
pendent of the anglo be' In the geJleral ense for nil o:-;ymmelric. con-
figuration, its centre of pressure coincides with none of the aero~
d~lul.mic centres (based on a or B,,). In a particular case, in a sym~
melrk crnft at --; D. the centre of pressure coincides with the aero-
d~"Tlamir centre based on Be-
l'silll! the definition of the aerodynamic centres hased 011 the
angle of attack "lid the elevator deflection angle and introducing the
corr~pollding coordinates XFa, and X"'II' we find the ("oelflciellt of the
moment ahout tile centre of mass. This ('oemcienl is evaluated by
formula (L:l.22), iu which

where XF~ = x,/b and X-;6 = xF/b are the relathe coordinat~s- of
the aerodynamic centres.
1!i2 PI. I. 1I':eory. Aeroclyn~mics of en Airfoil end I Wing

t .... Static Equilibrium

and Static Stability

CDncept of Equilibrium and Sfilllility

The stllte of static equilibrium is determined by the flight con-

ditiol\;:; and the corresponding force action at which the overall aero-
dynllluic moment abont the centre of mass in the absence of rotation
and wHh the angle of attack and the sideslip angle remaining con-
stant is zel'O (l'1 = 0). Such equilibrium lorresponds to conditions of
steady rectilinear motion of a craft, when the palamete!s of this
motion do IIOt depend 011 the time.
It is eddelll that for axisymmetric configuration!' over ,,"!lich the
fluid 110w:; in Ok longitudinal dil'ection, the equality)1 .= 0 is arhie\ed
,vith IIlIIlenel'te ",le,'ators and l'ndder~ and wilh zero angles of aLta.k
and :::id~1ip, Hence, ill this rnse, equilibrium, ('allcrllhe trim equilib-
rium of a craH. sets in tlt the balanc(' angl(' of aHat:k and sidtslip
angle (cz.blll' ~blll) equal to zero. The Med to halallce Ilight al olher
angles (0: =F ablll aud ~ =F ~I>III) requil'es the cOl'respouding turniug
of Ihe elevators.
EquilibriullI of a. craft (pal'licuhu'ly. with the elevators I'xed in
place) may be stahle or Ilnstable, Equilibrium of a Cl'I1ft b; considel'ed
t.o he stable if arter lhe introduction of a random r;horl-Lil11c (I\."turh-
ance it retnrns to its initial pO!'lition. If these distlll'bnlLcc" cal1se it
to delleI'I ~lill more from the initial position, eqllilibrium is said
to he l.IIIstabl('.
The nature of t.he equilihrium of a. cl'aft is dctcnnirwtl hy its
static stability Ol' instability. To rcycal the l'sscnce of slat ic stahility,
we call consider the Oow of ail' in a wiud tunnel PMt a c.raft lixed
at its ceutre of lDass and capable of turning abottt it (Fig, 1.4.1).
For a given elevator angle 6"" a definite value of the aerodynamic
nloment :1l z ('orresponds to each value of lhe ungle or del1ectioll of
tile craft Ct (the angle o[ attnck). A pos."ible relation between Ct and
:Ifz for n c,erLAi .. angle 6(" is showu iu Fig. 1.4.1, where points 1, 2,
and 3 det('rmiuillg t.he balance angles Ctlbtll, Ct~bal' and a;3b~1 at
which tile aerodynamic moment equal:,; zero correspond to the equilib-
rium positiolls. The ligure also ~hows two other moment clIr,'cs for
the Gh~','alor angle." li,: and a;.
Let HS ,'oll."idor equilibrium at floint 1. If UtC craft is de\'iated
tbrough nil 1111~k' smaller or lat'ger than a.'bal' the iuduced momenls,
positivI) 01' !Lpnnth'c, l'esp('!~thol:t', will result ill tm incrensc (reduc-
tion) of this mlg-Io to it.;; previolls ,'aille alh,al' i.e. these momonts nrc
stahilizin.e; on('.-=. Con~equ(lntlr, lhe po~itioll of eflniliill'ium at point 1
is stahle (thf' ('!':lft is sLatknlly sllIhle). It can he showll !'imilarly
that sneh a po~itit)1I of stable c'luilibduln also (,_ol'l'esponds to point 3.
Ch. 1. Basic Information from Aerodynamics 1!13

Fig. tA.t
Dependence of the aerodynamic
~~~~~n~ ~y ~ :'~ftt~~d~~e u~~
rRection of the eh!\'alorl:l lie:
2, 3, ,,_.polnls or inlel'lH't'tion of

In the Ii!':.;t C!l!"C, fl'cc rot.ation or lhc l'l'nh rOlltilllle:o; IIlIlil it o('('lIpie:;
the clplilibrimn po~i!ioli ai, point 1. /In(1 ill the sel'ontl ('il~e-at
poiut 3,
At. point 2 (a 21'nl) the equilihrium i:-; lJIlst;lbll'. I IHlcpd , eXiuuiu
.. Iloll of I"ig, 1..1.1 1'(>\'(,.. 1:-1 Ihnl at nllues of 111(' angle a lilrgN or
slllall(,I' than ct 2La l' momellt~ al'(' iJ1(illl't,tI, po~iti\'e or negatiH'. re
sperlively. thai lend 10 illrl'l~fl~e (01' I'et!ul'e) ct. IIt'nre. these mmnents
arC' destabilizing, flnd tlw !'raft. will be ~Iilti<'ally 1l1l~lablc.
Slatil' sl,allilily is I<CiLclllfllil'all;r tlh"ided illto longitudinal and
lnlNal ~labilit~" For slalk JOlIgilLltlillll1 stability, il i~ m:~lIl11ed
thllt all tile di.<;!IlI'bing fOI"('('1< mill lllollU'nll< a('\. ilL till' IOllgitwlillal
piauI.' of the body 11,\"e!' JOy, IIt'I\('e, only ~11fh llIo\enwnt:< o( a l'I"<lft
arc ill\"C~tignle(ilhnl (JC('l1r ill it~ plilnl' of l'yJILJIlf!II'Y in I lit' I\h::;(>II("C' of
roll flIHI I'lip. Wltt'll Ilnill~'I<[ng ~Ialk lateral !lIhilily. the (I il'tIII'IIed
Jllo\"('menl~ of 1\ ('I'afl are (,oH~i<I('rt'd lllll! are a!'~()ri'lted wilh n fhauge
in the rolling mul sili(,l<1ip nnglC's .11 11 ('on~!ant llug}e of alt'h"I,. Su('h
uHlY('lllenl!o= arc a}wn~!< IIlUIUlIlly ,'('Ialcd. J)C'fI('('ti(l1l of the 1Ii1C'l'OIlS
call!'el" 1101. only 1'011, hut ail'lIl'Jip. ,\1 Iill' MlIlH' tilll(>. Ilirniug of the
rmldel'!' .. 1:<0 lead!' 10 rolling" Ther('hu'f' illVel'ti:!atioll fir 1"!I'ral
lltllhility i~ Ill"l'orintC'd wilh lIlI alllllpci~ of holh I'olling- allli yawing
stallc Longitudinal Stability
"'hell I'llI'll !'tllbilily ('~i~tl", an illtillcc(l longitudinal 1110111('111
abont the cell Ire of ma!':!' will bp stahilizing, In this ('II!'(', the dir('c
tion of thc ('hlluge in tllC' mOlllent .11 z (nnd accordingly of the coef
licienl rtl z) is oppol"it(' to the change ill the angle Ct. Consl'C]ucntl:,!'. tho
(':ondition III slnlic 10llgitudillll) stability clm hl' expre~..ed ill llnord-
an('(' wilh OIl(' of the Cllr\'c!o= !;hoWIi in Fig, 1.4.1 hr ihc in(,lpllIlilies
(}JJ z."urx < (J ot' c)m:.'orx :-. m~ < 0 (thc derl\'l\th"(':< arc e\'lllml\((1
for thc halnllcc 1I11g1e of nllack r.t. ."" ct:!'al)'
84 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Action of a force and moment in analysing the static stability of a craft:
.-stallc stabilil)': b-stalic Instability: c-neutrlliity relath'c to statiC stability

With static longitudinal instability. fI dcstlluilizing (tilting)

moment appears that tends to increase the nllgle of attack in com-
parison with its balance \'nlue. Conscqm'ully. tbe inequalities
aM zlfkt. > 0 or mf > 0 arc the rondilion lor 8tati<' longiludillal
A rraft will be neutral relati .... e to statir longitudinal stability if
upon n small deflection from the balanrc angle of attack neither a
stabilizing nor a destahili:dng momen! il'! illdllret!' This angle of
atta('k IX =- ahal in Fig. 1.4.1 rorre!<polld~ to point 4 at whirh the
moment r.urvt' is tangent to the borilontal axis. It is obviow; that
hert' the coefficient of the restoring moment Am~ -,. ma. 61X --: O.
Criteria of Static Stability. The derivative mf' on which the magni-
tude of the !'!tabilizing or destabilizing momrml dependli i~ clllled
the coeflleieut (degree) of static longitudinal stability_ This ~labil
ity criterion reilltes to configurationl'! both with and wHhout axial
For axisymmetric craft. we can assume that the criterion of static
stability equals the difference betweell tbe distances from the no~e of
a crart to its ('entre of mass and centre of preSSlll'e. Le. the quantity
y = ,l(.M - xp. or in the dimensionless form
Y = XCli/b - xplb = XC~1 - c p
If the coefficient of the centre of pre~re cp is larger than the
l'elative coordinate of the centre of mass XCM' Le_ if the centre of
pressure is behind the centre of ma~s, the craft is statically stable;
when the centre of pressure is ill front (the difference XCli - ep is
positive), the craft is statically unstahle; when both centrcl'l coindde,
the craft. is neutral.
The action of the relevant pitching moments abOllt a lateral In:1S
passing through the cenlre of IlHlSS is shown ill Fig. 1.4.2.
Ch. 1. Basic Information from Aerodynllmics e.!!I

The criterion Y = XcM - cp determines the margin of static

stabilit~. It may be negative (static stability). positive (static
instability). and zero (neutrality relative to longitudinal stability).
The quantity Y is determined by the formula Y = mzlclI in which
the pitching moment coefficient is eyaluated about the centre of
mass. For small \'alues of ct, the coefficients m z and cy can be written
in the form Tn: = mr;ct, and cy = ~ct. With this taken into account,
wc haye
Y = mr;/i{ = amzlacy = XCII - Cp (1.4.1)
Hence it follow~ that the deriyati\'c amzlac" = m~1I may be
consiripred as n criterion determining the qualitative and quantitative
characteristics of longitudinal stability. If m~1I < 0, we have static
longitudinal stability, if m~" > 0, we baye instability, and if
~~.4 = O. we have neutrality. The parameter m~Y is also called the
coefficient (degree) of static longitudinal stabilit~.
To appraise the static stability of asymmetric craft or of .:;ym~
metric craft with denerted elevators, t.he concept of the aerodynamic
centre is used. The dimensionless coordinate of this point with
respect to the angle of attack is determined by the formula IF", =
= -In>. Taking this into accouut and assuming in (1.3.17) that
the quantity .1.'11 equals thE' coonJinatc :reM of the centre of mass, we
mz = Inzo - CII (XFa - XeM)
Differ(,lltiation of this expres.<;ioll with respect to CII yields
m~Y = -(IF", - XCM) (1.4.2)
Accordingly, the longitudinal stability is determined by the mutual
arrangement of the aerodynamic centre and centre of mass of a craft.
When the aerodynamic centre is behind the centre of mass (the dif(er~
ence XFa. - XC!! is positive), the relevant craft is statically stable,
and when it is in front of the centre of mass (the difference "iF,." - XCM
is negative), the craft is unstable.
By correspondingly choosing the centre of mass (or by centering),
we can ensure the required margin of static stability. Centering
(trimming) is central if the centre of mass coincides with the aero~
dynamic centre of the craft.
When the centering is changed, the degree of longitudinal stability
m~1I = (m>), + Xell - XCl'tI (1.4.2')
where the primed parameters correspond to the previous centering
of the craft.
156 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Inlluence of Elevator Deflection. Investigations show (:-,ee

Fig. 1.4.1) that when the moment curw Mz = t (0:) is not linear.
its slope at the points of intersection with the horizontal axis is
not the same for different elevator angles. This indicates a difference
in the value of the coefficients of static longitudinal stability.
A glance at Fig. 1.4.1, for example, shows thnt Ilpon a certain deflec-
tion of the elevator (6r.), stability at low angles of attack (0: ~ O:lba))
may change to instability at larger \"alues of them (0: ~ f.tZ ba1 ) and
may be restored at still larger angles (0:. ~ 0:3La')' To avoid this
phenomenon, it is necessary to limit the range of the angles of attack
to low values at which a linear dependence of t.he pitching moment
coefficient on the angle of attack and etentor angle is retained. In
this case, the degree of stahility docs not change because at all
possible (small) ele\"fl.tor lIugl('s the inclination of the moment r.urve
to the axis of abscissas is the ~ame.
The condition of a linear nature of the mOlllent chal'ar.teristic
makes it possible to use concepts stich as the ael'odynamic. centre or
neutral centering (XFo: c-:- x, -'1) whell studying the flying properties
of Cfflft. These cOl\~epts lo~e their sense when the linear nature is
Longitudinal Balancing. Let us considm' a flight at a uniform
speed in a longitudinal plane along a curvilinear trajectory with a
constant radius of ~urYatllrc. SHrh a flight is rharacterized by a
constant angular velocity Q r ahout a lateral (lxis po~sing through
the centre of mass. This velocity can exist provided that the in-
clination of the trajectory chang.:>s insignificantly.
The constancy of the angular velocity is dl1e to the eqllilibriulll of
the pitching moments about the lateral axis, i.e. to longitudinal
baloncing of the craft at which the ('qnoli!y JI z :...:' 0 hold.", i.e.
m: o -:" m~O::bal + m~1!6~ -j- m?,Qz = 0
This equation allows us to find the elevator angle needed to eJ\~ure
balanced flight at the given values of and Qz;
6c .bal = -(1Im~.) (mto + m~o;Lal ..:.. m;:Q%) (1.4.3)
For conditions of a high static stability, we have m~'Qz -%:: mfa: bal ;
6~.bal = (-1/m~e) (mzo ..!- m~abal) (1.4.3')
For a craft with an axisymmetric configuration, mzo = 0, there-
6~.bal = -(m~/m~e) abal (1.4.4)
The normal (lift) force coefficient corresponds to the balance nugle
of attack and elevator angle, namely,
cV bal = cvo + (c: + c:e6e.bal/abal) abal (1.4.5)
Ch. I. Basic Information from Aerodynamics 5T

The "alues of c yo are usually very small even for as~'mmetri('. COIJ-
figurations (at low be and a) and equal zero exaet1~' for craft wilh
axial symmetry. lIellce, with a sllffIcient degree of nccurary, we can

Static Lateral Shlbliity

To analyse the lateral stability of a craft. one mus!. con.<:ider joilltly

the nature of the change in the rolling and sideslip angles upun the-
sinHiltaneou~ llction oj the pertnrbing rolling .lI.,. ami yawing M If
momellts. If after the stoppillg of sHch action these allgJes diminish,
tending to their inilial vallle~. we il[l\'C .<:tatic lateral stahility.
Hence, when in\'cstigaling lateral ~tnbilitr. one lllll~l con.o:;;idel' ~illllll
taneollsly the change iu the aerudynamic {'ocrficients mx and my.
In most praclical casE'S. however, lateral stability cfln be divitled
into t\\"o simpler kinds-rollillg !'hlhility alld dil'c('tiollal stability-
and can be !itudif'd .<:eparatl'ly hy cOIl~iderillg tile challge ill the
rele\'ant moment ('o('fJirient~ m~ (1') ilnd my (~).
Let liS consider static rolling stability. Assllme lhat ill ~1('Ii(]y
motion at the allgJc of al Lack ad the cl"lIft is tllrlHd IIbout the axis (h
through a certain rolling [lliglC! y. This tm'll willi [I ('Oll~tflllt Oril'll-
tat ion oj the axis 0.1." rel[llh'e to Ille velndlY \"('clor V (,flU'<:(>!' the
appearance of the allgie nf attllck a ~ ad r().~ l' and the !-;id('siip
angle ~ ;::::; ad sill y. The !<lip. ill tllfl). ("all~('s ,I rnlJing' mOlll('hl 10
appeal' who!'l' coefficient m,. - /IIi;!);::::; rn~~r.t<l ~ill1" DiHl'reutiatiug
with respect to 1'. we oblaill mI -, IIIf~(.
The derhathc m) is a ll1('a~lIl'(' of the stalk foiling ;-;tahility. If
mx < 0 (the momellt tpllds 10 l'lilllillate ruJlillg). lil(' (Taft ha!< .<:latk
rolling stability; at m.r> 0, II dislurhing mOIll('lIt i~ rOl"rlll'd. ami
~,~~ttl~c r~~~J~~tg t~srt:m!:~YS~~~~ili/:~,.\\hl'll m~: ,... 1I. 11](' cmrt i~ 11l'IIt.ral
Since a night lIsually OC('llr": at posilin' [lllgJe~ oj" iltlad.:. the ~igll.~
of the derivativ(>s Ill} lind III~ coincide. li0n('c. ill 1\1I,,1~'~ilJg roJlilig
motion. we ran lise the derivativc m~ kno\\'1l as the ('o('rfll'h'nt (df'gred
of static rolling stabiJHy.
Static directional stability is eiJaractNi1.C'd hy 11 cO('i"fIdl'Il1 (dl'gTl'e)
dl;ltermincd by the derivative il.lIy/i.i~ {or (/fII!liuf1 .. 11I~:). If Lhe
CIuantity //IV < 0, the craft has statir directional ."tabilitr: al /liD>
> o. il has static instability. and when me
=-- O. l1('utrality.
The {'oncept of directional stability is af':soriated with the pl"Op-
ertr of a ('fflet to eliminate an appearing side!'Jip unglll~. .At lhe
same time. a crail doe,.: not maintain the .<:taiJili{v of it,.: own night.
(li"ectioll hecaJIse afte!' ('hanging its direclion of 'motioll lIll(I('r Ihe
artilill of v[lrio\I.<: disturbances. it does not retlll"n to its pn'\"iom'
ti8 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 an Airfoil and a Wing

direction, hilt like a weathercock. turns with its nose part in the
direction of the new vleocity vector V.
Similar to the aerodynamic centre based on the angle of attack,
we can introduce the concept of the aerodynamic centre based on
the Sideslip angle \.... hos,e coordinate we shall designate by IFII'
'L'sing Ihis COllccpt, we can represent the degree of static directional
-stahility ill the form
m~% = -(IFt! -xc",;) (1.4.7)
where F1l '-' IF/l and IeM = ;I."eMIl (l is a characteristic geometric
dimension that can determine the wing span, fuselage length, etc.).
Hence, the static directional stability or instability depends on
the mutual position of the centre of mass and the aerodynamic centre.
A rear arrangement of the aerodynamic centre (IFII > .reM) deter-
mines statk directional stability (m;, < 0), while its front arrang&-
ment (IF11 < XClII) determincs static illstabiliLy (m~: > 0). When
the two centres coincide (x FfI = XCM), the craft is neutral as regards
static directional Rtability (m~. = 0).
A particlliar case of motion of a crafl iu thc plauc of the angle of
~~t~~~~~)na:de sC;at~~f::~:~~d \\~)irh\~:)~l;ct~nt~ ~l~fl:~ll~ ~.r~~c~~;~ ~~~ ~
an automatic pilot (Q x ~ 0). The condition for such steady motion
is iat('l'al trim of the craft when Ihe yf\wing: moment vanisli('.'i, i.e.
my = myO _L me~ ~ m~fbr +
'n~y ~2y = 0
All rraft customarily have longitudinal symmetry, tlwrcfure
myo :-:: O. When this condition holds, thl' rqllntion obtaincd allows
us to determine the balancc rudder angle b r .= <'lr.bal corresponding
to the given values of the balance sideslip angle ~bnl and the angular
velocity QIoP Most craft have a sufflcicntly higb degree of static
directional stability at which the term m;.!lQ y i:; negligible. Thcrefore
br.bal = (-rne/mBr ) ~bal (1.4.8)
This relation, like (1.4.4), will be accurate for conditions of rec-
tilinear mol iun.

t.5. Features of Gas Flow

at High Speeds
compresslbllHy 01 ill GillS

One or the important properties of a gas is its compressibility-

"its ability to change its density under the action of a pressure. All
thc proce,,~('s associalcd with the now of a gas are characterized by
Ch, 1. Basic Information from Aerodynamics lS9

a change in the pr(''';~:llrc Hnd, con."cquenlly, hr the innuence of com

preSo.<liilility on lite!le proce...."es 10 ."ome extent. IlIn)stigatioll~ show
thai Mi iOllg liS the speed!' un" low, thl" {'hilllgC in the dellsity owing
10 in."igniflC'llnt ('haligeR in tlte prt>."surc is nol lilrge, Ilnd the {lITerl of
('ornprc."sihiJity mlly 1m ignorcd, To study 10w-sJlt>ell now o\'er ho(lies,
one mar U~C tin' l'qllaliolls of hydro(IYllmni<'." that stlldies the laws
of motioll of till illl'omprt>s."ihl(' nllid,
In IW/lctite. the innllencc of COIllI}l'l'S."ihility lIlay hc igllnred ill lhe
range of air ."pecri." fa'om 11 few nWlro!" por !"(>('on(i 10 JOO-t50 Ill!!",
III I'Plll ("ondilioll.", Ihis ('orl'c."pond." 10 :'.ill('h IIlIlIIbt'r1! fa'om M ... --
= \' x -'(I x () 10 M '" o.a-!U~) (I'Nl' 1I co' is III(' ."peed or sound in
Sill ul\fl[sluriH,d now), Idealizatioll of 11,(' Pl"f)('t'l'." c'om,i."t." in m;."lImilig
the :'.Iadl III1111hl'r to l'(pu~1 ZN'O within this !'I'gion of !'p(>l'ds b('('tllIse
sm;!]1 distulbllll("C'." (."OIlllci o."l"illillioll:<) Pl'ojJlIgillt' ill 1111 illcompl'(>g
sible nHil1 at ,Ill illlillih'l~' hi!!h l'p('('(1 IIncl, ('nll!'l'cllIl'nlly, thc I'atio
of the night ~p('t'd to thai of !'ol1lul t('lId!' to 7.t'I'O,
:\1odel'Jl ('I";\ft lli!\'t' high llirl'p('('(I:< at whi<"h rIow O,'CI' 11U'1II is ollond-
('II h~' II cOII.~id('rllh\(' dHllIg(' in Ih(' pr(>.":<III'(I nnd, C"Ol1.".(lqllcllllr. b~"
a slIh."llllitillJ rhnll~W ill tll(' (1!'II:<itr a1H1 1(>llIfJPl'allll'e, ]n Iho ('011-
ditioll!' of a !light III high spf'('(I!'. Olll' Illtl~t Ink(' inln ;lC("Olillt the
influ('m'(' of rOlllprl'l'."ihilily" whi!'!1 liMY Ill' WIT :<ignili("llllt. nn the
4!tli'l'I!' (If inl('I'11('lioll of Ih(' l1uitl llIui a IlCItir. Thi!' I!' OUf.' of Iht' IIlO."t
impOI'!illll f(>lltlll'!'!' of Ilil!i1-!'Jl('('d ;ll'l'flIl~,t1;l111ic:<,

Heaffng of ill GillS

Th(> ilppr(!ciahICl illtl'PH!<C in Illl' :<p,'('cI!< of ('filft 11\1\(11' il. llf.'l'es:<lIr~"
to tnl.:(' inlo m'l'Ollnl IiiI.' fea\lIl"c,, of gll:< :<1l'N11ll." (hit' to the ("!lunge
in lilt' phy:<ieochl'mi<'al Jll"flp(>l'ti('~ uf iil,' Iliriu ;I('ro(lrIll11lli<" in\'(':<tign-
lion!", III "C'1Il\'(llllinll/ll"'l'I1P(,I",~Olli(" il('l'ndrllllllli<"~, Ihp. ("olllprc)l."ihili-
t~' Wit." takell jllio ('olll'idpl"alioll n" 11i(' 1110:-1 hliporlilll~ manifestCllion
or a fe;1II1I"C uf !low 1\1 high !'jll'('(k \\'hil(l Ih(l inflll('II("(' of the tNn-
p(,l"allll"('oll tile Ih(>l'lllo(IYIlClIlli<' par;-Il11l'I('I'S al'll Iduelit' ("oefftdcmts
of IIiI', illid also Oil 1111' phr:-ll'odll'mirnl prm'(>:-H':: Ihal Illll)' lJl'oceed
[II il wa~ di~I'I'g'm,.ll'd, 1'",11' \'OQ' high (hYP(lI'soliid ."r(>{'(I.", ho\\,c\'t,I'.
thl' fpallll'ps Ilsf<odi\l(>d with til(' illnu('n('(1 of high ICIllP(,I'iltllrc~ ('Ollie
to Ih(> forefront.
([igh tCIllPPI'illlll'(lS il\lPNll' owing 10 dl'('(li(ll'atioli of the gas Sh'l'lUll
w!ll'lI Iho kinetic (>1lt'rJrr of ol'dt're<i mol ion of tho Jlartkle~ Il'an~forms
iuto thl' illternliI ('ll('l'g~' of 111(' gill',
AI il 1(>IlIJWl'atlll'c of till! ol'{h.'I nf I;JlJ(J I" ('xcitalion of th(' \'ibra
tional It\'l'is I)f till' inlf'I'llill (,Il(lrgr of Ih(> O:.:~gt'll nud llitl'Og('U
mole("ul('s ill th(' I~ir hl"collll'~ noticl'ilhle. AI a Ipmpl'I'llhll'l' of I\bnut.
3(100 K illlli a prl'~~\Il'l' of IO~ Pa, llit' yibrational degrl'l'l' of freedom
of the oxrgl'll moit,t"I1I(',. m'(' f'ompll'tl'\r ('will'd, and further e(e\'a-
tioll of til(' it'llIJlt'l"atlll'(' allow." llil' atolll." to SlIl'TllOlUl1 th(' m'lion
eo Pt. I. Theory. AerodynlmiCs 01 In Airfoil lind II Wing

of the intramolecular forres. As a re.~tJlt, f01" example, a dilllomic

molecule breaks up into two individual atoms. This proress is
known as dh_socialion. The latter is attended by J"('combination-the
formation of a Ilew molecule when two atoms collide (0 2 ~ 20),
This heat-producillg reaction is 8('companied b)' the collision of
t.wo I'Itoms with a t.hird partide that carries on part of the released
energy and t.hus ensures the creation of a stable molecule. In addi-
tion, ('.hemical reactions occur ill the air that result in the appearam',e-
of a ('ertain amonnt of nitrogen Illonoxide ~O. The latter also di5.<;o-
ciates upon fU1"ther heating with the formation of atomic nitrogen
and oxygen by thc eqllations

At 1\ temperAtllre of 5000GOOO K and a pressure of 10~ Pa, the

oxygen moll'culcs dh:sociate almost completely. In addiUon. at
such a temp(>ratul"e, the majol' part of the lIitrogen llloieclllt's disso-
ciate with simultaneous l'ecombination of the aloms into molecules.
This prore:;:s lollows the (''Iuatioll ;\! .t 2~. The intensity of dis.<:o-
dation is determined by the dt'q:n"{~ of dis,'!Iocialion. It equals t.lle
ratio of the Ilumber of (lir pal'tides broken up in <lissociation t.o the
total llumber of <ltoms alld molecule.'l. The degree of dissociation
depcll{I.'l on the tl'mpcl'allll'e and pre~sul"e.
Elcvation or tile temp(']'nture i;o; attended by an illc]'enl'e in the
degl"('e of dissodatiou iJecaUl'tl the speed and energy of the moving
molcn.les grow. and this increuses the probability of their collision
and derompof'lilioll. The iulensily of dis:<ocialion grows wilh ]mver-
ing of the pressure (density) beclllI~e of the iellscl" probability of
triple collisiolls of the particJl's that Jead to Ihe formation of mole-
cule:;: from atoms. For example. oxygen begins to dissociate III ready
at. T ,..., 2000 K if the pn'ssurt' is 10;) Pa. whereas at slandaL'd Htmo-
spheric pr(lSSUl'e (approximately 1O~ Pal o! begiJls to dissociale at
T -,.. 3000 K. The t(llllpel'ature at whiell nitrogen begins to dis!-!oriate
Jowcrs from 600U K at n presslll'e of 10" Pa to 40UO K at IU Pa.
At 5000(jOUO K. still Hnother prorcss begills 10 de\"elop. It cou-
sists in that berause of the large influx or energy, first t.he el('("tron
degrees of fl"('rc1om are excited, and then eie('trons break away from
the nitrogen and oxygen atoms and also from t.he nit.rogen monoxide-
molecules. This process is called ionizaLion. It occurs mainly becam:e
of collision of thl' air particle:>: in their tbermal motion. which ex-
plains why it i~ also called thermal ionization. Ionizalion is more intcn-
sh'e with elevat.ion of the tcmperalure aud is attended by a growth
in the cOll{'entratioll of the h'ee ele(:trons. The intensity of this process
i$ charac.terized by the degrct' or ioni?ation. II equals the of
the Humber or ionized atoms (rnoleclllc8) to their total number.
Investigations ~no\V that nitrogen. for example. is fully ionized
Ch, I. Basic Information from Aerodynami,s 61

tlll'flllally (l11l! d(,~Tt'(' uf iOIJil_alioli i:-; unily) III II h'lIlp('('I\IlU'C Qf

1'j !JIJO 1\ aud tI pl'~'.'<.'<l1re of Woo, PII,
Change- ill Spedll(' lIeats. \\'IH'II Idl' i~ hf'all"1, lin' In'al !"lIppliNI
goe;; lIot ()lll~ 10 illl'I'l',l!:ie the elH'l'gr of tilt' Irall"ialiollill ilIlIl 1'01/1-
tiollol 1ll()lion of 111(' lllOi(!c III C':'< , 11111 ah;o h) inCl"I'il:>-l' lin' ('1It'I't;y of
yilJl';ltioll of the iltOlll" in a TllolN'qh', to tlo Iht' w(ld, llwdC'11 10 O\,C'!'-
('ome 111(' fol'c(>~ oi intt'raclioll helw(>('u al()nl~ lI[lnll lite di~.'<Ol'i'llioli
of a llloleclti(', ,11111 ,,1."') 10 ,I"'nt'll lilt, ('h'cll'U/I~ from altH .. ,:: in iouiz.l-
lion, Tilt, result i.~ Illl int'rca~(' in 111(' :-p(',-ifiC IIt',d-,
i3efore dis,"orilllitm hegin,::, Ih(' cll,lnw' in HIP
is deterillined olily by the IClfllJ(>ratll!'(J, Till'
atul'c on the spf'ritk IWllt nl il ,'011"(,1111 pl'('_-~II1'1' ("Ill i,\'
the (01'01111.1

where Ille e,'ipf)llelit 'f' ill IU1'n. ,11'PC'lIli.-< <lll

(Fig, /.5,1), For r>1000 I\., Ihi~ \'.\11I1IH'1I1 ,',111
COrl!lI(lnl and etlllnlio 0,1. For T", - ~S~ 1\. the ,"pt'ciii( 11\),11
= JOIIO J/(I'g'l\.) lUI' 1000 m~/(~~-1\)1. Fnl'lllldn !I,_~).I) IiLl~'
for \',11111-:-; o( l' lip 10 :2:!O()-~;)(JtI K, ill \I-hidl Iltp yihralilillill
of f{,N'Ilolil (lI'C rio,"c 10 III(' ~1;llc ()f :o!lIplctC' ('\('i{ntiOIl,
When di~'soril1liol1 :,(>1,; ill, Ihe .'-:pc(ilic Ilrat d('pelHb 1I0t oaly 011
thc Icm"('I'III11n~_ IJlII ;11.~0 on tlu! p.'t':;SIII'C, Thc ~I)f'dfll' hCill~ and
thc adi<lblllk e:-,:pol1('llI." k - t';,:/',. \\"el"e I'nkui!1I1'/1 (01' t~onditiOlls
of tlrt'rmodynlllHi,' C(lldlihrillrH nl higll lenlJ)('t'ahu'e!l \)11 cOlllpHIf'f."
h:-,-' il !!I'Olip o[ SO\ il't :.:rif'IlU",'" hf'ad('d hy A.!l~oria'(l, llw1I}h('t' of tit('
CSSll. :\radp.ll1r (If Sl'icllcl''''; ,\, l'I'cd;-orlilcl,!\' It3, ii, The~(' calcula-
tiOll." \\'pre n('rforlll('d ror I C'Hl[)l'l'aLIIl'('.'< fro/ll 100010 1i000 K without,
nr('O(;l1t ll('iJl!~ lal,ell of iOlli?_aliol! h('I'ilUS(' it!" iIlI1UOII('f' in Lhis lont-
pern!lll'(' iIlIN'\';)1 i~ ll('gli,~"'lr', "'Ok' hil!h('l' 1(,J1lI}el'/ltIlTOl<, 1111' ini1l1cure
of c(j\liliitrillill :.:il1!.,!'l(' iOlliy.;tli(),1 I\'M Inkl'lI il1l('> nl'{'(llIul. II \\'n~ l'OIl-
62 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodyn.mics of an Airfoil and a Wing

fl,. S.U
Change in the specific heat cp of air at high temperntures

~~an~!'~n the ratio of th@ specific heats k = cp!cp for air at high temp@ratur@1

sidered to be completed I'll T =, "12000 K and p "-.- 102 Pa. Curves

plot.ted according to the data ill 16, 71 and characterizing the change
in cp and k at high temperatures are given in Figs. 1.5.2. and '1.5.3
(see (81). The data ohtained indicate Lhat at a temperature up to
2000 K and a pressure of 10:' Pa and above, t.he \'alnes of el' and
k - c,'/c,. arc determined by the temperature and do not virtually
depend on the pressure.
The general trend observed upon a eIJange ill the specific heats
and their ratio is such that when the pressure drops and the degrees
of dissocialion and ionization. consequently, grow, the value 01 cp
increases, and lhat of the ralio k ::.= cT,!c p diminishes, although not
Ch. 1. Basic Information from Aerodynamics 63

Fig. U.A
Change in 'he dynamic visco-
sity of air at high tempera-

Kinetic Coefficients. TJIC procelises of friction and heat transfel'

occurring in a \"is<'olis gas depend on kinetic para-
meters of the gas such as the dynml1ic visrosity ~I and the thermal
conducthity A. It Wits I!stablished Ulat in the IlbseliCe of dil'socia-
tion. the eocfJicient It depends ollly on the temperature and i8 clpter-
mined by the formula
(1 ..;.2)
in which the expollOm" depcnds all Ute tempel'ilture (sec Fig. 1.5.0.
In approximate caklilatiolls, tbe mean value "m ::::::: O.i lIlay be u:;Ied
for a sufficiently large temperature iutcl'val; hf'l'c the initial \'aille'
of !.I. may be takcn equal to ~~"" . .., X 10-& Pas, which corre-
sponds to l' 00 - 2R8 K. Formula (1.;j.2) i8 1I1'cd fOl' temperatures Up"
to 2000-2500 K. WitJI elevatioll of the temperature, this formula
gives apprecialJle crrors. Illve.sligatiolls show that for high tempera-
tures up to 9000 K the dYnamic vil'('osity of nir in ('onditiont'l- of
equilibrium dissociation {'an he determined with an 9rC'Lll'acr up t.o-
10% by Suthcrland's~ formula
f,/i'~ ~ (TIT ~)" (1 + 1111T ~)/(t -'- 1111T) (1.5.3)
This formliia yields better results for temperatl1res under 1500 K
than (1.5.2). It lUll' been established by accurate ralc-ulations IIlat
the dynamic viscosity at high temperatures also depend~ on Iht'
pres..<;ure. Figure 1.5.4 presents a graph (sec (81) chara('terizillg tlle-
change in the coefficient ~t at t.emperatllres up to 12000 K withiu
the pressure interval from 109. to 107 Pa.
Like the viscosity, tbe thermal ('onductivity at temperature!! up
to about 2000I( is indepcndent of the preSl>ure Rnd is determined
by the power formula
All... ~ (TIT ~). (1.5.4)
064 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynemics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Fl!. U.S
Change !n the thermal conduc-
tivity ot air at high tempera-

in which the exponeul x depends, as eM be ~een h'om Fig. '1.5.1,

on the temperature. For nPPl'Oximate calculation!!. one may take
the OW::Il! \'all1e Xfll l'l}ual to 0.85. and the value of A_ corresponding
to T", .c' 261 J": equal to 2;5.2 W:'(III' K). Di!-lsoriating air is character-
ilert by a depelutcJI(:e of tbe thermal conduclivity 011 the temperature
<llId p1'essurc. The corresponding piot is showll in Fig. 1.5.5.
The origin of viscolls forces iHlll the appcarance of the process of
therl1lal conduction in i.\ gas are assodated wllh the molecular struc-
tnre of i\ substance. Gas molccules upon their prope!, motion tran;;fer
mass. euerg~. and momentum {!'Om OlH: pl<we to another. A rE'''lllt of
the change ill the rnomentum is the appearan(,e of \'i~cous forces.
while the transfet' of energ}' gives risc to the property of tlwrrnal
conduction. Therefore. ele\"aUoll o[ the temperature is attended by
an increase in the thermal condudivitr and the dynamic \"iscosity
in a gas. When di&:odation sets in, the nature of the change in t.
auu)l is quite ilwohed. At a low degrce' of rlissociation, the yalltes
of i. drop, which is causeu by the expellditlll'tJ of illterllal energy on
breaking of the molecl1lar honds nuu, as a \'onseqnellce, by lowering
of tIl{' temperature of the gas. When the degree of dissociation grows,
the more intensive breaking up of the molecules into atoms leads to
a growth in the number of pal'ticles participating itl the transport
procc:;~es, which results in an increase in the coefficient }.
When a gas is heated strongly, the expenditure of its internal
ellergy on ionization substantially grows, which lowers the thermal
condl1ction. The dynamic viscosity in a gas grow:i monotonically
with lhe temperatllre because with the onset of dissociation and
ionization more and more particles are formed that participate in
the transport of momentum, and this gives rise to an increaso in
the "iscotls (friction) forces.
Ch. t. Bnic Information from Aerodynamict 66

state 01 Air at High Temperatures

Equation of State. Im'e:;UgaLion of the flow of air oycr bodies
sho\\'s that the relations of con"entional aerodynamics based on the
constancy of the thermodynamic characteristics and of the physico-
chemical structure are sumciently reliable as long as the air remains
comparatively "cold", its specific heats change insignificantly, and,
consequenUy, we may apply the thermal equation of slate of a perfect
p = RpT or p -= RopTI()lm)o (1.5.5)
where Rand Ro are the individual and universal (molar) gas con-
stants. respectively (Ro = 8.314 X 1()8 J/(kmolK}l. p is the densi-
ty, T is the temperature, and (ftm}o is the mean molar mass of air
ha"ing a constant composition.
A gas satisfying Eq. (1.5.5) is said to be thermally perfect. The
caloric equation of state i ~ pc,,!(pR), which determines a relation
for the enthalpy, corresponds to Eq. (1.5.5). If we take into account
that cplR = kl(k - 1), we h8"e
i ~ [k/(k - 1)[ pip (1.5.6)
A gas whose 1:Itate is determined by Eq. (1.5.6) corresponding to
the condition at which Cp and cl> arc constant and independent of
the temperature is said to be calorically perfect.
It must be taken into account that the need to consider the change
in the specific heats with the temperature sets in before the Ileed to
use an equation of stale differing from that for a perfect gas. For
example. calculations show thnt the rhange in the specific heats
with the temperature when passing through a normal shock ,..-ave
begins from froe-stream Mach numbers of .41. .... = 3-4. At M"" = 6-7,
the equation of state for a perfect gas retains its significance, as does
the equation for the speed of sound
a' - kRT (1.5.7)
hecause the composition of the gas heated behind the shock waYe
does not change.
Hence, in this case a gas is not calorically perfect, but does have
the properties of a thermally perfect gas.
For a gas with a varying heat capac.ity, the caloric equation of
state (1.5.6) gives a large error. The actual relation between the
enthalpy and temperature is determined by the function h(T} that
is more complicated than (1.5.6).
The following equation holds for dissociating air, for which the
specific beats aud molar mass are functions of its state:
p = (R,/~m) pT (1.5.8)
in which IlIII = 1'2. (p, T).

Fig. t.S.6
All i-S diagram for dissociating air

FI,. t.S.7
Change in the mean molar mass of air at higb temperatures

The caloric equation of a dissociating gaseous medium also ac-

written as i = '3
quires a more complicated nature, and in the general form it can be
(P. T). Such a fluid no longer has the properties of
a perfect gas for which the enthalpy depends only OIl the temperature.
The thermal and caloric equations of state of a dissociating (real)
gas are still more complicated because they additionally take ac-
count of the forces of interaction hetween the molecules, and also
the proper volume of the latter. These equations are solved by nu-
merical methods with the aid of computers and are usually presented
in the form of tables or phase diagrams.
The results of calculating the parameters of state of air in condi-
tions of thermodynamic equilibrium for elevated temperatures at
pressure intervals from 10 2 to 107 Pa are given in [6, 7]. These results
Ch. 1. B..sie Inlormalion from Aerodynamics 67

of calculations were usell to compile an atlas of phase diagrams (81.

The mogt wide::;pread u::;e for thermal calculations in aerodynamics
has been found by the i-S diagram (enthalpy-entropy diagram) of
dissociating air shown in Fig. 1.5.6. This diagram, which presents
the caloric equation of 1';tate in a graphic form. contains curves of
p = const (isobars), T -: const (isotherms), and r = const (i50-
chors-dashed lines).
Sometimes the caloric phase diagram depicting i against p with
curves of T = con-"t, p = ('onst, and S '-- const may be more con-
venient for calculations_ Such a diagram constructed according to
the data of an i-S one is given in [8]. It graphically depicts the ther-
mal equation of state in different variants.
Graphs allowing one to determine the mean molar mass ~lln of
dissociated and ionized air (Fig. 1.5.i) and also the speed of souud
(Fig. 1.5.8) a~ a function of p IIml T [7] or of i and S [8l are impor-
tant for practical calculations. Examination of these graphs reveals
that the speed of sound changes noticeably \vith the temperature
and to a smaller extent depends on the pressure, which is explained
by the insigllilicant influence of til{' structure of air on the nature of
propagation of small disturbances. At the same time, the change in
the structure of air upon its dissociation appreciably affC('t~ the
molar mass, which is expressed in the strong influence of the pressure
on the value of ,",m. Three characteristic sections on which ~lm di-
minishes wi til increasing temperature can be noted in Fig. 1.S.i. The
first of them is due to dissociation of oxygen, the second-of nitro-
gen, and the third-to ionization of the components of the air. The
general trend of a decrease in the mean molar mass of a gas that dis..,o-
ciates and becomes ionized is due to the breaking up of the molecules
into atoms, and also to the detachment of electrons. An increase in
the pret'sure leads to more illtenshe recombinations. This results ill
a certain growth in 11m.
Diatomic Model of Air. A moupl of thr air i;: sometimes u::;ed in
aerodynamie inw!;tigalions that is a diatomi<: gas consisting of
a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen in accordance wilh their ma!<s
composition. Such a mix lure is treated as a single perfect gas if
the mixtnre components are inert and no r('acliong occur ])t'tween
At elevated temperatures, the mixture of gases reacts chemically
becnu-"e the diatomic gas dissociates and the atoms formed participate
in recombinatiou. The dissociation is assumed to be in equilibrium.
This means that in the chemical reaction determined for the pure
dissociating diatomic gas by the simplest equation of a binary pro-

Fig. 1.5.1
Speed of sound in nir at high temperatures:
o-""Irat the umperltUl'e and pfUSwe; /)_""llIIt the entha py and entropy
Ch. I. Basic Information from Aerodynamics 69

the rates of the direct reaction Tn and of the reverse one TR (the
fates of dissociation and recombination respecti\'ely) are identical.
Investigations of a dissociating flow are connected with the deter-
mination of the degree of eqlliliurium dissociation IX. Its value for
the diatomic model of the air being considered is given in chemical
thermodYIlamics by the expre~sion
a'/(1 - a) ~ (Pd/P) exp (-T,iT) (1.5.10)
Pd and T dare 111(' characleristic density and tcmpt"raturc ror di.!'socia-
tion, respecthely, n ..\ is the number of atoms of the element A in
a certain \'olume, and n.\, is the Illlmber of molecules of the gas A2
in the same \'olume.
The characteristic temperature Td = Dlk, where D is the dissocia-
tion energy of one molecule of A2 and k is a gas constant related
to one molecule (the Boltzmann constant). I nyestigations show that
for the temperature interval from 1000 to 7000 K. the values of Td
and Pd can be as~umed to be approximately ("onstant and equal to
Td = 50000 K. Pd - 150 g/cm 3 for oxygen, and to T~ ....., 11;{ uao K.
Pd = 130 g/cm 3 for nitrogen.
To obtain an equation of state for the gas mixture appearing as
a result of dissociation of diatomic molecules. we must use the expres-
sions for determining the pressure P and molar gas constant R for
the mixtllfe of gases ami the partial presi'illfe Pi of a component:

P~~P'. R~2:."R;; }
; j
Pi'-" PITH j = PIT (klm l) = (XlIV) T (klmi)
where Pi is the dem~ity of n compouent. lIli is the mass of an atom
or molecule, Ri is the gas constant for a component, and V is the
volume of the gas mixture.
Equations (1.5.12) are knO\vn under the general name of Dalton's
'Ve shall use the subscript A to designate ali atomic compoHent
(t = 1) and the subscript l\l-a 1Il0iecuiar one (i = 2). Since the
concentration of 11 component i~ Ci _., l'i,'P. where fl is the density of
the mixture, then C1 - c..\ - IX '"' PA/p and c~ - C)I P)I/P =
If mM C 2mA. and the relation hetweell the 1l1aS-"'e~ .l:; of the
components Pi and the (IUantities p and ct is established from the
expressions fJA ,...- pa .= :t..,,'V, all(1 1')1 .. - P (1 - ~) = XM/l". from
(1.5.12) we obtain an equation of state in the following form:
P = pTk Ip,\/(rmA) --!- p)l/(pmA)l -.= 11.:.(2m.,dJ p1" (1 -j- a)
70 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics 01 lin Airfoil lind II Wing

where "'(2m,,) is the gas constant for 1 g of tlle component A2. in

the mixture; \yhen multiplied by 1 + a, it yields the gas constant R
(the inrliYidual gas constant) for 1 g of a mixture of the components
A and A',!. whose masses are in the ratio of 0./(1 - a).
IL is knmvn from thermodynamics that the mean molar mass of
a mixture of gases is

where C; is the mass concentration of a component, Jl; is its molar

mass, Rnd the symbol ~ determines the number of moles in the
For a diatomic gas, we have ~ c, = c1 + C2. CA + eM = 1. 0-

Since CA .....: a, c),[ .= 1 - a, and 2~A = 11M = (i1m)o, then

Jlm =: (cA/IlA + CW').lM)-l .-=:" (j.l-m)o/(l + a) (1.5.15)
This expre.c;sion may be used for tile transformation of the equation
of ~Latl;' (1.5.8) for a dissociating gas of an arbitrary ('om position:
p~ [R,!(~m),[ pT(1 +a) (1.5.16)
ofa Fluid

2. i. Approaches to the Kinematic

Investigation of a Fluid

Determination of the for('o interaction and heat transfer between

.a fluid and a body aboHt which it flows is the main task of aerodyna-
mic invest.igations. The solntioll of this problem is associated with
studying of the motion of a fluid near a body. As a result, properties
arc found at each point of a flow that determine this molion. Among
them arc the "clocilr. pressure, density, and temp('ralure. 'Vith
delinitc prerequisites, this investigation can be reduced to determi-
nation of the velocity Ileld. which is a set of yeloC'itics of the fluid
particles. i.e. La solution of a kinematic problem . .:-Jcxt the known
vC'iocity distribution is Ilsed to determine the other properties,
<lnd al:=<o the re:=<ultant forres, mOlUpnts, and fluxes.
There arc Iwo approa{'hes to Ihe kinemati('. investigation of a
fluid, known as the Lagl',\IIgian mul the Elll('rian approaches.

LagrangIan Approach
This approadl considers the motion of individual flllid particles
and for each of tllem determines its pathline, i.e. the coordinates
of the particles as a fllllction of time. nut since there is an illflllite
Ilumber of partides, to sot a pathlille one must identify the particles
which this pathline relates to. The c.oordinatcs a. b, and c at a cer-
tain im:tant t --, t g al'e selected as the chara(~teristic. of a particle.
This fit'allS that froUl among an infInite set of pathlines, the olle
passing through lito point whose ('oordinatos are a, b, fllld c will
helong to the gh'ell particle. Accol'dingly, we shall write the equa-
lion of the patlLline in the parametric form:
:r -I. (a, b, c, I); y - iz (a. b, c, I); z.,.., fa (a, b. c, t) (2.1.1)
where a. b, c, and tare t-lw Lagrangian variables. The quantities
a. b, and care Yarinhll's determining Ihe pathline.
72 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynlmics of In Airfoil lind II Wing

The components of the velocity vector at eadl point of the pathline

equal the partial derivath'c.<; lr"x axlat, Fy --= aylat, and V z =
=, while the components ot the acceleratioIl vee,tor equal the
relevant second partial derivatives Wx a~xliJt2, Wy :- iJ2yfat 2, and
W z = a2z/iJt 2

Eulerian Approach
The Eulerian approach is in favour in aerodynamic investi-
gations. Unlike the Lagrangian approach, it fixe:; not a particle of
a fluid, but a point of space wit.h the coordinates x, y, and z and
studies the change in tile velocity at this point. with time. Hence,
tho Eulerian approach consists in expressing the velocities of parti-
cles as a function of the time t and the (,_oordinate.., x, y, and z of
points ill space, Le. in setting the fIeld of velocities determined by
the vector V -: l'xi + Vlfi -J- V:k. wherei, i, and kareunit'\'ectors
along the coordinat.e axes, while V;T drldt, Vg ,--: dyldt, and
V z = dzldt are the velocity vector ('omponents given in the form of
the equations
V. ~ t, (x, y, z, t), V, t, (x, y, z, t), V," t, (x, y, Z, t) (2.1.2)
The quantities x, y, Z, and t arc called the Eulerian variables.
By solving the simultaneous differential equation!:!

*=/d:C. y, z, t); -f=f2{:C' y, z, t); *=fs{x, u, z, t)

we call obtain Aquatiolls of 8 family of pat.hlines in t.he parametric
form coinciding with Eqs. (2.1.1) in which a, b. and c are integra-
tion const.ants.
Hence, in the Eulerian approach, we can go ovor from a descrip-
tion of the kinemat.ics to representat.ion of a now by t.he Lagrangian
approach. The roverse problem associated with the transition from
the Lagrangian approach [Eq. {2.1.1)1 to the Eulerian one [Eq.
(2.1.3)] consists in differontiation ot Eqs. (2_1.1) with respect
to time and the following exclusion of tho constants a, b, and c by
means of qs_ (2.1.1).
By calculating the total derivat.ive of tlte velocity vector with
rospect. to time, we obtain the acceleratioll vector

w= ~~ = ~~ +V~ :: +Vg :: +V% :: (2.1.4)

Projection of tbo vector W onto tho axos of coordinates yields the

components of the resultant acceleration. In tho oxpanded form.
Ch. 2. Kinematic5 of II Fluid 7a

these components are as follows:

Wx = lJ!:x -i VI<: d~;'t ...:.Vy iJ~~;'t .:.1'~ a~~:\, }

ar/l. aV/I, "1'" . aI'" (2.1.5)
WY=at r' V." ii:i""" :-V""""FiJ-:.1'!---;J;"""

Wz= a::! ; l' x ~~T .;l'" ~~: '7- V; i1~~!

RclntiOlls (2.1.:") for the U('('(llm'nLions rlll'respond to 1.\ now char-
acteriz(l(l hy a chunge in thc vc)odty at a gin'll point with time
and, cOI1~eqncnLIYT by the inf!(lnaJity iJV/iJt '=fo 0. Snch a flow of
a nuid is ('alled unsteady. A now of a flllid in whirh t.he velocity
and other properties at a givcn point ,Iro independent of t.he Lime-
(fJV/ol 0) is ('alice! st('ady,

Streamlines lind Palhllnes

A.I any in~ln11\' we ('all inHlgine a (',urvc in a now huviug the prop-
erty !.llnl, cvery pill'tidc of tire nuid Oil it has A ,elority tangent
to the C1\l\~. 811('h a C\ll'\'~ is (~tllled a sllpamlinc.
To obtain fI 1'.trcamline, one mnst pro('ced til- fnllnws. Tnh a point,
A 1 (Fig. 2.1.1a) ill the flow at. tilt! instant t "" tn and express the velor.-
ity of tire partide tit this point by tile vettor VI' :'\exl take a point
A2 aoja('ent t.o At on the voct.or VI' As:mnl(' that. at. the in!;t.tlnt
t = to. the velodty \'ector at this point. is V 2' -"ext consider a point
A3 on the vedor V 2. t.he velocity at whirh is del ermined at the same-
iUI>t.ant by the vect.or V3' ami f'0 on. Such a construt'liOll yields a
broken line consisting of .segments of velocity vectors. By shrill!dng
the size of these segments 10 zero alld simlllt.uneollsly in('rcasing
their number to infmity. at the limit we obtain a CUI'V(, cliveloping
the entire family of velocity vectors. This is exactly n streamline.
It is obvious that a defmit.e streamline corre...poudf' to each inst.ant.
To obtain an equation of II ~treamlinc. let. liS tal,a advantage of
tI property 8c.cording to which at earh point. of this line the (lirec-
!iOlls of the velodty veetor Vane! of the "ector ds =- i cL: -i- j dy +
+ k dz. where dx, dy. and dz are the projection:<; of the st.reamline-
arc clement. ds. must eoincidf!. Conseqnenllr. the ('ross product
ds X V - O. Le.

I d~
dy :ZI=i(Vzdy.-VydZ)-jWzdX-VxdZ)
VII V:z:
+k(Vlldx- V:rdy) ~.O
'74 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodyn.mlc5 of .n Airfoil .nd a WIng


COD.3truction of a sirl'amline (a) and a stream tube (b):
l-stn!amllnps: 2-cnntnllr

Ilence sinre, for example, V, dy - Vy dz = O. and so on, we

obtain fI system of differential equations
dx/V. ~ dy/V, ~ d::/V. (2.1.6)
The soliltion of the problem on determining streamlines thus
(;onsists in integration of the system of equations (2.1.6). Each of
the integrals of these equations FI (x, y. Z, G1) -= 0 and
F'l. (3', y, Z, G2) = 0 is a family of surfaces depending on one of
the parameters, C1 or C2 while the intersection of these surfaces
forms a family of streamlines.
Uuliko streamlines, which aro constructed at a fIxed instant, the
<concept of a pathline is allsociated with a certain time interval dur~
ing which a partide covers a definite distarH'e. It thus follows that
a streamline and a palhUne (or trajectory), which is the tract' of
motion of a single particle, coincide in a steady now. If the flow
is unsteady. a streamline and pathline in it do not coin(:idc.
The concepts of a stream tube and a stream lilament are con~idered
in aerodynamics. If we dra\.... strearnlines through the points of an
elementary closed contour (Fig. 2, L tv), they form a surface called
the surface of a stream tube. The part of the fluid conli.ned within
this surfaee is called a strum tube. If we draw pathlines through
the point.; of an elementary closed contour. they form a surface
<confining a part of the flllid called a !'ltn"am filampnt. A stream tube
and a stream f\iameat drawn through the points of the same closed
<contoul' in a st.eady flow coindde.

2.2. A.nalysis of Fluid

Particle Motion

Unlike a ~olid hody whose motioll is determined by its transla-

tional motion together with its centre of mass and by rotation about
an instantan('ous axis passing through the centre, the motion of a
Y" Y;.~
,-------' VI:

, \I. " v..


!\fotiOll of a Duid particle

fluid particle is characterized. in addition, by the presence o( strain

-changing the shape of the particle.
Let us consider a fluid particle in the (orm of all elementary paral-
lelepiped with edges or dx. dy, and th. and analyse the motion of
face ABeD (Fig, 2.2.1). Sillce tile coordinates of the \'ertires of the
foc.e arc different. the ,"clorities detcrmined at 1\ certain instant
t -- to are also different:
V. A - V. (.<, y), V.B ~ V., (x'" rho y) }
VyA ~ Vy (x, y). VyB :"": VII (x .1-. dr. y) (2.2.1)
V."l:C .= V;r (x -t- dr, y , dy). l'.rD = V;,; (x. y --;. dy)
V vc = Vy (x, dJ.. y,dy). "V YD = Vy(x, y,dy)

where x and yare the coordinates of point A.

Let us expand the expression!'! for the velocities ililo n Taylor
series, leaving only small qnantities of the nrst order in them. i.e.
tel'ms contnining d:c. dy, and dz to a power not higher than the first
one. Assuming that nt point..1 the velodty V;,;A V, and V"A -
..: V y we obtain .

V'\'B~~V;,; ... (~~."I:/i).r) d.l'~'"., ~"D:v;r--:--(OV:'J~Y)dY-_"'''1

Vyn-Vy-(iHl/liJx)d.r r .... 1I/D,V,+(iJVI//(ly)dy.... (2.2.2)
Vx<:=Vx " (aVxlOx) dx T (aVxhJy) dy -t- ...
Vile' '-VI/ --:. (Dill/lax) d:c ,. (ov/ay) dg ;-- ...

Examination of these expressions re\"eals that. for cxample, at

point /J the velocit.y ('.omponenl along tile xaxis diffcrs Crom t.he
value o( tile velocity at point ~1 by the quantity (av/ax) d:c. This
signifies that point 11, while participating in translational motion
at the velocit~ Vx in the direction of the .raxis together with point A,
simultaneously mo\'('s relative 1.0 it in the same direction at the
76 PI. I. Theory. Ae,odynamics 01 an Ai,foil and <II Wing

FI.. l.2.l
Angular strain of II. Ouid

velocity (cJV,/cJx) rh. The result is a linear strain of segment AB.

'fhe rate of this strain is 9 x = iJV;cliJr.
Point B moves in the direction of the y-axis at the velocity V"
together with point A and simultaneously moves relative to this
point at the linear velocity (aVylax) dx determined by the angular
velocity of segment AB.
Considering point D, we cau by allalogy with point B determine
that the relaLhe linear velocity of this point in the direction of the
y-axis is (iJVy!ay) dy and, consequently, the rate of linear strain of
::~e~~~~p ~e ~Y -=a~~!:~tl~~h~i~~r;u~~:nv~!~~~trn~~ ~~~o~~~;
that point D rotates abollt point A ill a direction opposite to that of
rotation of point 8). Hotation of segments AD and AH causes distor-
tion of the angle DA 8 (Fig. 2.2.2), i.e. angular strain of the particle-
is produced. Similltaneoll!:'ly, bisector AM 01 angle DAB may turn,
the result being the appearance of an angle d~ between it and bisec-
tor AN 01 the distorted angle D'AR'. Hence, the particle rotates
The angle of rotation of the bisector (Fig. 2.2.2) is
where y ---' 0.5 1:t/2 - (da~ + da l )] and "t --:: :t/4 - da 2
The angles da. z and dell shown in Fig. 2.2.2 equal (av,/{)x) dt and
(av,Jay) dl, respectively. Consequently
d~ ~ 0.5 (cia, - cia,) = 0.5 (OV,IO. - aV,IOy) dt

Hence we can find the angular velocity d~/dt of a fluid particle

about the z-axis. Denoting it by fil z, we have
.. , = d~/dt = 0.5 (av,/a. - avJay) (2.2.3)
Ii we consider the motion of edge AD relative to segment AB.
the angular velocity of this edge will evidently be
2e, = fJv,iax -7- aV:c1ay (2.2.4)
Ch. 2. Kineme!ics of e Fluid 77

The quantity
is called the semi-rate of downwash of the right angle DAB.
Let liS apply this reasoning to three-dimensional flow and consider
point C belonging 10 a particle in the form of an elementary parallel-
epiped with edge lengths of dx, dg, and dz. The \'elocity at this
point at the instant I = to is a function of the coordinates % -i- dx,
y ...- dy, and z ..- dz. Writing the velocity components in tnc form of
a Taylor series in whifh only small terms of the lin::t order are re-
tained, we have
V,c = 1'., .,- (aI',18r) dx -'- (W,18y) dy T (aI',18,) dz}
Vue ""1'. V" -I- (al'"lax) d:x + (aVlllay) dy + (aVylaz) dz (2.2.5)
V,c = V, .,- (W,18x) dx.L (8V,liiy) dy -;- (8V,I8,) dz
Let lI~ introduce a notation similar to that adopted when analysing
the motion of a two-dimensional particle. We shall assume that
e~ = aV 2 laz. This quantity determines the rale of linear strain of
a three-dimensional particlt, in the direction of the z-axis. Let us
also introduce the notation
Wx = 0.5 (i)ViDy - aI-'ulilz), wu::"":: 0.5 (aV~.IrJz - aV:ld..c) (2.2.6)
Tht' quantities Wx and Wv are the componenls or the angular \'eloc-
ity of a particle along the x- and y-axes, respectively. The components
of the angular velocity of a particle (Un WII' and 00: arc considered
to be positive upon rotation from the x-axis to the y-axis, from the
y-axis to the z-axis, and from t.he z-axis to the x-axis. respectively.
Accordingly, the signs of the dcrhal.ivcs aVllliJx, avz/ay, and arxfi)z
coincide with those of the angular velocity, while the sign!'! of the
deriva.tives aVxlay, aVulaz, and aVzhJx arc opposite 10 thosE' of the
angular velocity.
By analogy with (2.2..1,'), we have the value.</.
::< = 0.5 (aV:lay + aVlllaz), Ell 0..::: 0.5 ({)VxlfJz + aViiJx) (2.2.7)
that equal the semi-rate of downwasll of the two right angles of
the parallelepiped in planes yOz and xOz, respectively.
By performing simple transformations, we can see that
al'zlay = :.: -r- Cil:.:; lJv:r/az = ell -:- 0011 ; aVlll1h: = E: + Wz
lH'vlaz = Ex - w:.:i aViax = Ell - 00 11 ; aV,,/ay = ~ - Wz

With account taken of these expressions, the velocity components

a.t point C can be represented in the following form:
+ e z (];x; :.: dz -1- 00: dx - Wx dz (2.2.8)
Vile :..., VII -i-- 0Il dy
78 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of In Airfoil and a Win;:

Hence. the motion of point C can be considered as the result of

addition of three kinds of motion: translational along a pathline
together with point A at a velocity of V (V.n V". VJ:), rotation
about it at the angular velocity
0) = O):ti + O)lIj + O)J:k (2.2.9)
and pure strain. This conclusion forms the content of the Helmholtz
theorem. Strain. in turn, consists of linear strain characterized by
the coefficients e:t. e,l' and au and of the angular strain determined
by the quantities elt , til' and 8:.
The linear strain of the element's edges causes a change in its
volume 't' = dx dy ch, which is determined by the difference
d't = dxl dYI chI - dx dy dz
where dx 1, dYI' and dz i are the lengths of the edges at the instant
t + dt.
Introducing the values of the lengths, we find
Disregarding in this expression infinitesimal terms higher than
the fourth order. we obtain
d. - (ex + 0, + 0,) *
dy dt
Hence we can determine the rate of change of the relative volume.
or the rate of the speeific volume strain 0 = (1h)d'tldt, which at
each point of a flow equals the sum of the rates of linear strain along
any three mutually perpendicular directions:
e - 0. + 0, + 0, (2.2.10)
The quantity a is also known as the divergence of the velocity
vector at a given point:
div V - -0. + 0, + e, (2.2.11)
Hence. the motion of a fluid particle has been shown to have
a complicated nature and to be the result of summation of three
kinds of motion: translational and rotational motion and strain.
A flow in wllich the particles experience rotation is called a vortex
one, and the angular velocity components 0)=. (I)", and wI-the vorta
components. To characterize rotation, the concept of the \"elocity
curl is introduced. It is expressed in the form curl V = 21\). The
velocity curl is a vector
curl V = (curl V):r i + (curl V)" l + (curl V)z k (2.2.12)
whose components equal the corresponding double values of a vortex
(curl V)x '"'" 2(1):t, (curl V)" = 26>11' and (curl V)z = 2wJ:
Ch. 2. Kinematics of ,. Fluid 79

U. VOIteIFree
MotIon of Fluid

When investigating the motion of a fluid, we may often take nl)

account of rotation because of the negligibly small angular velocities
of the particles. Such molion is called vortex-free (01' irrotational).
For a vortex-free flow, (0 = 0 (or curl V = 0), and, consequently,
the vortex components 00;.;, OO Ut and 00: equal zero. Accordingly, from
formulas (2.2.3) and (2.2.6) we obtain
aVxliJy = aVuJax. aVz1iJy = aVulaz, 8V x!{)z = dV:,'8z (2.3.1)
These equations arc a necessary and sufficient condition for the
~i~e~~~t}~~~~~~~~lil~~:Cte~z~g ~ft:Kot :r:ad~l;i~ I;~ :h~o::~~i,~:~e~;
th~e:~:;~:lngC~~;of~~nc~~o~:Ci~ ~~~ :~r~ ~z'(x, y, z, t) and consider-
ing the time t as a parameter, we can write the expression
dq> = Vxdx +- l!.,dy + l':dz
On the other hand, the same differelltial is
d~ ~ (8~Jax) dx -i- (8~J8y) dy + (a~,a,) dz

Comparing the last two expressions, we fmd

Vx o'fiiJz, VII = oqJJag, V: = {)cp/iJz (2.3.2)
The function qJ is called a velocity potential or a potential function,
and the "ortex-free flow characterized by lhis function is called
a potential ftow. Examination of relations (2.3.2) reveals that the
partial derivath'c of thc potential <p with respect to a coordinate
cquals the projection of the velocity onto the relevant coordinate
axis. This property of the potential function also holds for an arbi-
trary dircction. Particularly, the tangential component of the velocity
at a point on an arbitrary Cllrve s equals the partial derivative l!~ =
= oq;los, while the Ilormal component Vn = iJq;,'{)n., where n is a
normal to the arc s at the point being considered. For the polar
coordinates rand 0, the projections of the velocity vee Lor V of a
point onto the direction or a polar position veclor and onto a direc-
tion perpendicular to this ve<:tor equal, respecth'cly, the partial
l'r Off/or and F~ = Off/aS = (1/r) orplOO
It can be seen that the magnitude of the velocity in a certaiD
direction is determined by the rapidity of the change in the pot.ential
qJ in the same direction. If we consider the direction s, the rapidity
of the change in the potential equals the partial derivath'c with
80 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of In Airfoil and a Wing

respect. Lo this direction Off/OS. The quantity OCf/oS can be consid-

ered as the projection onto the direction s of a vector known as the
gradIent of the function <p and coinciding with the direction of the
most rapid increase in this function. It is evident that this vector
equals the ,"clocity vector V. Denoting the gradient of a function
in the form grad If. we have
V ~ grad ~ (2.3.3)
V ~ grad <f ~ (grad ~). I -+- (grad ~), j + (grad ~), k (2.3.4)
where the caetrldents in parentheses on the right-hand side are the
projections of the vector of the velocity gradient onto the coordinate
(grad <p)x = V~ = oeplox, (grad <p) 1/ = VI/ =-= o<ploy,
(grad ~), ~ V, ~ O<flo, (2.3.5)
The use of the poLenlial function appreciably Simplifies the in-
vestigation of a fluid's motion because instead of determining three
unknowns. t.he velocity componenLs Vx VI/' and V" it is sufficient
to fmd one unknown function Cf. which makes it possible to com-
pletetr calculate the velocit.y ncld.

2,4. Continuity Equation

G ...... Form of the Equation

The cquation of continuity of motion in the mathematical form

is the law of mass conservation-one of the most general laws of
physics. This equation is one of the fundamental equations of aero-
dynamics used to nnd the parameters determining the molion of agas.
'1'0 obtain the continuity equation, let us consider a moving vol-
ume of a fluid. This volume, varying with time, consists of the same
particles. The mass m of this volume in accordance with the law of
mass conservation remains constant, therefore pm"t = const, where
Pm is the mean density wHhin the limits of the volume "to Conse.-
quently, the derivative d (pro"t)/dt = 0, or, wit.h a view to the density
and volume being variables, we have
(1/Pm) dpmldt + (11,) d,ldt = 0
This volume relates to an arbitrary finite volume. To obtain a
relation characterizing the motion of a fluid at each point. let liS go
over to the limit with "t _ 0 in the last equation, which signifies
contraction of this volume to aD internal point. If the condition is
observed that the moving fluid completely lills the space being stud-
Ch. 2. Kinematics of Fluid 81

ied and, consequenlly, no voids or discontinuities are formed. the

density at a given point is a quite determinate qnantity p. and we
obtain the equation
(1/p) dpldt + div V '-'" 0 (2.4.1)
in which the value of ;i! I(ilt) d./dt! has been replaced according
to (2.2.10) and (2.2.11) wHh the divergellce of the velocity.
Relation (2.4.1) is a continuity equation. It bas been obtained
in a general form and can therefore be used for any chosen coordinate
Cartesian Coordlnaht 5yshrll

Let liS consider the continuity equation in the Cartesian coordinate

system. For this purpose, we calculate the derinLivc dp (x. y. i. t)/dt
in (2.4.1) in accordance with (2.2.11). As a result. we obtain the
continuity cquation
op/at -r
0 (pvJ;.)/ax -:-- a (pVy)/OY T () (pVr)/oz '-' 0 (2.4.2)
Introducing the concept of the divergence or the veclor pV
div (pY) = iJ (pVx)/iJx .j- fJ (pVy)'uy -1- iJ (pVz)/Oz
we obtain
up/iJt .!. di\' (rV) (2.4.a)
instead of (2.4.2).
Continuity equation (2.1.2) dcscrihl~s all UlI~I{'atl~' flow. For a steady
flow. aplat = 0 and. consequent I.'" ,
iJ (PV.~ViJ.r +
a (pVy)iiJy .!- II (PV1)''B,;:;'~ 0 (2.4.4)

IIi\' (IV) ."" 0 (2..1.4')

For a two-dimensional flow. the continuity C'qunlion is
o(p V:r)/iJ.J: 'r a (I v u)/(Iy ~ 0 (2..1.5)
For an incompressible flow, f' '-~ con~l. h('II(:('
iJVJiJx "VyiiJy i- iJl'l"h (2.4.6)

div V :;.." 0 (2.4.7)

For potontial motion, lhe (:oulinuily ('lllIillioJl i~ transIorml.'ll with
account taken or (2.:1.2) to IiiI' fldlowing form:
(1/p) dp/dt .L rJ'!lr/ax~ "p{r'r7!1~ M!_ {j2(("ZZ . IJ (:lA.8)
For an incomprN!siblc fluid. /' - I:onsl. tilC'l'lforC'
rJ2(r-'().T~ i iJ~{1 ii1!J~ (I'!/,. 'rJ Z2 (l (2.-'1.8')
82 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamic5 of an Airfoil and a Wing

The expression obtained is called the Laplace equation. The solu-

tion of this equation is known to be a harmonic function. Conse-
quently, the velocity potential of an incompressible Row lP is sucb
a harmonic function.

Cumll.." Coordinate Systein

Conversion Formulas. It is more convenient to solve some problems
in aerodynamics by using a curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system.
Such systems include, particularly, the cylindrical and spherical
coordina te systems.
In a cylindrical coordinate system, the position of a point P in
space (Fig. 2.4.1) is determined by the angle "i made by the coordi-
nate plane and a plane passing through point P and the coordinate
axis Ox, and by the rectangular coordinates :r and r in this plane.
The formulas for transition from a Cartesian coordinate system to
a cylindrical one have the following form:
x = x. y = r cos "i. Z = r sin "i (2.4.9)
In a spherical coordinate system, the position oC point P (Fig-
ure 2.4.2) is determined by the angular coordinates a (the polar angle)
and 'IJl (the longitude), as well as by the polar radius r. The relation
between rectangular and spherical coordinates is determined 8(1
x = r cos e, y = r sin 0 cos'lJl, z = rsin e sin 'IJl (2.4.10)
The rele\'ant transCormations of the equations of aerodynamics
obtained in Cartesian coordinates to a curvilinear orthogonal system
can be performed in two ways: either by direct substitution of (2.4.9)
and (2.4.10) into these equations or by employing a more general
approach based on the concept of generalized coordinate curves
(see (91). Let us consider tbis approach.
We shall represent the elementary lengths of arcs of the coordinate
curves in the vicinity of point P in the general form:
cis1 = ht dq1' ds, = h2 dq2, d't3 = h, dqa (2.4.11)
where qn (n = 1, 2, 3) are the curvilinear coordinates. and hi are
coefficients known as Lame's coefficients.
For cylindrical and spherical coordinates, respectively. we have
ql = Z, q2 = r, qa = "i, (2.4.t2)
q, ~ r. q, ~ e. q, ~ 'i> (2.4.13)
It follows directly from Fig. 2.4.1 that Cor cylindrical coordinates
dB, ~ tho dB, ~ dr. dB, ~ r dy (2.4.14)
Ch. 2. Kinematics of a Fluid 83

An elementary nuid particle in
a cylindrical coordinate systcm

Fig. 1.4.2
An elementary noil! particle in
.1 !'pberic1l1 coordinate system
Figure 2.4.2 allows us to de{f!rmine the length of the arcs of the
relcvant coorrlinate lines in a sphcrical system'
dS I = dr, dS 2 = rdO, (b3 = r sill I d1jJ (2.4.15)
Consequently. tor cylindricnl coordinates, Lame's coefficients
ha vc the form
hi = 1, h',l= 1, hs=r (2.4.16)
and for spherical ones
hi = 1, h',l = r, h3 = r sin I (2.4.17)
Let us consilier some expressions for vector and scalar quantities
in curvilinear coordinates that are needed to transform the conti-
nuity equation to these coordinatE's. The gradient of a scalsr func-
tion <J> is

where fl , f2' and ia arc unit vectors along the relevant coordinate
84 PI. I. Theory. Aerodyn..mics of .. n Airfoil .. nd .. Wing

Having in view formulas (2.4.11), we obtain

grad4l=.*. :~ it +*". ::; +*-. :~

12 is (2.4.18)
For further transformations, we shall use information from the
-course of mathematics dealing with vector analysis. Let us find the
divergence of the velocity vector, writing it as the sum of the com-
ponents along the coordinate lines:
V =Vti, + VIi: + V,i,= ",.-.1
~ V",i n (2.4.19)

Performing the divergence operation for both sides of this equa-

tion, we obtain
divV= L
(Vndivin;'-i .. gradV",) (2.4.20)

To determine div in. we shall use a known relation of vector analy-

where n takes on consecutively the values of n = 1, .2, 3 which the
values of m =-= 2. 3. 1 and j = 3, 1. 2 correspond to. This relation
includes the vectors curl im or curl i, to be determined. for which
we shall introduce the common symbol curl in. Using (2.4.18) and
the general methods of transforming vector quantities, we nnd

Let us introduce (2.4.22) into (2.4.21). For this purpose we shall

first replace the subscript n in curl in with m and j . and also cor-
respondingly arrange the subscripts on the right-hand side of (2.4.22).
As a result, we have
Let us inlroduce these values into (2.4.20). Having in view that
in this formula. in ar,cordance with (2.4.18), we have
in .grl\d Vn ,--= (1/kn) aVn/Oqn
we find the fonowing expression for the div('rgence:
divV:.-: h)ihS'[ a(~:~2h3) -r a(~~:h,) +.~~~::~hl)] (2.4.24)

Ha.ving thiS expression. we cnn transform the contiuuity equation

(2.4.1) to various forms of cllrvilincar orthogoll<li coordinates.
Ch. 2. Kinematics of a Fluid 8~

Cylindrical Coordinates. In cyJindriral coordinates, Lame's

coefficients are given by expressions (2.4.16), and the values of
qn (n -'" 1, 2, 3) hy relations (2.4.12). The velocity components
along the axes of cylindrical coordinates are
Vi c,,", V:t ~ dx/dt, V 2 ~, V, -_ drldt, V3 ~ V ... ,.".., r dy/dt (2.4.25)
Taking this iuto Recount, the di\'ergence of the velocity (2.4.24)
di\'V,., d.!:,:t _I. Q;;~ ++. f~,~'" _l.~ (2.1..26)

To transform the deri\'8th'e dp'dt in the continuity equation

in which f
(2.4.1) to cyJindrical coonlinates. we use the transformation formula

= -%- -+ ::. ~~I -;- ::2 . d;t

(x, y, z, t) is a function of Cartesian coordinates aO(l
-~ ::3 . ddqt (2.1.27)

time. We obtain

-1i- *+*.*:4tf-.*r-*.*
:.--%t.~-Vx"*-: .*. Vr* 7- l~Y (2.t,.28)

Suhstituting their values for cli ... V lind dp.'dt in E/}. (2..1.1), wc
4/i-+ (J(~:'x) +- fJ(~!'r) ~+. a(~~:;) +~'--.O (2.t..2\))

Let us write this equation in a somcwhat tlHfcrcnt form:

1'"* + 8(r; zl'x) + a(~~1!r) ++. r)(r;~'~) =0 (2.4.30)
For the perlicular ease of steady motion
a(~:rx) + a(e;rVrl ++. iJ('8t~) .. 0 (2A.31)

For potential motion, substitutions may be made in the continuity

V. ~ a~/ax, V,., a~/ar, V, c, (11r) (a~/iJy) (2.".25')
If the motion of a gas is simultaneously axisymmetric as, for
example, if it flows about a body of revolution at a zero angle of
attack, the Row parameters do not depend on the angular coordi-
nate y. and the continuity equation has a simpler form:
a (prV.)18x + a (prV,)/ar ~ 0 (2.4,32)
86 Pt. r. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a WIng

Spherical Coordinates. Using relation (2.4.24), having in view

formulas (2.4.13) for spherical coordinates, and also relations
(2.4.17) for Lame's coefl\cients and the expressions for the velocity
VI=Vr=4t-. Vz=Vo=+~.
V,=VIJ:=r 13 inS!!J!. (2.1.33)

we obtain the following expression for the divergence of the velocity:

diVV=;-. D(;:r~) + r8~n9' "(V~inO) + r8:nl:l' ~'" (2.4.34)
We shall write the total derivativo for tho density dpldt in accol'd
anee with (2.4.27) in the following form:

!!-~-;~+{-'-r-+~'*+ ~~ . ::
=*".!.Vr~+ 1:0 r::9' :~.*"+ (2.4.35)
Iintroducing the values of div " from (2.4.34) and the derivative

dpldt from (2.4.35) into (2.4.1) and grouping terms, we have
8(P;/2) -i- rs:no' "(P~saSin8) + rS11no . .,~;q.) =0
.For steady motion, the parLinl derivative iJpliJt = 0, hence
+. 8(PJrr r 2) +~. 8(P Vas/inO) + Si!9 . 8~;ot) =0 (2.4.37)

In the particular case of an incompressible fluid (p "'"" const)

+. i/<!';r2) + Si~(I' 8(V~~inO) +~. ~~'f =0 (2.4.38)

The following substitutions must be performed to transform the

continuity equation for potential motion:
Vr = ~~ Vo=+' ~: V.=" rs:nlj . :: (2.4.39)

Contfnulty Equation 01 Gas flow

.1.,. Curved Surt.ce
Let us consider a particular form of the continuity equation in
.curvilinear orthogonal coordinates that is used in studying flow over
a curved wall. The x-axis in this system of coordiuates coincides with
the contour of the wall, and the y-axis with a normal to this wall at
Ch. 2. Kinematics of /I Fluid B7

To the derivation of the COli
tinuily equation in curvilinl'.1r

the point being considered. The coordinates of point P 011 the plane
(Fig. 2.4.3) equal the length x measllred ~dong the wall and the
distance y measured along a normal to it.. respectively. Assume
that the wall is a surfRce of revolut.ion in an Rxisymmetric flow of
a gas. The curvilinear coor(linates of point. Pare:
ql = X, q2 = y, q, = )' (2.4.40)
The elementary lengths of the coordinate line arcs are
ds1 = (t + ylH) dx, ds z = dy, ds a = r d)'
where r is the radial coordinate of point P measured along a normal
to the axis of the surface of reyoilltion, and R is the radius of curva-
ture of the surface in the section being considered.
ConsequenLly, Lame's coefficients are
hi = t -I- y/ll, h z = I, h3 .= r (2.4.42)
Let us llSC formula (2.4.21t)Jor div V in which the velocity compo-
nents arc
VI = V:r = ds1idt = (t .:" y/ll) dx/dt. tt"2 = Vy = dy/dt. V3 = 0
Substitution yields
divV= (1+~_R)r {8(;;"r) + iJll'-yr~:7U!R)I} (2.4.44)

Let us calculate tile total derivathe for the densit.y:

=-"*"1- 1;=/ll ."*-7- Vy"* (2.4.45)
88 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynllmic$ of !In Airfoil and a Wing

Introducing expre!;sions (2.4.14) and (2.4,45) into (2.4.1), after

!;imple transformations we obtain the continuily C'quat.ion
*r(t....!...y/R) + iJ(r;xv -,\,) ~ arpr(I-~-:!R)Y'l/1 (2.4..46)

When studying the motion of a gas ncar a wall with a small curva-
ture or in a thin layer adjacent to a surface (for example, in a hound-
ary layer). the coord in ale y R. Consequently
(Op/ot) r -+ iJ (prV3C)/OX + iJ (prVy)/oy '""- 0 (2.4.47)
The form of the obtained equation is the same as for a surface
with a straight generatrix. For steady now
d (prV.,JIOx + a (prVy)/OY = 0 (2..1.48)
For two-dimensional flow near a curved wall (a cylindrical
surface), the continuity equation has the form
*(1-:-yJR)+ a(~:.\.) + arpV'/~y-i ViR)! -.0 (2.4.49)

For y R. we approximately have

op/ot -t- u (p V;c)/ux -/. u (p V y)/uy --. 0 (2.4.50)
Hence, for flow near a wall, the continuity equation in curvilin-
ear cootdinates has the same form as in Cartesian coordinates.
For steady flow, aplat -= 0; in thi!; case the continuity equa-
tion is
D (pV.)IDx + D (pV,)18y _ 0 (2.4.50')
Equations (2..1..18) and (2.4.50') can he combine(1 into a single one:
d/(pv,..r8)Jax +
a (pVyr8)/ay 0 (2.4.48')

where E = 0 for a two-dimensional plane flow and e = 1 for a three-

dimensional axisymmetric flow.

Flow bte Equation

Let us consider a particular form of the continuity equation for

a steady fluid flow having the shape of a !;tream filament. The mass
of the fluid in a fixed volume confllled within the surface of the fila-
ment and the end plAnE" ('.ross sections docs not change in time because
the condition that up/at 0 is observed at every point. Hence the

mass of the fluid entering the volume in unit time via the end cross
section with an area of 8 1 and equal to PI VIS 1 is the same as the
mass of the fluid P2 V 28 2 leaving through the opposite cross seclion
willi an area of S2 (Pt and P2 are the densities, Vl and T'2 are the
speeds in the firsl and second cross seclions of the lilamenl, respectivE'!-
Ch. 2. Kinematics of a Fluid 89

Iy). We thus have PIV1St ., P2V2Sl. Since this equation can be

related to any cross secLion, in Lhe general form we have
p VS = const (2.4..51)
This is the flow rale equation.

1.5. Stream Function

The studying of II ,ortex-rree gas flow is simplilied because it

can be reduced to the fmding of one unknown potential fUllction
completely determining the flow. We shall show that for certain
kinds of a vortex flow there is also a function determining its kille-
math: characteristics.
Let 115 cOllsider a two-dimensional (plane or spatial axisymmetric)
steady vortex now of II fluid. It call be established lrom continuity
equation (2.4.32') that there is a lunction 'If; of the coordinates x
and y determined by the relations
alax c -PII'V,; 8lay ~ PY'V. (2.5.1)
Indeed, introriucing these relations inlo (2.4.32'), we ohtllin
8~1J;/(ayax) ,- 82/(8x ay), i.e. an identity. Substituting (2.5.1)
into t.he equation of slr('amliu('s Vyl8y .. , V:Jlldx wriLten in the form
pytVy dx - flytV:Jl dy '""" 0 (2.;").2)
we obtain the expression
(a'i'iax) dx -i. (alay) dy = 0
from which it follows that (2.5.2) is a dWerelltial of the fUllcliol! '"
and, consequently,

Integrating (2.5.3), we find an equation of stream lilies in the form

1f (or, y) """ const (2.;JA,)
The function1p, called the stream function, completely determines
the velocity of a vortex flow in accordance with the relations
V. (l/py') 8lay, V, - - (1/py') Oiaz (2.;'.0)
We remind our reader that for a two-dimensional flow, we hav~
to assume in these expressions that e ,. . ,. , 0, while for a threc-diml'lI-
sional axisymmetric flow e = 1 and y = r.
A lamily of streamlines of a potential flow can also be charact('rized
by the function '" "'- const that is aSSOciated with the velocity
potential by the relations
a'Piax ~ (lil'lI') 8lay, a<play ~ - (lIpy') O:ax (UdS)
"90 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics or lin Airfoil lind II Wing

Assuming in (2.5.5) and (2.5.6) that p = const, we obtain the

relevant expressions for an incompressible flow:
V, ~ (1Iy') Inplay, V, ~ - (1Iy') a~/ax (2.5.7)
a~/ax ~ (1Iy') a'Play, a~/ay ~ - (1Iy') a'Plax (2.5.8)
Assuming in Eqs. (2.5.8) that e = 0, we obtain the following
equations for an incompressible two~dimensional flow;
a~/ax ~ a'Play, a~/ay ~ -a'Plax (2.5.9)
Knowing the velocity potential, we can use these equations to
.determine the stream function with an accuracy to within an arbitrary
constant, and vice versa.
In addition to streamlines, we call construct a family of equipoten~
tial curves (on a plane) or of equipotential surfaces (in an axisym-
metric flow) in a potential flow that is determined by the equation
'Q" = const.
Let us consider the vectors
g"d 'P ~ (a~/ax) I + (a~/ay) j and grad 'P ~ (a'Plax) I + (a'Play)j
whose directions coincide with those of normals to the curves <p =
= const and ~ = const , respectively. The scalar (dot) product of
these vectors is
grad 'P grad 'P ~ (a~/ax) a'Plax + (a~lay) a'Play
With a view to formulas (2.3.2) and (2.5.5), we can establish
that this product equals zero. Hence it follows that streamlines are
orthogonal to equipotential lines (on a plane) or to equipotential
.surfaces (in an axisymmetric flow).

1.6. Vortex Lines

A vortex line is defined to be a curve s constructed at a defmite
instant ill a fluid flow and having the property that at each point
of it the angular velocity vector 0) coincides with the direction of
a tangent.
A vortex line is constructed Similarly to a streamline (see
Fig. 2.1.1). The only difference is that the angular velocities of rota-
tion of the particles 0) (0)1' 0)2' etc.) are taken instead of the linear
velocities. In accordance with this delinition, the cross product
.00 X dS = 0, Le.

I :~ w~ ~z l=i((o)~dZ-WZdY)-j ((o),;dz-wzdx)
dx dy dz
+k (w%dy-w~dx) =0
Cn. 2. Kinemlltics of II Fluid 91

l-Ience, taking into account that, for example, COy dz - U1 z dy =

= 0, and so on, we ohtain an equation of a vortex line:
dxlw;r; = dylw y = dzlw z (2.6.1)
13y consl-tucting vortex lines through the points of an elementary
-contour wilh a cross-sectional area of 0, we obtain a vortex tube.
The product wo is called the i.ntensity or strength of a vortex tube.
Ot simply the vorticit~.
We shall prove that the vorticity is coustant for all the sections
of a vortex tube. For this purpose. we shall use the analogy with
the flow of an incompressible fluid for which div V = O. A corollarr
is Hle flow rate equation for a stream filament VIS I = V 2 S 2 :-::
. . . -= VS = const.
Let us consider vortex motion (lnd the expression for the divergence
or the angular yclocity
div (r) = QOl;r;IIJx -i- IJUlyfIJy + Qooz//)z
Substituting for the componenls of w their values from (2.2.3)
and (, we oblain. provided that the second derivatives of
l'x, V y , and V z arc continuous, the expression tii, w ,..." O. using
the analogy with the flow rale equation VS = const, we obtain an
cClnatioll for the flow of the vector w along a vortex tube in the form
00 1 0"1 = U1 2(J2 = ... = wo = canst (2.6.2)
This equation expresses the IIelmholt~ theorem on the constancy
of the vorticity along a vortex tube. The properly of a vortex tube
consisting in that it cannot break oD suddenly or terminate in a sharp
point follows from this theorem. The termination in a sharp point
is impossible because at a cross-sectional area of the tube of 0" _ 0,
the angular velocity w would tend to infmity according to the IIelm-
holtz theorem, and this is not real physically.

1.7. Velocity Circulation


Velocity circulation is of mAjor Significance in aerodynamics.

This concept is lIsecl when studying the flow over craft and, particu-
larly, when determiniug the lift force acting on a wing.
L(>t us consider in a fluid flow a fixed closed contour K at each
point of which the velocity V is known, and ent\lIate the integral
-over this contour:
92 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and <II Wing

where Vds is the dot product of the vectors V and cis. The quantity r
determined in this way is known as the circulation of the velocity
around a closed contour. Since
V=V:J'I-Vllj-j-Vzkandds=dxi+dyj dzk
we have
r,. I V.dx".V,dy'-V,dz (2.7.2)
Taking also into account that the dot product Vds """
-- V cos (V........ds) as '-' Vs ds, where Vs is the projection of the velocity
onto a tangent, we obtain
r.~ \ V,ds (2.7.3)

II the contour coincides with a streamline in the form of a circle

of radius r at each point of which the velocity V. is identical in
magnitude and direction. \,,,'C have
r .-= 2nrVs (2.7.4)
The circulation of the vclocity in a vortcx-frec flow can bc cxpressed
in lerms of the vclocity polential. Assnming that V", dx "I-
-i- VII dy .:~ V: dz =-: dqJ. we obtain for an open contour

l'-= ) dq.-='f!A-lJ"n (2.7.5)


wherc <fA and cP D are the values of the potential function at the
ends of the contour. For a closed contour, 'f!A and <illS are the vallles
of the velocity potential at points A and B of the contour coinciding
with each other. If the potential function is unambiguolls, then
'f!A = 'f! D' and the velocity circulation around the closed contour is
zeroj ambiguity of the velocity potcutial ('PA ::;I: CPB) determines
a non-zero value of the circulation.

Stokes n.......
Let us consider elementary contonr ABeD (see Fig. 2.2.1) and
evaluate the circulation around this contour. We shall assume that
the velocities are constant along each edge and are equal to the
following values:
V.(AB). V,+ ';" dx(8C). V.+ ';'" dy(CD). V,(AD)
ConSidering the counterclockwise direction of circumventing the
contour (from the x~axis toward the y-axis) to be positive, we obtain
Ch. 2. Kinemllti<:;s of II Fluid 93

for the circulation

dr:=V:rdx~-(Vv+ d;;, dX)dY-(V x ;" ",;y'" dy)dx--V"dy

dr. = (dVyldx --uV.,)uy) d~r dy

According to (2,2.3), the quantity in p<lrenlllt'ses eqllals the dOllllie
value of the angnlar velocity componcllt :!w,. Consc(j\wntly,
dr, ~ 200, dx dy (2.7.6)
We can prove similarly that
dr", ,.--, 2w", dy dz and dry"'''' 2w g d:c dz
In these expressions, the products of the dilterentials arc the
areas confmed by the relevallt elementary contours. With Ii view
to the rcsults obtained, for the area clement do oriented in space
arbitrarily and confmed within an elementary contonr, the circula-
tion is
where Wn is the component of the angular velocity 1I10ng the direction
of the normal n to the surface clemen!. du. In accordance with (2.7.7),
the "elocity circulation aronnd an elemcHtary closed ('o\tlollr eq\lals
the double strength of ,\ vortex in~ide the
Helation (2.7.7) can be used for II conlOHr I-tnile
conlining a surface S lIt each poilll of whkh thc (If (')" is
H(!r<' the veloCity circulation around !itl' \'ontultr i:-:

r-211 '.'.,(Ii)

Formula (2.7.8) expresses the Sloi;:C'!" titc-Mc-m: the

lation arollnd the closed contour 11 equals tlte .]ouhle
strt1ngtll or the vOrL ices passing lhrOltg-ll !he slIrface
contoul'. The quantity determined hy tlli...; rormu!;)
(vol'l('.'( sll'ell~lh) and i:> ,iesignalC'll hy
x_ 2~ , (')n {ia (2.i .R')

Comhining formulas (2.i.:\) ;lilt! (2.i.X) I'O!' 1'. We' ohlailll\ relalion
expn'ssing the integral oyet the contour f( ill 1f'I'ms of lilt' inli'g'I'I\\
lhe surface S COllflll{'II within this coulollr A':

\ V, ds - 2 .\
<0" du (2.7.8")
94 PI. I. Theory. Aerodyn.mics 01 an Airfoil and a Wing

Simply and triply connected regions on a plane:
.. -~imply co~n(>cled r('gion (rK _ circulation ov~r th(> conto\lr K); b-triply connected re-
gion 0'1, = cJrcula Hon of tbe eJ:tem a J contour, rK, and r x , - clrculatlon~ over the In_
t~ma J conloul':!l X, and X., respectively)

The above expressions relate to 0. simply connected contour (the

region being considered is confIDed within a single contour, Fig.
2.7.1a), But the Stokes theorem can also be extended to multiply
connected contours (a region confIDed by one external and several
internal contours). Equation (2.7 .8~) is used provided that the
external contour is connected to the internal ones by auxiliary Jines
(cuts) so as to obtain a simply connected region. Now t.he double
integral in (2. 7 .8~) is used for the hatched region (Fig. 2.7 .1 b) , while
the contour integral is taken for the obtained simply connected
region, i.e. around the external contour, along all the cuts, and also
around all the internal contours. In accordance with this, by formu-
la (2.7.8"), and also with a view to Fig. 2.7,1b showinJ! 8 triply
connected region, we obtain
r K-rK1 -rK.=2 J Jwnda

whence the circulation over the contour K of the region being consid-
ered is
r K=rKI+ r X.+2 JJ

Using this formula when we have n internal contours, we lind

rK = hr Kt -/- 2 Jj Ctl n do
; (5)

VortexlncilieM V.loeHl..
Appearing vortices produce additional velocities in the Ouid-
filled space surrounding them. This effect is similar to the electro-
magnetic influence of a conductor carrying an electric current. In
Ch. 2. Kinemetics ot 110 Fluid 95


accordance with this analogy, the velocities produced hr a vortex

arc said to be induced.
This electromagnetic analogy is expre5seu ill that Lo determine
the vortex-induced "elocity, a Biot-Savart relation i.!' used similar
to the one expressing the known law of eleclronwgnelic induction.
Let us consider a curvilinear vorlex of all arbitrary shape (Fig.
2.7.2). The velocity vector dw induce(] by the vortex clement dL
at point A whose location is rletermiue(\ by the position vector r
coincides in direction with the cro."s prodnct r X dL, i.('. the ,"N'.tor
dw is perpendicular to the plane containing the \'ectol'S rand dL.
The value of dw is determined with the aid of the Biol-Savart ror-
mula, which in the vector form is as follows:
dw = (r/4n) I' X dL r3 (2.7.n)
where f is the velocity circulation. The derivation of formula (2.7.9)'
is given in [101.
Since the magnitude of the cross product I r X dL I = r sin 0: dL.
where 0: is the angle hetween the direction of a ,'ortex element and
the position vector r, the magnitude of the velocity induced at
point A is
dw = (f/4n) sin a dLr z (2.7.10)
Let us use the Biot-Savart relation to calculate the velocily induced
by a section of a liue vortex (Fig. 2.7.3). Since r = h/sin 0:.
dL = r da:/sin 0: = h do:/sin z 0:, then
U)= 4~h ) sinada= 4~h (cosa l -coso:Z) (2.7.11)
For a vortex hoth of whose ends extend to infinity (an inlinite
vortex), 0:1 = 0, 0:2 = n, aud. therefore,
w ~ 1'/(2nh) (2.7.12)
96 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of .n Airfoil .nd Wing

a nuid
of a line vortex on
p<!rliclc ... t point A
~ "

fig. 1.1."
Interaction of \'orliccs:
o_vorlicrs wilh (In idpntlcat dirPl"
1;011 of mlalion; b \"rUc(~ with
opposite dir,.~tiun~ of motion

For a vortex, one end of which extends to inrmity, and the other
has its origin at point A (a semi-infinite vortex), we have a l -::: 0
and a. t . n/2. Consequently
w ~ r / (bh) (2.7.1:1)
If a nuid accommodates two or more vortices, they interact with
one another, and as a result the vortex system is in motion. The veloc-
ity of this motion is determined wilh the aid of the Biot-Savart
relation. Let liS tnke liS an example two infmite vortices with the
same strength nnd direction of rotation (Fig. 2.7 .4a). These vortices
impnrt to each other the velocities V ~ :-:: - l'/(2nh) and VI -:--:
= r /(2nh) that <Ire equal in magnitude and opposite ill direction.
As a result, both vorticCl~ rotate ahout an axis passing through the
middle of the distance bNween them. If of two vortices onC' hus
III strength of the opposite sign (Fig. 2.7.4b), the induced velocities
are of the sume direction and, consequently, the system of vortices
moves translationally at the velocity V -:: 1'/(2nh) in a dirf'clion
perpendicl1lal' to the straight liue counecting the vortices.

2.8. Complex Potential

The motion of a vortex-free incompressible now can be determined
completely if we know the potential function q:: or tlte ~Iream func-
tion 1p, the relation he tween which is gh'(~11 by Eqs. (~.5.n), which
Ch. 2, Kinem.tics of Fluid 97

in the theory of the functions of a complex variable are known as the

Cauch:,r-Riemann eqltations. They express the necessary and sufficient
conditions needed for a (',ombinatioll of the two functions cp .L- i'\f.l
to be an analytical function of the complex variable cr .= x iy. +
Le. to be differentiable at all point~ of a certain region.
Let us introduce a symbol fOl" this fune.tian:
W(cr) -= <f + i'\f.l (2.8.1)

The function W (0) that is determined if the fUllction of two real

variables If ::-; If (x, y) and W=: W(x, y) satisfies differential equa-
tions (2.5.9) is called a complex potential. If we recall that the values
of the functions If (x, y) or~ (x, y) allow one to determine the vel-
ocity field in a moving fluid unambiguously, then, (',onsequently,
any two-dimensional flow can be set by a complex potential. Hence,
the problem on calculating such a flow can be reduced to finding
the function W (0). Let us ('alculate the derivative of the function
W (0) with respect to the complex variable cr:
dWId<r = a~18x + iil-f18x (2.8.2)
Since iJlffiJx = 1':n 8/Ox .= - Vy tlten
dWldo = Vo; - iV" (2.8.3)

This expression is called the complex velocity. Its magnitude

gives the value of the ,reiodty itself, I dWfdo I -= VV~ -;- V~ = v.
It is evident that the l'eai velOCity vector V = V.., -j- iVy is thp
mirror image relative to the x-axis of the vector of the complex
velocity. Let us denote by 9 the angle between the vector dWldo
and the x-axis and determine the velocities V % = V cos 9 and VII =
= V sin O. Using the Euler formula
cos 9 - i sin 9 = e- fi

we obtain
dWfda = Ve- f8 (2.8.4)

2.9. Kinds of Fluid Flows

Let us consider the characteristic kinds of flows of an incompres-
sible fluid, their geometric configuration (aerodynamic spectrum),
expressions for the complex potentials, and also the relevant poten-
tial functions and st.ream functions,

98 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 an Airfoil lind II Wing

'.r.II_1 Flow
Assume that the flow of a fluid is given by the complex potential
W (0) - V (cos 9 - i sin 9) 0 (2.9.1)
where V and e are constants for the given conditions.
According to (2.8.1)
(J) + i1p = V (cos e - i sin 9) (x + iy)

whence we find the velocity potential and the stream function:

<p=V(xcos9+ysin9) (2.9.2)
1p= V(ucos9-xsine) (2.9.3)
Examination of the expressions for <p or 1p reveals that the flow
being considered is plane and steady because they do not contain
the time explicitly. In such a flow. the streamlines and pathlines
From (2.9.2), we can find the components of the flow velocity:
Off/OX = V ~ = V cos e, O!.fJ/8y = VII = V sin e, O(J)/8z = Vz = 0
Here V is the resultant velocity of the flow, and e is the angle
between its direction and the x~axis. Assuming the stream function
"p in (2.9.3) to be constant and including V in it, we obtain the equa~
y cos e - x sin e = const (2.9.5)
A glance at this equation shows that the streamlines are parallel
straight lines inclined to the x~axis at the angle 9 (Fig. 2.9.1). Since
the velocity components V~ and VII are positive, tIte flow will be
directed as shown in Fig. 2.9.1. This flow is called a forward plane~
parallel one.
In the particular case when the flow is parallel to the x~axis (9 =
= 0, VOl: = V, VII ...;; 0), the complex potential is
W (0) - Vo (2.9.6)

Two~DlmenslollllJ Point Source

Let us consider the complex potential
W (0) - (qI2") In 0 (2.9.7)
where q is a constant. We can write this equation in the form
~ + i'i - (qI2,,) In (,,>0) ~ (qI2,,) (111 r + tel
en. 2. Kinem!ltics of II Fluid 99


General view of II forward
plane-parallel now

A two-dimeDSional point source

where r is the distance to a point with the coordinates x and y (the

polar radins), anti 0 is the polar angle.
It follows [rom the obtained equation that
~ ~ (qI20) In r ~ (q/2n) In V x' -\- y' (~.U.8)

'" ~ (qI20) e (~.9.9)

'Ve find from (2.9.8) that the radial velocity ('omponent (in the
direction of the radius r) is
iJcp/iJr = V~ = q/(21(r) (~.9.!O)

and the componellt along a normal to this radius is Vs = O.

We thus obtain a flow whose streamlines (pathlines) are a family
o[ straight lines passing through the origin of coordinates (this also
follows from the equation of a streamline 1j> = const). Such a radial
flow issuing from the origin of ('oordinates is called a two-dimen-
sional point source (Fig. 2.9.2).
The rate of flow of a fluid through a contour of radius r is 2:nrl'r =
= Q. Introducing into this eqllat.ion the value of V~ from (2.9.10),
100 pt. I. Theory. Aerodyn~mi(;$ of ~n Airfoil ~nd ~ Wing

we fmd Q = q. The constant. q is thus determined by the rate of

flow of t.he fluid from the source. This quantity q is known as the
intensity or strengtb of tbe source.
In addition to a source, there is a kind of motion of a Ouid called
a two-dimensional point sink. The complex potential of a sink is
W (0) = - (qI2~) In 0 (2.9.11)
The minus sign indicates that unlike a source, motion occurs
toward the centre. A sink, like a source, is characterized by its
intensity, or strengt.h, q (the rate of flow).

!hreem.enslon.r Source and Sink

In addition to two-dimensional ones, there also exist three-dimen
sional point sources (sinks). The flux from them is set by the fol-
lowing conditions:
V~= 4~ '7; Vu= ,~ . ~:; v= 4~' ~ (2.9.12)

whore R = V Xl + y2 + z.2 aud q is the strength of the source (plus

sign) or sink (minus sign). The strengl.h of a source (sink) equals
the quantity q defined as the flow rate (per second) through the surface
of a sphere of radius R. The resultant velocity is
V=VV~+V:+V:=q/(4nR') (2.9.13)
and coincides with the direction of the position vector R. Conse-
qnentl~. the velocity potential depends only on R and. therefore.
8<p18R = q/(4nR')
Integration ~'ields
'I' = 'F q/(4nR) (2.9.14)
where the minus sign relates to a source. and the plus sign to a sink.

Let us consider a flow whose complex potential is
W (0) = (MI2n) (1/0) (2.9.15)
where M is a constant. In accordance with this equation, we have
<p + I"
= (MI2n) (lire;')
Let us transform the right-hand side of this equation. Taking
into account that

r:.8 = r(e08ij~UiD8) +(cos9-iSin9)

Ch. 2. Kinemlltics of II Fluid 101

To the definition of a doublet:
B-doubll't streamlines: b-Ionnatlon ut a doublet

we obtain
'P + ilP = (l"fl2~r) (cos 9 - i sin 9)
'P = (MI2:n) cos 9/r (2.9.16)
lP = - (:rfl2n) sin aIr (2.9.17)
Assuming that til ~~ const and having in view that r = V x'J. y'l +
and sin f) "-- ylr ...., Y/V .rt + y'1,. we obtain an equation for a family
of streamlines of the flow being ('.onsidered:
y (x' + y2) = const (2.9.18)
The family of streamlines is an infmite set of circles passing through
the origin of coordinates and having centres on they-axis (Fig. 2.9.3a).
To comprehend the physical essence of this flow, let us consider
the Dow that is obtained by !!ummation of the flows produced by a
souree and a sink of the same strength located on the x-axis at a
small distance e from the origin of (',oordinates (Fig. 2.9.3b). For
point M (x. y). Lhe velocity potential due to a sOllrce at the distance
of r 1 is 'Ps = (q/2n) In rl and due to a sink at a distance of r2 from
this point is <PSK = (-q/2n) In r2.
To determino the resultant flow produced by the SOUl"(',e and the
sink. let us use the method of superposition of incompressible flows.
According to this method. the velocity potential of the resultant
flow is fp "= <P, +
'Psk' Indeed. owing to the continuity equation
(the Laplace eqnation) obtained from (2.4.8'). we bave
:~ + ::~ = al(~~~IfRk) + al(~~:'Ip~k) =0
Since the functions fpa and 'PBk satisfy the equations
{)'Cf.lfJx" + O'Cf81{Jy' = 0 alld O"CfSk/or + o'lf98);.I{Jy'l. = 0
102 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of lin Airfoil lind II Wing

then {{jx2. .;- {j2q;/{jy2 identically equals 'zero. Consequently, the

resultant function cp satisfies the contihuity equation. The resultant
potential from the source and the sink is
<r = (qI2n})n (r/r2)

Since r l =V(x+e)2+ y2, r2=V(x-l::)2i-Y\ then

In*={ln ~;~:~:~:: .0rln~=+ln[1+ (I-~:+Y"J.

The value of e can be chosen so that tile second term in the brackets
will he small in comparison with unity. Using the formula for expan-
sion of a logarithm into a series and disregarding the small terms of
the second and higher orders, we obtain

<r=f (X_::z+u~ (2.9.19)

Assume that the source and sink each other (e __ 0)

and simultaneously their strengths increase so that the product
q2e at the limit upon coincidence of the source and sink tends to
a finite value J!. The complicated Row formed is called a doublet.
the quantity M characterizing this Dow is called the moment of tbe
doublet and the x-axis-the axis of tbe doublet. Going o\'er to the
limit in (2.9.19) for cp at e __ 0 and 2qe -- M, we obtain the follow-
ing expression for a doublet
M x M cos6
({l=2i". x3+yt =zn'-,-
It coincides with (2.9.16).
Henre. the Dow being considered. characterized by the complex
potentlal (2.9.15), is a doublet. This can also he shown if we consider
the stream function of such a combined flow tllat will coincide with
Differentiation of (2.9.16) yields the doublet velocity components:

~~ = V/"= _ ~ c~~6 , +.-;- = Va = _ ~~ . s~~O (2.9.20)

Let us consider the three-dimensional ease. For a flow produced by
a source and a sink of the identical strength q located along the axis
Ox at a small distance s from the origin of coordinates. the potentlal
function in accordance with (2.9.14) is

cp= 4~ (*- ~l)= 4~ [J/(~-:)I+rl Jf~]

where r2 = y2 -:- Z2.
Ch. 2. Kinemlltlc~ of " Fluid 103

For small valuesof e, we have

If = (ql'm) 2XE./(x! + r~)3/t
Henct' in a limit pro("ess with E __ 0, cOlls](iering that the prodnct
q2e tends to the fmite limit .'\1, we obtain [or the !low produced by
a doublet with tht' moment .11 the v"locity potential
cr : . .:; (.11/1:1) xl(x2 -;... r'!)~/Z (2.9.21)

Circulation Flow IVortew..

Let 11S consider a now ~et by the complox potential
HI (cr) -= -ai In cr (2.9.22)
where a is a constant. We can write this equation in the form
qJ + i't -ai In (rei8 ) .,.-, a (9 - i In r)
~ = aB (2.9.23)
11' -a l.n r (2.9.2/1)
It follows from (2.!1.23) th(lt the rallial ,"elocHy component Fr =
= iJ'i,/iJr c"", 0, while the component V, normal to tll" radins equ<ll.s
the derivative of q, with respc('.t to the ar(' s of a streamline, i.e.
Qq.JrJs -= (1/1') Q<fldO -= V" ."" air (2.9.25)
'Ve obtain lhe equation of streamlines (pathlines) from the condi-
tion" ",-. canst, from which in accordance with (2.8.24.) we nnd the
equation r . .,. (,OLlSt.. This eqnation represents a family of streamlines
in the fOfm of l'.oneenlric. cil'cles. Flow along them is positi\"e if it
occurs (,Ollnlerclockwise (from the x-axis to thl' y-axi.s); ill this case
the coeflicient a in (2.9.25) has the sign pIllS.
A flow in which the particles move (circulate) along concentric
circles is said to be a circulation Row (Fig. 2.9.4).
The ('ircnlation of the Yeiocity in the flow being considered i~ r =
= 2",,. d\f!{)s. Since Bifid.\" air, we have r .... 2:1:a, whence a =

= r/(2:t). Hence, the pitysi('.al meaning of the constaut a is that it..."1

value is determinl'd by the circulation of the flow which. as we have
alread:\' I'stablishcd, equals the vorticity in turn. The flow produced
by a vortex located at the origin of coordinates where V.t = aIr __ co
is also called a two~dimensional vortex source or a vortex.
A circulation flow (point vor-

We have treated the simplest cases of flow for which we have

exaetly determined the velocity potentials and stream functions.
By combining these flows, we can. in definite condition!'!, obtain
more complicated potential flows equivalent to tbe ones that appear
over bodie!'! or a given configuration.
Let tI!'! take as an example a flow formed by the superposition or
a plane-parallel now moving in the direction or the x-axis onto the
flow due to a doublet. The complex potential or the resultant two-
dimensional incompressible now is obviously
W (a) ~ W, (a) + W, (0) ~ Va + (M/2n) (1/0) (2.9.26)
In accordance with this expression
~ + i1jl ~ V (x + ig) + (MI2n)/(x + iy) (2.9.27)
~ ~ Vx + (MI2n) x/(:i' + g'),
1jl ~ Vy - (MI2n) g/(x' g') + (2.9.28)
To find the ramily of streamlines, we equate the stream function
to a eonstant:
c~ Vg - (MI2n) g/(x' + g') (2.9.29)
According to this equation, the streamlines are cubic curves.
A value of the constant or C 0 corresponds to one of the stream-
lines. ByEq. (2.9.29), we obtain two eqllationsforslu.b a zero stream-
y ~ 0, :i' + g' ~ M/(2"V) (2.9.30)
Hence. the obtained streamline is either a horizontal axis or a
drcle of radius To = fM/(2,nV)J1/2 with its centre at the origin of
coordinates. Assnming that the velocity V = 1, and the doublet
moment M =- 2n, we obtain a streamline in the form of a circle
Ch. 2. KiMmlllics of II Fluid 1O~.

with a unit radins. If: we assume that this cirde is a ~olid Doundary
surface, we can consider an incompr{'ssible now Ilear this surface
as one flowing in a lateral direction over a rylinder of infinite length
with a unit radius. The velocity potential of sllrh an ineompressible
disturbed flow is determined by the first of Eqs. (2.fL2S) having the
lp :-' X 11 -\- 11(x2 + y2)] (2.\.1.31)
Introducing the polar (',oordillates 8 and r x;ro.~ 0 - (x 2 -I- y2)1/2,
we obtain
~ ~ ,(1 ~ II,') cos 0 (2.9.3q.
Differentiation yields the components of the ,'cJocity at a point.
on an arbitrary streamline along the directionH of the radius rand
of a normal .~ to it:
V~ ocr/or = (1 - lIr 2) r,os e,
V, ~ (II,) a~Ia9 = - (1 + II,') sin 9 (2.9.32)-
On a cylindrical sHrface in a now (a zero streamline) for which
r .; 1. we flJld F r - 0 and y., -2 sin e. The above example il-
lustrates the application of tile princ.iple of now superposition and
the concept of a complex potential to the solution of a very simple
problem on the now of an incompre.'lsible nuid over a hOlly,
of Fluid Dynamics

3.t. Equations of Motion

of a Viscous Fluid

The fundamental equations of aerodynamics include equations of

motion. forming its theoretical foundation. They relate quantities
.determining motion such as the velocity, normal, and sh.ear stresses.
The solution of the equations of motion allows oue to determine these
unknown quantities.
Let us consider the various kinds of equations of motion used in
'Studying gas flows.
CIIrtesran Coordinates
We 511311 treat the motion of a fluid partida having the shape of
an elemelliary parallelepiped with the dimensions dx, dy. and dz
~onstructed near point A with the coordinates x, y, and z. Let
the velocity componenL<; at this point be Vx , Vv ' and Vr A fluid
particle of mass flT (here .. "'""" d.r dy dz is the elementary \'olume)
moves under the action of the mass (body) and surface forces. We
shall denote the projections of the mass force by Xp"t, Yp"t, and Zp"t,
.and those of the surface force by PxT, Py"t, and P:"t. The quantities
Po;, P y' and P z arc the projections of the surface force vector related
to unit volume.
The equation of particle motion in the projection onto the x-axis
has the form

dVxldl '" X + (lip) P, (3.1.1)
where dV,/dt is tile total acceleration in the direction of the x-axis.
We obtain similar eqnations in projections onto the y- and z-axes:
dV,ldl ~ Y + (lip) P, (3.1.2)
dV,ldl ~ Z + (lip) P, (3.1.3)
Ch. 3. Fundamental5 of Fluid Dvnamics 107

Surface forces acting on a Buill particle

The surface force can he expressed in terms of the stresses acting

011 the faces of an elementary parallelepiped. The difference in the
surfar,e forces in romparison witll an ideal (ill\'i~dd) now r.onsists
in that not only narmnl. hilt al."o shear strcs.<;{'~ act 011 the fares of
a partide. .
Every surface forre a(tiug on a face has three projeclions onto
the coordinate axes (Fig. 3.1. t). A unit of snrface area of the lefl-
hand face experiences a surfare fOI'('o \vllO~e projl'('.tirms will be de!lig-
nated hy PU' 'lx:' and Txy. The quantity P.>:", is the normal stress,
while T.u and 'l.\'y are the she;tr stresses. It cau be seen thl\t t.he lirst
subscripl indicates the axis p4"rpendicuiar to Ihe face being con-
!:lidered. and the second one indir_ates t.he axis auto which the given
stress is projected. The rear face perpendicular to lhe z-axis expel'i-
encO.<; the ~tress comlJOuenl.. PZf' 'l :_~. and '('z,,: the boUom fare perpell-
dicular to the Y-Ilxis expl"rien('cs the components Puu' '('y.>:. anci
We shall consider normal stresses to be positive if they are lIiteded
out of the clement being studied and. consequently, subject it to
omnidirecLional tension as shown in Fig. 3.1.1. Pot'Jitivc shear stres-
ses arc present if for the three faces interseding at initial point A
these stresses arc oriented along directions opposite to the positivc
directions of the coordinate axes, and for the other three faces-
in the positive direction of these axes. With this in view. let us can
sider the projerliolls of the surface forces onto the x-Ilxis. The left-
hand face tnc force dne to the normal stress -P:u: dy dz.
and the right-hand one-the force Ip.>:", + (iJP",:rJi).E) drl dy tlz. 'fhe
ret;ultant of these forces is therefore (iJP;x./iJ:r) d:r dy dz. The compo-
nents of the forres produced by thl" sheal' stresses actiug on these
faces are zero.
108 Pt. r. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Account must be taken, h9W-e",erj of the shear stresses 'lzx and 'lyx'
The rear face experiences the force- -Tzx dx dy, and the front one-
the force ['In: + (i1T:z:Jaz) dzJ dx dy. The resultant of these forces is
(iTrzx/az) dx dy dz. In a similar way. we find the resultant of the
forces acting on the bottom and top faces. It is (a'llIx/ay) dx dy dz.
Bence. the projection onto the x-axis of the surface force related
to unit volume is
Px :- apxx/()x + 8TlIx /8y -I- 8'lzx/az (3.1.4)
Similarly, the projections onto the other coordinate axes of the
sllrfaee force related to unit volume are
P y = 8'l:.:y/ax..!. apl/y/ay...;. iJTzy/aZ 1 (3.1.4')
P z = a'lrz/ax+ rJTyz/ay -I- iJpzz/8z
A(',eording to the property of reciprocity of shear stresses, the
values of those stresses acting along orthogonal faces equal each
other. i. e. 'lz:" -= 'lxz. 'lZIl c-::: 'llI l and 'llI r T rll

llence. of six shear stresses, three are independent.

To determine the values of the shear stresses, we shall lise the
hypothesis that stresses are proportional to the strains they produce.
The application of this hypothesis is illustrated by Newton's formula
for the shear stress appearing in the motion of a vise,Otls fluid relative
to a solid wall. Dy this formula, 'ly.'I' -= Il (aVyf8x). Le. the stress
is proportional to the half-speed E z """ 0.5 (av II/ax) of angle distor-
tion in the direction of the z-axis, whence 'llIr =-: 21lEz (here Il is
the dynamic. viscosity). This relation covers the general case of three-
dimensional motion when tho angular deformation in the direction
of the z-axis is determined by the half-speed of distortion E z =
'-,- 0.5 (8Vy/ax + aVr/ay). We shall write the other two values of
the shear stress in the form T IIZ ----= 21lEx and Tzx -:: 21lEII'
Tyo;; = 21lEz =].1- (8VII /ax +- avx/ay)}
'llIz = 2.u:%:-.=].I- (~VII/8Z: avz/ay) (3.1.5)
'In = 21lEII ~-=].I- (ovz/ax, av x/a:)
We shall use the ahove-mentioned proportionality hypothesis to
establish relations for the normal stresses Pn, PIIII' and PZZ' Under the
action of the stress Px.n a fluid particle experiences linear slrain or
deformation in the direction of the x-axis. If the relative linear de-
formation is a;, then Prx -~ E~. where E is a proportionality factor
or the modulus of longitudinal elasticity of the fluid. The normal
stresses PIIII and Pzz cause the particlo to deform also in the directions
of the y- and z-axes, which diminishes the deformation in the direc-
tion of the x-axis.
Ch. 3. Fundamentals 01 Fluid Oynemics 109

It is known from the course in the strength of materials that the

decrease in the relative magnitude 6.G:T of this deformation for
elastic bodies is proportional to the slim of the relative deformations
in the directions of .II and Z lInder the action of the indicated stresses.
6.0x ,= -(11m) (Pu/E + PalE)
where m is a constant known as the coefficient of lateral Hnear defor
The total relative deformation in the direc-tion of tho x-axis is
e; ~ 8~ -1- &8,"" 1',.,1 - 111m) (p"IE -1- p"IE) (3.1.6)
We can calculate the relative deformations y and e a.
along the y.

:and zaxes in a similar way. The obtained expressions give us the
normal st.resses:

Pn~E~.,(p,,+ p,,)/m
PY!I """ E6 y + (Pu -+ pxx)/m (3.1.i)
PH = Ea. + (Pu + P!lu)/m
The relative linear deformations of a particle along the directions
Qf the coordinate axes determine its relative volume deformation.
Designating the- magnitude of this deformation by 0, we obtain
Summating Eqs. (:t1.7) and taking into account the expression
for 0: we have
PX.T -:- PUJI + PH = mEfi/(m - 2) (3.1.9)
Determining tho sum PUy + PH from this expression and introduc-
ing it into (3.1.6), we find

For our following transformations, we shall use the known rela-

tion between the shear modulus G, the modulus of longitudinal
elasticity E, and the coefficient of lateral deformation m that is
valid for elastic. media including a compres..<;ible fluid:
G ~ mE/12(m + I)] (3.1.11)
Substituting this rolation into (3.1..1.0)J we obtain

Pxx= 2G8:c+ m~2 8 (3.1.12)

110 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Let us introduce the symbol

"7r = (Pxx + PIIY + Pu)/3 (3.1.13)
Adding and subtracting on the right-hand side of (3.1.1Z), we
p:x:x=a+ZG6 x + m.2~2 e-(px';+PlIy-!-pu)/3
Transformations involving Eqs. (3.1.9) and (3.1.11) yield
p" - cr + G (28, - 28/3) (3.1.14)
p" _ a a
+ G (28,- 28/3); Pu - +G (28, - 2il/3) (3.1.14')
It has heen established for an inviscid fluid that the pressure p
at any point of the flow is identical for all the areas including this
point, i.e. with a view to the adopted notation, in the case being
considered we have p""" = PIIII = Pn = -p; consequently, P =
- - (p" + P" + Pu)/3.
Hence, when studying the motion of a viscous fluid, the pressure
can be determined as the arithmetical mean, taken with the minus
sign, of the three normal stresses r.orresponding to three mutually
perpendicular areas. Accordingly, a := -p.

The theory of elasticity establishes t.he following relations for the

shear stresses acting in a solid body:
'til'; = Gy yX ' 't IlZ = GYIIZ> 't zx = G'V:,; (3.1.15)
where 'VIIX' yy:. and 'Vu are the angles of shear in the directions
of the axes z, x, and y, respectively.
A comparison of formulas (3.1.15) with the corresponding rela-
tions (3.1.5) for a viscous fluid reveals that these formulas can be
obtained from one another if the shear modulus G is replaced by
the dynamic viscosity Il, and the angles of shear y by the relevant
values of the speeds of distortion e of the angles. In accordance with
this analogy, when substituting Il for G in formulas (3.1.14) and
(3.1.14'), the strains (relative elongations) e,;.6 11 , and e:.
have to
be replaced with the relevant values of the rates of strain 9" =
= lJV,;llJx, 9 11 = lJVyllJy. 9: = aV:llJz, and the volume strain e
the rate of the volume strain 9=fJV:/lJx+lJV ll lay + lJVz/Jz =div V.
The relevant substitutions in (3.1.14) and (3.1.14') yield:
P,;:r:=-p+v.(Z 0:Xx --}divV)

pyy=-p+.v.(2 0:VY --}divV) (3.1.16)

PZI= -P+1l (z O~' --}div V)

Ch. 3, Fundlimenfliis 01 Fluid Dynllmics 111

The second terms on the right-hand sides of expressions ,(3.1.t6}

determine the additional stresses due to viscositv.
By using relations (3.1.4), (3.1.4'), (3.1.5), and (3.1.16), we can
evaluate the quantities P x , PilI find Pl' For example, for P x from
(3.1.4) we obtain

Px=-*+*[~(2 8Jxx -{-divV)J+*[~l( &::11 + a~x)J

+*[~ (a~z + a:z%)]= -*+~liV. +t-~ div V
+ :~
(2 aJ.x --}diV v)
is the Laplacian operator:
(a:ux + 8:: ) +~ (a:sx +8;;)
li iP/ax'J. + a'J./ay1. + 82/az"
liV.~ -eo a2VxiaX~ + iPVx /{Jy2 + a2v.",'oz'J.
In a similar way, we ran lind the expressions for P II and Pz'
The relations for the stresses due to the surface forces in a fluid
have been obtained here by generalizing the laws relating stresses-
and strains in solids for a fhlid having the property of elasticity
and viscosity. We shall obtain the same relations proceeding from
a number of hypothetic notions on the molecular forces acting in
fluid (see [9, 1\1).
By compiling projections or the total accelef<ltion in an expanded
form according to the rule of calculating the deriv<lti\'e of a compos-
ite function f (x, y, z, t) in which, in turn, x, lj, and z arc functions.
of the time t. and taking into consideration th(> expressions found
for P"" P y , and P r , we can obtain the equations of motion (3.1.1)-
(3.1.3) in the following form:
8~x+Vx 8:;~ +Vy a;/ .. it: a;;", ==-x-+.-;;-
-~.vdVx+f.+XdiVV-:+[~~ (2 a;~x -+diVV)
+% ( a:;~ + Q;~, )+ ;~ (8:;T
)J T a;:~
a;~y ~,v,t a:~y +Vy
a;;" -r-Vr a~" =Y-f.*
+vliVy-l"Y.*divv+f[*{2 8:; --}diVV)
+*( a;:u + ~:")+ ~~I (iJ~y -[- iJ:Vx)J
I (3.1.17)
~. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of til" Airfoil lind II Wing

q~Z +V" aa:. +Vy a:u. +Vr a::~ =z-+. ~~

+\I~V:+i.~divV++r ~~ (2 a:~. -fdivV)
+ :~ ( :: + a:;" ) + :~ ( ~~. + a~u )]

where " ~-:: J.l/p is the kinematic viscosity.

The dillerelltial equations (3.1.17) form the theoroticalfoundation
-of the gas d ),oamics of a viscous compressible fluid and are known
as the Navier-Stokes f'qu8tions. I t is assumed in the equations that
the dynamic viscosity 11 is a function of the coordinates x, y. and
%, i.e. 11 = t (x, y, z). Presuming that /..L = const, the Navier-
Stokes equations acquire the following form:

d:r x =x=+.*+'V~V",-!-f*diVV
d:!J '=Y-*'*7v~Vu+T.*divV (3.1.18)

a:r =Z--f,.. ~~
z +\'~V~+~.~diV V

When studying gas nows, the mass forces may be left out of ac-
~ount, and, therefore, we as..'iume that X = Y = Z -= O. In this
-case, we ha\e
dt p ih
>: ' 3


=-.!.. . .it.+vl'.VII ..L~
p ay . 3

d:'r = -t'*+V~Vr+-i-''* divV J

For two-dimensional plane motion characterized by a varying
-dynamic viscosity I' =F const, equations are obtained from (3.1.17)
.as a result of simple transformations:

at ~ _L.!'.E.
.!!i. p f J x [~(2 ~-~diVV)]
p f J x+L...'C.. fJx3 1
1 1 2
p iJll P 811 811
__3 divV)]
fJ 8V
+f-:X (I'ez)
Ch. l. Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics 113

When div V = 0, and 1.1. = canst, these equations are reduced

to equations of motion of a viscous incompressible fluid.
Let us consider the equation of motion of an ideal (in viscid)
compressible Ouid. Assuming the coefficients ~ and v in (3.1.17)
to be zero, we obtain:

8~x +Vx 8~x +V"iJ~:J: -I' V" a: =x-f* 1


8:'11 +V:x; ~fI +V" 8:: +V" 8;'Y =Y-f* t (3.1.17')

8J,z ..i- V:x; 8'fzz + Vy 8Ju' + V, 8~" =Z-f* J
These equations were first obtained by Leonard Euler, which
is why they are called Euler equations. They arB the theoretical
cornerstone of the science dealing with the motion of an ideal gas
whose hypothetic properties are determined by the absence or
negligibly small influence of viscosity.

Vector Form
01 the Equations of Motion
By multiplying Eqs. (3.1.18) by the ullit vectors i, i, and k.
respectively. and then summating them. we obtain an equation of
motion in the vector form:
liVid. =G- (lip) grad p + v f1 V + (v/3) grad div V (3.1.21)
where the vector of the mass forces in Cartesian coordinates is
G = XI + Yj +Zk
the pressure gradien t is
grad p = (liplliz) I -I- (liplliy) j + (liplilz) k
the vectors
av = aV;oi + aVyj + aVzk
grad div V (Ii div VlOz) I + (Ii div V/liy)j + (Ii div V/Ii,)k
II a fluid is incompressible, div V = 0, and. consequently,
dVld, = G - (lip) grad p + v f1V (3.1.21')
In the absence of mass forces, G = O. therefore
dVld, = - (lip) grad p + vf1V + (v/3) grad dlv V (3.1.21")
The vector of the total acceleration can also be expressed as
dV/d. _ liViIi. + grad (V'12\ + curl V X V (3.1.22)
114 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics of 111'1 Airfoil lind II Wing

With account taken of (3.1.21") and (3.1.22), we can write the

equation of motion as

~: +grad ~-+ curl V xV= -fgrad p+ v6V +igrnd divV

For an inviscid compressible nnid, the equation of motion is
~~ +grad'::;;" + curl V X V = --/;-grad P (3.1.22")

Curvilinear C_rdlnates
Let us transform Eq. (3.1.22') using the concept ot generalized
curvilinear coordinates qn' This allows us to go over r,omparatively
simply to eqnations of motion containing a specific form of curvi-
linear orthogonal coordinates, as was done with respect to the con-
Let us consider the transformation of separate terms in (3.1.22').
:For the second term on the left-hand side, and also for the first and
third terms on the right-hand sides, with a view to (2.1..18), W(J
have the following expressions:
, 3

grad ~= h
(grad';: Li n= ~ ~. a~~~2)
in (3.1.23)

3 3
g"dp~."2; (gradp),i,~2; -hI '-.'P i, (3.1.24)
,,=1 ,,~I n q"
3 3
graddivV=~ (graddivV)"i,,=h
,,=1 n-.I
-&-. a~~:v in (3.1.25)

For transformation of the vector product curl V )( V, it is necess-

ary to Hnd the form of the exprc;.;sion of the vector eurl V in gener-
alized coordinates. For this purpose, let us calculate the curl of
both sides of Eq. (2.1.19):
curl V = L~ (V n curl i" + grad V nXin) (3.1.26)
grad V" )( ill ,.. (grad Vn)Ji m - (grad V,,)mij (3.1.27)
Here the projections of the vectol' grad Vn onto the relevant
eoordinate directions are determined from expres'ion (2.1.18) with
V" substituted for <\'>. Introducing (3.1.27), and also the expressions
for curi in from (2.1.22) into (3.1.26), we obtain the following ex pres-
Ch. 3. Fundllmental$ of Fluid Dynllmics 11~

sion for the curl of the velocity:

curlV:.-= hzlh3 [1l(:;~3) - "I:;:.) }I-T-~
>: [a(;;:l) _ a(!~:'3) ]i2-! h:"2 [J(~~:") .- ()(:;~:\) :1 i3 (3.1.28}
Consequently. the erosr- pl'Oduri
cud V)(V= L
(cud VXV)" '" (31.29)

where the projection of tllis veetOI' 011 to a tangent to the correspond-

ing coordinate curve is
(curl VXV)n"'" h~hi" [(IU~~") _ iJ~;~J) J
Rerall that the reialioH U('I\\'C{,H (he subscript!! m, j, and n is
as follows'
2 3
3 1
j 1 2
The left-hand side of Eq. (:i.1.:!2) is the vcctor or the total acceler~
alion W . dVldt thnt has t.he form
\V="~l W"i" (3.1.31)

where W" is the projcction of the fll'celE'l'atio!l Hctor onto the direc-
tion of a tangent to the coordinntc line q".
Each quantity W" ean be eonsidered as the slim of the relevant
projections of tile vectol's aVld/, amI also of the vcctor~ (3.1.23)
and (3.1.29) onto the indicated directions. Aerordillgly,
Wn~~ iJ~" + ~: . ~~';, + h~;m . a(;;::n)
+ h:~n . iJ (~~~n) - h:;m ~:: - .
h~t :;~ (3.1.32}
Let u>; apply the Lap/adall operator to the vector V, and use
the expression
.6,V= ~ l!Vnin=graddivV-cllrlcllriV (3.1.33)
where dF n arc the projeetions of Ihe vector along the coordinate-
lines qn'
116 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynam!c$ of lin Airfoil and a Wing

The first vector on the right-hand side of (3.1.33) has been deter-
mined in the form of (3.1.25), while for calculating the second one
Eq. (3.1.28) should be used. Taking the curl of both sidos of this
equation. we obtain
curl curl V = ~ (curl curl V)"i n
=~ "~hJ{<'I"J~:IVlJl a[hm(~:;lV)ml}i" (3.1.34)

where the corresponding projections of the vector curl V are found

from (3.1.28).
Having these data at hand, we can consider the transformation
of the equations of motion as applied to specific forms of curvilinear
orthogonal coordinates.

C,IIJMlrle.' CooJCIIMfes
In accordance with (2.4.12), (2.4.16), and (2.4.25), we have
ql = Z, q'l. = r, qs = y, hi = t, h'l. = t, ha = r,
VI V~, Vz = Vrt Vs = V,.

W = 8:t '+,Vs
1 8~s +v,"8:rr +~. a:"\~; (grad P)l = ClplClx
Next we find
(grad div Vh = CI diY V/ax
Since div V is determined by formula (2.4.26), we have

8d:;V =i; ("~s + a;; ++. a:; +.!f)

From (3.1.28), we have

(curl Vh = 8Jzr - ":: (curl V)'I. = +(0:V:c - r ~)

Introducing these expressions into (3,1.34), we obtain

(curl ,.urIV)I-+{'H~-~)] '[W;:-.~)]}


= ::ir - o;~: ++ Uat- ':: )_+.- (O;~: -r ::~;)

Ch. 3. Fund.mentals 01 Fluid Dynamics 117

Since (grad div V)l ~ iJ div Vlox in accordance with (3.1.33) j

we have
(dVh = (grad div Vh - (curl curl Vh
_ a;;.'C -7- aa2~:c +~.a;;z~++_ a;;
\Vc tIm:! compile an equation or motiou in a projeetion onto th'
x~axis of a cylindrical coordinate system:

8~; '~-V:'~''Vr~':~' D;y' ~= -to ::

We obtain the oLher two C(luat.iolls in projections onto the coor-
dinate lines ramI y in a similar way:
~+ V:c D;: +Vr a;; -7-~' a:,: - ~~ 1
= _.!. !.1.....1...\-. (.1.V _.!..~_.:r..)-l_":::'. ddivV

p Dr '
!!!..1...V av? L.!:L.~+ r,vy
r 1'2 iiy 1'2 '3
Ii (3.1.35')

= -f,:.*+v (flVyi_~. ai)~ -;r) + ir Dt~~VV J

In these equations, we have introduced a symbol for the Laplacian
operator in cylindrical coordinates:

.1. =;;-t :,22+..!,. ~: ++-fr

We determine the divergence of t.he velocity by formula (2.4.26).
For an axisymmctric Row. the equations of motion are simplified:
iJt . :.:
DV~_:...V 8V:I::=_.-!._~-t--'\-'.1.V
(Jz . r (Jr

+....!... (JdivV
p iJx. :.: I

iJt 0:':
Dr I p Dr'
r -i' V:. ~"";'Vr~:":'~ -..!....-~-:...vflVr II (3.1.36)

+-i-' adi: v J
where div V :.= iJV"liJx + iJVr/{Jr + Vrlr; fl = iJ 21iJ:x;'! + lPliJr" +
+ (1Ir) alar.
For a steady Row. one must assume in the equations that
aV"Iat - aV,lat - av,tat _ 0
118 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Spherice' Coordinates
The spherical coordinates, Lame coefficients, and the projections
of the velocity vector onLo the directions of the coordinate lines
are related by formulas (2.4.13), (2.4.17), and (2.4.33):
ql =-: r, (/2, ~ e, q3 .-" tp, hi -= 1. h z = r, h g ""=' r sin e.
VI . Vn V z ~ Vo, V 3 0... V
According to these data, from (3.1.32) we find the projection of
the acceleration onto the direction of the coordinate line r;
WI = a~r + Vr a;r .l-..!! .~+r~;~a'~- ve~v; (3.1.37)
The projection of the pressure gradient is
(grad ph = 8pl8r (3.1.38)
Wilh a view to the expression for div V (2.4.34), we lilld the
(grad djv V). ':=: v ad;;
+, [~.a(V;:2) +rs:nu.~+rs:ntl. a~wJ (3.1.39)
We shall lise this relation for determining the projections (11 Vh
of the vector 11 V. To do this, we shall calculate the valne or (curl
.curl Vh in (3.1.33). Flom (3.1.28), we have
(curl Vh = + (!:r) - a: J'
[a 11 (curl Vh = rs:n 0 [~_ a(V~:in 0) ]
lntroducing these relations into (3.1.34), we obtain

With a view to expres5ions (3.1.39) and (3.1.40), we find
(I1V)j = (grad div Vh -(curl curl V)j =I1V r _ 2~':
I1Vr=~-:r (r2 a;r) + rls~lle'~ (sinS a:a')
+ Si~2 O. ~2::
Ch. 3. Fund.!lment.!lls of Fluid Dynemic$ 119

Taking into al'Coulit (3.1.37)-(3.1.3H) and (:U.!J1), we find the

eqnation of motion ill a projeclion onto lhe toorriinal(' line r:

iJ;/~"J',u~;'i-~' :0+ r:;~o' JJI~~

_ r~~ rJ = f.* + v (AVr --h-. J~~o
-- r! s~n U J~~~. _ 2:: _ 2Vllr~OlO) ~_ T' a d~; \. (3.1.43)

We obtain the olher two equations in a similar' way:

~ ;- V r iI,:ro ..; ~. d~;~ r ~~ n . o;~~

J1rl'o-:'~COlfl __ +,.~ -;-V (AYo+-#r. o;j
- r2 ~';~2 t! - r~ ~~~~AU' ~JI~~') + -1-. -+-. {J (~~ \'
O!';r ':-Yra~> I'~. J;'~' 1 r!;~e'~ (3. t.43')
l'",(!r- '"0 ("otO) 1 iJp
'""' -pr sin f)' aif
:v (AV~--r~~;~tu~ r2$~n9' ~I; t r;~~:}~ iJnl~~)
,. ildiv \'
...,- 3r sin 0 '----aij:""

where tl](> Lapiaciull opel'alor in spherical coo['dinalc-s is

11 -~ ~ . .;.;. (r~ -:r) + r~ $:11 t:I -to (sin 0 -k) . r! ,'1111" o ~ (a.1.4,'f)
For lwo-dimellsiollal l-lpatial gas nO\\'5 charal"terizNI uy a change
in the parameters (\'elodty, pressUI'e, density. e\c.) in the riirection
of only two {~oordilJale lines, let liS write the eqllation of motioll
- a simpler form:
aV r
. V ar r ' \'(1 in', \"~ l"p
ra, r-;:-'&o--,=-p'o, 1
+v (CiV r _ --.;..~ _ 21'; _ 21'ge~)tO) -I-...!..... &div V

.~ ~-.-V
~- au .
~-i ~.~+ VrVO ...
r ar r ali r -
r r 3

+v (CiVo -:--'}. a~j -r2~~20) +*.bd~;\" J

HIO Pt. I, Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing


Il=-J,.f, (r2 -!r) + r<si1nll .-:0 (sin e ~) (3.1.46)

diVV"""~. U{~;r2) i ~.a(\'9a~inO) (3.1.47)

Equations of TwoDlmenslonal Flow

of a Gas Hellr II Curved Surface
For the Case I eing ton..,idereu, the curvilinear coordinates. Lame
coefficients, 311d Yelo('ily ("omponents are determined by formulas
(2.4.40), (2.4.12), and (2.4.43), respeC'thely. We shall adopt the
further condition that motion occurs near II. wall. and. consequently.
y R. Accordingly,
q1 = X, 12 = y, q3 = y. hI = 1, h, = 1. h$ = r
VI = dx/dt = V=, V, = V r, V, = 0
With a view to these data, the acceleration component is
W, OV,lal + V, OV';O$ + V, aV,;ay (3.1.48)
and the projection of the preSfmre gradient is
(grad ph = fJplfJx (3.1.49)
In addition,
(grad div Vh = iJ div V/iJx (3.1.50)
where the divergence of the velocity has been determined by rela-
tion (2.4.44).
(graddiVV)I=-1;{+[O(:x"r),. O(;r l ]} (3.1.51)

We use (3.1.28) to calculate the projections 01 the velocity curl

(curl V), = fJV/fJx - iJV,,/fJy, (curl Vh = 0 (3.1.52)
Introducing these expressions into (3.1.34), we obtain
(curl curl V),=+.fu-[r (~_ U;y=)] (3.1.53)
With a view to relations (3.1.51) and (3.1.53lt we have
(.6.V), = (grad divV)I- (curl curl V), =fz{+ [u(::r)
Ch. 3. Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics 12t

Similarly, when considering the coordinate line Q2, we have

W z = aV,,,at + v x aVylax + l'y av /ay (3.1.55)
(grad ph = aplay (3.1.56)
(grad div Vh --: a div v/ay (:U.57)
(~Vh = (grad eli\' Vh - (nl1'l curl vh
= -i;-{+ [8<:t) + a (::r) ]}-+.:z [r (a:: _":;T) J(3.1.58)
Using the obtained relations, we ha\'e:

a~:t + Va: "!: + V" a:V:t ~:~ -f'"*--: v(L\V). 1

'Y a div \'
} (3.1.59)
a~~ V:t~+Vy~=- -+.*-:'v(~Vh
. ,.
8,1 vV I
where (~Vh and (~Vh are determined by formulas (3.1.54) and
(3.1.58), respectively,
We have thus obtained various forms of the equations of Iliotion
for a viscous liquid. Experience shows that this is needed because
in some cases, when studying thc laws of interaction of gas flows
with bodies in them, it is com'cuicnt to use one form of the equa-
tion, and in others, a different form.

l.l. Equations of Energy

and Diffusion of a Gas
Diffusion Equation
The motion of a dissociating viscous fluid can be ill\'estigated
with account taken of tIle influence of gas diffusion on this mot.ion.
This is expressed. particularly, ill that diffusion i~ taken into con-
sideration when deriving the equation of energy-one of the funda-
mental equations of gas dynamics.
By dlft'usion is meant the levelling outoftheconcentration because
of the molecular transfer of a substance. This is a thermodynami-
cally irreversible process, and it is one of the reasons why a gas
in motion loses mechanical energy.
The diffusion oquation is an equation of the transfer of the i-th
component in a gas mixture (it is a continuity equation for t.he
same component).
122 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynollmics of an Airfoil oIInd 011 Wing

To simplify onr investigation, we can assume that the intem,ity

of thermal and pressure diffusion is negligibly small and determine
the diffusion flux of the i-th component ill a direction n by the
where Ci is the concentration of the i-tll component, and Di is the
diffusivity \.hat determines the diffusion flux when a concentration
gradient is present.
For a mixturo of gas components, we mnst take into eOllsider-
atioll the binary diffusivities corresponding to each pair of compo-
nents, for example, to oxygen atoms and molecules, or to nitrogen
atoms and molocules in the air. In approximate calculations, we
can proceed from a certain value of the binary difiusivity TJ that
is the same for all the pairs of component.s. Taking this into account,
we have Qi.rI.n...." -pD oc;lon. Considering the directiOlls x, y,
and z along which diffusion occurs, we have
Qi.d.x = -pD oc;J(}.r, Qi.d.U .; -pD (}c;l(}y, Qi,d . -: -pD (}c;loz
or in the vector form
Qi.d -, -pD grad Ci (3.2.3)
The diffusion of a substance is directed into a region with a re-
duced concentration, thorefore (}CiJiJn has a negative sign. Since the
-right-hand side of (3.2.3) contains a minns sign, the quantitr Qi.d
is positive.
Let liS eOllsider the derivation of the diffusion equation in a erlin-
drical c,oordinate system assuming the motion to be steady. ,"Ve shall
assume the flow to be three-dimensional and symmetric ahout the
x-axis, i.e. such in which the velocity component Vl' .....:: O. Let liS
separate an elementary volume of tho gas in the form of a ring
with dimensions of dr and dx (Fig. 3.2.1) constructed near point P
whose coordinates aro x and r and whose velocit}' components are
V", and V r . \Ve shall assume that the substance diHusos only in
a radial direction. ConsequenLly, the nux of the i-th component
through the internal surface of tlle element is mr -= dx ~
+ QI.d2nr dx, where Ci and Qi.d are the c.oncentration and the
diffusion flux of the i-th component, respectively, ovaluated per
unit area.
The flux of the i-tll component through the outer surface is
m r ';' a;;r dr = mr -:- a (p~;rcil2n dr dx -\- a (~I;rlr) 2n dr dx

Consequently, the flow of the component into the volume being

considered is
10 (pV,rc,)lad 2n dr dx +110 (Q',dr)lod 2" dr dx

Fig. l.l.1
An elementary gas particle in
an a:dsymmetric thr<'c-dim('n-
sional flow

DisregRrding the clirtll~ion nux of the suhslam'(' <lloHg the x-axis,

we fmd the I'ate of now of Ihe gas through the l'ft-il11ll{j face of the
elomen\. normal to this llXis:
mx --co 2:trV~c;rdr

and through the right-hand one

m~ -:- (dm.,./(Ix) d.r m~ + Ii) (p V~rc;)ldJl 2:1 dr dx
lIenco, the flow of til(' component inl_o t.he vol1lme is
2:t la (p V.,(cf)iO.rl dr d:r
Since the amount of ga~ in the voilime does 1I0t change, tllC total
flow of the component into the volume equals its outflow because of
chemical reactions. If the rRte of formation of the i-th eomponent
in a unit volume caused hy chemiC-al reaetions is (W ~h)" the con-
sumption of the component in the elementary volume is 2:t (W dl);r >:
X r dr dJ.:. Therefor', the balance of mass of tllC i-th component
in the volume being considered is
8 (pl'."rcJ/aJ.: -:. a (pV rrc;).'8r -= -8 (Q;.dr)i8r:.... (W~hLr (3.2.4)
This equation is known as the diffusion equatiun ill a cylindricnl
coordinAte !"ystem. In A similar Wily, we can obt.ain a diffusion
equation in the Cartesian coordinates x alld y for u pi nne flow:
rJ (pV"c;)/8x + rJ (pV vc;)J8y "'"' -8Q,.dJ8y +
(Welt); (3.2.5)
where Qi.d is found from (3.2.3).
If we consider a binary mixture of atoms and molecules. then
L C; ,...., CA +- CM ..--' 1 and, consequently, QA.d .~ -QM.d . We de-
termine the value of (Weh ); for a given reaction in a dissocialing
gas by the formulas of chemical kinetics.
124 Pt, I, Theory, AerodynllmiC5 of lin Airfoil lind II Wing

Energy EqueHon

Together with the equations of state, motion. and continuity,

the energy equation belongs to the system of fundamental differen-
tial equations as a result of whose solution we completely determine
the motion of a gas.
Let us consider a system of rectangular Cartesian c.oordinates
and compile an energy equation for a fluid particle in the form of
an elementary parallelepiped. This equation expresses the law of
energy c.onservation, according to which the change in the total
energy of a particle, consisting of its kinetic. Rnd internal energy.
during the time dt equals the work of the external forces applied
to the particle plus the influx of heat from the surroundings.
The kinetic energy of a particle of volume 't - dx dy ch is (p VI/2) 't,
and its internal onergy is up't (u is the internal energy of a unit

mass of the gas). Consequently. the change in the total energy
during the time dt is
1t [( p;1 'r- pu) '(] dt = p't (.x;.;. u ) dt
The work of the external mass (volume) forces in the displacement
of the particle during the time dt can be represented in the form
of the dot product G V multiplied by the mass of the particle p't"
and the time dt. The mass force vector is G Xi + Yj -:. Zk,

consequen tly,
(GV) P' dt ~ (XV, - YV, -;. ZV,) P' dt
Let us calculate the work of the surfac(' forces. First we shall
consider the work done during the time dt by the forces induc.ed
by the stresses acting on the right-hand and left-hand faces. The
work done by the forces acting on the lelt-hand face equals the dot
product 0,,' V multiplied by the area dy dz and the time dt. In the
dot product, the vector of the surface forces is
0" =-= p,%,%i -,- 't.q,j + 't:uk

The work done by the surface forces acting on the right-hand [ace is
[O.zV + 8 <:;V) dz] dy dz dt
Having in view that the forces fOT the left-hand and right-hand
faces are directed oppositely, we must assume that the work done
by these forces is opposite in sign, for example, positive for the
right-hand and negative for the left-hand face. Accordingly, the
work of all tbe surface forces applied to tbe left-hand and right-hand
faces is
8<:t)-Cdt=[-!;(Puv,,+t:ruVu-i-'t"IV:] tdt (3.2.6)
Ch. 3. Fundamentals 01 Fluid Dynamics 125

We obtain expressions for the work done by Lhe ~mrface forces

acting on the lower and upper, and also on t.he front and rear fates,
in a similar way:

[a (au V)/fJyJ dt and [a (a,V)/fJzl 'C dt

Considering that the vectors of the surface rorces acting on the

lower and rear faces are, respectively,

obtain tlte following expressions for LllC work:

a (::V) 1: dt = ['* ('C~ .Y lI:'r PUyV ~ + 'ty~Vz)] .. dt (3.2.6')

Q(~;") .dt= [-;;: ('CuV.o:+'t~yV!l+PuVz) J -rdt (3.2.6~)

In expressions (3.2.6), (3.2.6'), and (3.2.6"), the stre~ses arc deter-
mined by relations (3.1.5) and (3.1.16), respectively.
The inl1ux of heat to the particle occurs owing to hea\. conduction,
diffusion, and radiation. Let q", dy dz (where q", is the specific hent
flow) be the amount of heat due to heat conduction or diffusion
transferrer! to the particle through the left-hand face in nnit time.
During the time dt, the heat flux qo: dy dz dt is supplied to the par-
ticle. The heat nux through the right-hand face is - Iqx ...l.
+ (dq."ld.r) dxl dy dz dt. The amount of heat transferred to the
partic]" tnrough both. faces is - (fJq,,/fJx) 'C dl. We oMain similar
expressions for tile faces perpendir.1I1ar to the y- and z-axes. Hence,
the total heat flux transferred t.o the particle is - (aq:Jdx + fJq~/fJy '';-
+ agz/az) dt.
If we consider the supply of heat caused by conduction, the speci-
fic heat nows, equal to the heat fluxes along the relevant coordinate
directions through a unit area, are expressed by the Fourier law
qT ..>: = -A. aT/ax, qT.u = -A. aTlfJy, qT" = -A. fJTlfJz (3.2.7)

With this taken into account, we have

-(fJqT.x/aX + fJqT.ifJy + aqTjfJZ) 'C dt = div (). grad T) 'f dt (3.2.8)

where gcad T ~ (aT/ax)i + (aT/ay); + (aT/Oz)k.

The energy supplied to a gAS particle at the expense of diRusion is

qd.,.,= f Qt, rI. xiI> qd. U= f Qt. d, ~i" qd, z = ~ Qf. rI. zit
where ii is the generalized enthalpy component of the gas mixture.
126 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

_ ( uqa; .\' + a~d; y + aq: / ) 't dt =" _ (~ it lJQ~zd. x

+h if aQ~!ld.1J + hit iJQ1at;) "dt= (- ~ i,divQ"d) "dt

i i i
Introducing into this equation the value of Qi,d from (3.2.3),
we obtain
- (Oqd. :iox iiJqo. gloV+ Oqd. z/oz) 'rdt
= ~ it div (pD grad e,) 't dt (3.2.9)
In addition to the energy transferred to a particle by conduction
and diftusioll, il also receives heat owing to radiation, equal te>
n dt (e is the heat flux due to radiation absorbed by unit volume).
By equating the change in the energy of a particle during the
time dt to the sum of the work done by the mass and surface forces
and the influx of heat ber3use of c:ondllction, diffusion, and radi-
ation, we oblain the energy equation:
PTt (~+ u) '----"p (XV;,: ,!. YVy +ZV1 ) +-tr (PnV;,:
+ "zgl' v-I 'rXZ V2 ) -1'-;'; ("!I~V;,:+ PnVv + "VIV,)
+.;;. ('r;:tVx..L "zVVy+ pzzVz);- div (A grad T)
+ ~ i,dh'(pDgraric,l+e (3.2.10)
Upon the motion of a chemically reacting mixture of gases, the
energy equation expresses the condition of the heat balance includ-
ing the heat that may appear as a result of chemical rcacLions.
If we take into account, however, that upon the proceeding of reac-
tions the generalized enthalpy of the gas mixture LCJii does not
change, then upon int.roducing the generalized enthnlpy inte>
Eq. (3.2.10), we cnn no longer take into account separately the
release or absorption of heat because of chemical reactions.
Introducing into (3.2.10) the expressions for the st.resses (3.1.5)
and (3.1.16) and excluding the term taking into account the work
done by the mass forces, after transformations we obt.ain an energy
equation for a gas:
p 1t (~-!. u) = - div (pV)_.. -} div (jlV div V)

+-f; (~~) +fu- (~ u:;) +-i; (~ u:!)

Ch. 3. Fund"mentals of Fluid Dyn"mics 127

2 -tx f,!{VyCt7 Vzcy)I-i- 2 IfL (V."l ;. V.f x)]

:- 2 "';;'I~ (V.~ey -; Vllc:rl/;...div (Agraa T)

+~ ijdiv(pDgradc/)+ (3.2.11)'

Equation (3.2.11) sl10ws what causes the kinetic energy of a nuid

to change. III addilion to conduction, {Jifrllsion, alld nuliatiotl. this
energy changes at the expense of the work of comprC'ssion di, (pV)
and tho work of tho friction forces (the tcrJII~ of t.ho eqllation ("on-
taining the dynamie viscosity pl. The di!'sipatioll of ell('I'gy i.'" 1ISSO-
ciated with the losses of mechani(:l1I en('rgy ror on'('{'ollling the
friction forces. j':nergy dissipation {'onsists in that the mcehanica\
energy in part tram;forms il'l'eYersihJy into heat. Accordingly. the
friction forces arc ('alled dissipathe. The terms on till' right-hand
side of (3.2.11) ('ontaining 11 form the dissipative fUllction.
For two-dimellsiollal plnllC' molioll of a \'i!'colls nuid. thC'
energy equation is

p ~ (~-;. u) = -div (pV)-i- div (~lV div V)

2 -if; (~lVllez) ._- 2 i; (fLV ",ell.1- div (Agrad T)
+ ~ i l div (pDgl'ad ci ) -: (0.2.12)1

V "'" V.ti + V"/L di\' V '"'" iJV)iJx + (}r"ldy,
grad T (oT/B.d i + (oT/uy)j, grad C; -" (8c;:(h)i ~- (IJc;lay)j
Let us transform the energy eqllation (:~.2.12). To do this, we'
multiply the first equation (3.1.20) hy V", the second olle hy V",
and sum up the results. \Ve obtain

p -t- (~).~ - (V"~'.Vy*)

_ Vx~[~(2 u:~~-+diVV)]'i-Vyi;[~(2 U~',_~ di\"V)].
-: 2 [l"o~ ~ (j.lz) -I VII -;;. (Il.) ] (3.2.13)-
We can show by simple tran.!'fol'mations thnt
l'" up/ax +
VII iJp/ay = di" (pV) - P (Jiv V
128 Pt. l. Theory. Aerodynemics 01 en Airfoil end eWing

where we find p div V by using the continuity equation

p div V ~ -(pip) dpld" or p d'v V ~ P (dldt) (pip) - dpldt
We transform the sum of the other two terms on the right-hand
side of the equation to the form

V%.:x[~ (2 ;t--}diV v)] +V.. ';; [~ (2 ~ --} div V) J

~ -h (~~) +.:,- (~W)-2~[( '::)' +( ':: n
-{-diV (~V div V) ++~(divV)t

For the last term in (3.2.13), we have the expression

2 [v" ;;'(fJo!,;z) l V y ';; (!-LBz)] =2* (I-'V"e l ) +~ (",V:t:ez) - 4",e~

Let us make the relevant substitution in (3.2.13) and subtract
the obtained equation from (3.2.12). Having in view that i =
= It + pIp, we obtain

p~=*+21-'{[(~r +ea;y" r]-i- (divV)2+4e~}

-I- div ().grad T) + h i, div (pDgrad cI ) + e (3.2.14)

In the absence of heat transfer by diffusion and radiation. we can

write the energy equation in the form

p~ =%+21-'{[( 0;; r + ( 0;,;1 rJ --} (div V)Z+!ie~}

+div{).gradT) (3.2.15)

At low gas velocities. when the work of the friction forces is

not great. we may disregard the dissipative terms. In addition.
the work done by the pressure forces is also insignificant (dp/dt 1::J
~ 0). In the given case, instead of (3.2.15), we have

dTld' (Alpc,) d'v (grad T) (3.2.16)

The quantity A/(pC p ) = a, called the thermal dillusivity,character-
izes the intensity of mol ocular heat transfer.
Ch. 3. Fundllmenlotls or Fluid Dynllmics 129

3.3. System 01 Equations

of Gas Dynamics.
Initial and Boundary Conditions
The investigation of the motion of a gas, Le. the determination
of the para.meters characterizing this motion for each point of space,
con~ists in soiYing the relevant eqnations that relate these para-
meters to one another. All these equations are independent and
form a system of equations of gas dynamies. We determine the
number of independent equations by the number of unknown para-
meters of the gas being sought.
Let us consider the motion of an ideal compressible gas. If the
velocities of the Row are not high. we may ignore the change in
the specific.' heats with the temperature and take 110 account of
radiation. In this case. the gas How is a thermodynamically iso-
lated system and is adiabatic. The unknown quantities for the now
being considered arc the three "elocity component$ l'x, VII' and
V z and also the pressure p, dl>Jlsitr p, nnd temperilture T. Conse-
quently. the system of equations of gas dynamics must include six
independent- onc.'i. Among them arc the eqllation~ of motion, conti-
nllity. slate, IIlld ell(>rgr. which art' ('USlomllrily called the funda-
mental equations of gas dynamics,
B(>fore compiling this s-y:-;(ern of equations, let us cOIl~idel' separ-
ately the energy eq1lation. III ac('onlnncc willi ollr m':-;umption on
the nrliabatif: nature of (he Ilo\\", we \I'Hn:-;fol'lll til(' ('1I('rgy equa-
tion (:1.:!,14) tI!! follows:
di = dp/p (3.3.1)

If we take into cOII$lideralioli the cquatiorl di -, c/ dT, aud also

the ('xpressions el' - C p ..." Rand p -'" RpT. from which we can

then (3.3.1) is reduced to the form dp/p = k drIp.


where A is a constant characteristic of the given conditions 01 gas

Equation (3.3.2), is known as the equation of an ndiabat (isen-
trope). Hence. in the case being considered, the energy equation co-
in('ides with that of an adiabat. Having the energy equatioll in t.his
130 Pt, I. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 an Airfoil and" Wing

form, we shall write all the equations of the system:

dV:\, _ 1 8p dV lI 1 ay
---cit- -p'Tz' ~= -p'Tu
~~:=-+,~, -*+pdivV=O (3.3.3)
p=RpT. Aph-I=RT
Let 11S ('.onsider the system of equations for the more general
case of the motion of an inviscid gas at high speeds when the speci-
fic heats change with the temperature, and dissoC'-iation and ioniza-
tion may orcur in the gas. For generality, we shall retain the pos-
sibility of the heated gas radiating energy. ~ow the thermodynamic
process in the gas flow will not be adiabatic. Accordingly, the quan-
tity determining the radiation heat flllx remains on the right-hand
side of energy equation (3.2.14). We shan note that the equation
of state must be adopted in the form of (1.5.8) taking into ft(',count
the change in the mean molar mass Ilm with the temperature and
pressure. In accordance with the above. and also taking into ar,r.ount
that the equations of motion and continuit.y do not change in form.
we shall give the fundamental equations of the system:
dV."\" _ I 8p 8V" 1 8p,
(ii"'=--p'&%' d't-:'-p'Ty f
d!'t% :;;~ -+'*: ~+pdiVV=O (3.3.4)

p=!;-pT, p-:-=*+e
We can see that in the given system in addition to the six unknown
quantities indicated above (V", V y V z p, p, and T) three more
have appeared: the enthalpy i, mean molar mass of the gas 11ru.
and the heat flux e: produced by radiation. Besides these quantities.
when studying the flow of a gas, we must also determine the entropy
S and the speed of sound a. Hence. the total number of unknown
parameters characterizing a gas flow and being additional1y sought
is five. Therefore. we must add this number of independent relations
for the additional unknowns to the system of hlndamental equations.
These expressions can be written in the form of general relations
determining the unknown quantities as functions of t.he pressure
and temperature:
i ~ /, (p, T) (3.:1.5)
S = t. (p, T) (3.3.6)
~m = t. (p, T) (3.3.7)
=t.(P, T) (3.3.8)
= t. (p, T) (3.3.9)
Ch. 3. Fund~ment~l$ of Fluid Dynllmics 131

The linding of these functions is tlte subject of special branches

of physics and thermodynamics.
The solution of Eqs. (:1.3.1)-(3.3.0) determines the parameters of
flow of an inviscid dissociating and ionizing gas with account taken
of the radiation effect. Snch flow is studied by the uerodynamics of
a radiating gas.
Let us consider a more general clIse of flow chara(tcrized hy the
action of friction forces and heat transfer. \Ve shall assume that
chemical reactions occur ill the gas. Therefore. Llw fllndamental
equations of th(' sYiitcm (for simplirlcation we shall ("onsider two-
dimensional plane flow) will include two differential equations
(3.1.20) of motiou of a yisrous compressible fluid \vith a varying
dynamir viscosity (Il =t= cOllsI), and also l'ontinuity e(Iuation (2.4.1).
These equations mUl'it be l'iupplcmented \vail equation of slate (1.5.8)
relating to the general cuse of a dis~ociated and ionized gas, and
with expression (3.2.11) that iii the ('nergy equation for a two-dimen-
sional compressible gas rlow in which heat transfer by diffusion
anc1 radiation occur. These equations describe the gelleral case of
unsteady motioll and characterize the unsteady thermal processes
orcufring ill a ga~ now. !fence, we have

~== _+.~++'~['I (2 iI;;. --}diV v)J

~ = -+.* r+'+v [~(2 a{~;1 ._+ div v)]
+4*(~eJ (3.3.10)
47-, pdivV=O;
fJ%=~ -'-2M {[(~r .L(~r]-+{clh'VP 4e~}
+div ("-grad T)+ ~ i, div (pD~rad cJ) :. t

This system mllst be slIpplelllelltf'd with relations n.3.5)-(:I.~Ul),

and: also with tbe gener,]} relations for the thermal conductivit.y
). ~!. (p, T) (3.3.11)
the dynamic viscosity
" ~ !, (p, T) (3.3.12)
.md the specific heats
c,. = /, (p, T), C1' '-' /9 (p, T) (3.3.13)
182 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

The last t\\'o quantities are not contained explicitly in Eqs. (3.a.10).
but they fire RCvertheless used in solving them because when stu-
dying the flow of a gas its th(>rmociynamic characteristics are deter-
mined. Since the energy equation also t.akes into account heat
transfer by diffusion. equation (3.2.5) has to be included addition-
ally. It must be taken into accollnt simultaneollsly that the COIl-
centration Cj in the energy and diffusion equations is a function
of the pressure and temperature, and it can be written in the form
of the general relation

c, ~ /" (p, T) (3.3.14)

The abo\'e system of equations including the fundamental equa-

tions of gas dynamics and the corresponding number (according
to the number of unknowns being sought) of additional relations
is considered in the aerodynamics of a viscous gas and allows one
to fmd the dist-ribution of the normal and shear streiises, and also
the aerouynamic heat nnXeii from the heated gas to the wall over
which it Hows. In spedflc ("aRCS, for which a definite schematization
of the now process is possible, the above system is simplifled, and
this facilitates the solution of the differential equations.
When soh'jng the equations, it becomes necessary to in\'olve
additional relations used for determining the characteristic para-
meters of motion. Among them are. for example, relations for deter-
mining the ~pE"cinc heats and the degree of dissociation depending
on the pressure and tcmpcrature, 0.11(1 formulas for calculating the
shear stress depcnding on lhc \'clocity.
The solution of a system of gaswdynamic equations describing
the flow onr a given snrfarc mustsatis[y defInite initial ami bound-
ary conditions of this now.
The initial conditions al'e determined by Lhe values of the
gas parametcl'!'! for a certain instant and ha\'e sense, evidently, for
unsteady motion.
The boundary conditions arc superposed on Lhe solution of the
problem both for steady and [or unsteady motion and must be
obsen'ed at eury ins/ant of this motion. According to one of them,
the solution must be SUeil that the parameters determined by it
equal the values of the parameters for the undisturbed Dow at the
boundary separating the disturbed and undisturbed now regions.
The second boundary c.onditioll is determined by the nature of
gas flow oyer the rele\'sllt :"urfnce. If the gas is in viscid and does
not penetrate through such II surface. the flow is said to be without
separation (a fre{' streamliop. now). In accordance with this condi-
tion, the normal velocity component at each point of the surface is
zero, while the vect.or of the total velocity coincides with the direc-
tion of a tangent to the surface.
Ch. 3. Fundamel'ltals of Fluid DYl'Wllmics 133

It is general knowledge that-the "ector grad F [nerc F (qt. q'J' q3) =

= 0 i,!l the equation of the sllrfaC'c in the 00\..... and qh q'J' q3 are
the generalizcII C'urvilinear C'ool'(linat~l coincides in dircction with
a normal to the snrlaC'e. lIen(,f-, ror conditions of Row without sep
aralion. the dot prodnel of 111i~ vcC'tor and the "clority vector V
is zero.
Conseqllcmtly. the condition of Row withont separation can be
written in a mathematical form ,IS follows:
VgradF 0
Taking into account that

gradF ""-&. :~ i l -/;;. ;~ i'J ~-*. :~ 13 (3.3.15)

the ('ondition of Row without separation can be wl'iUcn as

-&' :~ VI+i :~ V2~-*' :~ V =O 3 (3.3.16)

For Cartcsian coorninate."', we haye
grad F , . (iJF.'iJ,r) i l + (;)F.'iJy) i'J -:- (iJpiiJz) i.1
COII!lt'qllcntly. r.r (3.3.16)
i'.,. ilFliJx ~- 1'" OFhJy --:- 1": flF/i)z ,... () (:1.3.17)
For two-dimensional plane flow
1"" aF/iJ.r; (3.3.17')
V;"". - aFlog
If the equation of lhc surface is gh'en in q;lindrical ('oordiIl8tes.
we haye

gradF-:-~il+*j'J-:- +.*i 3

thererm'f', the ('omlilion of flow wilholll scpal"ulioll has Illc rorm


In a particulllr case. whNI a :'lUl'face of rc\'olnt.ioli is ill the flow,

we obtain the equation
Fx OF/O:r -;... 'r
{)F/i)r - 0 (:3.:3.18')
froll1 whieh we find the condition for the vclo('itr ratio:

f.; - ~~~:; (3.3. "19)

Other bOlilldal'Y cOlldilioll~ ('an also he rormulated. They are
determined for each spccinc problem, the boundary conditions ror
1.34 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

a viscous gas differing from the cOlHlitions for an ideal fluid. ParliCll-
larIy, witli'll studying the flo,v of a viscolls gas in a boundary layer,
the solutions of the pertinent equations must satisfy the conditions
on the sllrface of the body and at the edge of the boundary layer.
According Lo experimental data, the gas partides adhere, as it
were, to the sllrface, and therefore the velocity on it is zero. At
the boundary layer edge, the velocity be{'~omcs the sallie as in free
(inviscid) flow, and the shear stress equals zero.

3.4. Integrals of Motion

for an Ideal Fluid
The differential equations deriver! for the general case of motion
of a gas are non-integrable ,in the finite form. Integrals of these
equations can be obtained only for Lhe particular case of an ideal
(inviscid) gas flow.
The equation of motion of an ideal gas ill the vector form is
8V/fJt + grad (V2/2) + cud V x V = -(tip) grad p (3.4.1)
This equation can be obtained from vector relation (3.1.22') in
which the terms on the right-hand side taking into acconnt the
influence of the viscosity should he taken equal to zero.
In its form (3.4.1), the equation of motion was first obtained by
the Rmisian scientist prof. I. Gromeka. With a view to the mass
forces, Gromeka's equation becomes
8V/8t -;- grad (V2/2) +eurI V X V ~ G - (lIp) grad p (3.4.2)
Let us assume that the unsteady now will he potential, hence
curl V = 0 and V = grad 'P. In addition. let us assume that the
mass forces have the potential U, therefore the vector
G = -grad U
where grad U = (8U/ax)1 +(aU/uyH --1_ (uUliIz)k.
If a fluid has the property of barotropy characterited by an unam-
biguous relation between the pressure and density (this occurs, for
example, in an adiabatic flow, for which p -:-:: Ar"), then the ratio
dp/p equals the differential of a certain function P and, therefore,
(lIp) grad p = grad P
\Vith a view to this equation, expression (3.4..2) becomes
8 (grad rp)18t +
grad (1'1/2) = -grad L: - grad P
Substituting the quantity grad (8(r/8t) for the deri"ali\"e
u (grad <r)/8t,
,ve obtain
grad (8rpI8t) +
grad (V212) = -grad U - grad P (3.4.~)
Ch. 3. Fundementels 01 Fluid Dynemics 13~

Going o\'er from the relation for the gradients to one hetween
the corre~pollding scalar fnne.tions. we rlild
df{'ldt + V~/2 + P -i- C -= C (t) (:{.4.4)
p.= Jdpip (3.4.5)

Expression (3.4.4) is known as the Lagrange equation or integral.

The right-hand side of (3.4.4) is i\ function that depends on the time,
but docs not depend on the coordillates, i.e. is identical tor any point
of t1 potential flow. The term:: on the left-hand sic/' of (3.1.4) have
a ~imple physical meaning: 1'2/2 is the kinelic energy, P "-:: ) dplp
is tlle potential energy d\le to the pressure for a unit mass, and U
is the potential energy due to tlte position of the fluid particles and
related to their mass.
To re\'eal the physical meaning of t.he Iirst term, let liS lise the
expression for the potenlial function rJ(rlas -:-: T"s. where V" is the

projection of the velocity "eclor onto a certain direction s. We can

dctermine the function (f from the cOlUlition (f V..ds (where

So and s are the coordinates of a lix~d and an arbitrarr point. respect-

i\ely). The deriyathe lh(dl .~ .~ (dFs'r)l) d.~.

Thl' local acccleration aV,,/at cau be considered as the projection
of tllc inl'rtia force due to the presence of local acceleration and
related to unit ma~s, and the product (iH's/dl) ds as the work done
by this force on the se('tioll d.'1. Accordingly, the derivative a<fJlat
equals the work done by the inertia for(,e 011 the :;ection between
points So and .~ and ('an be eonsidered as the energy of unit mass
due to the change in time of the velocity and the pressure associated
with it at the given point.
\\'itll a view to tile above, the expression on the left-hand side
of (3.4.1) is tllC tolal encrgy of a unit mass of the gas. Hence, the
Lagrange equation establishes the fact. that the toLal cncrgy of unit
mass at a given instant is a ql1antity identical for all points of
thc poten tial flow.
For an incompressible fluid whose motion occurs Illlder the action
of mass and pl'essure forces, integral (3.4.4) has the form
a~/Ot -i- V'/2 + pip +
C ~ C (/) (3.4.6)
If, parti('ularly, the y-axis is directed \'('rt.ically upward, then
L' = gy, alld
Qlf'dt + ~rll/2 +pIp +
gy =-= C (t) (3.4.6')
136 PI. I. Theory. Aerodyn!!mics 01 lin Airfoil lind II Wing

Of major practical significance is the particular case of a steady

potential [low for which aqJliJt = 0 and the function C (t) = tonst,
Le. is independent of the time. In this case, Eq. (3.4.4) is reduced
to t.he form
V 2 /2+ Jdplp--!U=const (3.4.7)
This partial form of the Lagrange equation is called the Euler equa-
tiOD. It expresses the law according to which the total energy of
a unit mass is a constant quantity for all pOints of the steady potential
flow. Hence. the constant in the Euler equation is the same not only
for t.he entire region of a flow, but also, unlike the function C (t)
of the Lagrange integral, is independent of the time.
The Euler equation for an incompressible fluid (p = canst) has
the same form as (3.4.7), the only difference being that instead of
J dp/p it includes the ratio pip.
Let us considC'T the more general case of a non-potential steady
flow of a gas. The equation of this motion has the form
grad (V2/2) + curl V X V = -grad P - grad U (3.4.8)
grad (V2/2 + ) dplp + U) "'... -curl V X V (3.4.8')
The right-hand side of (3.4.8') equals zero if the vectors curl V
and V are parallel, Le. provided that a vortex line and streamline
coincide. In this case, we have
V'/2 + Jdp/p +U~ C, (3.4.9)
This equation was ftrst obtained by I. Gromeka. The constant C1
is the same for the entire region where the condition of the coincidence
Of the vortex lines and streamlines is observed. Such regions, to study
which the Gromeka equation is used, appear, for example, in a flow
past a finite-span wing. This flow is characterized by the formation
of vortices virtually coinciding in direction near the wing with the
streamlines. A flow does not always contain such regions, however.
A flow is customarily characterized by the presence of vortex lines
and streamlines not coinciding with one another. The family of
vortex lines is given by Eq. (2.6.1), and that of the streamlines
(pathlines), by Eq. (2.1.6). The flow being considered is described
by Eq. (3k8').
Let liS take the vector of the arc in the form as -:--= dxi + dyj -+-
+ dzk. belonging to a streamline or vortex line, and determine the
dot product
dsgrad (V2/2 + dplp + U) = -cis-(eurl V X V)
Ch. 3. Fundamentals 01 Fluid Dynamics 137

The left-hand side ill this equalion is tlJ(' 101,1\ differenlial of the
trinomial ill pl'lrcntheses, consequently.
d CV2/2 + ) dp/p -:- L') = -ds (curl V X V) (3.4.10)
The product (Ourl V X V is A. veclor perpendicular to the \'f'('tors
curl V and V. The dot product of this y('ctOI' aTld the \,prlor d'3 is
zero in two cases: when the ('ector d~ COiIlCidl'S wi/It. 11'1' directioll oj
a streamline (pathlinc) 01' {",hen (hi,) reef 01' coilleides Il"ilh the direction
of a vortex. III these two ca,<:e~. the following '<:o\l1tion of tile equation
of motion is valid:
P/~ -.:. \ dpip + C ....: C 2 (3.-1.11)
where the vallle of tlte cOI1..-\.alll C z clepc/HII< 011 what palhJine or
vortex line is beillg considered,
Relation (3.4.11) is known as the Bernoulli equation. It is obvious
that for yariolls \'ortex lines passing through points on a given
streamline, the conslaut is lhe :;iUlie as fOl' tile streamline. III eXfletly
the same way, Ihe ('onsl.ants fire id~ntical for II rllllliiy of ~tr(>amlincs
(pathlines) find the vortex through whose points a slrenmline pfl~~(lS.
One must deflrly understand Ihe distinction between the Grollleka
and Bernoulli equations con~idcred abo\'(. TIley nrc both derived
for a vortex (non-potential) nO\\', howen~r the iiI'S!. of them reJ1p(,\.f'.
the fact that the totfll energy of a IIllit llli1~S 01' the IS
in the entire region where the \'orlex liHl'S and
while the second equation ('."'tabl [ghes Ihe law
this energy is constant along fI giH'n streamline lIr Lor/c.!
ingly. in the Gromeka equation. tlw COll;.:talll, is thp ."amp
entire flow region being consi(ll:'red. wllere<l" ill lill:' Bernolilli ('llllfl-
tion it relates to a given streamline /iIle. \alllrall~. ill
the general ca."'e, the two conslanh ,1ft' Ilul tIl(' ."<lme.
From the above. there also follow~ a lIll lite one hand.
between those equations, and, on lhc lhe Lilgl'illlg'f.'
and guler eqllfllions relating to all s/eady IN/e,f-free
(potential) flow, re~pe('ti\'cly. alll1 earh of the COI1-
sidered equations,
When studying the flow of a fluid. iJl\'C~tigalor:, gin' \IIt' gl,("lle:<\
favour to the Bernoulli equation related to the ("onditions 011 the
streamlines (pathline.s). It i:< Iwown that the ('on~t.ilnt C2 ill this
eqtHltion (3.4.11) is determined for every streamlin(l heing l'OllSi(\-
ered. If, however, a steady now is also vortex-free (potential),
the Bernoulli equation coincides with the Buler e(lliation. nIH!.
therefore, the constant is identical for all the streamline.'i, i.e. for
the eJllin! now region.
Let liS rOll.~ider some specific forms of the Bernoulli eqUAtion,
For an incol11pressible nuid and pro\'ided that the fllnclioll U _. gy.
138 Pt. 1. Theory. Aerodynllmics of lin Airfoil and a Wing

we shall write this equation ill the form

V 2 /2 + pip + yg = C" (3.4.12)
When studying the motion of a gas. we may disregard the [nflu
ence of the mass forces. Consequently, we mllst assume that L' ,,= 0
in Eq. (3.4.11) and the other int.egrals. Particularly, instead of
(3.4.12). we haye
Lel \lS consider the motion of an ideal compressible gas. In such
a gas. heat transfer processes due to viscosity (heat conduction,
diffusion) are absent. Assuming also that the gas does not radiate
energy. we shall consider its adiabatic (isentropic) molion. Exam
ination of energy eq\lation (a,2.14) reveaL-, that Eq. (3.3.1) holds
for s\lch fill inviscid gas in the ahsence of radia\io[] ( - 0). Conse-
quently. the Bernoulli integral is
In this form, the Bernoulli integral is an ene!'gy eqnation for
an isentropic now. According La this rqlLalion. the slim of the kin-
etic energy and enthalpy of a gas partide is COlLstanL Assuming that
i 0' cl,T cl,p/(pR), cp - CD c- R, and k - c1>'"c(., we lilld
i ~ lk/(k - 1)1 pip (3.1,.15)
V'/2 + [k/(k - 1)[ pip ~ C (H.16)

V 2/2 + kRT/(k - 1) --" C (3.4.16')

The Bernoulli equation for an ideal compressihle gas is the theor-
etical foundation for investigating the laws of isentropic flows of
a gas.
3.5. Aerodynamic Similarity
Concept 01 SlmUlrHy

The aerodynamic characteristics of craft or their individual

elements can be determined twlh theoretically and experimentally.
The theoretical approaches are hased on t.he llse of a system of equa-
tions of gas dyuamics that is solved as applied to a hody in a flow,
the hody ha\Oing a given configuration and arhitrary absolute dimen-
\Vhen rUllning experiments intended for obtaining aerodynamic
parameters that can he used directly for further ballistic calculations
or for verifyiug the resnlts of theoretical investigations. it is not
always possible to use a fnll-scale body because of its large size,
and a smaller-size mod "I of the body has to be used. In tlds con-
Ch, 3, Fundamentals 01 Fluid Dynamics 139

Jl('ction, Ihe question appem's on Ihe poss.ihility of trans.fel'fing

the l'xpl'rimental 1'('''-lIitS obtained 10 full-scllle ])o<li(';::, Tile answer
to this (jllestion is ginn Ilf lhe dimensional analysis and similarit~
method. Thl' hlt!CI' ('slal,li!<he..- the cOJHlilinns tlllli Illust he ohsel"wd
in ..-eale-model experiJll(>llts and indicates dU'lracit'ri!<lic find COII\'en-
i('nl parameter..- determining the liMit' l'fccls uno tlow (,(lHditions.
Let liS as!>UTnll that measurl.'Olent!< in a wind tUJlIl(>1 :riel(led II drag
fo\"t'e which ill a('('ol'(lance with (1.:1.5) is Xm"~ c,,',modQmodSmnd'
l\OW let us s('e wilen we ('all use the l'e,'-'11l1 ohlaillcd to determine
the dl'flg rorre of a full-!>cal(' bod~' in a('('o\"llallre witll the formula
Xf,; ..., (,..t~qtsSts in whid\ the Ilrag- ('oel1i('il'Jlt c.\',fs ror this hody
is an unknown qlHlIItitr, while tile \"elocitr hl'afl qt~ and the rerer-
ence or dHiraeterislic Mea SfS an' gi\'(,Jl. FI'OIll the Iwo rormulHs
for Xt~ lind X,"od' we oblain
X,s '-' X mod (cx.fs:C.,.'HOd) (lJ,sSf~'lJn'''dS'''''d) (3.5.1)
A glance at this (!xpl'ession r('\'('als thai tlte experimental \"lIlue
X mCld ran be used to e\"aluate the fllll-,"('il.le force X", only upou the
('quality of the aerodynamic {"oeffidput~ (,.lIIool Hnd (\'.Is because
the qUlIlIlities q"'(ldSmod and qtsSr~ are detCl'lIlined ullamhiguously
by the given yaillt's of the wlo('ity h('uris and tILL' referellce areas.
lIere both flows-the model and fl\ll-~cale on('s-haw the property
of dynamic similarity. It consisls. in thi~ ('lISC ill Ihflt the preset fOt'ee
characted~lic or one flow (the drag X ,urld) i!< lIsed to rInd the rhllr(lr ler-
isti(' of till' olher flo\\" (thc force .Yr.) by simple cOHYersion, similar
to tit(' IransitiOH from olle systf'm or units of mea~lll'emeHt to anoLher.
The re(ll1irements whose satisraclion in the gin'll ('ase (,IlSlll'es
the equality C.\"."".d - c.\"'~' ,11\(1 in Ihe gPlleral ra~e of other OilllC'll-
siOllless aerodynamic coet"iicil'nls 100, are eslabli..-lted in the dimell-
siOHal analysis allfl s.imilarity method pro(('pding eilllCr from the
physicAl natlll'c of the phenomenon bping stlldi('d or from the cor-
responding differential equation!> of aerodynamil's.
Con..-iderLng the expression rOt' the ll(']'()(lyuamic coefiieiellt

C'\8= ) [iJeos(Il.T D );(',."cos(fx,,)1* (3 ..'5.2)

Qhtnined from (1.3.2), we can !':'CE.' Ihat this coefficienl depends on
dim('n~ionless gcomet!'ir parllnlell'I's. and also on (limensionless
qlllllltities sudL as th(' pl'eSSlll'(' rQPllidont 11IIt! Jocal fricLion facioI'.
Hellc(' it follows Ihat thc aerO(IYllllmic co('ffirienl..- fol' a fuJl-sclIle
ohjed [lIHI an eXpl'fillll'lltal onl' with diffNent ahsolute dimell!<iolls
remain constallt if these hodi('.'-' are g('ol\ll'lrically similar Hiltl HII
ideulirat Ilbitl'ibution of Ihl' {"oefficiellts j, and Cr;o,. 0\"('1' their surface
is l'IlS1U,('d.
If \\"1' ron.sidl'r a steady uniform flo\\" o\'er 11 IlOtly ill the absence
of heat Iransfer, the coefficicnls and Ct.:>: with 11 gi\'en configuration
140 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics of an Airfoil and a Wing

of the body in the flow known \"alues of the angle of attack lind
the sideslip ,mgle. as of the rudder and elevator angles, will
be functiolls of the stream velocity l' the pressure poc, the

density p "', lIH: dynamic yj~co!>ity .~oe. the specilic heats c" "" and
C,,(IO of the gas, as \I'cll as of a certain characteristic (reference) linrar
dimension of thf' hody L ConsequenLly. the drag coefficient will
also depend all tltese parameters, and we can compile a functional
relation for it in the form ex:...: t (V"',, p"", p"" fl=, c)lx" C,._. L).
Since this coefficient is a dimensionless quantity, it mnsl also be
a function of dimensionless parameters. From the general consider-
ations or the dimensional method. it follows thnt the seven different
argnments of the funclion C x call be reduced to three. The latter are
dimensionless combhHltiolls compiled from V.", p"", poo, fix-, cl''''''
c,_ ,." and L because there arc fOllr independent units of measnrement,
namely, mass, lcngth, time, ancl temperaturE'. These dimensionless
combinations h,,\'E' the following form: II "" Vk~p<:.Jp"" '- V ",,/a ~ =
= Moo-the :vrnch numiler for an Hlldisturbcd flow; lloop""LifLoo =
= Reoo-thc Reynolds number bi\~ed on t.he parametl'rs of an
undisturhed flow and the cilflracleristic linear dimension L; cp ...,Ie,."."
= koc-the adiabatir exponent.
In the expression for Jl,,,,, it is assumed that Vk""p""."p", = am
is the spet'd of sOllnd in Lhe undisturbed flow. Indeed, in accordance
with the gt'l)pral t'.\pre~sion for the speed of sOlmd a? ""'" dp.dp. and
also with a dew to the adiflhatic nature of propagation of sonic
disturbances in a gas, according to which p ==- Apk, we have 0 2 =
= d (Ar~)/dp '----' kp'p. Ac('ordingly, the square of the spepd of
sound in an l1udislurbed flow is a;' ".., k ...poo.p"". Hence, the ratio
V .../Vk~p"",p= '----' All other dimcnsionlcss combinlltions
except for M"", Re"", k"", formed from the seven paramet.ers
indicated aho\e or in general hom any quantities that can he deter-
milled by them are fllnctiou!'; of the combination!'; Moe, Re"", and
k,.,. Consequcntly, the drag coefficient is
ex --= t (Moe, Re".., /c",,) (3.:i.;{}
Similar expressions can he obtained for the olher IIcrodYll1l1nic
coefIidents. It follows from these expressiolls that when tile nllm~
her." M "'" Re.., and the parAmeter k"", for a model and a flll1~scalc
flows are equal, the aerodynamic coefficients for geometrically
similar bodies arc the same. Hence, an important concillsion can
he made in the dimensional analysis and ~imilarity method in
accordance with which the necessary and sufficient condition for
aeroclynamic similarity is constancy of the numerical \'alues
of the clim(>nsionie:o;s comLinntion~ forming what is called a bns(>,
i.e. a system of dimellsionless ql1antilies determining all the other
parametPfs of a flow The~e (lirnensionless combinations are ("died
Similarity eritNia.
Ch, 3, FUfldamentab 01 Fluid Dynamics 141

The ~imilaritr critt'ria gi\'t~n above have a delillite phrsical

meaning, In accordance with the e:o.:pression a:! = dp/dp, the speed
of sound can be considered as a criteriou tlcpeuding 011 the property
of compressibility, i.e. on the ability of a gas to change its densit}'
with a change ill the pressure. Consequently, the Mach number
is the similarity criterion that is used to characterize the influence
oj compressibility 011 the flow of a gas, The Heynolds number is a para-
meter used to appraise the influence of ~'I$C'osily Oil a gas ill motion,
while Lhe parameter k _ = cp ""fc r "" determines the features of
a flow due to the thermodynamic properties of Q gas.

Similarity (rU.ria Taking Account of

the VIKGsU, and Heat Conduction
In the more genernl conditions of flow characterized by the in-
fluence of a number of other physical and thermodynamic parametel's
on the aerodYllamic properties of craft, the drnamic similm'ily
criteriA are more complicated and diverse. To establish these cri-
teria, we can usc a different approach of the dimensional analysis
and similarity method based on lh(> use of the eqUAtion of motion
of a "bcons Iwnl-conducting ga~,
Lel us wrile these (!qtUltioll~ in the dimclI:-:iolli(>ss form, i.e, in
a form such that the paramett'fs (vciociLr, presslIre, temperature.
etc,) in the equations arc rclal('d to I'd('rt'llco panUl1l'lt'I'S. The illtter
arc constants for f\ gh'en flo\\' alHl dl'lt'rmillt' iLs scal(>. \\'e shall take
as references the paramnlers of lhl' (1'(>(' stream: it,;; Yeioci~y r ... ,
pressure p_, dCllsitr p_. lempf.'l'al1ll'C T...,. f[YIl<lmic \'i~cosily ~\_
(or, respectively, the Idllemalic yisco!';U .... "",), ami so Oil, It mm!t
be remembercd that of the three parameters p"", poo, and Too, two
may be set arbitrarilr, while the 1hiI'd olle is determined from the
first two with the aid of an equal ion of slate, The quantity t"" is
the reference lime characterizing IIllstencir rIow conditions, while
a characteristic linear dimension L (for example, lhe length of the
body in the 110w) is the reference length, The acceleration of free
fall g can be cho!'icn as the reference acceleration of the mass forces.
The dimensionle!'ls variables for the length and tiane have the form
;; ~ .IL. Y ~ yiL. Z ~ ,no t ~ tit. (3.5.4)
while those for the velocity, pressure, density, viscosity, and mass
forces have the following form:
V.~VJV V,~I'~v. V.~V.IV . p~plp }
p ~ pip. (~.5.5)

;="'/""'" v==v/""'" X=XIH. Y=Ylg. Z=Z/g

1+2 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Let us introduce dimensionless variables into the equation of

motion (3.1.17) and the continuity equation (2.4.2). We shall use
only the first equation of system (3.1.17) for trallsformation
the other two equations are compiled in a similar way. Let us write
the indicated equations using dimensionless variables:

~.'iV.T+ V!(v ~+V cti\. iJfx),,~gX

t~ dl /, "'c1l: U au'.;..y'iJi
_~ . ..!...~+ \'~v~
poeL it c)x L~
{".1V +...!.3 ...!..
ax div V

+-'-[.i(2 iJT!"_..!..diVV)+~( av,:. +~)

P iJx fJ.t;j og iJ,I lJr

((l~;T -+- b~, )]}

~.~+p""roe [(l{P~'Tl +iJ(P~ul +a(p~l)]=O

h" "l L ()x ag bz

where div V '- afix/ax -I- aVuMi' aV,/aJ.

From the reference quantities in these equations, we can form
dimensionless numbers charaeteriling the similarity of gas flows.
These numbers, named after the scientists who were the first to
obtain them, are given in the following form:

Sh .,--, V oot~/ L - the Strouhal number;

Fr - V~/(gL) - the Fronde number;
M = V""la~-the Mach number; (3.5.6)
He = V ""p""L/~"" = V""U""" - the Reynolds number
(the subscript "00" on M and Re has been omitted).

Here a .... = 'Vk ....RT"" is the speed of sound in an undisturbed

now (k .... and T .... are the adiabatic exponent and the temperature of
8 gas in the undisturbed flow, respectively). IntrodUCing these num-
bers into the equation of motion and the continuity equation. we
Sh-I u~~ _V%U~T+VJl u.~:r +V: uV.:r =_p' X
in ux II uz"
-k",,1M'+'~ +~ {VAV:r+4-.fz-diV V
Ch. 3. Fundilmilnillis of Fluid Dynllmics 143

...:..~[~ (2 8~~ -~div V) +.i (8~x -+- J~!I '1

P ax ax 3 ay 8y a,x I

+*( 8~~", ~ a:r~ )J} (3.;J./)

Sh~+a(p~x) _1_a(p~!I) +ii(p~.) ,-,,0 (:{.;l.8)

,1/ ux (ly ,h

Let us transform the energy equation (:1.2.14) in which we shall

exclude terms taking into account radiation and diffusioll. \tVe
introduce the dimcllsionless variablcs
'.i' '-" TiT <>0, cp ': "'"-' C"ICI' "" "'l - A A", (3.5.9)
where cp~ and A~ are the specilic heat and the heat conductivity
of a gas in the 1Indisturbed flow, respectively.
Having in view that di -_ c p dT and expanding tllt! total deriva-
tive dTJdt, we obtain after the corresponding substitutions:

P<>oC:~"'T~PCp*, P.... C1JOO;.'<>oToo pCp (Vx-f

l-VY~-i-Vz ~~ ).~ ~': .*+fl~,~~~
x {[( U~[)'..;- (":n'J-fi'ldivV)" 4i',:)
...!.- ~"" div (i'grad T) (3.5.10)-

Let liS introduce the dimensionless Prundtl nllmber

Pr ,-= J.I. oocp ""iA<>o (3.5.11)

by means of which we I>hall compare the relatiu eoect of the riscosity

and heat conduction, or, in other words, appraise tlle relation he tween
the heat flux due to skin friction and the molecular transfer of heal.
Hence, taking into account that pooJp<>o= ilT.., = c,.,., (1 -1.k..,
X T <>0, we have:

PCp(Sh-'*~_V:<*-7-V" -r Vz :r -*)
~Sh-' koo - ' .<0.
1100 dt
_, ,\1'(1'00-"
{[( a~,)"
- {- ~ (eliv V)2 + 4~e~} + Ife'lpr div (Kgrad T) (3.5.10')
144 Pf. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of .!In Airfoil and a Wing

Let us converl several additional reilltions of the system of equa

:tions of gas u}'lIamics (see Sec. ::l.:~) to the dimensionless form:
p = pT (3.5.12)
ii"" = t. (p~p, T "'1) (1;"m~) (3.5.13)
i: = t. (p~p, T.T) (1J).~) (3.5.14)
~= t, (p~p, T .1') (1t"~) (3.5.15)
'p = I. (p~i, T ~1'i (l/cp~) (3.5.16)
Assume that we are investigating two flows over geometrically
similar surfaces. For such surfaces, the dimensionless coordinates
of analogous points are identical, wbich is a necessary condition
for the aerodynamic similarity of flows. To observe the sufficient
condition for such similarity, we must ensure equality of the dimen-
sionless values of the gas-dynamic parameters (velocity, pressure,
density, etc.) at analogous points. Since the dimensionless variables
are simnltaneotlsly sol1ltions of the system or equations (3.5.7),
(3.5.8), (:1.5.10'), and (3.5.12)-(3.5.16), the indicated equality is
evidentJ~' ohserved provided that the systems of dimensionless
equations, allli also the dimeu.e:ioniess boundary and initial condi-
tions for each flow are the same.
''''hell considering syst.ems of dimel1~ionless eqllations for two
flows, we see that both these systems are identical if:
(1) the similarity criteria are eljllfll:
1<'r l = Fr 2 , ReI = Re z , M 1 = M z. Sill = Sh 2 (3.5.17)
(2) the equality of the Prandtl numbers Pr l = Pr 2 is observed, i.e.
(cp~"~/)'~), = (cp~~"j),~), (3.5.18)
and also the equality of the specific heat ratios for the t,,o gas Io\,'s
(3) each of the equations (3.5.13)-(3.5.16) determines the depend-
.ences for the dimensionless variables -;:im, I, ~, or p on the rela-
tive quantities p and f. and also on the variables (3.5.17)-(3.5.19).
Such relations do not exist for a dissociated gas because similarity
criteria of the form of (3.5.17)-(3.5.19) or of some other form cannot
be found. This is why the corresponding dimensionless equations
(3.5.13)-(3.5.16) are not the same for a full-scale and a model flows,
and complete dynamic similarity cannot be ensured.
Two particular cases can be indicated when this similarity is
ensured. The first is the flow of an undissociated gas for which the
mean molar mass remains constant (f!ml = P-ma). while the specific
en. 3. FundallUlntals of Fluid Dvnamics 148

heals. heat conductivity, and viscosiLy var)' depending on the tem-

perature according to a power law of the kind y = aTr.. In this
case, Eqs. (3.5.14).(3.5.16) for the quantities 1. "ii. and p are c
replaced by the corresponding dependences only on the dhnension)rss
temperature T = TIT .... The second case is the Do\\' of a gas at.
low speeds when the parameters A., "', and c p do not depend on the
temperat.ure. The corresponding values of these parameters are
identical for the full-scale and model flows. For this case, the system
of equations includes the dimensionless equations of Kavier-Stokes.
continuity, energy, and also an equation of state.
The boulldary conditions imposed on the solutions of the dimen-
sionless equations gi\'e rise to additional similarity criteria. This
does not relate to the condition of flow without separation. which
does not introduce new similarity criteria. Indeed, this condition
in the dimensionless (orm is
V. 8Flar + Y, aFiay + i', aF,a: = 0
and is the same both for a full-scale and for a model flow because
of the geometrical similarit.y of the surfaces. Bul the temperature
boundary condition according 10 which the solution for the tempera-
ture mu~t satisry the cquality T .... Til' (hcl'e T" is the temperature
of the waUl introduce~ IlJl ndtlitional ~imilnl'ity criterion. In reality,
it follows from the hOlindillT ('ourlilions for a fllllwscale and model
sUl'faccs haYing the forlll T1 (1',,"h Mltl 1"~ "" (1'w)~. rt'spccth-ely,
lhnt the dimcn~ionle~s tt'lllpNatllr(lS arc TJ "'"' (T1,h and 1'2 =
= (TW)2' From tht' cOIHlilion or ~illlilal"ilr. 1") '" 12, Iht'refore the
equality (Twh ..... (Twh musi IJ~! nhsencl!. ifl'lIcl'. tiH:' boundary
condition for the wuJlIC'lllpel'1lLlII'c 1:~'Hls to nu 1I11diliOilHi ~imilarity

Tho dimensionless gas-d:mamic yariablcs on the surface of a body

in a Dow, as can he seen Crolll the sy~tem of dimen"ionl(>ss equations
[provided that Eqs. (3.5.13)-(;~.3.Hi) determine il'm, [, ~, and Cp
as a function of 11 depend on the dimensionless cool'dinates anu the
time. and also on the similarity criteria (3.5.17)-(3.5.10). Particu
Jarly, the dimensionless pressure can he represent~d a~ the (ulldion
pip. = CJll (F,., Re, M, Sk, p,., k., Tw , XI y, Z, t) (:~.5.21)

We can \l.SC the known pressure distrihuLion to dctC'l'lIIine the

dimensionless drag force coerrident for a gh'ell inslanl:
c:C" = X./(q_S) = <Pi (F,., lle. M, SIl, 1',., k"", Til') p.;).:!:.!)
146 Pt. I. Theory. A.rodynMnies of .n Airfoil end a Wing

This expression determines the dependence of the aerodynamic

drag coefficient on the dimensionless similarity criterion more
completely than (3.5.3). But relation (3.5.22) does not reOeet all
the features of fiow of a dissociated gas because it was obtained from
the simplified equations (3.5.13)-(3.5.16). Consequently. formula
(3.5.22) is less accurate for such a Row than for that of an uudisso-
ciated gas. and determines only partial similarity.
The similarit.y criteria on which a dimensionless aerodynamic
variable depends havo a definite physical meaning and characterize
the real factors aRecting Lhe aerodynamic force.
The Froude number Fr is a similarity criLerion taking into account.
the infiuence of the mass force (force of gravity) on the drag. It can
be seen from the equation of motion given in the dimensionless
form t.hat the number Fr equals the ratio of the quant.ity V!oIL
due to the infiuence of t.he inertia forces t.o the scaling of t.he mass
forces g. The equality of the Frollde numbers Fr for a full-scale
body and its geometrically similar model signifies that they have
identical drag coefficients due t.o the influence of the force of gravity
of the fluid. This similnrit.y criterion is of no siguirlcance when
studying gas flows because the influence of the force of gravity of
a gas on motion is negligibly small. But the importance of this
criterion may be appreciable in hydrodynamics, particularly in
the experimental investigation of the wave resistance of various
navigable ves.c;els.
When a body moves in n real fluid. the aerodynamic forces dt'pcnd
on thE! viscosity. The viscous force is characterized by the Reynolds
number Be that can be obtained as the ratio of the quantity V~/L
describing the influence of inertia forces to the parameter v"" V "",IV'
determining the influence of the viscosity. If the equality of the
Reynolds numbers for two geometrically similar flows is observed.
the condition of partial aerodynamic Similarity with account taken
of the influence of viscosity is satisfied. In this condition. the friction
factors for a full-scale and a model bodies are equal.
The similariLy with respect to the Mach number is obtained from
the ratio of the quantity V:"IL to the parameter p,,"/(p,,"L) that
takes into account the influence of the pressure forces depending on
the compressibility of tho gas. The partial similarity of two flows
of a compressible gas flowing over geometrically similar hodi(>$ is
observed when the Mach numbers are equal.
When investigating unsteady flow, similarity with respect to
tho 5trollhal nllm her is signilicant. It is obtained by comparing
the iU('rtia forces and the forces due to the influence of tbe unstt'adi-
ness, I.e. from the ratio of the quantities v:.,n and Veo.t"". Two.
unsteady flows around n full-scale body and a model have partial
aerodynamic Similarity with identical values or the Strollhal number.
The similarity criteria with respect to the Prandtl number P,.
Ch. 3. Fund!lmenlals of Fluid Dynamics 147

and the ratio of the specific heals are due to dclinill' I'cquirements
to the physical properties of the gases in the full-scale and model
nows. Tho gases may differ, but their physical properties mllst
observe the equalities Pr l = Pr2 and k""l k00 2 The Praucltl
number depeuds on the dynamic viscosity and tit(' heat conductiv-
ity, The d}'namic viscosity reflects the properties of II gas which
the molecular lran~fer of the momenlum depends Oil, while the
heat conducth'i!y chnracterizts the intensity of the molecular
transfer of heaL. Consequently, the Prandtl Jlumber Pr "-, I1c poo A<D
is the measure of the trlUl:::formation of Ihe energy Ilf molecular
transfer inlo heat. For a gas, Pr < I,
A (limclI:::ioliless variable of the aE'rmlynamic force or heat trans-
fer i::: a composite runclion or a nllllll)('r of similarity crit('ria, each
of which rent'cls the iufluence of a dC'liuill' physkal pr{Jc(':::~, Complete
similarity of Il full-scale IIlId Il model flows clln be pusured only
",11('11 tlquality of 1111 the similarity criteria is ob~f\'ed, In practice,
tld~ call1lot be dOlI(! h(,cllu~(' !lome of these rrit<>rin nrc contradictory,
Lt,t II~ consider, for t'xampl<>, the R<'YllOlc[s, Froudt', all(1 Mach
1l11llllwrs, 1"01' th(' ohserv!lllce of simililrily with rN,pecL to the skin
frirtioll f()i'(~es, ii, is pss('nti,,1 thut F 1 L" \"I::..o V/L~ \'2' If we a:::sume
thal for 1\ fllll-~calt 1111(1 mo(lel nows the coefficients \'1 . , \'2' then
Ill(' spN'd of tll(' III {)(I I' I now 1"2 1'1 (LliL2)' Lt'. il is greater than
the !lpI'('d of the full,scnl(' flo\\' the same llumlwr of times that the
mod('l of the hocl~' ill th(' flo\\' is l('ss than the full-scale 011(',
To enSllr<> similarity with r('specl to the forc('s of gra\'i[.y, it is
necessary to ellsme I'quality of [,he Frolldc nllmber!l, i.e, V~ (LICI) '-"
,.- I'i (/J3g~), wlu:"'nce it follows that if experimt'lIls were rlln at
idE'ntical values of g. tll('n tlw speed of the 1I101lei flow is 1-'2 =
= F, V /,/1. 1 , We can see Lhat in the given case the speed V 2 for
t.he smAlI-sizc model must be smaller lhan \/1 instead of grcater as
in the previous eXllmple,
lipoll equillity of the ,Mach numhers, we havc 'V,."a l :..~ 1"2.02'
Assuming for simplilicatioll that a 2 ,.... a l , we oht.ain the condition
for ('qnality of the speeds of the l1loc1('1 all(1 fulJ-selllc flows,
II is n8tural that all these conditions for t1l(' speed CallIlot be
ohser\'ed simultaneously, th<>refore we cao (ollsi<i('l' onl~' incomplete
similarit~, We mllst note, ho\\"e\'(r. that in praclicI' there is no
need to satisfy 1111 the similarity criteri<l h('cflus(' their illnU(,IlC(' in
a spec.ific cnse of motion is not the sornt', For e:o.'alllpl(', til(' forces
of skin friction alld pressure have .a 1lI0re signilicant innuence on
the flo\\' of a gas over 11 body thall the forel"s of gra\'Hy, and accord-
ingly the numbers Re and M arc more signifIcant thllll Fr. In this
('.ollnection, the Fronde Illlmber is not tak('n into cOIl:-;ideralion as
II similarity criterion in such case.!'.
148 PI. I. Theory. Aerodyntlmics of tin Airfoil tlnd a Wing

If at the same time the speeds are not great, then the influence
of the pressure forces due to compressibility of the gas is negligibly
small, and, consequently, no account may he taken of the similarity
criterion with respect to the Moch number. assuming Olat the aero-
dynamic coefIicient depends on the Reynolds number.
The aerodynamic force. moment, or hoat flux from a gas to a sur-
face is the result of the actiou of a moving gas on a body. Various
processes occur simultaneously in the gas: skin friction. compression
(or expansion), heating, a change in the physical properties, etc.
Therefore, one must try to satisfy the maximum number of simi-
larity criteria. Itor example. it is expedient that the equality of thfl
Reynolds and Mach numbers for a full-scale and model flows be
retained simultaneously, i.e. Rei = Re'l and Ml = M'l' This is
especially important when studying aerodynamic forces, which for
bodies with a large surface may consist of equivalent components
depending on the friction and pressure due to compressibility.
This condition can be ensured wheu running experiments ill variable
density wind tunnels.
If tests are boing performed in a gas flow in ..... llich the speed of
sound is the same as in the full-scale flow (a 2 = a l ). it follows from
the equality of the Mach numbers that V t = 1'1' Having this in
view and using the equality Rei = Re 2 or, which is the same,
VtP2L2/[.L'l = VIPILI/IlI' we obtain L2P2i!l-2 = L1Pl'f11' Assuming
that 112 = !l-l' we lind that the density of the gas in the wiud tunnel
Dow is P2 = Pl(L 1IL 2). Assuming that t.he temperature of the full-
scale and model flows is the same (T2 = TI ) and using an equation
of state. we obtain the condilion P2 = PI (LIIL,). Hence. to simul-
taneously ensure similarity with rcspecl to t.he {Ol'ces of skin fric-
tion and of pressure with account taken of compressibility, i.e. to
observe the equalities Re l = Re 2 and Ml = M 2 it is essential
that the static pressure in the flow of a gas produced by a wind
tunnel be greater than the pressure in the full-scale flow by the
same number or times by which the model is smaller than the full-
scale body. The design o{ a wind tunnel makes it possible within
known limits Lo control tile static pressure in the model flow of a gas
depending on tile sizc of the model.
With a known approximation, the influence of heat transfer
may noL be t.aken into account when determining the force interac-
tion. lIere the aerodynamic coefficients will depend on the numbers
Re V. and Sh. l{ in addition the tests are conducted in a gas for
which k""2 -" 1.:- 1' we ha,-e
c. ~ f (Re, M, SI.) (3.5.23)
For a steadr flow
c. ~ f (//e, M) (3.5.24)
Ch. 3. Fundamentals 01 Fluid Dynamics 149

3.6. Isentropic Gas Flows

Conflgur~on 01 Gas Jet

Let us consider the steady motion of an ideal (in viscid) gas in

a stream or jet with a small expansion and a slight curvlIture.
Motion in such a jet can 1lC studied as one-dimensional, cha.racter-
ized by the change in tbe parameters depending on one linear coor-
dinate measured along the axis of the jet. For a steady flo\\', the
parameters determining this now :lrc iclentical in each cross section
at any instant. If the width of the jet is small in comparison with
tJu.- radius of curvature of the ('('ntrl' line, Lhe lateral prc~lIre gradi-
ent may he disregarded. and one mar consider that the prC!ssure
nt ench poiut of the jet cro~., section is til(' same.
Thl' consideration of slIch olle-dimensional sl,elldy now of 1I ('Olll-
pr('ssiblp gflS IN\(ls to the simplest approximate solution of the equa-
tiolls of gas dynamics. Condition (2.4.51) of n constant mass flow
is retained along the jet, i.e. PIVISI = P2'V2S~ "-' PaVaS., ~ ... ,
or pFS = canst, where th(' subscripts 1, 2, 3 signify the COl're~
sp~nding paramcters of the gns at the control surfaces. Cross .!'lections
of lhe channel with an area of SI> S2' ant} S3 have been chOSl'n as
these slIrfflceg. Taking logarithms, wc obtain In p +
In V :- In S =
= const. Differentiation of this l'xprl'ssion yields
dpip -;~ dvrV -;- dSIS = 0
Le~ us use relation (3..1.11), by dilTcrentiation of which we have
IT. dV = -di (3.6.:.!)
Substituting dp r for di. we fmd
VdV ,-' -dp/p (3.6.3)
Taking the speed of sount! fl :-..= V dpldp into accollut 1IIul llsing
r~lalioll (3.0.3). we transform (;{.6.1) to the form

dS;dV ~ (Sir) (M' - 1) (3.0..1)

\\'hel'(' M '-~ V,'a is the }Iach Ilumber in the given cross section of
the jet.
LeL lIS IlSS11lnC! (hot l.hl' vclocity along the jet grows (dV> 0),
1mt, remains subsonic and. CO[], M < 1. A glance at (:':1.0.4)
rcyeals that for Illis caSt' the derivative dS/dV < O. This indicntes
that the jet couverges downstream. COIl\'('rsciy, for a subsonic
1~O Pt. I. Theory. Aarodynolllmics of an Airfoil and 0lil Wing


'- p~ to
'- Po '.
Fig. U.t
Parameters of d gas flowing over a body

Dow with a diminishing velocit.y (M < 1. dY < 0). the cross section
increases. which is indicated br the inequality dS > 0 following
from (3.6.4).
Let us consider a supersonic Row (M> 1). If the velocity decreases,
then. as can be seen from (3.6.4). the differential dS < 0, and.
consequently. the jet converges. Conversely, when the velocity
grows. the value of dS > O. Le. the jet diverges.
Let us take a nozzle that first has the shape of a converging. and
then of a diverging channel. In defmite conditions in the converging
part of the nozzle. a subsonic now is accelerated, reaching the speed
of sound in the narrowest cross section [here dS """ 0 and, as follows
from (3.6.4), M = 1J, and then becomes supersonic. This is how
nozzles are designed in rocket engines, gas turbines, and wind
tunnels intended for obtaining supersonic flows.

Flow V.locHy
Let us consider a gas jet Rowing oyer a surface (Fig. 3.6.1). We
shall denote the free-stream parameters by Y .... P 00. P 00, T ,." L.,.
and a .... and the parameters for the part of the jet in the disturbed
region by the same symbols without subscripts. To lind the \'elocity
in an arbitrary cross section of the jet. we shall lise Eq. (3.4.14) in
which we shall determine the constant C according to the preset
parameters of the frce stream:
C = Y!.12 1~ + (3.6.5)
Wit.h this in view. we have
yIl2 +
i = V!./2 .:. too
V-VV:.-,.2(1~ I) (3.6.G)
At the stagnation point. V:....: 0, consequently the enthalpy is
t = io = V!..:2 -:- i... (3.0.7)
Ch. 1. fynd~m., of Fluid Dyn~mics 151

Hence. t.he constant C as regards its physical meaning lcan be

considE!red as the stagnation enthalpy. With a "iew to this valne
of C. the "elocit r in t he jet is
V~V2(i,-i) (3.6.8)
The stagnation pressure Po and density Po correspond to the
enthalpy i o They are determined from the condition

i o"'"" k:1'~'=- ~~~~. i .. =.x;.+ k~l . ~: (3.6.9)

We can rewrite Eq. (3.6.9) as follows:

';:+ k~1 f: k~l .~ (3.6.10)

Sillce the flow is isentropic, we have
pip' .~ p,lp\ (3.6. \I)
Seeing that for conditions of stagnation the speed of sound is
ao = VkPo/po. we fmd

Examination of (3.6.8) reveals that the velocitylalong the jet
grows with diminishing of the enthalpy, and therefore more and
morc or the heat is convcrted into kinetic energy. The maximum
velocity is reached pro\'ided that the entbalpy i = 0, i.e. all the
heat is spent to accelerate the gas. The \'alue of this velocitr is
Vmu:= V2i;, (3.6.14J
or with a view to (3.6.9):

VIPU=Vk~1~=ao l/k~l (3.6.15)

Accordingly, the velocity in an arbitrary section is
V~Vm .. VI-iii, (3.6.16)
V=Vmu. 'Vi_(pIPo)(II.-t)ill. (3.6.17)
In the narro'.... est. critical, cross section of the jet, the ,elocity
equals the local speed of sound. The latter is caUed critical nnd is
162 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynillmics of ilIn Airfoil lind II Wing

designated by a*. The critical pressure p* and density p* corre-

spond to the critical speed. It follows from the Bernoulli equation
that for the critical section we have
a 2 , k p. k Po
-y -.- k=T' p* = -r=T 'P;-
Having in view that kp*/p* = a*z, the critical speed is

a*= V k~1 '*=00l / k!l (3.6.18)

or, taking into account (3.6.15),
a* ~ Vron Y"(k:---C1")!"'(k"~c"1) (3.6.19)
To determine the local ~ound speed a, we shall use Eq. (3.6.10).
Performing thc substitutions a2 = kp/p and ~ = kpo/Po in it, we
a'1= k-;i a*'1_ k"2l V2 (3.6.21)

a2= k-;l (vfullJ.- V2) (3.6.22)

Let us introduce the velocity ratio (relatiw ,'elocity) '}. = Via"'.
Dividing Eq. (3.6.21) by VZ and having ill view that the ratio Via =
= M, we can establish the relation between'}. and M:
1.' ~ I(k + 1)/2IM'/{1 + I(k - 1)/2IM') (3.6.23)
Hence it follows that in the cross section of the jet where Vmu
is reached, the number M = 00. We find the corresponding value
of '}. = Amal< from (3.6.23) provided that i.V -+ 00:
1.ruu~ Y(k '1)/(k 1) (3.6.24)
Evidently, in the critical section where M = 1, we <llso have
A = 1. In an arbitrary section characterized by the values 1 ~
~ M ~ 00, the velocity ratio is

1<;;; 1.<;;; Y;;;(k"+--'1"')/"'(k:--"1) (3.6.2:,)

Pr.....,.., DensIty. lind , emp.rature

It follows from (3.6.17) that the pressure ill an arbitral'Y cross
section of the jet is
Ch. 3. Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics 1~3

By (3.6.22), the difierence

1- l'I:x = (1 -- "-;-1 M~ f' (3.6.27)

consequent! y,
p=Po(1.- k;1 ;lf~)-II/(II-I)=Po . (.b/) (3.6.28)
where the function it of the arguDlPllt M is d~termined by the prt'SS-
ure ratio plPo.
For the conditions of the rT(,Il-~tream no\\", fOl'mula (3.G.2:8) yields:
Po=poo (1..:...-YM';,),./;.,.. (3.G.29}

Consequently I

p=poo { ~~',i::.~)).;',~~ f.-III-I) =p,~ ;~..~~) {3.6.30}

From the equation of an acliabat p ph ,... PO'P:' in which P is-

replaced in accordancll wilh formulas (3.fS.2:G) And (3.6.28), we find
a relation for the density
p = Po ( '1 _. r~:J 1,lk-1) .-, Po ( 1 _;' "'-;- I 'l/~) - I;I/!_ I) ~ POE (;it') (3,G.3'1}

where the function e of the argument ,If is determined hy the fntiq.

of the densities pIpo.
Using the equation of slate
pipo = (p.po) T, T L) (;-\.1).:-\2)
and also Eqs. (3.6.26) and (3.6.28) fol' the pressure and l3.G.31)
for the density. we have

T=To (1- r~:x) ~~-]'o (1+ k;-I .1lrl.~roT(.,,) (3Ji.~J3)

where the function 't of the argullll'llt .11 is rll"'t('rmineci by the mtio
oC the temperatures TIT o.
Tables of the gas-dynamic fnnctions :t (,It). e (.1I), ilud t (.U) for
values of Lhe exponent k from 1.1 to 1.67 fll'C given ill 11:!!.
We shall determine the corresponding fl'tations for llU' dlmsity P&-
and temperature To by means of expressions (:{.6.:~1) and (
For the conditions of a free-sLrNun now, lh('.o;c expl'('~~ion.s yield:
Po=p"" (1 + k;1 ,"':or/{k-I)'--f:~~~"")

184 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and II Wing

III the critical cross section of the stream, M = 1. Consequently.

f~om (a.(}.28), (3.6.31), and (3.6.33), we obtain the following for-
mulas fo~ the c~itical yslues of the pressure p*, density p*. and
tempe>rature 1'*:
P* = Po ( k~t )"/{h_l) = Port (1) (3.636)

P*=Po (k!t )t/(Il-t)=P08(l) (3.6.37)

T~T.( k~1 )=T.T(I) (3.6.38)

where n (1). e (1), and 1" (1) are the yalues of the gas-dynamic func-
tions at M = 1.
The above formulas, suitable for ally speeds, can give us approxi-
mate relations for cases when the numbers M arc very large.
A glance at (3.6.30) reveals that when M>- 1 a.nd M <10 >- 1. we
Similar relations for the density and temperature have the form
plp_ = (M .IM),,,h-.) (3.6.40)
TiT _ - (M .IM)' (3.6.41)
Using relation (3.6.27) for the velocity of the free-stream flo ...... ,


for the conditions Moo >- t and M >- 1, we obtain the following
.approximate formula for the local velocity:


Flow of O.s from Reservoir

Formula (3.6.12) allows us to determine the velocity of a gas
.flowing out through a noule from a reservoir (Fig. 3.6.2) in which
the parameters arc determined by the conditions of st.agnation
corresponding to a velocity of the gas in the reservoir of V ~ O.
Such conditions are ensured in practice if the critical cross section
of the nozzle is suffiCiently small in comparison with the cross-
:iectional dimension of the reservoir. In the critical section of the
nozzle, which the value of the derivative dS!d~' = 0 corresponds
Ch. 3. Fund.ment.1s of Fluid DyMmic' 1I!1f~

Fig. 3.6.1
Paramett'fs of It gas nowiog from a res('noir

to, the Ma ch H1Imber, as can be seen from (a.!i.4), equals unity.

i.e. Lit' \'elocity in this section equals the local speed of sound:

V=a*= V k::J ~: "-'no l/I"-~ 1 'l /" 2:~~o

Such n speed is ensllred providc(1 t hat the pressure in t he reservoi r
accordiug to (~.(l.3G) is not lower than thc vaillc
Po . p*()I,(I'-I) (3.6.103)

If the nozzle communicatt>s with the utmospheric air whose prelSS-

ure is p,. ,-: 1O~ Pa (this pressu.e is call1'd the backpressure), now
through the uonlc is possible whcll p* ;;;;:, 1O~ 1',1. Assuming that
p* =- 10:' Pa and k = 1.1, we obtain the pre5sIIre needed to ensure
the sp('('d of sound at the ant let of a eO[l\-erging nozzle:
1'0 = 10"( 1.4;-1 )1 ."(t.'-t)~".fI :-: J(lS Pa

When the critical partuncters are re-uelle-d in the throat of a nozzle,

a further reduction of thl' bnckpressure (pa < p*) no longer nfleets
the \;IIIIt'S of a* und 1'*, whi el. Ilepclld on the stAte of the gas in the
reservoir. But Ill're conciitiolls (\fl' crl:'ated fot' the nppearance of
a s uprrsonic specil of th e gAS in the diYergillg port of the TlO1.zil'.
In Fig. ;Uj.2 . tllt'se c()J\d iHo[1~ of iscutropic motion are charaet('r-
hed br l' IIt'VPS 1 d(termilling thr cilaugc ill tlt~ ralio " lpo and in
the lIumber M <lI ang the \louie. Such conditions are rea lizt'd wltrll
the hackp[rssllre Pa CqllAls the prt'~sllrc pip At the exit of tile expand-
ing no :a lt' 01" is less thall it. A chAnge in the bAckp.cssllte does
not atTe~t till' pnralll'tl'rs uf tilt, gllS in the olllleL cross section.
1156 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics 01 lin Airfoil lind II Wing

Let us consider another set of possible condilions of isentropic

now along a nozzle. Let us assume that the backpressHrc grows
to the value p(:l > p(~l at ,,,hlCh the pressure p~~' at the exit reaches
the same value as pi:). The subsonic flo,,, formed in thill case is
characterized by curves 2 shown in Fig. 3.6.2. We find the veloci\.y
ratio').. (M) of this flow by Eq. (3.6.23), choosing from the two sol-
utions for').. the one that is less than unity.
Upon a further increase ill the ll1lckpressure to the value pl~),
conditions appear in which the pressllre p(~) at the exit will equal
the backpressure, i.e. p(:) = p(~>, while the pre~sure in tl1('. throat
will exceed the critical pressure p*; the rel~'vant speed in this croSs
section is subsonic (1" < a*). Consequently, in the diverging part
of the nozzle, the speed lowers, remaining suhsonic (curve 3 in
Fig. 3.G,2).
At pressHrf's at the ('xil smaller tILall p(~) and larger then p(~l,
the isentropic uature of the flow is disturbed. At a certllin cross
section of the !lolzle. a jump (di~contill\lily of the parmncters)
occurs, the trnm;ition thl'ougl, which is attended by sharp decelera-
tion of the flow. As a result of Ihis ciece\('atioll, having an irreLwsible
adiabatic /lature, the supersonic. flow trallsjorms abruptly into a sub-
sonic one. Till' change in the prcssure and in the number .}1 along
the nozzle in these flow cOlulilions is characterized by curves 4
(Fig, 3,G.2). The surface of discontinuity of the parameters (shock)
must be in a cross section with a 1Iach number M sucl) tltllt would
correspond to the pressurc ps past this surface ensuring a gas pressnre
of p~l' (p(Jl < plJ> < p<P) at the exit as a re~nlt of further expansion
of the gas. lIence. ill the given case, tlH' now of the gas Illust he
analysed with the aid of the shock-\"llve theory whose fundamelltals
arc treated ill Chap. 4.
In an arbitrary cross seetioll of the llol,:(.le. including its outlet
section, we (letermine the supt'rsollic specc\ by (:"~.(j.12). At Me "'-= M,..
anti a pressure of Pe ,.; p"" in the outlet section, the reqllired pres-
sure Po in the reservoir is determined by (3.6.29).
Tlte mass flow rate equation has the form
pSl' = p*S*a* (3,(j.44)
from "'llich we find that the ratio of the mass velocity (the speciftc
mass now rate) q = pF through the cross section S being considered
to the mass velocity q* = p*a* through the critical section S* is
= q:q* = pV/(p*a*) = S*18 (3.6.4,=)
With a view to relations (iLG.19) and (3,(UH), we ftllt\
p: Po (1 - VI~;:JI/(h-l)= Po (1- ;~! . :':t r/(l'-I)

Po (1 _ ~=~ ')..2)l!(1t-1i
Ch. 3. Fundamenteb of Fluid Dynamics 1a7

o.! i
o ,~o 1.D~
Afler now det.ermining t.he Po i' from (3.6.37), we obtain
relation (3.6.45) in the following form:
q(1. )~:)..( 1- !~: A;1)'1(1t-1)( i.'~1 r:{II-Il=T (3.6.46)

The function (A) is called till' reduced mas:; density. Taking
formula (3.6.23) into account, WI' can determine this function of
the argulnl."nt M:
q{.t1}"",,~J[~(I- k.;1 jJf~)J-(l';'I):[~tlt-:)J=~7 (3.6.46')

Tflhulated values of the function ~ withill till.' l'unge of "alues of k

from 1.1 to 1.67 ill'e given in Ii:!]. Il foUo,,"s ft'om 111(>:;0 "elations
t.hat the number A (or itI) in i\ cerl<dll section S of" mm:ie is a func-
tion of only thc of the ,\l'ellS S*iS a\H1 .tnt's Jlot df'pPlId on the
parametcrs of the gas in tlu.' l'l'sel'\-oil'.
The depcudence of the nHt:;$ ,-elocity t'atio (01' of the l'ill io S* S
of the areas) on A is shown ill Fi~. :HL3.. H il !{in'll critical !louie
section in thc subsonic rcgion (i. < 1), tlw spepr] ~ro\\''''' at till' ('xp('lIse
of the rcrluctiOIl ill lite l\ren S, whilp in the !'l1P(!t'~OIdc telIiotl. COli
verselYt it grows at the expcn!'e of th(' incl'P(ls(' in the area. In aCl.'ord-
ance with the above, a decrcasc in thc pressure itt tlte t'cs('n'oir
does nol affcct tha vallie of J. or .ill 1.\t the llozzl(' cxit. In the case
bcin~ cousidored, as follow:; rrom (:3.6.2tl). a chnllgl! ill th(' pressure
Po is 3Uended by a pl'oportionnl change in the pressure at thc exit
PI: = p"".
Thc mass Row rale of a gas from a reservoir call be lietermiued br
the rormula
Gsec = p*a*S*
E"i\lualion of p* and a* by formula!' 0.6.37) and (3.0,18), rcspecl-
ivcly, yieliis
Gscc=S* (k~.' f/(/-I) l / k:~1 poro (3.G.Ii7)
where Pn i ... the density of Ihe golS in the reservoir.
HIS pt. I. Theory. Aerodynemics of en Airfoil end eWing

Upon the motion of an incompressible fluid. the mass flow rate

equation in accordance with (2.4.51) and provided that p = const
becomes '
VS = const (3.6.48)
Kinematic equation (3.6.48) completely characterizes the OIlC-
dimensional now of an incompressible fluid. It shows that the flow
velocity is inversely proport.ional to the cross-sectional area of the
channel. The pressure ill steady flow is calc\tlated by the Bernoulli
equation (:J.4.12) or (3.4.13).
Shock Wave Theory

4.1. Physical Nature

of Shock Wave Formation

A fealure of ::;lljJN.'<ouic g<l; flows is that deceleration is attcutled

by the formaLio!! of discontilluity !;urfaces ill them. When a gas
passes through thest' slll'far('s, its parameters cilang{' abruptly: the
\'clority ShOl'ply dimitli:-:hrs, [Iud the rll"('ssnre, temperature, nlld
density grow. SUcil COlllillHily :-udaccs muviog 1'('lative to a gas arc
often referred 10 flS shock W8\'PS, while the imnuJ\"flbJc discontinuity
surfaces arc ealled stationar)' shock waves oi' simply shocks. fit'low
we cOllsider the condilioll:-: of gas nllw flfler stationary shock W8\"CS.
and we shall usc the term "shock", (IS a r11iC'.
In the most general ca~, a shock 11<1$ a CHl'y('(1 sbapC', Figlll'C'
shows schematically an attached curved shock fornH'd in a flow past
a sharp-noscd hod~', and Fig. 4.1.1b-'1 detached cuned shock flPfll'al"
ing ill front of a blunt smfil('(' in a ~upel'~onic flo\\,. LjlOn the super-
sonic flow past <t shal'}l-nos(>tI hody with ~t['aighl walls. an altached
straight shock may appear (Fig. 1.4.1c).
A glance at Fig. 4.1.1b reveals Illal the surfilce~ of sho('ks llIa~
ol'icnte(\ along a Ilorlllal to t.he free-stream velocity (the sho('k
8. = n/2) or inclined at. an angle olllf'r than a rig-II! Olll' (8, <
III the first case, Ihe shock is said 10 be normal, in Ihe
oblique. An attached c1ll'\'cd shock ('.an ('viilf'nt 1\ bo
a set of oblique shocks, and <I d(>tariH'd shuck H'" ('onsisling
mal shock ann a system of obliqw! ~11O('b.
The form[llion of sltocks is (1m' 10 the ~pecille nature of propftgatiou
of dist.llrbances in 11 sllpersonic gas now. B) a di!<tllrbance is llH'iUlt
a local comprcs:oion cansing a pressurc incrNlsc. TJle hitter appl'ar~
in " flow passing arolJnd fin obstacle tailed a source of disturbanc('!=.
Let. 1I!'l cOllsi(ler a sOllrce of infinitt'lr SIlHlIl clil">~ at point ()
(Fig. 4.1.~), 811('h di:oLurbanc(>s propagate ill a gal" at re!'lL n-;-- 0)
in all (jir(>ctions at tlJC I"peC'd of sonnd a ill Ihe form of sphl'ricaJ
waws in space or circnlM waves ill fI plane (Fig. 4.1.20). AI the
instant I. thr. rndbls of a wave is r = (It. If fl. suhsonic glls fiow is
160 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of ~n Airfoil and a Wing

a-attaCMd curved shock; b-d~!aclled cur~d sboC'k: e-attacMd straight .hock

(aJ (6)

Propaga tion of disturbance. in a gaB:
a.-g.s at rest; b-!lub~onll! OOWI e-supt'rsonlc flow

incident on a source (V < a, Fig. 4.1.2b), the waves are carried

downstream: the centre of a wavc travels at a speed of V < a.
while tile wave propagates at the speed of sound. During a certain
time t, the centre of tile ",,,ve tra\'els tile distance Vt, wlLilc the
radius of the wave r = at, here at > Vt. Hellce, in a subsonic !low,
disturbances also propagate up!;tream.
In the particular case of a sOllic velocity (V = al, the front of
spherical or circular disturbance waves is limited by a flAt vertical
surFace or straight line tangent to a sphere or circle, respectively,
and passing through point 0 because in this case the distance over
which the centre of the wave travels dnring the time t equals its
radiu!; at the same instant t.
Let 11S assume that the free-stream velocity is supersonic (V> a).
During' the time t. the centre of the wave travels the distance Vt,
while a sound wave covers the distance at. Since at < Vt, [or all
the spherical sound waves we can draw an enveloping conical snr[ace
(Fig. 4.t.2c), Le. a disturbance cone (or !tfach con~). On a plane,
disturbance lines (or Mach lint's) are envelopes of the family of
circular waves. Tho di!'t\lrhancc~ arc the densest on the disturbance
Ch. 4. Shock Wave Theory 161

Fitl U 1
OriglnatioD of a shock

cone or lines that are boundaries of a disturbed ann uodisturbed

region because all the sound waves on this cone are in the same
phase of oscillation-the compression phase. Such disturbed regions-
r.onica. or plane waves confined within straight Mach lines, are
called simple pressure waves or Maeb waves.
The angle Il formed by the generatrix of a conical wave or line
of disturbances i~ determined from the cond ition (Fig. 4.1.2c) that
sin Il = at/(Vt), whence
sin J.1 = 1/lW (1,.1 .1)

The angle J.1 is called the Mach angle. A ~mpersonic flow carries
all the sound disturbances downstream, limiting their propagation
by the Mach cone or lines inclined at the angle ~L The front of a pres~
ure wave propagates at the same speed of ~o\lnd as Lhe front of
a spherical (or circular) wave. This is why the projection of the free-
stream velocity onto a normal to the WII.\'C' front equals the speed of
sound (Fig. 4.1.2c).
In a simple pres~ure wave, a~ in a soun(1 one, the gas parameters
(pressure, density, etc.) change by an infinitely small magnitude,
which is indicated, particularly, by the relaLioli for the speed of
sound a = 11 dp/dp known from physic~ . In the disturbed region.
the velocity remains virtually the same a~ in the undislurbed flow.
Therefore, a simple pressure wa ve can be con ~ idered as a shock (or
shock wave) of all infinitely small strength, and we can assume for
practkal purposes that the paramelers do not change when travers-
ing it. This is why such a simple pressure is al so called a weak
sboek wave, while its front (Mach line) is called a. line of weak
disturbances or a wavelet.
It is natural to assume that the formation of a shock of a finite
strength is associated with the superposition of simple pressure
waves and, as a result, with their mutual amplification. Let us
consider the process of formation of such a shock taking an oblique
shock as an example. Let us assume that a supersonic flow initially
travels along a level and smooth surface (Fig'. 4.1.3). We create
artiflcially a 10rnl pressure increment at point A hy turning the flow
through the inrlllitely small angle d~. This prodll r e~ a simple pres.q-
162 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

ure wa"e AR emerging from point A as from the source of clisturb-

am'c and inclined to the surface at the angle }1. If we again tUrn
th(' flow slightly through the angle 6~, a new simple wav" AC is
fOI'llH'd that emerges from the same point A. but iii higher tllfln the
Jirst wave, But in II. supersonic flow, as shown above, waves ('an not
propagate upstream. therefore the wave AC will drift downslream
until it coincides with the first one, A more intensive wave is formed
that if; considerably amplifled upon a furt.her turning of the flow.
The shock of a finit.e strength formed in this way hali a speed of
propagation higher than the speed of sound at whkh the simple
prelisure wave travels. Therefore, the lihock of fmite strength nllliit
deviate from the liimple wave AD to the }t'ft and occupy the new
pOliition AD. Here it is kept in equilibrinm because the speed of its
propagation equals the component of the free-stream "elocity along
a normal to the shock front V sin a" where as is the angle of incli-
nation of tht' shoc_k. It follows that the angle of inclination of a f;hock
of finite strength is larger than that of the Mach line (cone), Le.
9s !.

".1. Genera. Equations

'or. Shock
We shall consider the more general rase when the ga.~ behind
a shock, owing to substantial heating, physicochemical
transformations and changes its specific heat. Of major signific,anco
whell f;tudying shockli behind which oscillations are generated and
dissociation, ionization, and chemical reactions occur are the rates
of the physicochemical transformations.
Proref;ses hehind shock waves arc characterized by a fraction of
the kinetic. energy of the moving gas virtually instantaneously
transforming into the internal energy of the gas. In these conditions,
we cannot ignore the fact that thermodynamic equilibrium is ach-
ieved after a certain time elapses only in conditions of such equi-
librium do all the parameters experiencing discontinuities (the pressure,
density, temperature) become time-independent. The analysis of
these phenomena is a more involved problem and is associated
primarily with studying of the mechanism of non-equilibrium pro-
cesses, and with a knowledge, particularly, of the rates of c,hemical
rear"tions in the air,
The simplelit case is characterit.ed by an infinitely high rate of
the physicochemical transformations and, consequently, by the
inst.antaneous setting in of thermodynamic equilibrium. Such pro-
cesses behind shock waves are pOlisible physically, which is confirmed
by experimental studies.
Let llS ronsider the basic theoretical relations allowing one to
evaluate the equilibrium parameters behind a shock wave.
Ch.... Shock Wive Theory 169

Obll... Shock
A J;hock formed ill real conditions is charact('rized by a certain
thid,:ues~. The parameters of t.he gas in sllch 1I ~hock change not
inshntflllconsly. but during a certain time intel'\'ul. As .c:hown by
theoretical alld C!xperimentlll in\'estigations, howe\'er, the thickness
of a shock is \'ery small and i.e: of the order of the mean free path
of the lllolerulct:.
Fot IItlllosphel'i(' condilions, calculations yielded the following
vallle:-: of the thickness of a shock measured in the direction of the
frce-l:::tl'enm .... t'locity:
:\Iach nnmb('r Moo . . . , ' . t.5 to'
Thicklll's!!. nun . . . . . , . 4.5xtO- 1.2xH\'"~ l).7xto-' 1I.2xt()-&
For M oc- = 2. t.he thickness of a shock equals about four molecular
free pnth:-:, and for M co .... 3-about three. Therefore, when studying
a shocl< in an ideal fluid, this thickness may be disregarded and the
shock represented in the form of a geometric discontinuity surface
for the gnJ; paramcters. assuming these parameters to change
0111' t.ask con~~ts in determining the unknown parameters of a gas
hehind II shock aecording to the preset parameters c,harartflrizing
1he now of Ihe gas ahead of the ,c:hock.
For lin oblique shock formed in a dis~ocitlting and ionizing gas,
there tire nine lInknown parameters: the pres~ure Pz, density Pz.
tempt"l'fl.lnr' T:?" nlocity V'l , enthalpy f z. ('ntrop~' S2' .c:peed of
.e:oulHl 1I2' the mean molar mas.<; ~ln\2' and the l!hock angle Us (or the
flow de\'illiioll angle ~s). Consequently, it is lIecessary to compile
ninc simultaneolls equntions. The parameters ahead of a shock wilt
btl the known olle.<: in these equations. nam('ly. the pressure Pu
density PI' \'Clarity V l' etc. Instead of the velocity V'2 behind a shock.
wc ran dt"termine itl! eomponents along a normal V n'l and fl. tangent.
1'12 to 1.11(' !liloc}.;. This will in('rea~e the number of equatious needed
to ten. Th~e (>qualiom; include the fundamentnl equations. of gas
dYJlamir~ (of motion. continuity. energy, and state), a number of
kinematic relations for the \'elodties, and also thermodynamic
relations. t'haractcrizing the properties of a gas. Let us consider each
equation of this system.
Figlll'c 4.2.1 S}IOWS triangles of the flow velocities ahead of a shock
(the parametcrs with the subscript 1) and behind it (the subscript 2),
We flhall use Ih(' Jignrc to determine the following relAtions for
these components:
Vd = 1/ 2 COS (Os - 13.), Vn'l = Vl! sin (9. - 13,) (4.2.1)
This yields the first equation of the system of simultaneous ones:
Vn2IV'1'2 = tan (9, - 13,) (4.2.2).
164 pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil lind II Wing

The continuity equation (or the mass flow equation) is the second
one. It determines the amount of fluid passing through unit surface
of a shock in unit time:
here VD1 = VI sin 9. is the normal component of the velocity ahead
of tho shock (Fig. 4.2.1).
Let us use the equation of motion reduced to the form of an equa-
tion of momentum for the conditions of the passage through a shock.
This is the third equation of the system. We shall obtain it by assum-
ing that the change in the momentum of the fluid passing in unit
time through unit surface area of the shock in the direction of a
normal to this surface equals the impulse of the pressure forces:
Pl'VAt - P2VAI = pz - PI (4.2.4)
With a view to Eq. (4.2.3), we can write this equation in the form
P1VD1 (V.I - Vnz) = pz - PI (4.2.4')
Equation (4.2.4) can also be written as
In this form, the equation expresses the law of momentum conser-
vation when passing through a shock. If we consider the change in
the momentum in a direction tangent to the shock surface, then,
taking into account that the pressure gradient in this direction is
zero, wo obtain the following relation:
P1 VD1 Vn - PZVuZVd = 0
whence, when P1Vnl = PIIVnll, we have
V'I"l = V"z (4.2.5)
Equation (4.2.5) is the fourt.h one of the system. It indicates that
the tangential components of the velocity when passing through
Ch. 4. Shock Wave Theory 16~

a shock do not change. A glance at Fig. 4.2.1 re\'eals that V'!:l =

= VI cos at> therefore we can write (4.2.5) in the form
We can write the equation of energy conservation in the form
il + V: 12 = i2 + V!/2
Provided that
V~ = V~I +Vii' V: = ~2 + Vh. and V'l ,,.... 1'1'2
the equation of energy conservation can be tran~formed:
+ V~1/2 = i2 + ViJ2 (4.2.6)
Dy combining the equations of state for the conditions ahead of
the shock and behind it. we obtain the relation
Pa - PI = R 2 P"T a - R 1P1 T1
or, taking into account that R = Ro./fJ.m. we ha\'e
Pa - PI = Ro. (p2Ta/~m2 - pIT1/~lml) (4.2.7)
We can write four equations of the system being considered that
allow us to determine the enthalpy, entropy, mean molar mass,
and speed of sound in a di~sociating gas in the form of general de-
pl"ndences of these parameters on the pre~511re and temperature:
fa = II (Pt. T'J') (4.2.8)
S, =" (p" TiJ
Vm2 = 13 (Pa. T 2)
Q" = /, (Pa, T 2) (4.2.11)
These functions are not expressed analytically in the explicit
form and are determined by means of experimental in\'estigations or
with the aid of rather involved c.alculations based on the solution
of the relevant thermodynamic equations. The relations for these
fnnctions are usually constructed in the form of graphs, and their
values arc tabulated in special tables of thermodynamic functions
for air at high temperatures (see [6. 7. 131).
Let us express the basic parameters behind a shork wave in terms
of the relative cbange in tbe normal components of the velocity,
i.e. in terms of the quantity
6. Yn = 6.V n /V nl = (Vnl - Vn2)1V nl (4.2.12)
From (4.2.3), we find the ratio of the densities:
p,lp, = 11(1 - 61'.) (4.2.13)
166 pt. J. Theory. Aerodynamic~ of an Airfoil and a Wing

and from (lJ..2.4'). the ratio of the pressures:

P2/Pl =-" 1 + (flIV~/pJl 6.f'n (4.2.14)
Introdudng the concept of the "normal component" of the number
Ml as the ratio Mnl = Vn1/al or Mnl = iJIl sin 8s, and assumillg' that
ahead of a shock the gas is not dissociated and the speed of sonnd
for it is at :-::: Vk1P1/Pl' we obtain
pzlpl = 1 + I.\M~1 6.Vn (4.2.15)
instead of (4.2.11.).
We nnd the ratio of the enthalpies iz/i 1 from (4.2.6):
i 2/i l = 1 + (1I2i 1) (V~l - V~I)
Let us write the diiIsrence of the velocity squares in the form
V~l - V~z = V~l (1 - Vnz/Vn1) (1 + Vn:JV n1)
= V:ll 6.Vn (2 - 6.Vn)
i,li, - 1 + (~,/2) (<l.V.Ii,) (2 - <l.V.) (4.2.16)
To cietermine the ratio of the temperatures T 21T1 , we shall use
the equations of state for the cOltditions ahead of a shock and behind
it, from which

Substituting for the ratio of the densities

equation their values from Eqs. (4.2.13) and
we .obtain
TJTl = (1 + klM~I6.Vn) (1 - 6.Vn) j.1m2j.1ml (4.2.17')
To determine the velocity behind a shock, we shall use the rela-
V: = Vi +
V~2 and V: = Vi + V~l
-lrom which we find
V;/~ = 1 - (V~l/V;) 6.Vn (2 - 6.Vn ) (4.2.18)

Let us find a relation for the flow deviation angle behind a shock.
fly (4.2.2) and (4.2.5'), we have
6.Vn = 1 - tan (8, - ~8)/tan 9s (4.2.19)
Ch. 4. Shock Wave Theory 167

Hence, having in view that

tan (Ss - ~s) = (tan as - tan ~1I)!(1 + tan Ss tan ~.)
we obtain
tan~s=tanas 6V~ (~+tan:te~)-I (4.2.20)
i-6Vn i-Vu

The relative change in the velocity .1.Vn is determined in accord-

an('e with (4.2.13) by the dimensionless density
<1.1', =1- p,/p, (4.2.21)
This shows that the ratios of the pressures, temperatures, and
enthalpies, and also the now deviation angle ~s can be written as
functions of the relative den.<;ity P:a/Pl' In addition, we can introduce
the values rill = VI siu a" and Mnl '-= MI sin 0, into tho formulas
instead of the quantities Vnl and MOl' respectively.
Iience, the solution of the problem on an oblique shock when its
angle of inclination 0$ is known consists in flllding the ratio of the
densitil'>s P2/Pl' or. whirh is the same, in determining the function
.1. Vn' Tllis ftlllction is determined with the aid of expressions (~.2.16)
and (4.3.17'), earll of which can be written in the form of a quadratic
equatioll in .1.I'n. From the first quadratic equation, wo have
.1.Vn -, i-Vi 2(t'& il)/V~1 (4.2.22)
and from the second

A= k;:I~~1 B ... k'~~1 (*. ::: -i) (4.2.24)

The 5:igns of the square roots-minus in (4.2.22) and plus in

(4.2.23)-were rhosen with a view to the fact that the velocity
behind a shock i$ always lower than ahead of it, and, consequently,
41Vn < 1. The plus sign in (4.2.2.,) also indicaLes that physically
the largl'>r of the two values of .1.Vn < 1 is real.
Equations (1.2.22) and (4.2,23) are solved by the method of suc-
cessive approximatioIl!'!. The problem of an oblique shock can be
solved if the angle ~$ is given. Here the angle as is calculated with
the aid of relation (il.:!.20), in accordance with which
tan:!9 _ lanOI 6j7~ +_'___ =0
" tan Ps 1-6Vn 1-6Vo
168 pt. I. Theory. Aerodynolllmjes of en Airfoil end oil Wing

Tho solution 01 thi~ equation yields

tan 8s =cotf3s [.!.. AV: V~--.--:""'r~:-_-_-,,-",-~-.] (4.2.25)
2 I-LW n 4 (1-6.Vn)~ t-6.V"
One of the l'(olutions (t.he plus sign before the root) del ermines
the larger value of the angle as realized in a detached clln-ed sIwek.
and the other (Lhe minus sign) determine~ the .'Illlallcr VahH!' realized
in an attached shock with a lower strength.
To fadli1.ate calculations, we can evaluate the angles as beforehand
from the given ,'alues of ~s' and compile a corresponding table or
plot a graph. With their aid. for a value of dVn which previoll.'\ly
calculated values of the ratios PZIPl' P2./P1' etc. correspond to. we
can find one of the angles es or ~s from the other known one.
The velocity VI and the number HI of the free stream at which
the parameters are realized in a shock with the gi\'en values of the
angle O. (or ~s). and also ]-'111 (or Mill) are calculated by the formulas
V l = "Vnl/sin e., MI = Mnl/sin Os (4.2.26)

Norm.. Shock
The formulas for rakulating a normal shock can be obtained
from the aho"e relations for an oblique one if we assume that as =
= n/'2 and f3. '-'-' O. Accordingly, the \'elocity VIII = VI' and the
number Mhl = MI' ~ow the basic relations acquire the following
Pa1Pl = 1 + kl~dV (4.2.27)
izli l ,..- 1 -:- (V:12) (d ViiI) (2 - d V) (4.2.28)
T.;.IT 1 ,-- (1 + k l M!4V) (1 - dV') ).lma~ml (4.2.28)
l':Il': = t - dV(2 - dV) (4.2.30)
where the change in the relative velocity
av ~ aVIV, ~ (V, - V,)/V, (4.2.31)
i~ determined with the aid of expressions (4.2.22)-(4.2.2-1):

llV=t-V1 2(i z il)IV: (4.2.32)

aV-A+VA'-B (4.2.33)
in which
A= kl~:;-/ . B-. kl~Y (if, ~:~ -1) (4.2.34)
The relation between dV and tile relative density is determined
by the formula
Ch. 4. Shock W"ve Theory 169

We have given the general relation::; for ~hork:-;. \"ow let 115 use
them to analyse the nature of flow and the W,lyS of rakul<1tillg the
parameters of a gas behind sllOck!> for constant specific heatg <Inri til(:Tl
consider in greater detail practkal ways of c"lclllatlng simibr
parameters for a dissociating fluid, i.e. for the more general C8C:f' of
varying specifte Mats.

4.3. Shock in the Flow 01 a Gas

with Constant Specific Heats

Of major theoretical and practi(oal interest i..; till' problem 011 the
flo,," of a gas behind a shock when t.he spedli<' hEllits c , and Cc are
Cotl!->lnllt. Although such ;1 flow is considered to be a particular
(idealized) case of the flow of a gas whose physi<'odlemical properties
change to a greater or smaller extent when passing" through a shock,
nevertheless t}le results obtained in solving thb problem make it
possihle to comprehend the geHeral qualitafin: nature or a shock
transition. The relations characterizing the change in the parameters
of a gas when passing throngh a shock LIre obtained here in the expli-
("it form. They can al~o be used ror an approximate quanWatit-e
C',,\imation of these parameters when the more. generill ("ase of varying
~pCtir.c heats is being treated. Tlll~ prohl!'1H bring considered also
has an indcpcndellL signifIcance hC("ilHse ils :<oliltioll can he ll.,,(!(i
dire("tly for determining the parameters of a g;lS hehind n sho('k ill
/I flow aLcomparatively low suporsonic \'elodtic~ aL \\hieh till' change
iu tile spedfic heats in the compre"."ed gao.: I" llf'gligilily .~tnall. Tht'se
\"(11ociLics. which are determined for the most int'nsiw (normal)
~hock, correspond approximately to Mach !lumbers Jij.,., < :14.

System of Equations

The method of calculating an oblique shoek treated below is

on the usc of II system of equations that is a particular case
system (4.2.2)-(4.2.11).
If in a shock transition the specific heats do nut change, it stHluld
also be assumed that the meaH molar mass remains const.ant, Illld
the speed of sound and the enthalpy depend only 011 tbe temperature.
Equations (4.2.8), (4.2.10), and (4.2.11) aCl'ording}y ucquirc the
following form:
i2 Cp T2 (4.3.1)
)lm2 = )lml = )lm = COlist (4.3.2}
a: '-'-' kRT2 (U.3}
110 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Instead of Eq. (4.2.9), it is necessary to wse tbe tbermodynamic

eqllation for tbe entropy of a non-dissociating perfect gas:
dS ~ di/T - dp/(pT)
Having in view the equations di = cp dT and dp = d (RpT) =
= Rp dT +R T dp, we obtain
dS = Cp d In T ....., R d In T - R d In p
CI - R = CD and Rlcu ---= (c p - cu)lcD --= k - 1
dS = Cc (d In T - (k - 1) d In pI
Integrating this equation at k ..., const, we find
S = Cu In (TlpLI) + const (4.3.4)
It follows from the equation of state p = RpT that
Tlp"'_l = p/(pAR), and In Ip/(pIlR)I -----0 In (p/pA) -In R
Introducing the quantity In R into the constant on the right-
hand side of (4.:3.4), we obtain II relation for the entropy in the
By applying this equation to the conditions ahead of a shock
and behind it, and then determining the difference between the
-entropies, we obtain instead of (1.2.9) the equation for the entropy
used in the theory of an oblique shock:
S2 - SI -'= CD In [(P2lpd (p~/p:)1 (4.3.6)
Equation of st.ate (4.2.7) for the case of constant specific heats
being considered is simplified:
pz - PI = R (p ZT 2 - P1Td (4.3.7)
Equations (4.2.2)-(4.2.6) of the system are retained with no alter-
Formulas for Calcuilltfnt the Parameters
of II Gas Behind II Shock
To calculaLe the density. pressure, and enthalpy, the formulas
needed are (4.2.13), (4.2.t5) and (11.2.16), respectively. To deter-
mine the temperature, the formula needed is (4.2.17') with the as-
sumption made that !lmz ---'--' !lm':
TJTl -= (1 + kM~laVn) (1 - aVn ) (4.3.8)
Ch. 4. Shock Weve Theory 171

The ullknowlI quantity in all these expres~iotls is the change in

the relotive velocity 6.Vn . Let us uetermine it hy assuming that
the shock angle 8 s and the free-slream Mach numher Ml ure known.
We :::hall use Eq. (1.2.4') for this purpose. After didding it by
PIV nl = P2Vnz, we obtain
pz/(pzVnz ) - P1i(Pl/ j 'nl) rill - f"z (1.:n))
Inserting a;,k and ai/It here instead of P Zip2 and PIIPI' respectively,
and using Eq. (3.6.21) for the specr\ of sound, W(l nnd
~(k-~-l a*z_.k;-t l';)-~(~a*:!-~V;)
Introducing the WI.1HCS of V; -"""' l'n~ -i- V: alHI V;' Vnf -7- Vi
and multiplying both sides of tile equation hy r"l V n2 . we obtain
after simple transformations
~';~1 a*2(V"I-V nz )-- {;;~1 l'i(V'll--Vr~)

+ k;;/ lfnIVnz(Vnl- VIIZ) - Vnll'nz(V,'l-'" V"z)

Excluding the trivi<ll solution 1'111 = V"2 :.= 0 corresponding
to the absence of a shock, we obtain
V'lIVnz"'-a*Z- ~:;~ Vi (4.3.10)
This equation is used to determine the velocity behind a shock.
It is called the basic equation of an oblique Shock, and allows us
to fwd the relative change in the velocity 6V n = (Vnl- Vnz)/Vnl .
For this pnrpose, let HS write Vnl V n2 =-= V~I (V,,2/Vnl) and usc the
relations VOl = VI sin Bs and V"t = VI cos AS. After the relevant
substitutions in (4.3.10), we obtain
sinz 9s(1- 6i'n)=*- :~~ (1-sin Z 05)
where Al = l\!a*.
Substituting Eq. (3.G.23) for Al and performing transformations,
we lind
AVIl = k~1 (1- Misi1n1oJ (4.3.11)
Let llS introduce the symbol
6 ~ (k - I)/(k + I) (4.3.12)
with a view to which formula (4.3.11) becomes
6 Vn = (1 - 6) [1 - 1/(M: sin 2 89 )1 (4.3.11')
172 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynllmic5 of an Airfoil and a Wing

By inserting this quantity into (4.2.13). we can determine the

density ratio:
pJPt = M: sin 2 66 /(1 - is +
iSM: sin2 ( 5) (4.3.13)
To determine the pressure ratio Pilpl. we shall.use formula (4.2.15).
We shall assume in it that MDt = MI sin 6... substitute expression
(4.3.11') for AVD and replace the quantity k in accordance with
(4.3.12) by the value
k ~ (1 +
0)1(1 - 6) (4.3.14)
The result is the parameter
pJPt = (1 + 6) M: sint: 6~ - 6 (4.3.1n)
that characterizes the shock strength. We may also use the following
relation for this purpose:
(p, - p,)/p, ~ iJ.p/p, ~ (I + 0) (M: sin' e, - I) (4.3.15')
Formula (4.3.15') can be used to obtain another parameter char-
acterizing the shock strength. namely, the pressure coefficient Pt: =
= (Pi - pt)lgt where ql = [(1 +
6)1(1 - 6}1 PIM;12. By subtract-
ing unity from both the left-hand and right-hand sides of (4.3.15')
and relating the ex.pression obtained to gl' we have
p, ~ 12 (I - O)IM:I (M: sin' e. - I) (4.3.15")
Eliminating the quantity M~ sin 2 6s from Eqs. (4.3.15) and (4.3.13),
we find the relation for the pressure-to-density ratios-the Hugoniot
p,/p, ~ (p,lp, - 0)/(1 - Op,/p,) (4.3.13')
This relation is also known as the shock adiabal. Unlike the con-
ventional equation of an adiabat (isentrope) of the form p = AI'''.
it shows bow the parameters change in a transition through a shock
wave. This transition process is attended by a growth in the entropy
determined from Eq. (4.3.6).
Hence, the process of the transition through a shock is non-isen-
tropic. ]n accordance with the change in the indicated parameters,
the temperature behind a shock grows. Its value is calculated by the
equation of state
-k....: *."*!-= i+ll) MfSiDI8j;-:!]S;:1l+llMf sin Osl l

The dependences of the ratios of the gas parameters behind a shock

and ahead of it (PJpl' P2IPl' T"ITt ) on the quantity Mnt =
= M _ sin as for k = 1.4 (6 = 1/6) are shown graphically in
Fig. 4.3.1. and the Hugoniot equation (4.3.13'), in Fig. 4.3.2.
Ch. 4. Shock Wave Theory 113

5 1--;. _
5 -<--; -r . -
I/- - . -.:- : -,- .- '

J -. ,--' :
,- -~;-I- --:
f 1. J " 5 sMr.1

~I:pe~~':nces of the ratios of the gas parameters behind a shock and ahead of it
on the value of Mnl = Moo sin 9$ for k = 1.4 (6 = t/8):
~-denslty ratlo P./P,; b_prcssurc raiio P./PI; c-leonperatUf(' ratio TilT.

Fig. ,u.l
Shock adiabat (t) and isen
trope (2)
Ch'=t,lt, II =1/6)

Tile special Corm of Lhe transition Lhrotlgh a ::;11ock, tliITering from

an isentropic process, manifests ilsC'if in the different nature of the
change in t.he gas parameters. It follows from (4.:\.15) and (4.3.1G)
that at .iJf, __ 00, the pressure and temperature grow without a limit.
It also follows from (4.3.13) that for t.lle same condition lUI __ 0;)
the density tends to a certain dcflOitc value equal to (P2lp,).11 ,.. 00 =
= 116. When Ie ,..." 1.1, this yields t.he value of 1/6 ....::: 6. It. follows
from the formula p = ApI< or T = Bpk-' (A nnd R are constants)
that in an isentropic process an infmite increaso in the Ilcnsit), and
temperatllre corresponds to an infinite pressllI'c iocl'eilsn. A compari-
son allows us to Mrivc at the conclusion that wilh nn identical change
in the pressure in bo~h a 5hock and isontropic proc(>.'!ses, the former
is attenderl by greater heating of the gas, and this is just. what facili-
tates a certain drop in the density.
174 PI. 1. Theory. Aerodynemics of en Airfoil and eWing

Formula (4.:i.16) determines the raLio of t.he squares of the sound

speed in accordance with t.he relation
a!la~ = TzlT l (4.3.17)
Using tllis relaLion, and also Eq. (4.2.18'), we can determine the
number M2 behind a shock. Inserting expression (4.2.21) for LlVn
into (/1.2.18'), we find
V:/V~ = cos 2 as + (P l/p2)Z sin z 6s (4.3.18)
Dividing Eq. (4.3.18) by (4.3.17), we obtain an expression for
the ratio of the squares of the Mach numbers:
M!/~ = (TIIT z ) [cosZas + (P l/p2)2 sin 2 as] (4.3.19)
where TIlT'). and Pl/pz are found from formulas (4.3.113) and (4.3.13),
The formula for calculating M 2 can be obtained in a sOme\Vllat
different form with the aid of momentum equation (4.2.4"). Let liS

writo it in the form
("1 + ~ VisinZas) = 1+ 1;- V;sin2 (as-i-f}s)
Taking into account that kplp = [(1 + 6)/(1 - 6)] pIp, and de-
termining P21Pl by the Hugoniot equation (4.3.13'), we obtain
1-;;2~~~~~J) (1 -I- :~~ M; SioZ6s) = 1+ !~~ Misin2(9s-f}~)
After sub5tituting for M~ sin'). 6s its value found from (4.3.13),
we obtain the relation
Let us determine the stagnation pressure for the conditions of
a flow behind a shock. Considering the Dow of a gas behind a shock
and ahead of it to he isentropic, we can compile the thermodynamic
p2/p~ = p~/p'~, Pl/p~ = Po/p~
where Po and p;, Po and p~ are the stagnation pressure and density
in the regions of the flow ahead of the shock and behind it, respective-
ly. These relations yield the pressure recovery ratio across a shock
"0 = p~/po = (PiPl) (Pl/pz)" (p~/p()"
Multiplying both sides of this equation by the ratio (Polp~)I>.. we
Ch, 4. Shock Wave Theory 17~

Let us use the energy equation y2/2'7 cpT = const and write
it for the conditions ahead of and behind a shock:
V:i~ + cpT, = V:12 + c"T 2
At pOints of stagnation, V, = V 2 = O. 1L follo\\'s from the energy
equation that the temperatures at these points are identical, i.e.
Tn = T~ or, which is the same, Po/Po = p~.(l~.

w11ere P1ip2 and P2/Pl arc found by (4.3.15) and (4.3.13), respectively.
By (3.6.28), the stagnation pressure is

1(1 -:. 6) Mi sin 2 9~_6J(6-1)/20 (.U, sin 9~)(J.r6)"o'
(11t=b. )(I~ 6);26
'(1_6)-(IT6)/26 Ur
.< (1+lt~{$ .Ui~inZ(l$rl 6)/2(:;

Let us determine the stagnation pressllre coefficient behind <'In

oblique shock

Po -- PG-Pl
- (t+6)"I~
{III .: 6) -11~Ism
. ~9 $-
61" 1)/26

'(M 1 sin9ap+6)/6(1_0)-'II.Nm

(',-6 Ml),>;"'20 }
x (f+~Mi.sin2as
6 )0 6)/20 -1 (-'1.3.23)

An analysis of relation (4.3.~O) shows that behind a shock of finite

strength the pressure ratio p~/p() is always less than unity. The
stronger the shock, the largor arc the stagnation pressure losses and,
consequently, the smaller is the ratio P~/po.
When establishing the physical nature of these loss(!s, we cannot
consider a shock as a discontinuity surface; we must take into account
that a real compression process occurs in a layer with a small thick-
ness of the order of the molecular free path. I t is exactly such a process
176 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodyn<llmics of <lin Airfoil <lind <II Wing

of transition through a shock in a layer that is possible because the

existence of two contacting regions with a fmite difference of their
temperatures, pressures, and densities cannot be visualized. It is
only a mathematical abstraction.
The transition through a shock having a small thickness is char-
acterized by so great velocity and temperature gradients that in
the compression regions the influence of skin friction and heat conduc-
tion becomes quite substantial. It thus follows that the irreversible
losses of the kinetic energy of gas in a transition through a shock
are associated with the work done by the friction forces, and also
with the heat conduction. The action of these dissipative forces and
also heat transfer within the compression zone cause an increase
in the entropy and a resulting reduction in the pressure in the flow
behind the shock in comparison with an isentropic compression
Obllqua Shock Anlla
The parameters behind an oblique shock are determined by the
number Ml and the shock angle Os. Its magnitude, determined by
the same number Ml and the flow deflection angle ~B' can be calculated
by using Eq. (4.2.19). Substituting for .6.1'D ill it its value from
(4.2.21), we obtain a working relation:
tan 9$ltan (9 s - ~B) = P2/Pl (4.3.24)
Determining Pl/P2 from (4.3.13), we find
tan 9s/tan (as - ~s) = M~ sin2. es /(1 - 6 + 6M~ sin 2 9s) (4.3.25)
On the other hand, this relation allows us to find the flow deflection
angle ~s behind a shock according to the known shock angle. Fig-
ure 4.3.3 presents graphically the relation between the angles 9s
and ~$ for various values of the number MI' In the region to the left
of tho dashed Hne, which corresponds to the maximum values of
the angle ~s (Le., ~s. mu), tho value of the anglo as diminishes with
decreasing ~s, and to the right, conversely, it grows with decreas-
ing ~s' This nature of the relation is due to the different form of
a shock. In the first case, the change in the angle as corresponds to
an attached curved shock ahead of a sharp-nosed body. As the body
becomes blunter (the nose angle increases), the flow deflection angle
grows, and, consequently, the shock angle increases. The maximum
flow deflection angle ~s = ~s. rna;.: is determined only by the given
value of MI' This angle is also called the critical How deHection
(deviation) anglc ~cr. The points corresponding to its values are
connected in Fig. 4.3.3 by a dashed line. Investigations show that
a flow behind an attached shock is stable as long as in the entire
region behind it the flow deflection angle is smaller than the critical
one. This flow is accordingly referred to as a subcritical one.
Fig. 4.3.3
Change in the now dcneclioD angle ~s depending OD the shock angle as for
various numbers Ml

Upon a further growth of the nose angle. the angle ~6 may become
crHical. According to Fig. 4.3.3. Us value grows with an increase
in the number Ml . From Ihl:' physical yiewpoint, lhi~ is (>X'piaill(>d
by an increase in the strength of a shock, a greatt>l' density behind
it. and, as a result, hr the shock coming close (0 the> surface of the
bOlly, which leads to dellection of the flow through a larger angle.
At u still larger no,~e ungil:', t.he now ul'hind Illl attached shock
becomes unstahle, as a resllit or which the shock 1II0Y('S away from
the nose, Behind such it (ldnched shock, n new ~lIthle flow region
appears. It is chul'aclcrizcli hr tieflt'clioll thl"Ough 1111 illig-Ie also less
than the critical one. Bill unlikell suhcriti('ai now, 1I1i~ one i!l- called
sup<,reritieal. This delillitioll correspond~ to the f'lct that the nose
angle of the bod)' in the now exceeds the value III which a shock is
still attached.
A detached shock changes its shape absoiutcir. which can be seen
especially clearly in the example of a flow over a sharp-nosed cone or
wedge (Fig. 4.3.4). As long as the Row is subcritical. the shock is
attached to the nose and the gcneratrix of its surface is straight.
The now around thick wedges or cones may become supercritical,
upon which the shock detaches ilnd acquires a curved shape. At the
point of intersection of the shock surface with the flow axis, lhe shock
angle as = n/2 and. consequently, the parameters change according
to the Ill\\" or a normal shock, In practice, there is Il secl ion of such
a normal shock near the nxis.
WiLh an increase in the distance from the axis, thl' ::oiEoek allglc O~
in a(',corriance with Fig, 4,3.4 diminishes. remainililf 011 II eN'lain
section inrger than the value that a subcritical flow corr('~p()lld!< 10,
The change in the flow deflection angle is of Ihe oppo!<itl:' IInlm(',
178 Pt. 1. Theory. Aerodynemics of en Airfoil end, eWing

Fig....,.. 7'#fJiori
Detached shock ahead of a
sharp-nosed b,;,dy

At the apex or the detached wave bellind its straight part. ~s = 0,

and then it grows. At a certain point on the surface, the angle ~s.
becomes critical, and then it again diminishes together with the
shock angle. A..."! follows from (<1.3.25), at the limit when ~s _ O.
the angle as tends to the value 111::- siu- 1 (1IM l ). Hence, the shock
angles at a preset number Ml yary within the interval ~Ll ~ as ~
~ 1t/2. A shock of an infinitely small strength that is a simple press-
ure wave corresponds to the value Os = Ill'
On a curved shock (see Fig. 4.3.3), we can find two points cor-
responding to two different angles as that at a given MI determine
the same value of the angle ~s. This angle is calculated by formula
(4.2.20), which after introducing into it tho value of ~ Yn from
(4.3.11) acquires the form
taops =cot 9s (M; sin 2 9,-1) [1 - ( 1~6 -sin z 9s ) Mn- 1 (4.3.26)

A strong shock with a subsonic flow behind it corresponds to a

larger value 01 the angle as. and a weak sllOck with a supersonic
flow behind it (if we exclude the vicinity of the shock with angles ~,
close to the critical ones, where the flow may be subsonic) corresponds
to a smaller value of the angle 9s.
An oblique shock angle can be evaluated by using formula (4.2.25).
Substituting the relative density from (4.2.2t) for LlVn we obtain cot f!,[H*;--I)

1/+ (*- t)2 -tanZ~~ 1;-] CO.3.2i)

On each curve shown in Fig. 4.3.3, we can indicate a point ('or-

responding to the value of M 2 = 1 behind a curved shock. By con-
necting these points with a solid curve, we obtain the boundary of
Ch. 4. Shock Weve Theory 179

two flow conditions hehind snch ,I s-hol"k: to the left of thl' cune the
Oow will be supersonic (M 2 > 1). aud to the right of it-subsonic

In tlflditiOIi to llll anal~t.icnl solution of lhe problem of deterlllin-
ill(!" the Row pal'ameters bellilld an oblique shock, there is. a graphical
method based on the concept of a hodograph .
.r\ hodograph is a CUl"ve Iormillg t1w locus of the tips of the \"(~Iocity
vectors in the plane behind a shock. Let us consider the equation
of a hodogruph. Let point A (Fig. 1.11.1) be the tip of the "elocity
,'ector V 2 lind 1.11' located. (~ollsequ('nll)", on Il hodograph cOIl~lrllcted
in fI coordinate sp:.tem whos(' horizontal a.xis c!lincilles with the
dir~ctioll of the \"1loeit.~ VI ahead of tl shock. Hence, the inclination
01 the v{']ocH.}" vector \'2 i~ determill{'d h;\" the ang], ~s. LI"t. lIS
(]esigllate lhe "crliell( lind horizontal components of this "e(oeity
by 1/' !lll(lll. r('!oi.p('cth{']y. A glanc{' al Fig. 4.4 ..1 rc,,{'als that u and 16
can he expressed in terms of t.he normal V U2 and tangential V,.
components of til{' "elocity V 2 10 lh{' plane of the shock as follows:
u ~- Vt cos as. Vll2 sin Os. m = 1',. sin O~ - VD2 cos a, (1.4.1)
Wl' dctl"rmillc the component. l'Jl2 from formula (4.3.10) in which
we a~SHme thal rIll :--: VI sill Os and r,. -' 1-'1 cos 0 . Accordingly,

Il:-'VjCos2 as-:-(a*z ... ~:~: V~cos2fl.)/VI (1.1.2)

Let us eliminate the angle as from this eqllation. For this purpose,
w(' shall lise Eq~. (4.4.1). ~1111tiplyillg the first of them by cos e
the second by sin as find summaUng them. we obtain
u cosas + w sin as = V"'
Having in view that V1: = VI co~ as. we flDd

tan as = WI - u)!w (4.4.3)

Sllhstit.uting or tan as its \"slue from (4.4.~) into the trigonometric
relation cos2 as = (1 -7- tan 2 9,,)-I, we obtain
cos:! 9 s = 11 -:. (llJ - U)2/W2}-1
Introduction of this value into (4.4.2) yields
1 . 111"1 ul/u'12

+{a.2_~':~! V~[1-7- ( l\;U rrl}/VI

180 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of en Airfoil arlCi a Wing

To the derivation of the hIJdo
graph equation

Fill. 1.4.1
Strophoid (shock polar)

This expression, relating the variables wand u, is an eqoation

or a hodograph. It is lIsually written in the form
(Vj':'U)! '(U-a*2/T'I)/ (k!l V I "",- "V"'12 -u) (1.1.1i)

Let us introduce the dimensionless quantities )'1' = ula*, A.u; =

= wla*, }..l = V1/a*, and the parameter 6 = (k - 1)/(k -I- 1). The
hodograph equation now becomes
~/(A, - A")' ~ (),"),' - 1)/[(1 - 6) 1.: -!- 1 - 1.,1..1 (4.4.4')
Equation (11.1.1') graphicaUy depicts on the plane Aw , All a curve
known as a strophoid (Fig. 1.1.. 2). Let us determine certain character-
istic points of a strophoid. Particularly, let us calculate the coordi-
nates of points A and D of intersection of the strophoid with the
axis All' Examinatiun of (4.1.1') reveals that the condition ),10 is
Ch. 4. Shoc:k Weve Theory 181

satisfied if A.. = A1 or ;'u =.. I AI' The value Au = )'1 (Ielermines the
coordinate of point A and makes iI possihle to obtain a solution
corrpsponding to fl shock of I1n illlillit~I)' !<mall strC'ngth Ill'hind which
the velority ,Io{'s not changl>. The value All ,-= LA) ,Ictermines the
c.oordinatc of inler~ectiou point]) ('\osest to the origin ofroorilinates
and is the solution for II normal shoek.
)1 follows from thu ronslrllctioll of n 5trophoid thal il~ Iwo hl'flllches
10 111> righL of point A e;"\lellll 10 inrlllil)", asymptotically npproach-
ing till' !<traight line passiug thro\lgll poilll B jIntl paralll'l to lhe ver-
lical EI;"\is. The coordinnte of Ihi!l poiut call he obtained from (-1.4.4')
by a limit Lran~ition Elt i. u' _ 00. The r('sull is the condition
(1 - 6) A; :. 1 - i.)A 14 , ... (J. from which we find the coordinate of
point. H. i.e. Au '-. i' l (1 - 6) '1 ;'1'
.Any point on a sirophoid brllnch c;"\tending 10 illfinit) fOl'ntnlly
yields 1\ solulion for a shock. Considering, for (';"\ampl(', poinl F
in Fig. 4.2.2, we mil)" af;sumc that for a shoe!.: behilUl which lho
direction of the velocity change~ by a presct \'fl.llll' of Ihe anglf' ~u
the \'elo('ity incrcElsl'S abruptly 10 thE'" value i,~ detC'rminlHI by lhe
IE'"Jlgth of scgment OF. The prE'"ssurE' aud (Iensit)- \\"oulll Jllso .I('('rease
abruptly. In olher word!'!. ill the giv('n casE' there would be not a
compression shock, but an e;"\pansioll one. But the formation of such
shocks is impossihle ph~sically. To prove this, let us use formula
(1.~.(l) for the change in the enl-ropy. Applying the ratios P2 p~ =
=- p;. (p~)k. PI:P~ Poip~, and taking into account that p~. Po =
"-< f'~ 'p", from formula (4.:t6) we ohtain

When there is 1\ compression shock, Po > P~ and, .:onscquently,
8 2 - 8 1 > O. This conchlsioll cortl>sponds to the second law of
thermodynami('~. ac('ording Lo which the cntrop)" of an i~olated
sy!'!tem with ('omprl'ssion shocks increases.
Let U!l !lOW considl'r the reverse l'ituatioll \\hetl n gus passes from
fI statr characterized by Ihe slagnation pressure p~ (the parampll!rS
wilh the subscript 2) into a stat.e with the stagnation pressure Po
(the pnrameters with Ihl! subscript 1) through all expansion shock.
In this case, by flnalogy wilh (4.i.,;;), the challbJ{' in lIle entropy is
SI - S1. . R III (p~/po)

Benel'. whell the coudition p~ < Po is retailled. the entrop), should

diminish. but this contradicts the second law of thermodynamics.
It thus foJlows Ihat expansion 8hocks cannol appear,
In accordance wilh Ihe above. Ihf' passage of a gas through a shock,
which is adiabatic in its 1I111111'e becall:'m it uccurs in a thermally
in~lIlaLed ~ysl('m, is 8n irreversible adiabatic nonisentropic process.
Equation (4.:i,(i) cau he uscil to wrify tha.t a real process of an
increase in the entropy (S2 - 8 1 > 0) corresponds to a supersonic
182 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 an Ai,foil and " Wing

flow [M 1 > 1 (a Ilormal shock). HI sill Os > 1 (all oblique shock)],

while the physically impossible phenomenon of a decrease in the
entropy (S2 - SI < 0), to a subsonic flo\\' (MI < 1 ilnd MI sin Os <
< 1). Hence, shucks can appear only in a supersonic f/ow. We must
note (hal the relations obtained for the change ill the entropy are
valid when an irreversible process of transition through a shock
attended by an isentropic flo\\<' of the gas Lolli aheild of a shod:
behind it.
It follo\\'s from the above that tlw branches of a strophoid extend-
ing to infinity have no physical meaning. The part of a stroplloid
(to the left of point A, Fig. 1.4.2) having a physical meaning is called
a shock polar. Such a curve is constructed for a given number Al
(or M I ). Several curves constructed for various \'alues of AI form
a family of shock polars allowing one to calculate grapllically the
velocity of a flow behind a slwck and the flow deflection angle.
Let us consider an attached shock ahead of a wedge-shaped surfAce
with the half-angle ~s (sec Fig. 4.1.1c). To determine Lhe velocity
behind such a shock, we construct a shock polar corresponding to
the given: number Al (or MJ.. and draw a straight line from poillt 0
(Fig. 4.4.2) at the angle ~ . .::.?int of intersection N with the shock
polar determines the vector ON whose magnitude shows the value of
the velocity ratio A2 behind the shock. By formula (4.4.3), which \\'e
"hall write in the form
tan Is = (AI - Au)':Aw (4.4.3')
the angle ANG on the shock polar equals the shock angle Is;.;. We
must 110te that this angle can also be determined as the angle be-
tween the horizontal axis and a normal to tbe straight line connect-
ing the tips of tho velocity vectors ahead of a shock and behind it
(points A and N, respectively, in Fig. 4.1i.2)
When considering the shock polar, we can arri\'C at the cOllclusion
that a decrease in the angle ~s (point A' mo\'es along Llle curve toward
point A) is attended by a decrease in the shock angle 9,;1'\. At the
limit, when ~~ -+ 0, point N merges with point A. which physif'ally
corresponds to the transformation of the shock wl'Ive into an infini-
tesimal shock wave, i.e. into a line of weak disturbances. The shock
angle for such a shock Is = III is deLermined as the anglc bet \\,pen
the horizontal axis and the straight line perpendicular to a tangent
to the slwck polar at point A (Fig. 1.4.2).
A growth in the flow deflection angle (in J"ig. 4.4.2 this corresponds
to point N moving aWAr from A) leads to an increase in the shock
angle and to a higher strength of the shock. A glance at the shock
polar shows that at a certain angle ~5 a straight line drawn from
point 0 will be t<lngent to the curvo at point C. The angle of inclina-
tion of this tangent determines the maximum flow dellection angle,
called the critical one above (~s ~"" ~cr)' Assume that the wedge
Ch. 4. Shock Wave Theory 183

angle ~& > ~er' In the graph, solid line OH drawn from point 0
and nol intersecting the shock polar corresponds to this angle.
Therefore, when ~s > ~tr, we eannot find a graphical solution for
a slwck with the aid of a shock polar. This is due to the fact that
the inequality ~s > ~or does not correspond to the assumptions
(on the basis of which we obtained equations for a shock) consisting
in that a shock is straight and sholtld be attached to a nose. Physi~
caUy-ill the given case of the wedge anglo ~s exceeding the eriticai
deflectiou angle fie r-the compression shock detaches and becomes
The determination of the shape of such a cuned shock and of its
distance to the bod~r is the task of 11 special problem of aerodynam
ics associated, particularly, with the conditions of supercritical
flow past a wedge. If such a problem is not selved, then with the aid
of a polar in the field of defmition from point D to A we can give
only a qualitative appraisal of the change in tbe parameters in a re~
gion ahead of the surface in the flow, If, on the other hand, the shape
of the shock is determined for presot fiow conditions (in addition
to calculations, this can also be done with the aid of blowing in
a wind tunnel), it is possible to establish quantitative eorrespondence
between the points of a shock polar and the shock surface.
Assume. for example, that we have set the angle Pa and points E
and N on a shock polar (Fig. 4.1.2). The shock angle 6$N = LANG
corresponds to point X, and the angle SsE = LAEK (EK ..L OB)
to point E. If the configuration of the shock wave front is known,
then by direct measurement \"e can lind on it a point N' with the
wne angle SsN" and a point E' with the angle 6 5 1:;' (see Fig. 4.3.4).
[n tht! ~aJLle way, we can find II. puillt C' 011 the shock that corresponds
to the critical (maximum) denection angle Per.
On a preset surface of a detached shock, point D on the shock polar
corresponds to the shock apex (a normal shock), and terminal point A
of the polar corresponds to the remotest part of the shock that has
transformed into a line of weak disturbances.
For an attached shock (Ps < ~ef)' we can indicate two solutions,
as can be seen on the shock polar. One of them (point E) corresponds
to a lower velocity behind the shock, and the other (point N), to
8 higher one. ObservaLions show that attached shoe-ks with a higher
velocity behind them, i.e. shocks with a lower strength are possible
physical b'.
If we dra'.... on the graph the arc of a circle whose l'adius is unity
(in the dimensional axes wand u this corresponds to a radius equal
to the critical speed of sOltnd a*), we can determiue the regions of
the now-subsonic and supersonic-which points on the shock polar
to the left and right of the arc correspond to. In Fig. 4.3.4, the
section of the flow corresponding to a subsonic velocity is hatehed.
A close look at the shock polar reveals lhat the yelocity is always
184 PI. I. Theory. Aerodyn./lmics of .!In Airfoil .!Inc! .!I Wing

subsonic behind a normal shock. On the other hand, behind an ob

lique (curved) shock, the velocity may be either sllper~onic (the rei
evant points on the shock polar are to the righl of point S) or subsonic
(the points on the polar arc to th~ left of point S). Points on the
polar between Sand C corre.spond to an attached shock behind
which the velocities arc subsonic. Experimental investigations show
that for wedge angles ~s less than the critical one ~cr or larger
than L SOB, a shock remains attached, but it hecome!i curved. The
theoretical values for the angle as and the gas velocity AZ on the
entire section behind such a curved shock fOllnd on the polar accord
ing to the wedge angle B~ do not correspolld to the actnal values.

4.5. A Hormal Shock

In the Flow of a Gas
with Constant Speclfc Heats
We shall obtain the corresponding relations for a normal shock
from the condition that 6s ---: ,,/2 and. consequently, Vnl = VI
and V n2 = V~. Basic eqnation (4.3.10) becomes
where Al = 1'1Ja* and A2 = V 2Ja*.
We find the relative change in the velocity from (4.3.11'):
Ii iT ~ (V, - V,)/V, ~ (1 - 6) (1 - 11M:) (4.5.2)
We obtain the corresponding relation~ for the ratios of thE' den-
sities, pressures, and temperatures from (4.3.13), (4.3.15), and (4.3.16):
P2/PI = M:/(1 - 6 6M~) + (4.5.3)
P2iPI = (1 + 6) M: - 6 (4.5.4)
T,fT, ~ [(1 +6) M: - 6[ (1 - 6 6M:)fbP,+ (4.5.5)
By eliminating M~ from (4.5.3) and (4.5.4), we obtain an equation
of a shock adiabat for a normal shock that in its appearance differs
in no way from the similar equation for an oblique shock
[see (4.3.13')[.
Assuming in (4.3.19) that as = nl2, we find the relation for the
Mach' number behind a normal shock:
.V:iM: = (TilT 2) (P IJp2)2 (4.5.6)
Let us consider the parameters of a gas at the point of stagnation
(at the critical point) of a blunt surface behind a normal !ihock
(Fig. 4.5.1). The pressure p~ at this point is determined by formula
Ch. 4. Shock W~ve Theory 18~

(4.3.20') in which the ralio." P2 PI allci P~ PI are found from ('J.5.8}

and (1.5.4), respccliHly. With this in view. we han
p~fpo = [(1 -;- 6) M~ - 61("-1)/~" fM;/(t - 6 ... 6M~)JCh~)/~" (4.:1.7)
Determining Po by (4.3.21), we fmd
P;/Pl = [(1 -;- 6) M; - 61(&-1)/~"'6)/6 (I - 6)-(14&J/~6 (4.5.8)
Knowing the absolute pre~surt! p~, we can determine I he dimE'lIsion-
less quantity Po
= (p~ - PI) (h-the pressure coeflicient fit the
stagnat.ion point. Taking into account that the velocity head is

ql:"'" kP~l/I 2(11-.'_6 ) filM:

we obtain

Po= (~.~6~~~ {1(1-- 6) M~ _61(6 - J)/~\ JI I (I i 61/6

x(1_6)-(1+6)/2~_ .. } (1.'=-dl)

It is proved in Sec. 4.3 that the stagnalion temperature behind

a shock does not change, i.e. T~ = To. Consequenlly. at the ;;tilglla-
tion point. we have

T~'-' Td 1 + I~b .un (0.10)

Let us usc the expression i~ :..::... cpTo aIH) il = c,,TI 10 determine

the enthalpy. Acconlingly. at the stagnation point. we haw
186 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodyn~mjcs of an Airfoil ~nd Wing

4.6. A Shock at Hypersonic Velocities

and Condanf Specific Heals
0'. Gas
At hypersonic (very high) velocities, which values of MI sin O. >-
::> t correspond to, the dimensionless parameters of a gas behind
.a shock are very close to their limiting values obtained at HI sin Os __
__ 00. It follows from (4.3.11') that for this condition, we have

Consequently, the limiting ratio of the densities by (4.2.13) is
p,/p,' - 1- ~V. - 6 (4.6.2)
Introducing this ..-alue into (4.3.27), we obtain the following ex-
;pression at. the limit when MI sin 8, __ 00:
tan e.= (cotJl,/U) [I-b ]f"'(1-'6"')';-4n;67ta"'n"'~"'.1 (4.6.3)
Let us lind the limiting value of the pressure coeffIcient. For the
conditions directly behind a shock. as follows from (4.3.15~), when
MI sin Os -- 00 and MI __ 00, we have
We obtain the corresponding quanlity for the point of stagnation
f'om (4.3.23):
Po = 2 (1 - 6)(6-1)126 (1 + 6)-{1.")!'.!" sin as
2 (4.6.5)
The ratio of the pressure coefficients is
In the particular case when 6 = 1/13 (k '-' 1.4), the ratio = Poipz
= 1.09. The limiting value of the llumber M2 can be found from
(4.3.19), using relation (4.3.16) for TzIT 1 A passage to the limit
when MI sin 0, __ 00 and HI __ 00 yields
M:- {II [6 (I ~.6)J) (cot' e,+6') (4.6.7)
To lind the limiting parameters behind a normal shock, we must
assume that 9 s = :t/2 in the above relations. As a result, from (4.6.4)
and (1.6.5) WC" h8\'e:
p, - 2 (1 - 6) (I,.G.1')
Po = 2 (1 - 6)lll-il/26 (1 -i- 6)-(l+W26 (4.6.;;')
en. 4. S~ock Wdve T~.eory 181

We C(ln :;ec that the ratio Po'I-;~ i:-: the .':'amea~ ror i1n olJliqut' Sllotl;.
The limiting Milch lIumhel' behind OJ JI()l"m~d ~hock is

For 6;;;....; 1,'(j (k --: 1.4), the 11\11111)('1' M ~ - 1/"[7 :::::: O.3t\. The
actual v(lllies of the dilnensionle-s5 parrlrnelf'I's behind a shock fit
linitl:!. nlthough very large', Mnch I\Ulll!wr." depC'nd on M l
Let \I.':' considf!l' the corrl!sponding' worki1lg rrlation:-: fOl" lilt' r.a.':'e
when !lUnched ;.;hock.'< originalr ahead or ;.;h'uder \\('cigcs. ami the
.sllOek angles ,"lrP thcrd"ol'C' low. A~"nlllillg ill (!I.~-t:!;;) Ihal tan s ~ e
.~ e~ nll(l tall (e, - ~J :::::: 0, - ~,. w(' oblai"

(0, - ~,) 0, ~ (l - b ., 6M;O~)(,I1;O;)

Introducing Ihe syrnbol K ~ Ml~~' art('r Il'all.'<rOl'lTIutions, WI.' rllld

*-~t- ~t =u (!t.6.8)

So\viug \.his eqllation for Os/~s and taking inlo arC'Ollllt that the
COlutitioll ()s/~s > t is physically posl'Iihle. WI.' find

*,~ 2(1~&) ;-l/' ~(l~-b)~ ;- ~~ (1.6.9)

IuspE'clioJl of Eq. (!t.(U) re\'eals that tilE' parameters determining
the Dow in 11 shock at \'err high velocit leS arl' combined illto fUllcl iOlli'l1
groups snell that ther are a solution oj Ihe f!ro/dem oj a shock Jor
a broad range 0/ number..: M,." and j'alues of the o/l{!le B, in the jorm oj
a single curve. Eqllation ('l.G.Il) ii' <IU c",Hnplt' of ;\ similal"itr 1'('\a-
tion. In (lCCorJllllce willi Lhis cqlliltioll fOI" the I"atio O>:~" thE' qllall-
titr K = M,I~s is;l similarity erilcrioil. This silllilal'il r n111sl lJE' I1l1der-
stooll ill tile sense that l'('gardl('s~ of tl((' ah.:ol\Jtc \";1111("> of the (jU,Hl-
tilies chal'acterizing h~'persouiC' nO\\.~. \\"11('(1 Sill1I rlo\\"s han> identical
partlinett'I's K, the ratios of the angl('s e~;ll., <ll"l' "Iso idt'1l1 ica!. "'llen
K _ 00, the ratio 8" '~~ I('nds to il limit l'(1l1a1 10
Os/Bs = 1/(1 - 0) (/j .li.1U)
Let us consider the relation for 111(' pl'C~IIl'(, c.ot'flicit'llt. AI low
values of 9 s , formula (L1.1;)'") ac((uirt's the forlll
P2 = 2 (1 - 6) (6: -- "I 'M;)

P2 =:2 (1 - 6)~: (Oi,~;- 1 K~) (l.IL 11)

Introducing the value of 1 'K~ rrom (!di.8), WI' ohtaill
p, c" ~Il,e, (1.G.H)
166 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodyn~mi(5 of 8n Airfoil Md II Wing

S\lbstit\lt.illg for the angle Os the v"llI(' cle-termilled from (4JU1).

we fmd

This formula $110\\'$ that K is nlso 0 similarity criterion for the

ratio p2i~~. At the limit. when K -+ co, this nltio becomes
P2"~~ = 2..(1 - &) ('1.\.1:3)
In accordance with (1.3.13), at small \"Iue of Os, the df'nsily
ratio is
where lhe parallleler Ks ,': Mle~ is dt'lermined with the aid of (/dUJ)
in the followillg form:
K"" 2(1"-6) [1 + V' 1 .4(1~})Z] (4.{i.15)

We can see from ('1.:1.18) that at low volues of 9 s the second term
all the right-Iwnd side may be ignored, and \n' can thus cOl1sider
that 1'2 ~ 1'1. With this in vic\\", the ratio or the sqllares of the
Mach numbers in accordance with (1.:Un) is M;IM~ = T 1 1T 2
Substituting for the ratio 1\:'T2 here its value from form\da (4.3.1fi)
in which we assume that sin 9 s ~ es ' \\e ohtain
e~Mi '-" K~,' {l(1 + 8) K~- 8] (1 - 6:- &K~l} (ldi.16)
When Ks -+ 00, we have

4.7. A Shock in a Flow a Gas

with Varying Specific Heats
and with Dissociation and Ionization

When solvillg a problem on a shock in a dissociated and ionized

gas, the parameters o[ the air at an altitude H (the pressure PI'
temperature T1 , density PI' speed of sound ai' etc.), and also the
value of the llormal velocity componellt VIII (or the Humber Mill =
:..... VIII/aIl arc taken as the initial data. HplIce, an oblique shock
in the given case is treated as a normal one. Assuming ill a first
approximation that the value of t!I. VII ~ {Ul-O.OJ, whidl corresponds
to setting a relative clensity for a shock of PdJl '-'- (l - ~ Vn)-l ~
~ 10-20, from (4.2.1;') we fwd the presstlre 1'2' aud from (4.2.16),
the enthalpy i2 that is evidently close to the st3gnation C'nthalpy i~.
Ch. 4. Shock Wave Theory 189

By nexl usiug'lII j-S diagram (see Hi. 81). we determine the tempera-
tlll'e T~. and then from Fig. I.;).i. Ihe mean molar mass 11m2' Instead
of the diagram, Olll' 1ll1I:'; use suitahle ta!>les o[ the llH.'rmodyuamic
fUlldioll."1 or air (Sl't' IiI). width will increase lht' accuracy of tlll~
By inserting the round \"alu\1's of 1'2' T z, and j.lm:! into the equa-
tion or state (1.5.81. m' Clln d('tl'l"llIinc the deJisily p~ ilnd <IeJine
the value of t\ V" marl' precisely hy (4.2.21). \\'1..' Ilext usC Ihis value
in a st'cond llpproximation to lind the prl'ssure and enthalpy, respect-
h'cl)" , br formulas (1.2.15) ami (4.:U6). According to these villues
and with Lhe aid o[ Ia.hlt's and graphs, wc ([eline the temperature
and 'Mall molal' mas,:,; more exactl\". \\'1..' usc the relined values of
p" T 2, and !-Lm2 to lind the llensitr ill the second approximation
by the equation o( state. The approximaliolls arl' terminated when
tile preset accuracy is achieved.
\Ve ciln evaluate the shock angle corresponding to <l gin'll \'elocH),
VI by the formula sin B,; .-=."' VIII' 1'1' 13~' introducing thl' value of a,
and also the numher lJll -, l'I,U 1 into (4.:i.2.1i). \\"e detl'rminc the
flow deviation angle ~.s behind thl' shock.
An oblique sliot"-k tWI also h(' cn\tulated wh(,11 IIIC \'alu('l"i o[ the
free-t'llreClnl parametl'l'S (including the number 1.1 1) alltl the augl{' ~~
are known. In a first approximntioil. we d('t{'l'mine till' siwek angle
8 s (01" all nndissocialillg gas (see (-'a.:i.2i1l. find 'hl'll lind th{' cor-
responding \'allles of 1.1~!t p~, and i2 br forll\u!a:-l l!l.'!.Hl). (.~.2.1;",
and (4.2.10). Using these \",\lues. we d(lterminc the it'mp(,l'aturc T~
and thE" mean molar mllS~ ~lm~ l'rOIll lable~ IiI 01' gr~lph~ 10. 81. -"ext
by formulas: (4.:L2:i) lllld (1.2.:H). \\'1.' dctinc ~l""n mo1'l~ precisely,
and by expression (4.2.:!5), tan Os nnd the angh~ I:l$' We rerrne the
other parameters according 10 the r(!lenlllt tOI"IllIlI.1S.
We calculate the parameters of ,I gas behind a nOl'mal shock in
a similar ,,'ay with the lise of tables or graphs or Ihe tlU'rmod~"llamic
functions for high temperatures. We a~lIme that as""" :t:2 and
~s = 0 and, therefore, lIse (1i.:!.27)-(".2.3il).
Whl'u dissociation aud ionization occur, the l"ehlti\'C \'allles of the
parameters of a gas behind a shock \\'a\'e depend not only on the
tempernture, which is characteristic of varying specific heats, but
also on the pressure. These relations arc shown graphically in
Figs. 1. 7.1-1.7.3. The ratios of Ihe lemp{'ratures and densities are
calculated for averaged values of t.he temperature T) of 220 and
350 K. These values eqllal, respecth'ely, t.he probable minimum
and maximllm that are chosen depending on the change in the air
temperature with altitude for decreased and increased annual average
values. Availahle data show that dissociation and ioni7.ation give
rise to n suhstantil.ll change in tile equilibrium temperature and
density in comparison witll constant specific heats (k = 1.4 =
= const). The pressure depemhi; Lo a considerably smaller extent
190 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 an Airfoil and a Wing

~':ti~7~tf the air temperatures

behind and ahead of a shock
with account taken of dissocia-
tion and ionization:
~lId linu-T, = 2211 K, dnshrd
linrs_T, = 3:'11 X

" f---,----t-

~I:iit~t the air dcns.ities behind
and ahead of a s.hock with ac- I~ f--c,r~"""9~=+--c~
count taken of (Iissociation and
wild linu--T) = fW K. dnshrd
lInu-T,1 = 3aO K

f ll4,7,
Ratio of the air pressures 2DOi---H:L-jf--"-=-1
behind and ahead of a shock
with account taken of dissocia-
tion and ionbation

on the physicochemical transformations of the air. The ratio P2iPI

differs only slightly from the maximum value of P2iPl ""'" 1 +
-i- klM~ll determined only by the conditions of the oncoming Ilow,
but not by the change in the structure and physicochemical prop-
orties of the air behind a shock wave.
Ch. 4. Shock Wave Theory 191

The temperature behind a shock ill a dissociated gas is lower thall

that with constant specific heats (Fig.1.7.l). The explanation is the
loss of energy on the thermal dbsociatioll of L111' molecules.
The lowering of the temperature due to this phenomenon CHII$eS
the density to grow (Fig. 4.7.2). This greater "yielding" of the gas
to compression reduces the space bf'tween a shock aud a surfa("e in
the flow, thus diminishing the shock angle. And conversely, at the
same angle as in a real heat.ed gas, the Jlow defleetion (tlw angle ~i)
is greater than in a perfect gas (k = COllSl). The result is that in
a heated gas a detached shoek fol'lus with a certaill delay in compal"i-
son with a cold gas. Particularly, tJH' wedge angle (critical angle)
at which detachment or a sllOek hegins is larger ill a Ilea tell gas than
in a cold one.
Account of the infllH'IH~f' of dis:-;oeiutioll II',I(]." to fI certain illc["case
ill t.he pressure bchilHJ a shork ill compnrison with fI gas haYillg
constant specific heats (Fig. '1.7.3). This is explained by the increase
ill t.he number of pal"tieles in the gas O,,illg to dissociation and. by
the increase in the losses of IduC'tic ('Ilergy wlll'n tiley eollide. But
the drop in the te'mperatnre ill u di."sorialed gas caw'es an oppo!'ite
effect, but smaller in magllitude. :\:; a l"1'SUit. thl' pressilre increases,
although only slightly.
The theory of a normal shock has an impol'tant practical applica-
tion when determining the pacametC'l"s of a gas at lite point of stagna-
tion. The procedure is as follows. According to the fOllnd values i z
and P2 with account t.aken of dissociiltion and ionization, we find
the entropy 8 2 from an i-8 diagram or tablcs of thermodynamic
functions for air. Considering the flo\\" behind a shock to be isentro-
pic, we assume that the cntropr S~ at the stagllfllion point equals the
value 8 2 behind the shock \\'a\e. In addition, for t.his point We' cfln
find the ent.halpy i~ = i l .!- 0.5V~. l\o\\" knowing 8~ and i~, we ran
use an i-8 diagram or thermod)namk tablcs to find the othf>r para-
meters, namely, p~, T~, p~, etc.
The results of the calculations correspond to the preset flight
altitude. A change in the altitude is at.t.ellllf!'d by a changc ill the
conditions of flow past. a body and, consequently. in the paralllcters
at t.he point of stagnation. This relation is shown graphically in
Fig. 4.7.4. The curves allow us to determine the temperat.ure T~
and pressure p~ as a function of the veloci\.~' V, and the flight alti-
tude H.
The value of p~, in turn, can he used to ca!r.ulate the pressnre
coefficient at the point of stagnat.ion: Po = O.'skM;'. (p~/p "" - 1).
Its value grows somewhat in a di.!'50ciating flow. For exam piC', at an
altitude of 10 km at M~ = ifi.7, its valne is Pi) '""'" ~.08, whereas
without account taken of dissociation Po = 1.83 (for k =- cJ'.c,. =
= 1.4). The pressure coefficient can be seen to grow by abOHt 1R%_
192 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodyntlmics of an Airfoil <'H1d 1I Wing

Pressure and temperature at the
point of stagnation

The results of calculating the density at the point of stagnation

with account taken of dissociation and ionization for air, and also
for pure oxygen and nitrogen. arc given in Fig. 4.7.5. An analysis
of these results allows us to arrive at the following conclusion. At
M"" = 18. when oxygen is already noticeably dissociated, the quan-
tity P~!P_ reaches its maximum value. Upon a further increase
in M "'" the gas completely dissociates, and tile density drops. Next
a growth in M <to is attended by primary ionization of the oxygen.
This leads to an increase in the specific heat and. consequently, to
a cel'lain growth in the density.
The influence of the varying nature of the specific heat on the
change in the density of nitrogen is observed only at very large
numbers M when dissociation and ionization take place. These

processes run not consecutively, as in oxygen, but virtually simulta-

neollsly, which is due to the smaller difference between the energies
of dissociation l:l.llU ionization of nitrogon. This is why the curve
p~/p ... for nitrogen is more monotonic than for oxygen.
Ch. 4. Shock Theory 193

At }1"" < D, what mainly occurs in the air is dis~ociation of

oxygeu, and the drnsity curve for air is closer to the rrlevant curve
for oxygen, At M", > 1:3. when the dissocialioll of the nitrogen
becomes appreciable. the dependence of fl~lpoo on M"" for air reminds
one of the similar relation for gaseolls nitrogcll bccause the iatter
is the predominating component. in tile air.
The C;llcnlation of the parameters of a gas behind a shock ,vith
a vicw to the varying na~llre of l!le specifiC heats is Ilescribed in
greater detail in [141.

4.8. Relaxation Phenomena

Sectioll 1.7 deals with ways o[ calculating the parameters of a gas
behind a shock with account taken of tile physicochemical transform-
ations for conditions of equilibrium of the thermodynamic processes.
In a more general case, however, these processes are character-
ized by non-pquilibrium, which has a delluite innuence 011 the gas
flo\\' behind shocks.
Non-Equilibrium Flows
It is known from thermodynamics that the ilssumption of
thermodynamic equilibrium consist.s in agreement brt,veen the
le,-els of the internal degrees of freedom and the parameters
characterizing the state of a gas, For example, at comparati\'ely
low temperatures (low velocities), equilibrium sets in between the
temperature and the vibrational degree of freedom, which corresponds
to equilibrium l.Jet,veen the temperature and till} specirlc heat. At
high temperatur(}s (high velocities), when a gas diSSOCiates, the
equilibrium state is reached as follows. As diSSOCiation develops,
the probability of triple collisions grows (for a binary mixture of
diatomic gases) because the numher of gas particles increas(}s. This
leads to the acceleration of recombination and the retardation of the
rate of dissociatioll. At a certaill instant and t(}mperature, the rates
of the direct and reverse r(}actious become equal, and the gas arrives
at an equilibrium state. The latter is characterized by a constant
composition and agreement between the degree of dissociation, on
the one hand, and the temperature and pressure, on t.he other. At
still higher temperatures (very high velocities), equilibrium processes
of excitation of the electron levels and ionizatiOIl can be considered.
Upon a sudden change in the temperature in an equilibrium flow,
the corresponding internal degrees of freedom also set in instan-
taneously; dissociation~and ionization call be considered as the mani-
festation of new degrees of freedom. Consequently, in these cases,
there is'no delay in establishing the degrees of freedom, i.e. the time
needed for achieving equilibrinm is zero.
194 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 an Airfoil and a Wing

In practice, an equilibrium flow is observed under supersonic

Dows past bodies at Mach numbers of M CO> = 4-5 in conditions cor-
responding to altitudes of 10-15 km and less. The explallillion is
that at the maximum temperatures of the order of 1000-1500 K
appearing in these conditions, the main part of the intemal energy
falls to the share of the translational and rotational degrees of free-
dom, which upon sudden changes in the temperature are established
virtually instantaneously because only a few molecular collisions are
needed to achieve equilibrium. This is wby the transl;ltionai and
rotational degrees of freedom arc usually called "active" degrees.
With an increase in the velocities and, conseqllently, in tlie tempera-
tnres, a substantial part of the internal energy is spent on vibrations,
then on dissociation, excitation of the electrolL levels, and ioniza-
Actnal processes are such that these energy levels set in more
slowly than the translational and rotational ones beciluse a mtlch
greater number of collisions is needed. For this reason, thE' vibrational
and dissociative degrees o[ fl'C'edom are sometimes called "inert"
degrees. Hence, the inert degrees arc featured by a delay in the
achievement o[ equilibrium called relaxation. The time in which
equilibrium sets in, i.e. correspondence between the temperature
and the energy level is established, is callC'd the relaxation time.
The relaxation time charactertzes the rate oj attenuation oj depa1'lures
oj a gas state from an equilibrtum one, which in a general case manijests
itself in the jorm of a change in the energy distribution limong the
di/Jerent degrees 0/ freedom.
Relaxation processes are determinl'd by whal degreE' of freedom
is excited. If upon a sudden change in the tempf'rilture, vibrations
appear, the corresponding nOll-equilibrillm process is callC'd vibra-
tional relaxation. It is characterized by a lag in the specific heat when
the temperature changes. If the temperature rise!', the specific heat
grows because of the appearance of vibrations of the atoms in the
molecules. The time during which vibrational motion renclles equi-
librium is called the vibrational relaxation time.
In a non-equilibrium dissociating gas upon a sudden change in the
temperature, a delay occurs in the change in the degree of dis!'ocia-
tion. This phenomenon is called dissociative relaxation. Owing to
the difference between the rates of formation of the aloms and
their vanishing (the rate of dissociation is higher than that of recom-
bination), a gradual increase in the degree of dissociation occurs.
The equilibrium value of the degree of dissociation is achieved at the
instant when the rates of the direct and reverse reactions become
equal. The time needed to obtain an equilibrium degree of dissocia-
tion is called the dissociative relaxation time.
Experimental data on the relaxation time for oxygen and nitrogen
are given in Fig. 4.8.1.
Ch, 4, Shock. WlJve Theory 195

~I~p:;~ental (I, 2) curves of

the vibrationaL relaxation time
and calculated (,1, 4) curves of
the relaxation timc for the dis-
sociation or oxygcn and nitro-
gpn, re-spectively, at atrnosp-
he-ric prcssure

At. tcmperaturcs approximaLely lip to 10 000 K, the \'ibrational

and dissociative relaxation proces~ws are the nlilin ones, Tht' rl'iax-
alion phenoJUpna a~sociateu wiLh the excitation of the elecLro" Il'yels
o[ the Illoipcldes and nlomO', and also wiLh ionizAtion, may 1)(' 4ii~re
gardc41 because a small fraction of the internal energy fallO' to Ihe
shal'c ot' t\Jef':e 4legret's of freedom at the indicated t('mpf'l'a-
A nOll-equililJl'illnl slate has a substantial influence on the Yal'iollS
pl'ocess('s attending the flo\\' of a gns at \'Cry high \'e1ocities, l\'l'lic1(-
lady, vibrational and dissociativc relaxations change t1l(' parameters
of a ga!; ill a trall!;itioll throllgh shock \\'n\'('s and in the fin\\' past
bodi('s, This, ill turn, aHrcts the JlrOCe~Sl'S of friction, heat exchange,
and abo the redistribution of thn pr('ssurp.
The studying of nOll-cquilibrium flo\\'s consists ill the joiHt in-
vestigation of the motion of the fluid and of the chemical pro('(''!:ses
occuning at Hnite ,,('Ioeities. Thi~ is ex:pl'essed formally in Ihnl an
eqllatioll for the rate of chemical reactions is adcle{l to till' m:nal
system of equal ions of gas dynamic'!:,

EquilibrIum Processes
Equilibrium flows have been studied better than non-equilibrium
ones both from the qualitative and the qnantitfltive ~t<Hldpoinls.
The regions of n now in which equilibrium sets in are different becousc
of the (Iifferent relaxation times for the excitation levels. The
duration of the establishment of equilibrium relative to the \'ibra-
tional degrees of freedom is longer by several orders than relative
to the translational and rotational ones. Equilibrium set,!: in even
more slowly relative to the composition of a gas mixture when dis-
sociation and ionization occur. Accordingly, the scheme of a non-
equilibrium process is such that the attainment of equilibrium of
one degree of freedom may be attended by the beginning of a relax-
t 96 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynemics of en Airfoil end- o!! Wing

ation phenomenon of another one. In more genoral case, overlapping

.()f the regions of establishing equilibrium is observed.
An approximate model of the process can be conceived on the basis
-of the "freezing" principle. It is considered that a region of achieve-
ment of equilibrium relates to one or several degrees of freedom,
while the others are not excited. The sequence of these regions of
equilibrium can be represented by degrees of freedom with elevation
of the temperature in the following order: translational, rotational,
and vibrational degrees, dissociation, excitation of electron levels,
and ionization. When considering, for example, the process of estab-
lishing equilibrium of vibrations, the first two degrees of freedom
can be considered to be completely excited. This process occurs in
conditions of "froztm" dbsociatioTL and ionization.
Such a scheme is not suitable for certain gases, particularly nitro-
gen at high temperatures, because ionization begins before dissocia-
tion is completed. This is explained by the fact that the energies of
dissociation and ionization of nitrogen differ from each other only
one-and-a-half times. In this case, the regions of attainment of
equilibrium overlap. A similar phenomenon is observed in the air
at comparatively low temperatures. At temperatures exceeding
3200 K, tho relaxation time for the dissociation of oxygen is lower
than the dUl:ation of setting in of nitrogen vibrations. Consequently,
equilibrium in the dissociation of oxygen is established before the
vibrations of the nitrogen are in equilibrium.
Investigation of the flow of a non-equilibrium gas over bodies is
facilitated if the characteristic time of this process is considerably
lower than the relaxation time of one of the inert processes and condi-
tions of a frozen flow occurring without the participation of this
inert process appear. Particularly, if the duration of flo'''''' over a
section of a surface is small in comparison with the time needed for
chemical equilibrium to set in, but is commensurable with the
vibrational relaxation time, a process with frozen dissociation and
ionization may be considered on this section .

laxation Effects In Shock Waves

In the transition of a gas through a shock wave, a portion of the

kinetic energy is converted into the energy of active and inert degrees
of freedom. For the active degrees (superscript "A")-translational
and rotational-equilibrium sets in during the relaxation time tS
commensurable with the time taken by the gas to pass through the
thickness of the shock. Since this time is very small, we can consider
in practice that the active degrees are excited instantaneously.
At the same time, dissociation does not yet begin because during
a small time interval the number of collisioll!i of the molecule~ is not
Ch. 4. Shock Wave Theory 197

~i~'o!:t~on proceSill in a shock wave:

m p,



(ll1e h.lclltd 't'glon delermlnl"8 the thlckni'S$ of Ihr shock way!'):

J .nd l'-lront and ,ellr surtacfs 01 the shock WOYP, N'SpfC\i\")Y
,; .---.'- . ,:" ----1--



large. Hence, directly behind a shock wave, the- temperature T~

is the same as in a gRS ' .... ith constant specific heats.
In accordance wiLh this scheme. no inert degre('s of freedom (super-
script. "I") are excited directly after a shock, Since these degrees
have a fmite relaxation time tL considerably grt'aLer than t.he time
t~ and the duration of transition through the thickness of a real
shock, then the temperature lowers until the illl'l't degrees of freedom
(first vibrations, thon dissociation. excitation of the electron 10\,eI5.
and ionizaLion) reach equilibrium.
In Fig. Ii.B.2, schematically ilhlstratillg a reluxation process, the
relaxation time t~ measured from the instant of lite beginning of
motion on the front surface of t.he shock wan' ahead of which the
temperature of the undisturbed gas is 1\ corresponds to the tem-
perature T;. The figure also shows the density p~ corresponding to the-
temperat.ure T~, while the equilibrium state is established at a tC'lIl-
perature of T 2 < T;. A non-equilibrium process of gas no\\' behind
8 shock is altended by an increa,~e in the density to the e(luiliiJl'illlll
valuc P2 > p;. Here a ~mall growth i1l the pres$lJre is ohscn(lod in
comparison with an ideal gas, Simultaneously the degree 0/ dissocla-
tiOIl (and at vcry high temperatnres, the degree of ionization) groU's
from zero to its equilibrium l.'aZue.
Thc invesligation of the non-equilibrium now behind a shock
consists in detetminin.a I_he length of the non-l'quilibrinm zone, or
the relaxation length, and also in eSlimaling the non-equilibrium
parameters. The system of equations describing such motion includes
equaLions of the momentum, energy, state, and an equation for the
rate of chemical reactions.
The initial conditions upon its int<.>gratioll arc determined by
the parameters direct1y behind the shock wa\'c, which are found
with the assumption that dissociation is absent. At the end of the
198 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of olin Airfoil end II. Wing

:!ft"U:~! 01 noo-tquilibrium
dissociation on the density and
temperature behind a shock
g~. ~)JIo.2, T. _ 300 K. p,-

relaxation length, these parameters reach equilibrium values cor-

responding to the equilibrium degree of dissociation.
The results of sucll investigations of a non-equilibrium now of
a gaseous mixture of oxygen and nitrogen behind a shock wave are
given in Fig. 4.8.3. The solid curves were obtained on the assump-
tion of instantaneous vibrational excitation, and the dashed ones in
the absence of excitation. These results reveal that vibrations have
an appreciablesigllirlcance in direct proximiLy to a shock. For example,
without account of eXciLations, the temperature behind a shock
is 12 000 K, while for a complotely exciLed state it is about 9800 K.
i.e. considerably lower. At the end of the relaxation ZOne, vibrational
excitation is of virtually no importance. Tnerefore in calculations of
equilibrium dissociation, we can assume that the rates of vibrational
excitation arc infinitely high, thus considering a gas before the
beginning of dissociation to be completely excited. It is shown in
Fig. 4.8.3 that the length of the non-equilibrium zone is comparative-
ly small and is approximately 8-10 mm.
The data of investigations of the relaxation in shock wan's can
be used to determine the nature of non-equilibrium flow in the vicin-
ity of a blunt nose in a hypersollic now. Here we find the length of
the relaxation (non-equilibrium) zone and determine whether such
a zone reaches the vicinity of the point of stagnation. In accordance
with this, the stagnation parameters arc calculated, and with a view
to their values. Similar parameters are evaluated for the peripheral
sections of the surface in the flow.
The length of the non-equilibrium zone is found as the relaxation
length calculated by means of the expression
XD = O.5Vctn (4.8.1)

where Yc is the velocity directly behind the normal part of the

shock wave, and to is the relaxation time.
Ch. 4. Shock Wave Theory 199

The relaxation tim(' ("all be found hy the formula

to ~ 2.1:) X 10-7 (1 - '1. c HI/ (ll) r;1~ 'X~ (;\ . '1. r - CU';.:!.)
in which f (H) = tJooH"P"'I'; is a fUlictioll of the altitude (P''ll and
p.,J:: are the densities of tl.e fit the altitude J[ aud at
tlw Earth's surface. re.speclivcly). p -
P'P"'1I Ithl' den ..;ily f'
= 0.;;; (Pc -i- Pel. where pc and Pc are the densities bellin.1 the shock
in the Illidissociated gas ,\litl for equilibrium di::;sociation. respective-
. If the length XL) is smaller \.lUlH the distance .~u hetwel~n a shock
wave and the point of :;tagnatioll, lhe non-eqlliliIH'iulH zone is ncar
lI.e wave and does not include the body in lhe !low. COII:-;e'lI1l'lItiy,
the condition for equilibrium in lhe vicinity of II blunled :;urface
willlJe .1:0 < so' or O.5V{OtlJ < so. llence we cal\ abo lilld lhe inequal-
ity to < si(O.5Vc) in which lhe term 011 lhe right-ltaud' is lhe
characteristic time t s spent by a particle in the compression zone.
If tso> > tu. a particle or the gas will have lime to reach till:' stalo of
eq1lilibrium before it reilc.!ws the slll'[nce.
It is not difficult lo sec rrom formula (1.8.2) llial the relaxalion
time grows with increasing llight altitude II and, consequ('ntly, the
length of the non-equilihrium zone increl' At tlw same timc, til
diminishes wHh an incre;lsc in Lhe intensity or a ("ompr{'~sioll sl.ock
for very high supersonic velocities of the !low (here the rclati\'e
density behind a shock ~ ,"" P.'P "'11 b~conU'::; larger).
A non-equilibrium slale suhstantially aned:-:- 1ll!' distance between
a shock wave and a body. With a completely lIolH'qnilibrium flow
behind a shock (the degree of dissociation '"L '-" 0), lhis distance can
be appreciably larger than in equilibrillm dissocialion (a -::: etl' > 0),
It decreases in tlH' real cO\Hlitions of a gradualtrl.lllsit.ion from a non-
equilibrium state to RIl equilibrium flow behind a shock wave, i.e.
when the degree of dissociation ehRnges from 0 behind tile wave
to the equilibrium value '"1. , ..:: etc at the ell~1 of the relaxation zone.
of Characteristics

5.1. Equlflons for !he velocity

Potential and Stream Funcffon
An important place in aerodynamics is occupied by the method
of characteristics, which allows one to calculate the disturbed flow
of an ideal (inviscid) gas, This method make~ it possible to design
correctly the contours of nozzles for supersonic wind tunnels, deter-
mine the parameters of supersonic flow over airfoils and craft bodies.
The method of characteristics has been developed comprehensively
for solving the system of equations of steady supersonic two-dimen-
sional (plane or spatial axisymmetric) vortex and vortex-free gas
flows. Investigations associated with the lISC of the method of char-
acteristics for calculating the three-dimensional flow over bodies
8fC being performed on a broad scale. Below we consider the method
of characteristics and its application to problems on supersonic two-
dimensional flows.
Equations for a two-dimensional plane steady Dow of an illViscid
gas are obtained from (3.1.20) provided that 1.1. = 0, 8V,/8t =
= 8V,/8t = 0 anel hAve the following form:

V oV", +l' ~~. _..!..~ }

'" oz g 8y P iJz (;"'d.1)
V:c 0:; + V, ~:' =, _~. ~~
For a two-dimensional axisymmetric flow, the equations of motion
obtained from (3.1.36) for similar conditions (v = 0, 8V,/8t =
= 8V,IOt = 0) can be wriLten in the form
Vx DV", 'V~=-..!.'..!f....}
ilz I r or p iJz (5.1.2)
V:c o~r + Vr :~r = _~.*
The conLinuity equlltions for plune and axisymmetric Dows .having
r('~pcctively the form of (2.4.5) Rnd (2.4.32) can be generalIzed as
Ch. 5. Method 01 Characteri~tic~ 20t

a (pV""yt),()x -j d (rVyye),'uy ~- 0 (5.t.3}
When e = 0, this equalion coincides with the continuity equation
for a two-dimensional plane now in the Carlesian coor(linates x and y.
If e = 1. we have a continuity equation for a two-dimensional axi-
symmetric Dow in the cylindrical coordinates y (r), I. Accordingly,.
for both kinds of flow, we may consider that the equatiolls of mot ion
Fd.1) arc written in a gent'ralized form.
Having determined the partial derivative!> ill continuity equation
(5.1.3), we obtain

(v~ ~~ + V" !~ )ye+pyt ( a;~x.1 {}~1I) ~pVyf:yF-l .. 0 (5.1.4}

V'le can replace the partial derivative ap./oJ: wiLh lhe expression
Dp/ax = (ap/Elp) aplfJx, in which Elp/fJp = La:!, while the derivative
&p/&x is found from (5.1.1) in the form

-r (Vo. o~: _; Vy (.~;Ix)

\\'jth this in view, we have

;~ '-- -%(Vx {}fJi:x -: Vy (5.1.5)

An expression fo!" the del'ivat ivl' rlp/oy is f()lItHI similar


~'; ,;, -7 (V x rJ~;" + V~, ;',~> ) (5.1.6)

Substitution of the vnluC's of th('!ie d(>ri\"{\ti\"t.~ into (:U.4) yields

This cqualioll is thC' fundam(>ntal differential equation of gas

dynamics for a two-dimensional (plane or spatial axis~ mmelric)
steady tlow which the velocity cOlilponelll~ and r ..
mllst satisfy. ry
Since this equation reJatr:i the \"('Ioritie~, it is {liso 1'C'Cerrcd to a~ the
fundamental kinematic {'(Iuation.
If a flow ii' potential, tllell
l:x'-- dq,u,t, VII :."': oq uy, dVx/{Jy = 8J'vlIJ' = (P!p.'ih ay
thcrc!ort, Ey. F).l.7) l:U!l he transformed as follows:

(Vi-a2) ~"j:~ .j 2V.Y'J <!~~~I!I .;-(F~-a2) ~:f~ _I/:~/lf (:'.1.8)

202 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and. .e. Wing


Equation (5.1.8) is the fundamental differential equation of gas

dynamics for a two-dimensional potential stead)' flow and is called
an equation for the vcloeity potential. Hence, unlike (5.1.7), Eq.
(5.1.8) is used only for studying vortex-free gas flows.
If a two-dimensional gas now is a vortex one, the stream function
1Jl lias to be used for studying it. The velocity components expressed
in terms of the function 1Jl have the form of (2.5.5). Replacing p
in accordance with formula (3.G.31) in which the stagnation density
PI! along a given streamline is assumed to be constant, expressions
(2.5.5) can be written as follows:
Vol = y-t (1 _ f1)-1/(4-1) o1jJloy, VII = _y-. (1 _ y2) _1/(4_1) o/ox
where j7 = VIV,u:\~.
The cRlculaLion of a vortex gas flow consists in solving a differell-
tial equation for the stream function "p. To obtoin tllis equation, let
tiS rUffprentiate (5.1.9) with respect to y and to x:

"~;' = _ey-e-l (1_V"2tli(4-1l : : +y-e~

(1- yttl/(A-Il-1 a~2 . :: -j_ y-e (1- VZ)-I/(k-I) ~:~

":~" .. _ y-e ~ (1- V2tl/(h-1)-1 ~~2 . ~~ _ y-e (1- Vit1(1t-1l ~

T,1king into account expression (3.0.22) for the square of the speed
of sound, and also relations (5.1.9), we can write the expressions
obtained for the derivatives oV,)oy and oV,/ox as follows:

J:; '--co _+ v.,.,- ~:~. "~2 +y-e(l_V2)-,/(h-1l ~:~ (5.1.10)

":;"~, :a~. a~2 _y-e(1_Y2)-I/(h-1l ~:~ (5.1.11)

We shall determine the derivatives oV2loy and oV'llox in Eqs.

(5.1.10) and (5.1.11) with the aid of relations (5.1.9). Combining
these relations, we obtain
Ch. S. Method of Chllrllcteristics 203

By difierent.iating (5.1.12) with respect to x anti y, we lind the

relevant relations:

2 :~ . ~:~. -t- 2 ~,! .a~:fJ~ --.- ~~: yte (t - V2)~/(~-L)

_ P y 2f ~. ~ t ('I _ V2)10l/(I!-I)-I (~~2

2 ~; . a~~~y .:- 2 ~! . ~:~ _, ~~2 y2" (1 ._- V?)'~I(I!-I)

2eV2 y 2e -1 (1 _ Y2)2/(/'-t) _ 1'2y2e ~ 0 - i12.)2/(I<-I)-1 a%y2

We transform these relations with a view to Ell. p.6.22) for the

sqllflre of the speed of sound and to relations (5.1.\)):

-- Vr, !:~) + Vx a~2:y = 4-. ~~~ ('1 _. Y1.)IIi"-t) ('1 - -;.) (:i.1.13)

- VI/ a!2:y -i' l' x !;~. '" f aiJ~~2 (1- V~)t/(I'-I)

'{ (1 - ~) + y~-e V2(1 - j72)l/lll-l) (5.1.1-1)

Dl'termining the derivatives OV'l-IOy and (JV~iOx from these expres-

sion~ and inserting them into (5.1.10) and (5.1.11), respecth'ely, we
f(1-V2)1/(~-t)(1-~) iJ~:x -Zy:_eVx(I--ln)II(I'-1)

;,: ( 1 - ~.:) -r :~~ [.- V" a'I,2!y T V ~ ~:~

- !/_e 1'2 (1- 1'2)1/1/'-1) ] + -} (1 - ~: ) ::~
-f (1 - ~: ) 0;;,
Y2)t/(l'-IJ (1-
-.: ~:: (-Vy !:~..:-1',. :;~y)-}(1- ~:) ::~
Subtraction of the firsL equation from the second one yields a
relation for a vortex:

a;: _ o~/ = a2~vt'7 (-Vy ::~

.;- V", :;~y )(1- 1'2t l / Ch -t) -7 (1- V2 t 1/{h- l ) ~:~
204 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of en Airfoil end ~ Wing

A vortex can also be determined with the aid of Eq. (3.1.22')

transformed for the conditions of the steady flow of an ideal gas
and having the form
grad (V'12) + curl V X V ~ - (lip) grad p (5.1.16)
By applying the grad operation to the energy equation (3.4.14),
we have: .
grad (V'12) ~ -grad i (5.1.17)
Consequently, Eq. (5.1.16) can be written in the form
curl V XV~ grad i - (lip) grad p (5.1.18)
Vortex supersonic gas flows call be characterized thermodynami-
cally by the change in the entropy when going over from one streamline
to another. This is why it is con venient to introduce into the calcula-
tions a parameter that reflects this change in the entropy as a feature
of vortex flows.
In accordance ''lith the second law of thermodynamics
T dS = di - dp/p
or in the vector form,
T grad S = grad i - (1/p) grad p (5.1.19)
Combining (.'i.1.18) and (5.1.19), we obtain
curl V X V -= T grad S (5.1.20}
Let us calculate the cross product curl V X V, having ill view
that by (2.2.12) the vector
curl V = (OV,)8x - 8V,/ay) i3
(here i3 is a unit vector), and, therefore, the projections (curl V)x =
= (curl V)y = O. Let us use a third-order determinant:

curl VXV I ci i~ (C~~l Vh I

V", V y 0
in which the projection
(curl V)3 = aV1l 18x - OV,)8y
Ch. 5. Method 01 Ch<!lr<!lcieristics '2013

Calculations yield
curl YXV = - Vy ( 0;; _ 0:; )i, :_ Vx ( V~~tl _ u;;"" ) i2
Accordingly, for tho projection of the vector curl V X V onto
a normal n to a streamline, we obtain the relation
(curl V X V)~ = (curl V X V)~+ (curl V X V)~
= V' (aV,la. - aVJay)' (5.1.22)
Examination of (5.1.20) reveals that this projection can also be
written in the form
(curl \' X V)/l. = T dSldn
or, with a view t.o (5.1.22)
V (aY,lax - aY.:ay) = T aSld" (5.1.23)
Since a Z = kRT, then, taking (3.6.22) into account, we fl"!ld an
expression for the temperature:
Tc.""", ;~ ,_ k~1 .*(V~lax-V2.)= k~t. V~nJ! (1--V2)
Introducing this relation into (5.t.23), we obtain

o~,: _o~: .= ~. 1~1~~~ (1- V~) ~: (5.1.24)

By introducing the vortex according to this expression into

(5.1.15), we lind a differential equation for tile sLream function:
(Vi-a 2 ) ~:~ +2V:'Yllo!~o~ L(V~_a2) ~~l;
+ yt'-e a2V % (1- V2 ),/(h-1)

= k;;1 V;;'J! (1- V2).\/(.\-O ye (02 _ V~) ~: (5.1.2:1)

5.2. The Cauchy Problem

Equations (5.-1.8) for the velocity potential and (5.1.25) for the
stream function are inhomogeneous nonvlinear second-order partial
differential equations. The soilltion~ of these equations cp = cp (x, y)
and W= W(x, y) are depicted geometrically by integral surface~ in
a space determined by the coordinate systems x, g, cp or x, y, 1p.
In these systems, the plane x, y is considered as the basic one and
is called the pbysical plane or tile planc of independent varlableA.
206 pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamic, of In Airfoil Ind I, Wing

r!'ii!f'~urve AB; the required

function and its first deriva-
tives witil respect to:e and y are
known on it

Tho Cauchy problem consists in finding snch solutions in the

vicinity of all initial curve y = y (x) satisfying the additional condi-
tions set Oil this curve. The values of the required function (jl (x, g)
~i~~alx~~?d~~i~r~!~e -fll~:~ d::!v~~i:\~~ ~1~S (t;'~hY~: ~~~t:~e ~~~Jlit~~:~!~
From the geometric viewpoint, the Cauchy problem consists in
finding nn integral surface in the space x, y, cp (or x, y, 'lJl) that
passes through a preset spatial curve. It is just the projection of this
curve onto the plnno g, x that is the initial curve y = y (x) on this
plane. The solution of the Cauchy problem as applied to the investi-
gation of supersonic gas flows and the development of the correspond-
ing method of characteristics arc t.he results of work performed by
the Sovict scientist, prof. F. Frankl.
To consider the Cauchy problem, let us write Eqs. (5.1.8) and
(5.1.25) in the general form
Au + 2Bs + Ct + H = 0 (5.2.1)

:~~~ed up:rtT:i J~~i~;t~~:s:=\:;V v~Ol::rV~f ~,d ~,=a:dv Jo:qt"a'l' :~:

coefficients of the corresponding second partial derivatives, and
the quantity H is determined by the free terms in Eqs. (5.1.8) and
We shall find a solution of Eq. (5.2.t) in the vicinity of the initial
curve AB (Fig. 5.2.t) in the form of a series. At a point M (x o, Yo).
the required function is

~ (x" y,) ~ ~ (x, y)+ ~ +, [(dx)' ::~


+f (L\X}fl-J 6y 8.t:~~~8v + n (~~1) (6x)n-2 (6y2)

X m::',.' + ... + (dy)' ~:n (5.2.2)

Ch. S. Method of Characteristics 207

where IP (x, y) is the value of this function at the given point A (x, y)-
on the initial curve, fix = ;:j';1J - x, fUnl fly = YIJ - y. The function
'If may be used ill (5.2.2) instead of IP.
Series (5.2.2) yields the required ~olution if values of Lh(' [HIl('Lions
IP (or 'If) and also their derivatives of any order exist on a gin'n curve
and arc known. Since the flrst derh'alives on this curve [\\'(' shall
denote them by p = (fx (or 'fr) and q "-' lPu (or 1f,)} arc gin'lI. our
task consists in fmding the second derivatives on it, and ul!'o clt'rh'u-
tives of a higher order. lIcmce. the solution of tlu' Cau(,hy prohlem
is associat~d wilh flUding of the conditions in which til(' higlwr (l('ri\.:I.'
tives 011 the givl'1l curvl' ('UIl b(' delermilled. "'c
shalilimiL (lul'~('IYCS
to determination of thc second derinth"es. Since these cic'rh-ilLiYes
are three in numbel' (u, s. rille! t), we ha"'(' to compih Ihl' !'ame
lIumber of indl'Jll'II<h:-nl cquilliom: to fultl them. Equalioll (:).:!.:!).
which is satisfied on the initial CUl"\'e AR. is the first of th('m. The
other two arc obtained from the following known relations for the difie-rcntial~ of the functions or two indep'~llclent \aliahl.,!' on
this cnrve:
dp :.:. (iJplih-) da: (Op/tJy) dy = u d.r --- s dy
dq = (aqillx) dx+ (aq/ay) dy = 8 dx -,- t dy
Hence, we call write the systcm of equations for determining the
second d('rivnti\'('s ill the form
A,,+2B8-' Ct-; II =.0 }
dxu, dys-: O.t-dp~O (fi.2.3)
O.u-~dxs+dyf-dfJ=- 0
This system of eql\Cltion~ is !;ol\'l'd rOI' the unknowns u. s, and t
with the aid of clcterminallt~. H we introduce the symbols 11 and
a l" 6~, h, for the principal and partial determinants, respectinly,
we have

211 C\
dy 0 ;
dx dy
\. - II
2B C \ )
-II C\ \ A 2B
dp 0 ; 8/ = dx dy
dq dy 0 dx dq )
Ui .2A')

It follows from these relations tlHl.t if the principal deterDlinant 6.

does not equal 7.ero on the initial curve AB. t.he second derivatives u.
8, and t arc calculated unambiguously.
208 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Let us assume t.hat t.he curve has been cilosen so that t.he principal
det.erminant on it is zero, i.e . .1. = O. Hence
A (dy/h)' - 2B (dy/h) + C ~ 0 (5.2.5)
I t is known from mathematics that when the principal determin-
ant .1. of the system of equations (5.2.3) is zero on the curve given
by Eq. (5.2.5), the second derivatives u, s, and t (5.2.4) are either
determined ambiguously, or in general cannot be determined in terms
.of q', p, and q.
Let us consider quadratic equation (5.2.5). Solving it for the
derivative dy/dx, we obtain
(dy/h),., ~ y: . ~ (I/A) (B V B' - AC) (5.2.6)
This equation determines the slope of a tangent at each point of
the initial curve on which the principal determinant .1. = O. It is
not difficult to see that (5.2.6) is a differential equation of two fam-
ilies of real curves if B3 - AC > O. Such curves, at each point of
which the principal determinant of system (5.2.3) is zero, are called
characteristics, and Eq. (5.2.5) is called a characteristic one.
From the above, there follows a condition in which the unambigu-
ous determination of the second derivatives on the initial curve
is possible: no arc element of this curve should coincide with the
characteristics. The same condition .1. 'ji::O holds for the unam-
biguous determination of tile higher derivatives in series (5.2.2).
Consequently, if .1. 'ji::O, all the coenicients of series (5.2.2) are
determined unambiguously according to the data on the initial
Consequently, the condition .1. =I=- 0 is necessary and sufficient t.o
solve the Cauchy problem. This problem has a fundamental signi-
ficance in the theory of partial dinerential equations. and formula
(5.2.2) can be used to calculate the flow of a gas. Dut from the view-
point of the physical applications, particularly of the calculation
of supersonic gas flows, of greater interest is the problem of determin-
ing the solution according to the characteristics, i.o. the method of
characteristic'S. This method can be obtained from an analysis of the
Cauchy problem and consists in the following. Let us assume that
the initial curve An coincides with one of tho characteristics. and
not only the principal determinant of the system (5.2.3) equals zero
along it. but also the partial determinants .1." = d, = .1., = O. It.
can be proved here that if, lor example. the determinants !J. and A,
equal zero, i.e.
Ay" - 2By' + C ~ 0 (5.2.5')
A (y'q' - p') - 2Bq' - H = 0 (5.2.7)
where p' = dpldx. q' = dq/dx. then the equality to zero of the other
determinants is satisfied automatically.
Ch. S. Method or Cherecteristics 209

Ar.cording to the theor~' of s)'stems of algebraic equations, the

equality to zero of the principal and all the partial determinants
signifies that solutions of system (5.2.3), although they are ambiguous.
can exi.,t. If one of the solutions. for example, that for u, is fmite.
then the 801lltions for sand t are also tinite.

5.3. Characteristics

CompatlbllHy Conditions

Equations (5.2.5) and (5.2.7) <letel'lllining the conditions in which

solutions. alLhongh ambiguous, exisl for u, s, and I arc known as the
compatibility conditions. Geometl'icillly, t.he lirsl of these eql1ltUons
l'cpresents two fnmiliesofcHr\'cslhlltarecharacteristirs ill the physi-
cal plane x. Y. And the second equat.ion two families of tur,'es thllt
are rharactel'istics in the phllle p. q.
Any solutiou of the prohlem on thc supersonic now of a gas fonnd
by solving equAtions of rharacteristi('~ (or compatibility conditions)
is a solution of the fundame,ttal equation of go., dynamics (5.1.8) or
(5.'1.25). TllC proof follows Crom what is known as the equiulcmce
theorem, according to which {he equations of charActeristics (5.2.5)
and (;).2.7) nre equivall'nt to the fundamentul equation (5.1.8) or
(5.'1.25) (a proof of this tlieonHn is. given in 1151).
From thfl geometric viewpoint. the pron'd eqlLivalellce signifies that
the solution or the eqnations of tllC cliaracteristics also gives tile
image or a plAne T, y Oil tlu~ planfl p. q wholl poillt~ of the ('.unos de-
termin(>(1 by differential eqllation (j.LH) ('orrc."lpolld to points of the
CUf\'e~ determined hy differl:'nlial eqlHlt-ion (5.1.25).
Hence, II definite point 011 a duuac_teristic ill the plane p, q cor-
responds to <'Ilch point on a characteristic in the plane x, y. This
corr4:'spolldence ran evidently he estaulished in different ways depend-
ing 011 the preset boundary cOJldition~. and. as will be shown below,
it is just this correspondencc that makes it possible to use character-
istics for r,alclliating gas flows.
Accordingly, a feature of charaderistks is that the initial condi-
tions cannot be sci arbitrarily along them, wbile they can along a
ntf\'e that is not n rharactcristk.

Detennlnatlon of QaracterlsHcs
Kind of Characteristics. A close look at (5.2.6) reveals thal the
roots of quadratic characteristic equation (5.2.5) may be real (equnl
or not equal in magnitude) and also complex c-onjugate. The differ-
ence between the root!! is determined by the expres..c;ion B" - AC =
= 6. When 6> O. Eq. (5.2.5) gives two <Iiilerent families of real
210 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and eWing

characteristics; the value of 6 = 0 determines two identical roots.

which corresponds to two coinciding families of characteristics, i.e.
actually to one characteristic; when 6 < O. the roots of the equa-
tion are a pair of imaginary characteristics.
Since the roots of a characteristic equation depend on the coeffi-
cients A, B, and C of diflerential equation (;").2.1), it is cllstomary
practice to establish the type of these equations depending Oll the
kind of clulra("teristics. When B > D, Rq. (fi.2.1) is a hypp.rboHc one,
when 6 =-= 0, a parabolic, and when 6 < D, an eUiptic one.
The cocflidents A, B, and C in Bqs. (5.1.8) for the velocity poten-
tial and (5.1.25) for the stream function are determined identically:
A = Vi - aZ , lJ "'"' V:.:1'II' C = v; - aZ (5.3.1)
6 ~ B' - AC - .' (V' - .,) (5.3.2)
where V = V Vi + V~ is the total velocity.
Therefore. for the regiorls of a gas fiow with snpersonic velocities
(V> a). hyperbolic equations are employed, and for regiolls of a
flow with subsonic velocities (V < a), elliptic ones. At the boundary
of these regions, the velocity equals that of sound (V = a), and
the equations will be parabolic.
Characteristics in a Physical Plane. Characteristics ill the plane
x. yare det.ermined from the solution of the differential equation
(5.2.6) in which the plUR !-lign corresponds to the characteristics of
the first family, aud the minus sign to those of the second ono.
The quantity "-I = dyldx directly calculated by expression (5.2.6)
and the plus sign in this expression determine the angular coefficient
of the characteristic of the ftrst family, and '-2 = dyldx and the minus
sign-that of the characteristic of the second family. Both these
characteristics are customarily referred to as conjugate. With a view
to expressions (5.3.1) and (5.3.2), we obtain the following expression
for the characteristirs in tbe plane x, y:
"-1.2 = dyldx = [1/(V~ - aZ)) (VcYv,v aVV! - aZ) (5.3.3)
The characteristics in the plane x, .'I have a defmite physical mean-
ing that can be determined if we find the angle ~ between the veloc-
ity vector V at a point A of the fiow (Fig. 5.3.1) and the direction
of tile charact.eristic at this point. The angle is determined with the
aid of Eq. (5.3.3) if we usc the local system of coordinates Xl' 1h
with its origin at point A and with the Xl-axis coinciding with the
direction of the vector V. With such a choice of the coordinate axes,
Vx = V. VII = 0, aud. consequently,
"-1,1 = tan Pl.2 :....c: (M2 - 1)-1/ 2
Ch. S. Method of Characieristic5 211

f~' SJ;~ explanation of the

phYsieal meaning of a character-

It 1I11l~ follows thaL ~L ill the ;Ual"ll angle. We ha\'E' there-rore ('stab-
lished 1111 importilllt property of characteristirs con!"islillg in that at
every point belonging to a rharacteri!"tir, the angle between a tan-
genl to it and the velocity v('rtor at this point equals the .1lach angle.
Consequentl)', a rharacteristir i!" a line of w('ak di~turbances (or a
Mach Hne) haYing the shape or a eurve in the general case.
The defmition of a characteristic as a Mach line has a direct
application t.o a t.wo-dimensional plane supersonic flow. If we have
to do with a two-dimcn~i()na.l spatial (axisymmetric) sup(>I"sonic
now, the l\Iach lines (characteristics) should be considered as the
generatrices of a surface of revolution enveloping the Mach cones
issuing from ve-rtice~ at the points of disturbance (on the character-
istics). A surface confming a certain region of disturbance is called
a wave surface or threedimensional Mach wave.
'Ve alre<ldy ).:now that pre!'i~ure wn,'e!" appear in a ga~ whose 5upcr-
~onic flow is characterized hy a growth in the pressure. tiut sllch a
flow mtty be a\.tt'nded by lml:ering oj the pressure, Le. there will be
a supersoniC' e:'\panding now, and t1le Marh linc~ will rllaract('ri7.e
expansion ",a'es. The reJe"ant charac.teri!"tic~. wllirh in the general
ease arc curved 1ine~ (for a plane now) or surfaces forme(] by the ro-
tation of these lines (for a spatial t\:'\isymmetric now) coincide with
these Mach lines. If a flow contains Mach lines (rharaderi!"tic~) in
the form of straight Jines, then simple expansion waves ",llose "eJ-
ocit.y of propagation ha~ one direction corresponfi to them. Wh{,11
Mach lines correspond to expansion waves, we rail them lines of weak
disturbances. using the terminology adopted for weak pre!"snre wayes.
It mllst be remembered here that no other expansion waves exeept
weak ones appear in 811 expanding slIpl'r!"onie flow. becallse other-
wise we would ha'-e to assume the possibility of the formation of
"strong" expansion wavE'~ (C'xpan!"iotl shorks) whirh in reaIllo,v eon-
ditions cannot exist.
If at a point of a physical plane the flow "elority and speed of sonnd
are kno\vn, tIle auove prop(lrty of ehal'lIcteri!!tirs makes it possihle
212 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics 01 lin Airfoil lind II Wing

to detl'rmine their ciirectiolls at tlds poillt uy calculu.tillg the Mach

angle by the formula Il = sin _1 (11M). We determine ..he angular
coefficients of the characteristic's in the coordinates x, y (Fig. 5.3.1)
from the eqnation
A102 = dyldx = tan (~ Il) (5.3.4)
where ~ is the angle of inclination of the velocity vector to the x-axis;
the pills sign relates to the characteristic of the first family, and the
minus sign to that. of the second family.
Equation (5.3.11.) is a differential equation for the characteristics
in a physical plane.
Characteristics in the Plane p,g. If we substitute for y' in Eq. (5.2.7)
the first root of the characteristic equation (5.2.5) equal to y' -= AI'
the equation obtained, namely,
A (Ad - p') - 2l1q' - H ~ 0 (5.3.5)
is the first family of characteristics in the plane p, q. A similar sub-
stitution for y' of the second root,l/' = 1..2 yields an equation for the
sE'cond family of characteristic's in the same plane:
A (A,q' - p') - 2Bq' - H ~ 0 (5.3.6)
Equations (5.3.5) and (5.3.6) for the characteristics can be trans-
formed by using the property of the roots of quadratic equation
(5.2.5) acc,ordiug to which
Al + A2 = 2BI A (5.3.7)
By considering the lirstfamily of characteristics and by introduc-
ing the relation A Al - 28 = -A2A obtained from (5.3.7) into
(5.3.5), we compile the equation
A (A,q' + p') + f/ ~ 0 (5.3.8)
Similarly, for a characteristic of the second family, we have
With a view to expression (5.3.4), Eqs. (5.3.8) and (5.3.9) can be
\vritten in the form


where the minus sign relates to characteristics of the first family,

and the pillS sign to those of the second one. ~~quation (5.3.10) de-
termines the conjugated cbaractedstics in the plane p, q.
Ch. S. Method 01 Chllrlleter;5tie5 213

Ortbogon;lIIlty of Chllrllc1crlstlu
If we rcplan~ the differentials in the r(lu<ltion:" for thr chararter-
i~tits with tinite difterell('es, the equaLion;; ubtained will be 011('.<:
of straight lin('s ill the ('onesponding plnne~ T. y and p, 1.
Let us consider the equations, pal'ticlliariy. for thc characteristics
of t.lle first family in the plane x. y and of L11(, :'.c-c()!i(1 family ill the
plane p, q. I t follows from (5,:t4) that for an clement of a character-
istic-a straight line ill the p!;me x. y-tile c(]lIatirm has the form
where Io. Yo arc the coordinateg of a lixed point, Al is all angular
coeffitient calculated from the parameters of the gas at tltis point.
and x, 11 are the runlling coordinfltes.
Let lIS compile an ('quaLion for an element of a chm'actel'hitic of
the second fllmily in the plane p, q in acrordallr.e witl, (5.::U)):
A "1 (q - 1u) +A (p - Po) -1- H (x - xo) = 0 (
where P'I' qll al'e tbe \',II11e:" of the functions p alltl (I at point. Xo, Yo
of the physical plane, the angular cocHidcnt Al and also the values
of A and H are calculated according to the parameter~ of the gas at
tJIi~ point.. find p and q Me rnnlling cool'tlinates.
Examination of Eqs. (5.3.4') and {,").;-Ul') f{'v('als that the incli-
nation of a straight line in the plane;1:, y i~ df'lermined hy the allgll-
lar cocfficient AI' and in the plane p, q by Ihe ,-\lIgular coefficient
-1:'1.. 1 ' It rail be proved similarly lhat fill element of a rharacteristir
or tlte sccond family in the plane x. y has the angular coefficient 1.. 2 ,
and an element of n d,araneristie of the first lomily in the' plane P.
q-the 811gular coeHicient -1/;'2' It Hl\I;.: follow:" that the character-
istics of different familie.9 iTt the two planes are perpendicular to ellck
This properly makel'l it pos~ible to determine the> direcLion of the
chflracteristics in the plane p. 1 if the direction or. the conjll~ate
characteristics in the phYl'lirlll pl<lllc i~ known. A.~~llme that for a
point P (l'o. Yu) of the pintle I, y we know the \'clodty components
V.'I'o, VIIO and the vallles of the functions J!o, qo. We ('1\11 delNllline the
directions of "he ~Ia("h lincs at this point (Fig. :1.:3.2) by (5.3.4.'). To
an element of characteristic Pi\" of the lirsL family iii the plane x. y corrl'sponcis an element of a cilarnc:terislic of the second fam-
ily-a straight line ill tlte pli1ne p, II set by Eq. (5.3.n'). This liue is
perpendicular to linc PX. but docs not pass through point P' with
the ("oordinates Po. qll. which il'l indicaled by the presence of a free
term ill Eq. (S.:Uj'). Consequently, to COllstrllrt all element of a
cliaractel'istie according to the rules of Analytic geometry, we must
lirst determine the distance 6, to it from point P'. A characteristic
214 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics of lin Airfoil lind II Wing

'~< 0' //
Property of orthogonality of
cttaracterlstics "';1'"
of the fir ... t family is constructed in a similar way in tile
plane p. g
perpendicular to ... traight line PM and at a distance of 6 z from point
P' (Fig. 5.3.2).
The property of orthogonality of characteristics helonging to
different families manifests itself in the ("aile of a potential flow for
the planes x. y and Vo Vv (the hodograph plane), and also ill the
casE' of fI vortex flow, for which the plane p. q is replaced with tile
same hodograph plane V.t , V v'

Trllnsformatlon of the Equations

for Characteristics In a Hodograph

Let us transform Eq. (5.3.10) to a form such that it will determine

the characteristics in a hodograph where the wlocity components
J;\~' d~&::eenW:t~~;r~!~~!::i~~! n~~r~~)d~:: ~I~' ;~~~~;.~s t~~~: t\~!Sc~ll~~?:~~
the derivatives dp/dx and dqldx:

_ ye d:; (1- V~)j/(k-I)

+ :~1 Vv (1- V2)I/tk -Il-1 V ~~ (5.3.11)

~! =-5;- (~~) =VxlOy~-1 *(1_V1)IJ(II-J>-:~ye d1::o:

X (l_ll2)'/(h-l)_ :~1 V:o:(1-vzPJ(l<-u-IV :~ (5.3.12)

Ch. S. Method of Ch~r~cteristics 215

A glance at Eq. (5.1.25) reveals that,/(A-O_ k2~1 }
~ ~q
y ~"i~x (1_V2)1'/(I<-\)Y"'(a 2 _VZ) ~~ ; A-'Vi-az
After introdueing (:J.3.11)-( into (5.3.10) and replacing the
quontiti('s dy/dx with the angular coefficients 1. 12 of the character-
istics. auti the flillctions Ian (~+ ~l) with the corresponding values
of A2.1' we ol)taill
eye-I AI .2 (1- V 2)I/(h-1) (V XA2.1 - V y ) 1- ye (1- y2)1/(~-1J

(d:~:r A~.,- d:~,/) +- J.~~et (1_V2)1/(I<-t>-IV ~~ (Vy-I'X A2.1)

-.- Fi~tl~ [ey~-la~Vx(1-jT2.)I/(h-I>-- k;;.1

~~~;x (1_YZ)k/(I,-uye(a2_V2) ~~ ] ,-,0

After cancelling quantities where possible and inLroducing the di-
mensionless variables
Vx -= V.JV.nnx' fy = l'yfVmu. V = V/Vmu ' VIa -= M
we ean wriLe this equation in thf' rorm

f A1 .2tV')'2.1- Vy)! (d~'(~.I_d;:)

21' r!I-Vx1<_~ . if e i\
'--;;:-=t.~ dI-Y1-','~!a~

- k;t _1:1' (1_V2) t~~;i/~~ .~_=O (5.3.14)

lly illtroc.lucillg Lhe polar aug-Ie B, we obtain tlJ(~ following expres-

sions for tl\e projections or the velodLy vecLor:
v." = Vcos~, Vy """ Vsin~ (5.3.15)
LeL liS differentiate thege expressions with respect to x:
dVxldx ," (dl'/d.r) cos ~ - I' sin ~ d~/dx
elV yld.t = (dV/d.r) sin ~ -7- V cos ~ d~/d.r
I (5.3.16)

introducing (5.3."15) and (S.:l.Hi) inLo (5.3.14) an<j taking into

account that tan" ~l = (lll~ - 1)-l and sin~ ~l "= M-", we have

k2~21' sinf\~;\:sc"s~ +A2.,cos~--sin~)

216 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics of lin Airlo,,,;'-',,,"",,,'--W=ing'---_ _ __

- V :~ (A 21 sin ~ -j cos~) + f V [A 12 (AM cos ~ - sin ~)

1 C()~~S~~Sin2IlJ- k;l . ;v (1-V2) l'_C:~~t~~in2,"" .~=O

Having in view that l(k - 1)/21 (1 - V 2 /Vin .. x) .." a2JV~Qlt =
:-0 fh sin 2 fl, we find
4+d~ (~2.1:~.~~o:-~oS~?:~n11l e4
'< [A1.2 (A2.1 cos ~ Si~~~~~:i~2 '"" C()S2 ~) ] tan 2 /-t

+ :~ - (sin21l C()Si~~i~::.cos~ sinBl ~: =0 (5.3.17)

Performing the substitutions Au -_. tan (~ =F fl) and A1.2 =
= tan (~ /-t). we transform the individual expressions contained
in (5.3.17) to the following form:

:::~~::~+:~:~11 ~t~nll (5.3.18)

AI.:! (A2.1C!lS~ s~~~)~~~1~21l __ CIJS2~) -"' ::)~f/::) 15.3.19)

(sin21l- CIlS2 ~~i~:'1 CIlS 1:\_ .. sin 1:1) = C()SS~~3~ 11) (5.3.20)
With a view to (5.3.18)-(5.8.20), Eq. (5.:t17) for the character-
istics of the first and second families, respectively, acquire the form
d: _ tan /-t d~-- e~. sin :):~~ ~ ~~n 11

~- :~ . co:~;~:_t 11) . :~ = 0 (5.3.21)

d:- -I--tanlld~-e~.sin~:~~~~~nll
- :~ . co:i;~~~t) . !~ = 0 (5.3.22)
The entropy gradient dS/dn can be calculated ac('ording to the
vahle of the derivative of the stagnation-pressure dp~/dn. For this pur-
pose, we shall usc relations (-1.3.6) and (4.3.20) from which we obtain
the following formula for the difference of the entropies:
S2 - S1 ;0.' -c u (k - 1) In (p~/PQ) (5.3.23)
Since c.., (k - 1) = R, then by calculating the derivative with
respect to n am] designating dS:!Jdn by dSldn, we fine!
-}. !: ~ _:~ .~o (.5.3.24)
Ch. 5. Method of Cherederi5tics 217

For our furthE'r tran~rorml\tiolls, we shall introdll('.e the new va-

~~ II
r dV
(t) = a{cot ll v (5.3.25)

that is an angle. We shall express the ratio dl//V ill the form d)./')....
(A V/a*), and ('ot Il with the lIid of (3.6.23) in the form

eot~~VM'-I~V(''-I)/(I- :~:: .,) (5.3.26~

.. ~ i\. Vr("_l)/'(l_~").!!:-
k I 2 ,.

Integration of (.'i.3.27) yields

(),...,.V ~:'~! tall-IV'4:=_:'+:-:-'=]'~'~1

'-8}.2 =
- tlln- I .,
VI=]'~' ~I
,. __k-j,l
= (5.3.28)

Having in view lh'lt A1II8:" = Vmula* = 11 (k :-1)j(k 1). we olr


O)~ V :~! lan- V A~~::=-\~ -tan-1 V :~: . A~~:x~A!



Substituting M for).. ill (5.3,28) in accol'dance with (5.~.2(j), we have

(1)=",/ !~.~! tan-I V !,~_: (M~-1) -tllll- 111 M:!.-1 (5.3.30}

Examination of Eqs. (5.:~.2\J) and (5.3.30) reveal~ that tlIe <Ingle (J)
is a fmlclion only of the llllmht'l' A (or M). 8ml. (ou~e('Ht'ntly. it can
be evaluatt'd befOl'ehand. whi('h facilitates ('akniat.iolls of supersonic'
ga~ flows by the method of {'llal'il(',Leri~ti('s.
The vnl\l(,,~ of (jJ for \'ariOils nllmbcrsM nt k - 1..1 <11'C contained in
'fable 5.3.1. whirh fllso gi\'cS the angles of indinatioll of the Ilistur-'
ballce Iill(' ('Illrlllatcd by tbt formula Il - sin-I (-II,").
218 Pt. I. Theory. Aerody""mics of "" Airfoil "nd " Wing

TolJle 5.3.1

"I w, d" I ., d" Ii ... I w, d," I . . d,. II.. I w, d., I . d.,

55.381 4.10
4,00 65.785
11 7.00
90.973 8.213
91.491 8.097
1.20 3.558 56.443 I 4.20 68.333 13.774 7.20 91.997 7.984
1.30 6.170 50.285 . 4.30 69.541 13.448 7.30 92.490 7.873
1.40 8.987 45.585 ~ 4.40 70.706 13.137 7.40 92.970 7.776
l1.9C5 4LSI0 !4.50 71.832 12.814 I 7,50 93.440 7.662
14.861 38.682 4.&1 72.919 12.556 7.60 93.898 7.5M
1.70 17.810 36.1'132 4.70 73.970 12.284 ; 7.70 94.345 7.462
l.SO 21.725 33.749 4.80 74.986 12.025 I 7.80 94.781 7.366
1.90 23.586 3t. 757 ' 4.90 75.969 11. 776 7. 9;)
95.2.:8 7.272
2,00 26.380 31l.(}UO i 5.00 76.92..) 11.537 8.00 95.625 7.181
2,'10 28.437 5,'10
~~:~~ j ~:!~
29.097 77.841 96.430 7.005
2.20 31.732 27.036 5.20 78.732 97.200 6.837
2.3<' 34.282 25.7'11 5.30 79.596 10.876 ! 8.SO 97.936 6.617
2.40 36.746 24.624 5.4.0 8<).433 10.672 SO 98,1)4.2 6.525
2.50 39.t24 23.578 5.50 81.245 10.476 . 00 99.318 6.379
22.620 5.60
21.738 5.70
9 20
1 . 40
2.8) 45.746 20.925 5,80 83.537 9.928 'J,60
I 101.188 5.979
2.90 47.790 2(1.1,1 5.90 84.256 9.758 I 9.SO t01..763 5.857 49.757 19.471 6,00 84.955 9.594 10.00 102.316 5.739
.3. to 51.650 18.819 : 6.10 85.635 9.4.35 110.20 102.849 5.626

I ~:~
3.2] 53.470 18.210 86.296 9.282 10.40 t(iS.362 5.518
3,30 55.222 t7.G40 86.937 9.133 to. 60 1(13.857 5.413
3.40 56.907 17.1t5 6.40 87.561 8.989 to.80 114.335 5.313
3.50 58.530 16.602 6.50 88.168 . 850 11.00 104.796 5.216

3.60 60.091 16.128 6.60 88.759 8.715 105.241 5.133
3,70 61.595
15.681 6.70
15.258 6.SO
89.335 8.584 105.671 5.032
3,80 89.895 8.457 j11.60 trI6.087 4,945
3.90 64.440 14.857 9.1.441 8.333II 1.80 t06.489 4.861
6 90
112 .00 HI6.879 4.780

InlrolJu<"ing the angle (tj into (5.;3.21) and (5.3.22), we obtain the
following equation for the characteristic's:

d(w=F~)-e-T. :.~~il5~~n:) :~ . ~:~t(P;~~ .#n-=O

Equation (5.3.Hl) corresponds to th(' mo~t general case of super
.sonic two-dim('nsionai (plane or spatial) vortex (non-isentropic)
now of a gas,
Ch, 5, Method of CharacleristiC$ 219

Equlltlons (OJ ChllJlldeJisHcs

In a Hodograph lor Pllrtfcular
Cllses 01 GIIS flow
The form of Eq, (5,2,5) for charaderislics in a pllysical piane is
the same for all ('ases of gas flow if til(' latter is Sl1pf>['soni('. and two-
dimensional. Bllt in a hooograph. the eqllations for the ("haracter-
istks difl'er and depend Oll the kilul of now.
If a two-dimensional flow is \'ortex-free, then 1\("{'ortiing to (5,1.2:1)
at all points of :::pa("e occllpiefl hy tin' gas, the entropy is com;tant
(dSldn = 0), and, therefore, the efjuation for the characteristics
3equircs a simpler form:

d(w=F~)-f' ~:'~~]1s~~) ,0 (5.3.32)

For a plane lion-isentropic now ( -= 0). we have

In the simplest ease of a plane \'ort('x-free flo\\' (dS'dn -: 0), wc

d (00 'tO~) ~ 0 (5.:1.:1-1)
lntcgl'ation of (5.3.34) yields ~ - (r) -+- const. Introducing lixcd
values of tho angles ~l atl(l ~2 instead of the ('onsLanl. where ~l (',01'-
respollds to t.he pIll," sign of ro, and ~2 to the minus sign, we lind lUI
equation for the ('haractE'ristics in the form
- ro ---j- Bl.:! (3.:l..15)
Introducing instead of t,l relation (~).:{.2U), we oblnin

B= (V:g tan- I }-/ i.::::-\1

-tlln-ll;/ ~~.! . i.Lzx-:....\2) .:.~I.Z (5.3.36)

Hence. unlike Eq. (;),2 .' lor ('hnracLt'rislics in a php:icai plane

and Eqs. (.'i.3,31), (!i.:1.~{2) or (!i.;{,3:~) for rharadl'l'islics in a hoclo-
graph ill a difie]'('utial Io]'[\}. the ('ol'l'eSpollfHng er]uation (5.;~.:J())
for the charact.eristics of a pin!}' isentropk flow has an explicit form.
GeomClt'('ally, this eqllation deline's two families of ('urves-('har-
acteristics in a ring whose iuncr radiu!> is ").. ---.., 1 anci whose outer
one is i. nlax = [(k ._. I)!(k -- 1)11/~ (Fig. 5.:1.3). The integl'<ltion
conslant ~l and til(' pillS sign in front of the function w (i..) corre~
spond to II dlilrarteristic of the I'm"l family. while the constant ~2
and the rninu.'\ sign. to the second ouc. These curves are epicycloids
220 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and II Wing


Fig. S.l.l
Epicycloids-characteTistics of
lL plane supersonic flow:
l-charaelprisHc or the first lamn),;
2-charactnistlc of the Sf'cond ra

and can be obtained as the path of a point on a circle of radius

0.5 (Amax - 1) travelling along the inner (or outer) cirrle of the
ring (Fig. 5.3.3). The angle ~ of inclination of the velodty vector
and the speed ratio A are the polar coordinates of points on an epi-
By analysing a graph depicting a network of epicycloios, we can
condude that angles ~ larger in their magnitude, i.e. a more con-
siderable deflection of the flow from its initial direction, correspond to
an increase in the velocity due to expansion of the flow. A smaller
deflection of the flow is observed at lower velocities.
The angle of inclination of the velocity vector is neterJllined di-
rectly by the angle w whose physical meaning can be established
from (5.3.35). Assume that the integration constants ~I.2 . .." O. This
signifLCs that expansion of the flow begins when ~ --= 0 and M = 1-
In accorciance with this, the quantity ~ = w (M) is the angle of
deflection of the flow upon its isentropic expansion from the point
where M 1 to a state characterized by an arbitrary number M > 1
equal to the upper limit when evaillating integral (5.3.27).
Hence, there is a difference hetween the angle of deflection of a
flow with the numher M > 1 from a certain initial direction and the
angle ~ .- w determining the complete turning of the flow upon
its expansion from a state characterizeci by the number M -: 1.
The angle of flow deflection in an arbitrary cross sectioll can be
determined as follows. Let lLS aSSHme that we know the initial num-
ber Ml > 1 which as a result o[ expansion of the flow increases and
rea('hes the yalue M2 > MI. The angles WI and 002 of {Iefle('.tion of the
flow from its direction al a point with the number M --' 1 correspond
to the numbers Ml and M 2 . The angles WI and 002 can be determined
graphic-ally with the aid of all epicyc.ioid from expression (5.3.30) or
Table 5.3.1. We lise their values to lind the allglrl of inclination of
the velocity vectors. Considering, partieularly, a characteristic of
the lirst familr, we obtain ~I -= WI (M 1) ami ~2 002 (M 2). Conse-
Ch. 5. Method 01 Characteristics 221

quently, the angle of deflection from the initial direction is

,,~ ~ ~, -~, "00, (M,) - 00, (M,) (5.3.37)
The calClllati()ll~ can hI' performed in tllC oppo1'itc sequence. deter-
mining the local number M'}. according to the known angle d~ of
<iefieetion of the flow tlnd the initial number MI' For this purpose,
from (5.3.37) (in the given example we also considcl' a characteristic
Qf the first. family), we find
00, (M,) ~ ,,~ + 00, (M,) (5.3.38)
We lind tbe corresponding values of
Table 5.3.1 according to tllC value of (0)2'
or M2 from Fig. 5.3.3 or

Of interest is the calculation of the ultimate Row angle or the

angle of deflection of the flow needed to obtain the maximum \'elocity
l'max' Assume that deviation begins from the initial lIumber M '--" 1.
In this case, we lind the ultimate flow angle by formuli\ (5.3.::l0) in
which we must adopt a value of M corresponding \0 V ma " equal to
for k .-' 1.1, the value of W ma " - U.72{b: -' "1:~{J.1(jo.
Consequent Iy. a supergQIlic flow cannot turn through an angle larg-
er than wmax and theoretically part of space remains unfilled with
the gllS.
H the initial Ilumuer M from which the deflection begills is larger
than uuity, the angle of this (Icflec-lion measured from the direction
at. M = 1 will be OJ (M), while the ultimAte flow angle corresponding
to tills Humber is
~,,,,,~oom,,-w(M)' (~/2)1V(krl)/(k I) Ij-.o(M) (5.3.10)
for k . 1.4. the angle ~lIlax - J3U.4(r - (0) PI).
For hypersonir velocities, the calculation of the function (0) and,
('oJlseqllently, of the angles of deflection is simplified. Indeed. for
M I. the terms iu (5.3.30) can he represented in the follo ..... ing form
'''itll all at'cllri\{'Y within quantities of a higher order of inflllitesimal:

V~~~ tall-'l/~~~ (M2_"1)~V~~! (T-~V:=!)

tan-I VM"--l ~ a/2-1/M.
The formula corresponding to (!J.3.3i) acquires the form

~~=~2-~1= - k~1 (;2 - ~t) (U3n

222 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodyn~mic$ 0/ an Airfoil and ~ Wing

All the above relations have been found for a perfect gas. At very
low pressures. however. a gas is no longer perfect. This is why the
calculated ultimate now angles are not realized and have only a theo-
retical significance.

5.... Outline of Solution

of Gas-Dynamic Problems
A"ordlng to the Method
01 Characteristics

The determination of the parameters of a disturbed snpersonic

flow is as)':ociated with the solution of a system of eqnations for the
('hnracteristies in a physical plane and in a hodograph if the initial
conditions in some way or other are set in the form of Cauchy's con-
ditions. In the general case of II two-dimensional non-isentropic flow.
this system has the form:
for characteristi('s of the first family
dy - dx t.n (~ -;- ~,) (5.4.1)
d (oo - ~) - e (dx/y) l +
(dx/kR) (dS/dn) c - 0 (5.4.2)
for characteristics of the second family
dy - dx t.n (~ - ~,) (5.4.3)
d (oo -;- ~) - e (dx/y) m - (dx!kR) (dS/dn) t = 0 (5.4.4)
where the coefficients are
1 = sin ~ sin )licos (~ + 11), C .- si11 2 ~~ cos J1lcos (~ + j.l)
m = sin ~ sin !-lIco.<; (~ - )l), t = sin 2 j.l cos ,lIeos (~ - j.l) (5.4.6)
For a two-dimensional isentropic flow. we have
dS/dn - 0 (5.4.7)
therefore the system of equations is simplified:
for characteristics of the first family
dy ~ dx t,n (~ + ~); d (oo - ~) - E (dx/g) l ~ 0 (5.4.8)
for characteristics of the second family
dy ~ dx t.n (~ - ~); d (w + ~) - e (dr/y) m - 0 (5.4.9)
For a plane flow, we assume that t = 0 in the equations, for a

SP~1:~~I:i1~s:~C~:;d!~:~:ih~ ~eii):dn~f:~~;a~;:!fsCt~c~ ~~s!:~d p~!g:

lem on the flow over a body t:onsisls of the solution of three partic-
ular problems.
Ch. 5. Method of Characteridics 223


~~~e:~':ion or the velocity at the intersection point of two characteristics of

different families:
(I"-physical pl~ne: tl_I)lane or hodograph

The Jirst problem is assoeiated wiLh the determination of the-

vclarity and other parameter." at the poillt of iElIl'r~eclioll of charac-
terist.irs or tliffereut fnUlilie!'; i!lsuing 11'0111 two rio!le poillt~_
Assume that we arc delermining the parameter,s at point C (veloc-
ity Ve. IlIliub.>l' .J/r,. flow uefleciioll angle ~e. entropy Sc. etc.) at.
the inter~ectioll of clements of charfl('.tcristirs 01' the lil'st anti gccond
families drawll from points A and JJ (Fig. 5.4.10). At these points~
whirh arc on diffl'rent strealillille~. we know the velocities VAt Vo
and other parameters, including the cntropie.<; S.". and So.
All the ralrulatioJls arc based on the lise of Eqs. (5.4.1)-(5.4.4) for
the ('haracteristit's. which in linite dirrcrenrcs havo tli.> form:
for the fir!!t family
6Yn ..." 6XB tau (~s '7- ~In) (5.1.10,
..l.Ws - .1.~1l - e (6xs/YIl) ls -:' (l\:rs'kR) (6S/.1.II) CD ~.= 0 (5.4.11)
for the ~e('oncl family
.1.YA . - 6.T,. tall (~,. - ~I,.) (S.1.12}
6w,. ...:, .1.~,. - f (.1.J,.ly,.) til,. - (1lr,.lkll) (6SI.1.II)I,. 0 O"iA.13)
6yo ..." Yc - Yn- 6JIl'-O; .I'e -.t"Jj. 600a -= (ole - (0)11' }

&~B ~ ~c - ~B
t:J.YA ._' Yc - 1IA. 6XA:~ Xc - .TA_ 6(1),. We - roA. (5.4.14)
&~. ~~" -~.
'224 PI. l. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 .n Airloil and a Wing

In . , sin ~B sin I-'u/cos (~B -I- I-'B)

CD - sin~ J1B cos Jln/cos (~B +
Jln) } (5.4.15)
mA .:. sin PA sin I-'A/c.os(~A - I-'..d
tA :-: sin!! JlA cos /-lA/COS (~A - /-lA)

Equations (5.4.10H5.4.13) were derived assuming that the caeffi-

cients I, m, c, and t remain constant upon motion along characteristic
elements BC and AC and equal their values at the initial points B
and A.
The change in the entropy per unit length of a normal b.S/b.n is
ealculated as follows. It is shown in Fig. 5.4.1a that the distance
between point.s B and A is
b.n ::::::: (AC) sin IlA +
(BC) sin j.1n
AC ....:; (xc - XA)/COS (~A JlA), Be -- (xc - XB)/COS (~n - Ils)
Introducing the notation
e "-' (xc - XA) sill JlA {'os (PB -\- J.lB). I .= (xc - xo) sin ,...8 cos X
X (~A - ~.)
we obtain
IlSllln ~ (S. - SB) ,OS (~B -'- ~D) COS (~. - ~A)I(f + e) (5.1.16)
The entropy aL point C is determined from the relation

Sc=b.Sn-l-SB = !! (BC) (SA/~SeR)/ +Sn (5.4.17)

The entropy gradient may be replaced with the stagnation pressure
gradient in accordance with (5.3.24):
t AS 1 Apo (PO,A-PO.S) cos (f}n+lls) CtlS(f}A-IlA)
7f'Afl= -P;;'""'Kn=" - (j:e) II Po.
The sLagnation pressure at point C is
Po, c ...: (Pl!. A - Po, n) fl(f -I- e) + Po, B (5.4.19)
To rilld the coordinates Xc and Yc of point C, we have to solve the
simultaneous equations (5.4.10) and (5.4.12) for the elements of the
eharacteris1ks in a physical plane:
Yc - YB = (xc - xB) tan (Pe -1- J.l8);
Yc - YA = (xc XA) tan (~A - J.l.A)
A graphical solution of these equations is shown in Fig. 5.4.1a,
We use the found value of Xc to determine the differences b.xo '-"
Ch. 5. Method 01 CI1~r,!lcle"stics 22ri

=Xc -Xll and u,tA '-::L'c in Eqs. (3.4.11) and (5k13).

The incremenl~ 6.008, .1.UlA. 6.~o, flnd 6.~.\ Hre tilc ullJ..:no\\'ll~ in these
equations, but the latter are onl:.' two ill numher. The numbet of
unkuO\\'rls can be reduced to two in lluordance with the number of
equations in the system. For this purpose, we compile tlte obviolls
.1.wA ,- Ule - UlA, -- 6.~lB -+ Wn - ~JA \
6.~A ~B - ~A - 6.~B + [31J - ~A

With account taken of tllese relations, Eq_ (5.4.13) is tran:::Iormed

as follows:
t ~W.TW.-wA' ~~nT~B-~A-' A:~' mA- ':/,'. !! 'A-O
By !'olving this equfltioll simultaneou:::ly wilh (5.4,11) for the
\"al'iflbie 6.~II' we obtain

ll~n=+ [k~l . ~~. tLixAtA :.1.ZoClI) :-8 (~:A rnA

- ~:l.) -(W'-"'A)-(~n-~A)] (5.1.22)

\-Ve use the found value oI 6.~fl to evaluate the inrn>lllellt of the
function W by (5A11):

Xow we can cakulRte the angles for point C:

~c = Li~B + i3B; We = 6. Ws + (us (5.4.24)
Ar('ording to the found \'alu!'! of (U(;, we determine the number M(;
and the :Uar.h lingle Ile at point C from Table ;i~l.1.
A grapbiclll solution of the ~ystE'rn of pqu.1lioIlS for characteristic ..,
in a hodograph a5 a result of which thf' angle ~c and the nllmher
AC (Mel are detet'mined i5shown in fig. 5.4.1b. where fi'e' and A'C'
are elements of the charnclerisLics of tIle fm;t and serond families
corrc!>ponding to element:; of tlte eonjngate characteristic.<I llC and
AC in a physicfll phme. The fOHm! number Me (or he) when neces-
sary ('an be used to detcrmine parameters such fI~ the pressure. den-
sit-yo and tempNatUl'C
The calculaled parameter", can he detel'miued llIore precisely if
we substitute for IJl' mAo cn. and lA ilt Eqs, (.1.1.10)-(5.4.13) the
qllantitie~ obtained from the \'alue:; of the angles ~ and 11 that are
the a\"('rage between the ones set. at points A and 11, and those found
226 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics of en Airfoil .nd .. Wing

(al " (oj A,


~~'~~~:ion of the velocity at the int.ersection point of a characteristic with

a surface in a flow:
a-pbysical plane; b-planp of bodogrl. ph

at point C in the first approximation, i.e. from the values:

fl1' ,= (flA + Ilcl/2, IllJ' ::-= (fiB + Ilc)/2
} (5.1.25)
~~' ~ (~A + ~c)/2. ~~' ~ (~. + ~c) /2
We fm<] the more precise coordinates .cc and Yc of point C from
the equations
6YB = AXB tall (~il ' +- IllJ ' );
6YA = 6z A tan (~A2' - fl.~')
The se~oDd problem consist:!' in calculating the velocity at the
point of interscction of a characteristic with a surface in a now.
Assume that point H is located at the inter5ection with linear ele-
ment DB of a characteristic of the second family drawn [rom pOint D
near a surfacc (Fig. 5.4.2). The velocity at this point (both its mag-
nitude and direction), the entropy, and the coordinates of the point
are known.
The velocity at point R is determined directly with the aid of
Eq. (5.1.1) for a characteristic of the second family. If we relate this
equation to the conditions along characteristic element DB and
express it in fmite differences, we have
6wI) .~ -6~D -7- e (6xo/Yo) mo - (6xo/kR) (6S/6n) to (5.4.27)
6wo = WB - WO, 6~o = ~B - ~o' 6xo = XB - Xo }
mo = sin ~o sin flo/COS (~o - flo) (5.4.28)
to = sin2 flo cos flO/COS Wo - flo)
Ch. $. Melhod of Ch~r~deri5tics 227

The coordinates XB and YB of point II ;1fP drt0fmincd by the "i-

mllltaneous soIntioll of thc equation for (\ clwra('teristic of the l'f.'conri
fnmily and the eqllation of the wall contour:
YB - Yo -, (rn - Xfj) tall (~l) - /.'-0); Yo "--' f (xD) (5.1.30)
A graphical sohllion of these equations is ~ho\\"l1 in Fig. 5.1.2a.
'Ve lISe the fOlllld ('oordinates .Tn and Yn Lo evaluate the angleo
~s from the eqllation
tun ~!.1 = (dyld.c)Jj (5.4.31)
The entropy S8 (or the stagnation pressure P~. B) at point B is
considered to be " known qllantity and equal to its \'slue all die
streamline ("uindding with a tnngellt. to t.he surfa('e. The entropy is
con~idcred 1.0 be constant alOllg au clement of the tangent.
Vpon ca\cllinlillg the innelllcnj. 4wv by (5.4.27). we can liltd
the angle (r)R - AWD -L. WJ). Hlld theu detel'mine the number i.,s
from Table 5_3_ 1. Ilo\\" the velocity at point H is determined is shown
graphically in Fig. 5..'i.2b, whert> element Dr fl' of it characteristic
of the ~econd famiJy ill 0. hodograph ("orrl'spond~ to all element of n
('.hafnrteri~tic of the same family in n physicnl pI nne.
The third problem consist~ in calculating the YP\ocity at the
interl'prtioll of the charartE'ristics with a ."hod, alld in determilling
the rhl'lnge in t.he inclinatiOIl of the shock at. this point. Since a char-
acteristic in its nature is a line of weak di.~lllfhan('e.", Ihis illtersec-
tioll physically ('orrc!'iponds 10 the inlcraclion of a wpal, w(\\-e \\"lth
a compression shark. Assume that closely arrangpd expan"ioll wa\"('~,
""hi('\l rharacteril'tics of the first family ('orrespolld to. fnll at
points J and H on ('omprc~sioll shock A of a preset shape!J ..,.t tl")
(Fig. 5.4.3a). As a rcsult, the streng!11 dimillishL's. as dol'S the incli-
nation angle of the shock_ Sin('c points.r nnd Jl :lr(' SOllrces of (Iistllr-
banccs. expansion wa\"C~ appear, AJI(I ('h~facteristics of thc .~ecOl\d
bmily ran he drawn through these point". Olle of stich rharartl'f-
istics, pa.<:sing through point. J. interser.ts the neighbouring conju-
gate ('hnrart('ristic at point P (-ailed lhe nodaJ point of the cbarac~
To determine the rhaugc in tIll' illl"linl'ltion of tbt'! shark oud in
the ,elority behind it, olle nlll~t u~e the properties of the C'hornC'tcr-
is-tics .r F and FH pH.~sing through nodal point F. and also the rcla~
tions for calcllhllillg" a compl"f!SSiOll shock. Since length JH of the
shock h, mall. this scrtiOH lTlay be a!'>sumed to be linear. The angle
of inclinl'llion of thc ilo('k on this section and the corresponding pa-
228 pt, I. Theory. Aerodynamic.s of an Airfoil and a Wing

(.1 (6)

rameters of t.he gas are approximately equal Lo their values at inLer-

section point II of clement FH of a first family characteristic with
the shock.
One or the unknown parameters is the angle of indinatioll ~H of
the velocity vector at this point. which can be written as ~H =
= A~p + ~p, where A~Ji' ~H - ~F. and ~F is the known angle

of inclination of the velocity vector at point F. To evaluate the

second unknown (the number MH at the same point) we shall use
the formula
MH ~ MJ -I- (dMld~)JA~JH (5.4.32)
in whicb (dMld~)J is a derivative calculated with the aid of the rele-
vant expressions for a compression shock according to the known
parameters at point J, and the quantity A~JH determined by the
change in the angle ~ along a shock element equals the dirt:erence
~H - ~J. We may assume that this quantity approximately equals
the change in the angle ~ along the element FH of a characteristic
of the lirst family A~PH --' L1~p PH - PF'
The derivative dMldP is evaluated as a result of difterentiation
of (4.3.19'),
dd~ = ~1&1 = -M2 [cOt(9~-P5) ( ::: -1)
+ 2 (f~6) ~,)
s;n' (a, - +. (
f.-)] (5.4.33)
We shall calculate the derivath'c d (P2/Pl)/dP. on the right-hand
side by differentiating (4.3.13):
d:s (Tr-)=2cote~(1-~*)i7-' :: (5.4.34)
Ch, 5. Method of CharaderjstiC$ 229

We determine the derivative de_\.'d~s as follows. We differentiate


d~S (~)-~~{ :~; [sine5Ico~As - "Csi"""'(e';-'-~;~),"'"CCs(mll,----c~".)

+ sin (0" Bs/cos (0;: tis)}
This relation ('au be transformed ::;omcwhat by using ().~.2~):

d~s (~) =~. tan05eos~(OS ~s)

X {~:: [cos:(;~;o:~~)_~ ]+Tt} (5.4.35)

Equating the right-hand sides of (5.4.34) and (5.4.35) and solving

the equation obtained for the derivative dO,/d~~, we obtain:

~~: .~~ [2cog2 (6s -Ps) (1-l)~)

Let IlS de-rive an expre!'sioll for the change in the number.V when
trave-lling along the characteristics from point F to point H, Le.
for the quantity llMp - M'H - M}I. To do this, we sh",n s\lb.~tittlte
expression (5.1.32) h('re for MH:
ll,"~. = 111J -:- (dMJd~h ll~F - .uF (S.,i.~7)

\Ve can go over from the nllmber M to the rUllction (0) determined
by relation (5.:1.30):
(dwld~)J ~ (dMid~" (dwidM), (5.4 ..1U)
The derivative dw/dill is determined as n result of differentiating
Equation (5.-1.11) for a characteristic of the first family applied
along clement FH yields
~"'F - ~~, - e (AXFiy,.) I, -'- (AxFlkR) (!!'sIAn) 'F ~ 0 (5.4.41)
6,Wp=WH-WF, ll~F=~ll-PP. llXP=Zll-XP}
IF = sin ~}' sin IlF/cos (~F -:- JAF) (5.4.~2)
CF = sin 2 J-tF cos ).tp/cos (tiF 'i-IlF)
230 pt. I. Theory. Aerodynllmks of lin Airfoil lind II Wing

The distance along a normal to a streamline between points F

and H is
6.n= (FH) sin I-LF= c::~~~~I-lF sinllF (5.4.43)
COIl!<eqllently, the entropy gradient in (5.4.-'11) is
I1S/6.n . . . .: (SH - SF) cos (~F + IlF)/(:rH - xF) sin Jl.F (S.4.4'i)

!: = - P:' F (po. H(~:O.~)):~:~;+~f (5.4.45)

where Po,
H i~ found ac(',ording to the nllmber Mn from the shock
The entropy SF or the st.agnation pre~~;ure P~.F at point F can be
adopted approximately eq1lal to the corresponding values at point
J on the shock, i.e. SF ~ SJ and P;,. t' ~ J. Po.
Solving Eqs. (5.4.38) and (!j./i.41) for 6.~F' we obtain

I1~F:~[( !;L-1rl(WF-WJ+f: tl:t~' IF- ~~;. !~ Ct) (5.4.46)

Illserting the value of 6.~F into (5.4.38), we call find 6.wp, ('~alcu
late the angle Wn ....; 6.Wt' + Wt" and determine more precisely the
number M H . By (,alculating the angle ~n ~...: 6.~F +
~F' we lise
the values of this angle, and also of the preset llumber Moo to lind
the shock angle 8s. H at point H and, consequently, to determine
the shape of tbe shock more accurately on section JH. If necessary,
til" calculations can be performed in a second approximation, adopt-
ing instead of the parameters at point J their average values between
points J ami H. Particularly, instead of the angles WJ and ~J' we
take the relevant average values of 0.5 (wJ -;- WH) aud 0.5 (~J ~ ~n)
Figure 5.4.3b shows how the problem is solved graphically. Point
H' 011 a hodograph, corresponding to point H on a physieai plane, is
determined as a result of the intersection of element F' H' of a first
family characteristic ,,,ith a shock polar constructed for the given
free-stream number Moo. The vector 0' H' determines the velocity
AH at point H.

5.5. Applications of the Method

of Characteristics
to the Solution of the Problem
on Shaping the Nozzles
of Supersonic Wind Tunnels
The method of characteristics allows liS to solve one of the most
important problems of gas dynamics associated with the determina-
tion of the shape of a wind tnnnel nozzle intended for producing a
two-dimensional plane parallel supersonic flow at a preset velocity.
Ch. 5. Method of Cho!lro!lcteris/ics 231

7 5 4. J

ff:iz~:'~r sup~rsonic tunnl'\;

:p~~t:ferwall; t nod .1 -;iM walls; J-t'xit 5"CtiOO; "-bottom 'Ilo... II: ,,-critical s~cliQn; 7-

Unshape>d twodimensional
supersonic nozzle with a radial

The nozr-Ie ensuriug sur-Ii a now is a mouthpiece whose l'lidc walls are
nat. while its top and boltom walls have a spedaUy shaped contour
(Fig. ;).5.t).
Tn addition to detCl'mining tile shape of its curved contour, the
design of a nozzle inc.ludes calculation of the pllrameters of tile ga9
ill the reeeiver (Lhe p;uameters of stagnation) and in the critical sec-
tion, and also ill'l area S*. The parameters of the gas at tile nozzle
exit are Ilsually pl'escl. namely, lht' nllmber Me.;, tile pressure p"".
the area of the ('xit section S ~ lb, and the temperature of the gas
in til(' receiver To. The area of til(' <:Titleal nozzle section is found
from flow I'ale (,([lIalion (;l.G.fa!a) which we sllall write in the form
p""V""S ... P*Il*S*.lIence S* - {r.",V",/r*a"') S -= qS.
It follow!' from (:~.(,) thai Ihe parameter q is rletcrrnilled IJY
the preset number M", nl the noule exit. According Lo this value of
Moe and Ihe PI'csslLre p"", at the exit, and by lIsing formula (:-)'G.:.J.G),
we lind the pressure Po in the recei\'e'r necdCll to ensure the pre~ct
lIum\)Ci' M xo at the exit.
Sext the anglf! 2" of an ullshaped is liet (Fig. ;).J.~). E-xpc-
rimental illve:<tigations show that this angle is generally chosen
eqlllli to 30-3;)'.
If tile sectioll or the inlet part of a nozzle changes sldiiciently
gradllally, the now dO\\'nstream of tile critical section can be ('omdd-
'!red AS an expanding radial How from a soufee aL point O. SUcil a
flow has the property that its direction coincide"! with that of radial
linl's emerging from point O. The change in the parameters of the
gas in magnitllde along caeh of these lines is of the same nature.
The length of the subsonic. portion of the nozzle of unit width is de-
232 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics of lin Airfoil and II Wing

FIg. S.S.)
Construction of a:shaped supersonic twodimensional nozzle

termined by the quantity r* =- 8* [360/(2n2y1)1, while the

distance to the exit section r A ~ 8 [360/(2n21'1)1.
In the region of the nonle confmed by two cirrles of radii r* and
rA, i.e. beyond the limits of the critical section, the gas flow is su-
personic.. Shaping of tile nozzle consists in replacing straight wall BC
in this region with a curved contour ensuring the gradual transition
of the radial flow into a plane parallel flow at the eTit at a preset
velocity. For this purpose, let u.s draw through point 0 a number of
closely arranged liJlPs and determine the velocities (the numbers M)
on these lines at their intersection points AI' ... An with a char-
acteristic of on(> of the families AAn (let us consider it to be a char-
acteristic of the sl;lcond family) emerging from point A on all arc of
radius rA (Fig. 5.5.3). Point Al is at the intersection of ray r 1 =
= OA I with the element of characteristic AA I drawn at an angle of
~"" -- _Sill- I (11M ",,).
We fwd the number MI at point Al \vitl! thp aid of the expression
91 = 8*IS1 Since 8 1 = 2ar1 ,1 (21'/360), and S* -= :!nr*1 (2yl360),
we have ih = r*lrI . Employing (3.6.'.6), \ve can lind Al and the cor-
re~ponding number MI'
We determine in a similar way the coordinates of intersection
point A z of the adjacent ray rz = 0.1 2 with the element of character
istic AIAz inclined to straight line OA I at the angle ~(l =
= _sin- l (1IM I ), the number M2 at point A2\ and so on. As a
result, wo can construct a characterist.ic of the secolJd family in the
form of broken line AA1 ... An_tAn int(' straight wall
BAn of the nozzle at point An. For this point, as for the other points
An_2' An_I' and An of intersection of the characteristic wit.h the
straight lines emerging from source 0, we calculate the relevant
Mach numbers and the angles fL = -sin-l (11M).
The flow region OAAn with a known velocity field confllled by the
characteristic AAn and the straight walls of the nozzle is called a
triangle of definiteness. The shape of this flow is preserved if we
change the wall behind point An so that the radial flow on the Mach
line gradually transforms into a plane parallel flow at the exit.
Ch, 5, Method of Characteristics '233

\'"ith a "iew to thi~ ronciilioll, we can

of the nr!'t family eml'l'ging from point
~traight lirH', If we now determine the
the ehMueteristie!' AA" /Iud ADm' we
lillc~. I t is exactly the .streamline pa.<;:-ing
('idl'~ with the .shaped ('ontol1r of titl'
To rietN'minc tIlt'> wloeit\' field, \\.('
dimensional tlow being (,(;ll:"idl'r('ri the rhara('1l'ristic.'< of the-
ftr.!'t family elll(,l'ging from point,;.: /t" -2 ... 1". l' ilS \\'('11 as the rhnr-
aeteristir .. iD m art' slraight lillc.s Wig, :;,5,:~), Till' inclination of
ead( charartN'islic 10 a radial line is II(>terlllin('d by thcenrri'5pOnd-
Ing ~!ar1t anglc jl( _. sin- J (J'Il!I). ~12 sin 1 (t/M 2 ), C!t<'., while
the vclocity Iklong a ('haJ'art(lri~ti(' is dl'terminod hy ils l'I'I(','allt ,'ahle-
nt L1tl' initial pOints AI' A z, .
Let liS ron."ill(>1' Ihe streamliu(' (lllll'l'giug from point ~In' Ttu~ ini-
tial part of thi:- tiTle ('oillel()c;': with the directioll of th(! "elodty at
point An and is II strllight line that is all exten~ioll of contour /JAn
lip 10 its iHtC'r,:cction poi)1t V 1 with the dlllrllC'lcri':Uc of the lirst
family A"_lfI". Behind point IJ I , the streamline elplnent ('oillddcs
with th(' dire(,tion of the \"elorily at point D1 equal to the ,'elodty
at point An_I. Drawing t!trough point DI II straight line pllrallel to
ray OA',_I lip 10 its iul('J';o'l'rtioll point D2 with the dllu'a('.leristic
A,,_zD~, we obtain the next part of t.he stt'eamlill" Behind poinl D 2
part DzD m_? of the strenmlinc (poin\. /)",-2 i.~ on lhe ('hnrncll'ri~tic
of the Ilrst family A 2D m_2 ) is parallel 10 straight linc 0 .. 1,,_2. The
remaining parts of the streamline arc ('ollstrw:ted sitllil<"lrly. Bchilld
pointD m, which ison the ('.hurac\.eristir AIJ m , the of thc ,:Irealll-
lille is panlUl:!l 10 tlte nxis of the uoule. The of the HOlz1e-
coinciding with the streamline AnI)", I-I arrd rOllstru('\rri in thc form
of a smooth cnrve en~ure,<; II parallel .~l(pcr.~oTlir flow with lhe presf>t
Humber M"" lit tire nozzle exit,
.nd Finite-Spin Wing
in an Incompressible Flow

Let HS consider the problems associated with the application of

the aerodynamic theory to calculating the flow past an airfoiL A fea~
ture of thb flow is the formation of a two-dimensional disturbed
flow over the airfoil. We shall lise simpler equations of aerodynamies
than for three-dimen:-;ional flows to investigate it.
The flow over an airfoil trc<ltcd as a two-dimcnsionlll one is idea-
lized. Actually, the flow past an airfoil belonging to a real fmite-
span wing is three-dirnCIl.<iiollal. This is why the aerodynamic char-
acteristic's of fin airfoil cannot. be transferred directly to a wing.
But these ritaracteri."tics can he among the ba,<;ic parameters used
in calculating similar rhara('\cristies of re,li wings. At the same
time, the solution of the problem on an airfoil has an independent
significance beclluse cases are possible when all individual parts of
wings the flow past airfoils is of a two-dimensional
We shall illYcstigate the flow of an incompressible fluid past an
airfoil. \Ve shall simullaneollsly consider the problem of a finite-
span wing in a similar flow. The results obtained, which have an
independent significance in lowspced aerodynamics, can be used
for aet"Odynamic investigations at high spceds.

6.1. Thin Airfoil

in an Incompressible Flow

Let us consider the method of cal(,ulating the steady l10w of an in-

{'ompressible fluid past a thin slightlr bent airfoil at a small angle
-of attack (Fig. G.1.1). The acrodynamic charaderistic.s of the air-
foil obtained as a result of t.hese ('al('ulations can be used directly
for flight at low subsonic spceds (M", < 0.30.4) when the air may
he considered as an incompressible fluid. They can also be lIsed as
Ch. 6. Airfoil ~nd Fjnite-Sp~n Wing in Incompressible Flow 235

Thln airfoil in an incompressible flow

the initial data when performing aerodynamic rulculations of air-

foils having a given configuration in a !iuhsonic compre~~ible flow.
Since the airfoil is thin. and the angle of atlack i~ not large. the
velocity of the flow near it differs only slightly from that. of the
llndi~turbed now. Such a now is called nearly uniForm.
We can write the following condition for tilt' ,'('lority of a neal'ly
!lniform flow:
V, ,~ V ~,;- u (u~ V,), V, ~" (r~ \'.) (6,1.1)
where II- and v are the components of lhe ,'cloeHy or small dis-tur-
In accordance with this condition.
V" ~"Vi T v~ = (V"" -i- u)~ -:- I'~ ~ v:;, .;...2V""u (6.1.2)
Let us now determine the pressure in a nearly uniform now. From
the 13ernOlllli equalion (3.4.13), in which we assume that the ron-
stant C 2 equals p"",'pcc " V~/2 anci (l ....: const, we obtain the excess
p - p. ~ p. (V~/2 - 1"/2) '~ -p.V.u (6,1.:1)
We cleline u in terms of the "elodty potential, u .""' Ocr/iJx:
p - Poe = -p",V""i}lrfo.I (G.1.4)
The correspoJlding pressure coefficient i!<
Ii ~ (p - P.)'q. ~ -2uIV. ~ -(211'.) iJqlax (6,1.5)
By (G. 1.4), the excess pressure on the lJOttom surfact' of the airfoil is
Pb - P ~ ~ -(a~bla,) V.p.
and on it!; upper surface is
p~ - p ... = -(otpu/Ox) l' ~fI""
236 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

where <r" and (flu are the velocity potentials on the hottom and upper
surfaces, rC)lpectivcly. Conseqnently. the lift force produced by t.he
pressure acting on an element of area is
dYa 1c ,.... (Ph - Pu) dx "-' -V .. poo (OWb!aX - iJ'Pu1ox) dx

while the lift force for the entire airfoil with. the chord b is

Y;I,1c = -VooP.. I (a:: - 8izU )dx

Assuming the upper limit b' of the integral to be approximately

equal 10 the chord b (because of the smallness of the angle of attack),
we find t.hc rorresponding lift r.oeffiC'-ient:

Y".1c 2 l:, i1qIh 0%

C,,;,.iC =q:r-=-- V~b ~ (/iX---a;-)dx (6.1.6)

Let liS ('onsider tlle circulation of the velocity over a contour that
is a rectangle with the dimensions dx and dy and encloses an element
of the airfoil. In arcordallce with Fig. 6.1. t. the circulation is
dr:~ (Voo.i ac:u ) dx- (v... -,- a::) dx+ (88~1 - az
r ) dy

where 'PI and Ifr are the velocity polentials on the left and right
surfaces. respectively.
Let us introduce the concept of the intensity of circulation (of a vor-
tex) determined by the derivative drldx .= y (x). The magnitude of
this int.em:ity is
y(x)~ a:; - aa~b +.~( aa~1 - 0:;)
Since for a thin airfoil, the angular coefficient dyldx is small, the
product of this coefficient and the difference of the vertical component
of the velocities is a second-order infinitesimal and, consequently,
y (x) ~ "'P.lax - .'fh/ax

Hence, (6.1.6) can be written in the form

y(x) dx
ic= V:b j (6.1.8)

'Ve calculate the moment coeHicient in a similar way:

m"t1' ic= - V~bt y(x)xdx (6.1.9)

Ch. 6. Airfoil and Finite-Spen Wing in Incompressible Flow 237

In ac.cordancc with formulns (6.1.8) and (6.1.9), Lhe coefficients

of the lift force and the moment pro(lnced by the pressllre depend on
the distribution of the inlensity of the circillation a!on~ the airfoil.
This signifies that the now over an airfoil cau iw(:alculatcd by replae.-
ing it with a sy~lcm of continlJollsly distrib\lted \"orLiees.
According to the Biot-SaYart formula (~.7.12), an element of a
distributed vortex with the rirr.ulaLion dl' 'Y (xl dx induces the
vertical vclodty at a poillt with the uusrissa ; (Fig. (j.t. t)
de ~ dl'!l2n (r -.)1 ~ ~ (x) dx/lh (. - <)1
The velocity induced at this point b)' all the vortices i:;
v=-inJ .,!~~~Z (6.1.10)
ACcol'ding to the houndary condilion, vl(V .. -:- ()(fldx) ...", dyftk.
Taking int,o account that the airfoil ig thin. wo can assnmo that
V..,-i-!lCrlrJ.r :::::::: V"". and calculate the derivative dyfd.t from the
equation of the mean c"mher line
Y =-0 Y (x) """ 0.5 Wu -i- Yb) (6.1-11)
where y" '-- y"V) anel Yb ; Yb(X) nre the equal-ions of the upper
and bollom contours of the airfoil. FI'l:o;poctively.
Hence_ the intensity of vortex. circulation'Y (.r) i" dC'termineu by
the integral eqnation


Let us jnl-roduce instead of x a !le\\" inrlependent variable e deter-

mi.ned by the equation
r ~ (b/2) (1 cos U) (0.1.13)
We fmd the solution of Eq. (6.1.12) in the form of a trigonometric
Fourier series:

1'(00) =2lT '" [AD cot ~+ ~ A",Sin:(nOo)j

., ... t

in which the variable 6 0 in accordance wit.h (6.1.13) is related t.o

the coordinat.e x --" ~ by the equation
= (bJ2) (1 - cos 8 0 ) (6.1.15)
We chauge tile- yariables in (l),1.12). fir diRerential-ion of (6.1.13).
we find
d.l' =-= (hIZ) sin 0 dO (6.1.16)
238 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil artd a Wing

Substitution~ yield

where ~ (e,) ~ (dy/dx),.

After introducing the values of the integral" ill (6.1.17) ealculated
in [161. we find


By integrating both sides of Eq. (6.1.18) from 0 to n, we obtain

a relation for the coefficient A 0 of the Fourier series:

A,~ -+ I, ~(9)d9 (6.1.19)

By multiplying (o.1.Ul) in turn by cos B. cos 20, . , cos (nEl),

we find expressions for the coefficients All A 2 , An. respec-
tively. Hence,

2 rJ ~(O)eos(nO)dB (6.1.20)

Let liS consider relation (6.1.8) for the lift coefficient. Going over
to the variable e and introducing (13.1.16), we obtain
eva,le :-. v~ ) y(B) sin e de (6.1.21)
With a view to (6.1.14)

Clla.le = 2Ao ~ cot -} sin B dB + 2 ~

o ,,=1
An I
sin (ne) sin e de

Integration yields
Hence, the lilt cucfficient depends on the first two coefficient.; of
the series. Introdll('.ing into (6.1.22) expression (6.1.19) and for-
mllla (6.1.20) in which n = 1, we have

Co,. ,,~ -21 ~ o

(e) (I-cos e) de (6.1.23)
Ch. D. Airfoil and Finite-Span Wing in Incompressible Flow Sl39

~Iean camber line of an airfoil
We change the variables ill (tU.9) for the moment coefficient:

m:".I.. = ~-~ Jy(9)(1-cos8)Rin9d8 (G.1.24}

With a view to expresRion (6.1.14) for y (9). we bave

m~a' k = -Ao j (1 -cos 9,2 d8- ~ An J sin (n8) \1-cos8) sin 8d&
II n=1 0

IntegraUon yields
mza_le = - (;-t;2) (Ao -T At - A~,'2) (6.1.25}
With a view to (6.1.22), we have
Tn'a.le = - (n;4) (A I - A 2) - (1;4) cVale (6.1.26}
By determining Al Rnd ...12 from (6.-1.20) and introdllciugtheir
values into (6.1.26), we obtain
1 l! 1
mz", '" = -"2 ~ ~(9) (cos8-cos20) cla-Teu", Ie (6.1.27)-

Let us consider the body axis coordinates Xl lind Vt in which the

equaUon of the mean camber lille is Yt = Yl (XI)' and the sJop~ of a
tangent is determined hy the derivative dYl,'dx1. This angle (Fig. 6.1.2)
is ~1 = ~ + ct, where p:::::J dy/dx. Hence w(' d('termine th" angle
~ = ~l - a and introduce its value into (6.1.23) anll (G.t.27):
e'a.le = 2n (a; ..!... eo) (G.1.28)
mZa' ie'"'" -2 (ffo-l1o)-fclla. Ie (6.1.2H}
240 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynemics of an Airfoil and a Wing


eo=+!f31(1-COSe)d~; 1l0=-+If3~(1-COS2e)de (6.1.30)

A glance at (6.1.28) reveals that when ex = -eo, the lift coeffi-

cient equals zero. The angle ex = -eo is called tlte angle of zero
li.ft. The coe[Jicients eo and J.Lo are evaluated according to the given
equation of the mean camber line of the airfoil provided that in the
expression for the function f3I (tl) the variable Xl = xi/b is replaced
.according to (6.1.13) with the relation Xl = (112) (1- cos 9).
We can use the found values of mla and c Yd to approximately deter-
mine the coefficient of the centre of pressure cp = xp/b and the re-
lative coordinate of the aerodynamic centre ZAC = xAclb:
= _~_J..+
c!l~ - 4
1t (a;T~o) I
= -~=...!..
iJc lIa 4

It follows from these relations that the coordinate of the centre

-of pressure depends on the angle of attack and the shape of the air-
foil. wl~ereas the aerodynamic centre is at a fixed point at a distance
of one-fourth of the chord length from the leading edge. For a sym-
metric airfoil eo = J.Lo = 0 [which follows from formulas (6.1.30) in
which f3I = dyIldx l = OJ. therefore the value of Cpt like that of the
l"elative coordinate of the aerodynamic centre, is 114.

6.2. Transverse Flow over

II Thin Plate

Let us consider the flow of an incompressible fluid over a very

simple airfoil in the form of a thin plato arranged at rigllt angles
to the direction of the free-stream velocity. We can solve this prob-
lem by means of the conformal transformation (or mapping) method.
We shall use the results of the solution in real cases to determine
the aerodynamic characteristics of finite-span ";vings.
Let lLS arrange the plato in the plane of the complex variable
o = x + iy along the real axis x (Fig. 6.2.tb). ~ow the free-stream
velocity vector V will coincide with the direction of the imaginary
axis y. In this case, the flow over such a plate can be obtained by
conformal transformation of the flow over a Circular cylinder on the
plane S = s
+ iT'[ (Fig. 6.2.1a). If we know the function W = f (~)
that is a complex potential for the flow over a circular cylinder and
the analytical function S = F (a) of the complex varia hIe a = x -i-
+ iy (known as the conformal function) that transforms t.he contonr
(lf~a ~circle on the plane ~ into a segment of a straight line placed across
Ch. 6. Airfoil .nd Finite.Span Wing in Incomprenible Flow 241


Conformal transformation or the flow past a round cylinder (0) into a Dow past
a flat plate arranged (b) at right angles to the direction of the free-stream velo-
city, or (r) along the flow

the now on the plane cr, then the fUllction W = f [F (0')1 is the com-
plex potential for the flow over the plate.
Let us sec how we can determine the complex potential for the
[low over a circular cylinder. For this purpose, we shall again revert
to the meLhod of conrormal transformation, using the known func-
tion of Lhe complex potential for the flow over a plate arranged
along it. This function has the form
W = <r + i1j; = -iV (x .. - i.1ll =--0 iVcr (6.2.1)
We shall show that the conformal fUllclion
*" transforms a segment of a straight line arranged along (he flow on
the plane 0" into a circle on thf' plane ~ (Fig. f::j.~.1c.a).lndeed, exam-
ination of (6.2.2) reveals that since fOf points satisfying the condi-
tions - 0 ~ y ~ a, x = 0, and a = ~R, ,ve ha\"(~ 0" = iy, then from
the solutionoftheqlladraticeqlJation ';;2 _ O"~ _ R2 = 0, we obtain
{~iyI2VR'-Y'14~S+i~ (6.2.3)
Separating the rcal and imaginary parts, we obtain
~c'yI2, ,~VIl'-Y'14
whence ;2 -i- 11~ R2.
Consequently, points on the circle in the plane t correspond to
points in the plane (J on the vertical segment. Substituting for (J in
(6.2.1) its value from (G.2.2). we obtain the complex potential of
the flow over a circular cylinder or radius R in a plane parallel now
242 pt. I_ Theory. Aerodyn.mic5 of .n Airfoil and a WJng

at the velocity V:
To obtain the complex potential for the flow over a plate arranged
across the flow (Fig. 6.2.1b), let us substitute for S in (6.2.4) the
following value obtained from the conformal formula 0" = S +
+ RZ1s transforming a circle of radius R (plane t) into a segment of
a straight line across the flow (plane 0):

~=0/2V02/4-R2 (6.2.5)

W=-iV (fl/ {_R2 (6.2.6)

Since for points on the plate we have 0" = x, where -a ~ x ~ a

and a = 2R, then

W=rp-i-ilP=-iV(+q/RZ-f- x/2.1:f~~t :;:2/4)

whence the potential function is

<p~VV4R'-x'~VVa'-x' (6.2.7)
where the plus sign corresponds to the upper surface, and the minus
sign to the bottom olle.
By evaluating the derivatives iJrpl8x, we can find the velocity on
the plate and calculate the pressure. It follows from the data ob-
tained that the pressure on the upper and bottom sides of the plate is
the same. Consequently, ill the case being considered of the trans-
verse free streamline flow of an ideal (in viscid) fluid over a plate,
drag of the plate is absent. This interesting aerodynamic effect is
considered below in Sec. 6.3 using the example of flow over a flat
plate arranged at a certain finite angle of attack.
A flow characterized by the potential function (6.2.7) is sho,vn in
Fig. 6.2.1b. It is a non-circulatoryftow past the plate obtained upon
the superposition onto an undisturbed flow with the potential
W~~-iVS (6.2.8)
of the flow from a doublet with the potential
Wd = iVRzl1; (6.2.9)
where S is determined by the conformal function (6.2.5).
ct.. 6. Airfoil end Finite-Spen Wing in Incompressible Flow 243

6.3. Thin Plate

at an Angle of Attack

Let us calculate the potential function for the disturbed flow of

an incompressible fluid over a thin plate at the angle of attack ct
using, as in the preceding problem, the method of conformal trans-
formation. We arrange the plate in the plane of the complex variable
0' = X + iy along the real axis x.
If we assume that t.he flow being considered is a non-circulatory
one, the complex potential of such a flow can be written as the sum
of the potentials of the longitudinal WI = V 000' and transverse W z
flows at the velocity of the undisturbed flow V = aV"" (Fig. 6.3.1).
The total complex potential is
W=W 1 + Wz=V",O'-ictV"" [-%- V f - R z
-RZ(-%-V (/41 -Rz)-I]=Voo('fiaVooVcrZ-4RZ (6.3.1)
,"Vith account taken of formula (G.2.7), the total velocit.y potcn-
tial on the plate is
q:=1'""xctV""Va2 -xZ (6.3.2)
We use this \'alue of the potential to find the velocity component
V x =V""=FaV",,,xIVaZ-x2 (13.3.3)
The second veloci~y component on the thin plate Vy = O.
A close look at (6.3.3) reveals that at the leading (x = -a) and
trailing (x = a) edges, the velocity V:t is infinite. Physically, such a
flow is impossible. The velocity at one of the edgcs, for example, the
trailing one, can be restricted by superposition of a circulatory flow
onto the flow being considered. In the pI aIle 1;, the potential of the
circulatory flow is determined in accordance with (2.9.22) hy thc
w, ~ - (if/2n) In S (6.3.4)
Let us substitute for S its value from (6.2.5):

Ws=- J~ In (f vf- RZ) (6.3.5)

Summation of (6.3.1) and (6.3.5) yields the complex potential of
a circulatory-forward flow over an inclined plate:
W= WI + W z + W3 = V""cr iaV""Vcr 2 _ 4R2
244 Pt. I. Theory_ Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Flo\v over a flat plate at an angle or attack

We determine the circulation r on the basis of the Zhukovsky-

Cbaplygin hypothesis, according to which the velocity at the trailing
edge of the plate is finite. This value of the velocity can be obtained,
as we already know from the theory of conformal transformation,
in the form of the aerivative dWida of the complex potential W
for a cylinder. This potential, in turn, makes it possible t.o nnd the
complex velocity at the relevant point on the cylinder as the deri-
vative dWidS;, which according to the rules of differentiation of a
complex function is
where Wand Ware the complex potentials for the cylinder and
plate, respectively.
According to the Zhukovsky-Chaplygin hypothesis, the quantity
dWlda is limited in magnitude. Since the derivative dalds calcu-
lated by the formula
daldS; = 1 _ R2/~'J.

equals zero on the cylinder at the point S; = R corresponding to a

point on the trailing edge of the plate, the derivative dWidS; = O.
The complex potential for a cylinder is
The potential Wr characterizes the flow in an axial direction cor-
respondin~ to the flow over the plate in the same direction at the
velocity V .... It is obtained by substituting the value a = S; +
+ R2/S for (J in the formula WI = V""a:
W; ~ V~ (, + R'I,)
Ch. 6. Airfoil and Finite-Span Wing in Inccompr.ssible Flow 24&

The complex potentials Wt and W; are determined by Eqs. (6.2.4)

and (6.3.4), respectively. We 511al1 substitute a.l' ~ for V in the rlrst
of them and lind the total complex potential:
w:. V ~ (, + H'/,) - letV. (6 - H',,) - (ir,2n) In 6 (6,3.8)
We calculate the derivative:
dWid6 ~ V. (I - H'i 6') - let V (I "r
R', 6') - Ir, (2~ 6) (6.3.8')
For the coordinate ~ = R corresponding to a point on the trailing
edge of the plate, the derivative dWJd~ is zero. i.e.
2ia V "" - iri(2nR) =0
r ~ -4naHV. (6.3,9)
or. since 2R = a,
r= -2naaV .... (;,3.9')
After inserting this result into (tt3.6) and differentiating with
respect to a. we fmd the complex velocity:

~: =v":.;-iVy= il.., Y~~~:R2

-r 2J\i;~V'" a y~ (1- y' a~~41l~ )
Simple transformations and the substitution 2R =a yield
dWldo~ Vz-tVv~ 1'.(1 'F iet.V (o-a)/(o+a) 16.3.10)
On the surface of the plate (0 = x)
dWldo~Vz-IV,~V-t(I'FI"V(x a)/(.: a)) (6.3.11)
Since I x I ~ a. we have
dWldo~ Vz-iV,~ V.(IetV(a .i(a+.)) (6.3.11')
whence it follows that the total velocity on the plate is
v~ V. ~ V. (I "V(a .)I(a -,. x)) (6.3.12)
The plus sign relates to the upper surface, and the minus sign to the
bottom one.
The velocity on the trailing edge (or = a = 2R) is V .... and on the
leading edge (x = -a) it is found to be infinite. In real conditions,
the tbickness of the leading edge is not zero; particularly, the nose
may have a finite. although small. radius of curvature. Therefore
the velocit.ies on such an edge have high. but tinite values.
~46 PI. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Contour in the flow of an in-
y"", ""--cc'---'.L----'_ _ _-'''--
compressible fluid
To determine the force acting on the plate, we shall use the general
expression for the principal vector of the hydrodynamic pressure
forces applied to a stationary cylindrical body of an arbitrary shape
in the steady flow of an incompressible fluid. By analogy with the
complex: velocity, let us introdtlce the concept of the complex force
Ra = X - iY, determining this force as the mirror reflection of
the principal vector R;. of the pressure forces with respect to the renl
The vector R/J, being considered is detl3rmined by formulas (1.3.2)
and (1.3.3) in which the friction coefficient el.:e is taken equal to zl3ro:

Ra=X -iY = -~ p [cos ( 0 ) - i cos (.;.-u)] ds

= -~ p(sin9+icos9)ds= - i ~pe-i(jds (6.3.13)
c c
where n is tne direction of an outward normal to contour C of the
body in the flow and 9 is the angle between the olement ds of the

contour and tne x-axis (Fig. 6.3.2).

d~ = dx + i dy = ds (cos 9 + i sin 9) = eie ds
do ~ ax - i dy ~ as (cos 8 _ i sin 8) ~ .-"ds
and the pressure is determined by the Bernoulli equation
p ~ p_ +
pV'_12 - pV'12 ~ C, -- pV'12 (6.3.15)
c c c
Taking into account that by (6.3.14) we have du = e- 2ie dCJ, and
also that in accordance with the condition of flow without separa-
Ch. 6. Airfoil and Finite-Span Wing in Incompressible Flow 247

t.ion the complex velocity at the point of the contour being consid-
ered is
V= V;I' - iV, = V cos e- tV sin a= Ve- iO (6.3.16)
we find
Ra=X-iY--t- ~ Vida (6.3.17)
Since for a potential now, the complex velocity is V = dWlda. we
Ra=X-iY ={- ~ (~~)2 do (6.3.18)

Expression (6.3.18) is called the Zhukovsky-Chaplygin formula.

Integration in (6.3.18) can be performed over another contOllr en-
veloping the given contour C of the body in the flow, for example,
over a circle K whose complex velocity in the plane 0" is written as
dWldcr = V ~ - tf/(2ncr) + Alcr' (6.3.19)
where V cD = V;I''''' - tV,,,,,= V ... e- i9"", and A is a coelicient deter-
mined with the aid of an equation similar to (6.3.8).
The square of the complex velocity is
( ~~ )2 i'!.- I~~"" +
"C" 2AV"'-:~'2/(4;1~) + ...
Introducing this value into (0.3.18), we find
Ra=X-iY=*[V!'~da_lr:", ~~

+(2AV_-L~,)t ~~ + ... ]
Here the first and third integrals equal zero. The integral ~dO"/O"
is evaluated with a view to the formula 0" = X + iy = re;qI (Fig.
6.3.2) and equals

~ '!:' =lnO" IK=ln(rei~) IK=2sti

Ro=X-iY=ipjl.. r or X-iY=ipV",re- to.. (6.3.20)
where V .. is the magnitude of the frec-stream velocity.
248 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

If its direction coincides with the horizontal axis (a .... = n), we

Ra = X - iY = -ipV ... r (6.3.21)
whence it follows that
I R. I = Y = Y. = pv.r (6.3.22)
Expression (6.3.22) is known as the Zhukovsky formula.
It follows from (6.3.21) that the force is a vector perpendicular
to the free-stream velocity vector, and, therefore, is a lift force. Its
direction coincides with that of the vector obtained by turning the
velocity vector V ... through the angle nl2 against the circulation.
A glance at (6.3.21) reveals that X = X a = O. Hence, when an
in viscid incompressible fluid flows over a surface without separation,
the resistance associated with the distribution of the pressure is zero.
This aerodynamic effect is known as the Euler-D'Alcmbert paradox.
This name corresponds to the fact that actually resistance is present
because there always occurs a relevant redistribution of the pressure
caused by separation of the flow and the action of skin friction (vis-
Let us use formula (6.3.22) to evaluate the lift force of a flat plate.
Taking into account the value of the circulation (6.3.9'), we obtain
(Fig. 6.3.3)
Y .. = 2naapV!. (6.3.23)
Let us determine the normal Y and longitudinal X components
of the force Y II:
Y = Y. cos a ~ Ya= 2:laapV:O (6.3.24)
X = - Y. sin a ~ -Y.a = -2na2apV:c. (6.3.25)
The arising of the force X acting along the plate opposite to the
flow seems to be paradoxical because all the elementary forces pro-
duced by the pressure are directed along a normal to the surface.
Ch. 6. Airfoil lind Finlte-Splln Wing in Incompressible Flow '249

This component is called the suction force. The plty~ic(ll nature of

its appearance consists in the following. A~snnlt' Lhllt the leading
edge is slightly rounded. :\'ow the velociLies ne<lr iL will be collsi(ler-
able, but not inlinitely high as at the leading edge or a plate. In
accordance with t.he Bernoulli equation, the differellCf' he tween t.he
pressure at the edge and thnt at infinity will be negativc. Theresnll-
ing rarefaction is exnctly whnt CaHSf"S the .'iBctiOI( force. lls limiting
value is given hy expression (().:~.2:)) relating to the casp or flow over
a plate when the velOCity near its leadillg f'dge i. dctprmincd by for-
milia (6.3.12). In aCCOr<Jilnce wit.h this formula. the longitudinal
component of the disturbed \'elocity at the intlicaLed point of the
plate i.s
1'; ~ aV. V(a - x)/(a ... x) (6.3.26)
The expression for the suction force call he generalized for an
arbitrary velOCity near the leading edge. For this purpose, we shaH
transform (!i.:~.2;'j) to the form
T .~ -X "" npc' (0.3.27)
We shall write the quanl.ily c~ in the form of the limit
c!~- lim (r~2 {.r-Xl.e)j (C>.3.28')

where ;fl.e is the abscissa of the lending edge (Xt.e - -a) . .( is the
rUlining abscissa of points of the plate, afl{1 v.~ is the longitudinal
component of the disturbed velocity on the upper surface of a wing.
Formula (6.3,28') can be shown to be correct. For this purpose,
we shall insert expression (6.3.2G) into (6.3.2t;'):

c!= }~~la [v!,a2 ( :~: ) (:rt a)] = 2aa~r;,

Dy introducing this value into (6.3.27), we obtain formula (0.3.25).
The conclusions on an incompressible Circulatory-forward flow
over an airfoil in the form of a thill plflte (Ire used ill studying the
aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils encountered in practice, and
also of finite-span wings in flows of an incompressible fluid or of a
compressible gas.

6.... Finite-Span Wing

in an Incompressible Flow
Up to now, we considered an airfoil in an incompressible flow. We
call presum~ that such an airfoil relates to an elementary part of a
lifting SUI face belonging to an infinite-span wing in a plane parallel
ftO pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of en Airfoil end eWing

:System of equivalent vortices
for a rectangular wing

Dow. Hence. the theory of this 110w is also a foundation of the aero-
dynamics of an infinite-span wing.
Er formula (6.3.22), the lift force of a unit-span wing part is
Y!l) = p""v... r (Fig. GAia). Consequently, there is a circulation
flow around the airfoil with the velocity circulation r. If the circu-
lation is clockwise. the velocities on the upper surface of the airfoil
are higher (a circulation flow having the same direction as the on-
coming one is superposed on it), while on the bottom surface they
are lower (the circulation flow does not coincide with the direction
-of the oncoming flow). Therefore, in accordance with the Bernoulli
.equation. the pressure from above is lower than from below, and the
lift force is directed upward as shown in Fig. O.4.ib.
Since by (2.7.8) and (2.7.8'), the circulation equals the vorticity
(vortex strength) ")(, the part of the wing can be replaced with an
'equh'alent vortex of the indicated strength passing along its span.
N. ZhukovskY used the term bound to designate this vortex. Hence,
in the hydrodynamic sense, an inrmite-span wing is equivalent to
a l)ound vortex.
Let us now consider an approximate scheme oj the flow past a finite-
.$pan wing with a rectangular planform. As established by S. Chap-
lygin. a bound vortex near the side edges turns and is cast off the
wing in the form of a pair of vortex cores approximately coinciding
with the direction of the free-stream velocity. The distance e
{Fig. 6.4.ic) from a vortex core to the relevant side edge depends on
the geometry of the wing. Consequently, the hydrodynamic effect
-of a finite-span wing can be obtained by replacing it with a bound
vortex and a pair of free horseshoe vortices. This wing pattern is
-called Cbaplygin's horseshoe one.
A vortex system equivalent to a finite-span wing induces addHion-
.al velocities in the flow and thus causes downwash. which is a fea-
Ch. 6. Airfoil and Finite-Span Wing in Incompressible Flow 2fi1

Z v.'rile!!.>

Vortex ,neet and rolled-up vortices behlDd a WiDg

ture of now past a finite-span wing. The calculations of the induced

velocities and tho down wash angle caused by the free \'ortices are
based 011 the following theorems rormulated by II. IIl'lmllOltz:
(1) the strength along a vortex docs not change in magnitude,
and a~ n restJlt, a vortex cannot end somewhere ill a fluid. It must
either be closed or reach the houndary of the nuid;
(2) the slrength of a vortex does not depend Oil t he time;
(:'\) a vortex is not disrupted in an ideal fiuid,
In the considered scheme of a rectangular wing. the circulation
along the span was presumed to be constant in accordance wilh the
assumption that the lift forct! of each elementary part of the wing is
identical. Actnally, the lift force along tile spall of a \\'ing having
such II rectangular phl.nform varies. This change is not great ill the
middle part of the wing and is more 1I0ticeahl~ at the side edges.
For n wing with an arbitn'lrY planform, the change in the circulation
is cle<trir expressed and is dlle to the different dimensions of the
elementary parts and. consel,JItent,ly, to ditlerent values of the lift
force. We can obtain the vortex pattern of now over a wing with a
system of horseshoe vortices forming a vortex shcet (Fig. 6.4.2).
The circulation Along each vortex will be COllstant. but changes
when going over from one vorLex to another. For the section at the
middle of the wing. the lHt force is maximum, therefore the strength
or the relevant "ortox and the circnlation will be maximum.
~ow let us see ,.... hat changes t.he downwash introduces into the
flow over a wing arranged at the geometric angle of atluck a. (the
angle between the chord of a wing section and th<' v('ctor V"" is also
2152 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an AirFoil and" Wing

r~~Wapdp~~;a:~~hof tinad:::l dar~:

called the setting angle). The appearance of downwash of the flow

behind the wing at the angle leads to the fact that the flow over
the wing in the section being considered is characterized by values
of the velocity V~ and the angle of attack at differing from the cor-
responding values of V"" and a that determine the flow over an in-
finite-span wing. The true angle of attack Ctt of a section of a finite-
span wing is smaller than the setting angle by the magnitude of the
downwash angle e (Fig. 6.4.3), i.e. Ctt = a-E. The downwash angle
E = -wiV 00varies along the span of the wing, increasing toward
its tips. For convenience, the concept of the span-averaged down wash
angle is introduced, determined by the formula em ={ J e dz.
Accordingly, the true angle of attack of the wing is
tXt=~-em (6.4.1)
The existence of a downwash angle leads to a change in the forces
acting on a body in the flow. If flow downwash is absent, the vector
of the aerodynamic force by (6.3.21) is normal to the direction of
the velocity of the undisturbed ftow V"". If downwash is present,
the vector of the resultant aerodynamic force is oriented along a
normal to the direction of the true velocity V~ (Fig. 6.4.3). Such
deviation of the resultant force through the angle till causes the
component XI to appear in the direction of the undisturbed flow.
This additional force X i appearing as a result of flow downwash is
called the induced r('sistance or induced drag. From the physical
viewpoint, an induced drag is due to losses of a portion of the kinetic
energy of a moving wing spent on the formation of vortices cast off
its trailing edge. The magnitude of this drag is determined in accor-
dance with Fig. 6.4.3 from the expression
XI = YaEm (6.4.2)
The lift force Y a , owing to the smallness of the downwash, is de-
termined in the same way as for an infinite-spall wing. 1f we divide
XI by the quantity (PooV!.l2) Sw, we obtain the induced drag c0-
Ch. 6. Airloil .nd Finite_Span Wing in Incompressible Flow 253

'190 6.'"
Replacement uf a finite-span wing with a loaded linc:
J-dlstribuUOll ot c:in:ulauOll; 1'-loadtd line; 3-d1s1ribuUOll or inducrd velOCities I.If down-
wash angles

We sllaU determine thls coefficicut on the basis or the theory of a

"loaded line". According to this theory, a finite-span wing is replaced
with a single hound vortex (a loaded line). Tilt' circulation r (z)
for tlte loaded line is the same as for the corresponding sections of the
wing itself (Fig. 6.4.4). Upon such a replacement, a plane vortex
sheet begins directly on the loaded line and has a strength dr (z)/th
that varies along the span. The flow down wash in a gil'en section is
determined for a semi-infinite vortex core having the strength
(dr (z)fthJ th_ Accordingly, the downwash angle for a section,
as can be seen from Fig. 6.4.4. is
e= - v: = - 4!t~... J dizf). /:"'1.

Here the improper integral must bc considered in the sense of its

principal value.
By (6.4.4), the mean dowilwash angle over a span is

'm=--'- , \'2 [I?J dr(.t).~."

4:tV""l. d%
]dz % _% (6.4.5)
-1/1 -1/2
The lift force coetticient cY " can be determined according t.o the
known law of circulation distribution along the span. With such a
determination, we caft proceed from the hypothesis of plane sections
according to which the flow ovcr a wing element being considered is
254 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynllmic5 of an Airfoil and a Wing

the same as over the corresponding airfoil belonging to a cylindrical

inlinHe-span wing. Calculations on the basis of this hypothesis give
a satisfactory accuracy for wings with a low sweep and an aspect
ratio of Aw> 3-4.
According to the Zhukovsky formula, the lift force of an airfoil is
dY, _ p_V_f (,) d, (6.4.6)
its total value for a wing is
Y,-p_V_ j f(,)d, (6.4.6')
and the corresponding aerodynamic coefficient is
Cila = q:Sw = V...2S W ) r (z) dz (6.4.6")
To find the law of circulation distribution r (z), let us consider an
airfoil in an arbitrary section of a wing for which the lift force can
be wrilten in the form
dY a = Cil (z) q ... b(z) dz (6.4.7)
where b(z) is the chord of the airfoil in the section being considered.
With a view to the Zhukovsky formula (6.4.6), we find a coupling
equation determining the relation for the velocity circulation in
a given section:
f(,) - 0.5", (,) b(,) V_ (6.4.8)
According to the hypothesis of plane sections, the lift coefficient
clIa(z) of a section being considered is the same as for the corre-
sponding infinite-span cylindrical wing. Its magnitude can be deter-
mined with account taken of the downwash angle by the formula
cila (z) = c~a (z) (0: - e) (6.4.9)
where the derivative c~a(z) = (}clIa(z)/oo: is determined for an in-
finite-span wing and a range of angles of attack corresponding to the
linear section of the curve c1Io (0:). After inserting into (6.4.8) the
values from (6.4.4) and (6.4.9), we obtain
[(z)=(1I2) ~a(z)b(z)V... (a+ 41t~... ) d~~;') ./~1.) (6.4.10)
This equation is called the fundamental integro-differential equation
of a finite-span wing. It allows one to find the law of circulation
distribution r (z) for a given wing shape according to the known
conditions of its flight. The angle of attack 0: in (6.4.10) may be fixed
Ch. 6, Airfoil .nd Finite-Span Wing in Incompressible Flow 2&5,

(i.e. the same for all sections) or may vary along the span if geo-
metric warp of the wing is present.
One of the most favoured ways of solving Eq. (6.4.10) is based on
expanding the required function r (z) into a trigonometric seris
(the Glauert-Trefftz method)

r (z) = 2lV ""=~t An sin (nO) (o.4.11}

where the new variable e is related to the variable z by the expression

z = - (U2) cos e (see Io'ig. 6.S.1), aud An are cOllstant coefficients
determined with the aid of Eq. (6.4.10).
Since the series (6.4.11) is a rapidly descending one, a small num-
ber m of terms is usually sufficient. To det.ermine the unknowncoeffi-
cients Am, we compile m algebraic equations (according to the Ilum-
ber of selected sections). Each of these equations is obtained by
introducing into (6.4.10) the value of the circulation r (z) =
= 2lV"" :LAn SiD (118) for the corresponding sectiOll.
For conventional wings that are symmetric about the central (root}
chord, the distribution of the circulation over the span is also sym-
metric, i.e. the equality r (e) = r (:r - 6) holds (see Fig. 6.5.1).
Accordingly, the terms of the series with even indices equal zero.
and the circulation can be written in the approximate form
r = 2lV "" (AI sin 6 + A, sin (3e) + ... + Am sin (me))
Consequently, the number of algebraic equations needed to deter-
mine the coefficients Am diminishes. The procedure followed to de-
termine these coefficients is set out in detail in 1161.
Using the found law of distribution of the circulalion in the form
of a series, we can determine the flow dov,,-nwash and the correspond-
ing aerodynamic coeJJicients (see 1131). By goillg over in (6.4.6")
from the variable z to the variable 0 in accordance with the expres-
sion dz = (1I2) sin 8 ae, introducing the formula for the circulation
in the form of a series, and taking into account that l'l./S ..... = Aw, we
find a relation for the lift coefficient:
e'a = 1tA".A 1 (f1.4.12)
Using (6.4.5), we determine the me-an down wash angle:
8 m = (c"lnl.w) (I + .) (6.4.13)
where 't" is a coefficient taking into account the inrJuence of the aspect

2~6 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 an Airfoil and a Wing

JI'rom (6.4.3), we obtain the relevant induced drag loefiicient.

Its value can be determined more precisely, however, by going over
from the mean downwash angle to its local value in accordance with
the expression dX, = e dY a By introducing into this expression
instead of t and dY. their values from (6.4.4) and (6.4.6), integrat-
iog, and determining the induced drag coefficient. we obtain

ex. I
-t ?,I (z) ['1,2j ~'"'i""=Z
= 21I:''-:''S"" J
dr(,') d..!:"
Jdz (6.4.15)
-1/2 -l!2
Introducing the value of r(z) and substituting ~. for l'l/Sw, we

where the coellicient 6 taking into account t.he influence of the aspect
ratio on the drag depending on the lift is

.-, nA~.IA:
6=.f (6.4.17)
The coefficient.s T and 6 for wings of various planforms can be de-
termined according to the dat.a given iu (13, 161.
The results of the general theory of a loaded line obtained can be
seen to be charact.erized by a comparative simplicity of the aerody-
namic relations, proYide a clear notion of the physical phenomena
attending flow past finite-span wings, and allow one t.o reveal the
mechanism of formation or the lift force and induced drag. The ap-
plicat.ion of this theory, however. is limit.ed to wings ' .... ith a suffi-
ciently small sweep and a relatively large aspect ratio. In modern
aerodynamics, more accurate and more general solut.ions are worked
out. They arc described in special literature.
At the same time. the development of ways of evaluating the aero-
'dynamic properties of wings by constructing approximat.e models
of the flow over fmite-span wings is of practical signilicance. Let us
consider one of them based on the representation of the aerodynamic
scheme of a wing in the form of a bound and a pair of free vortex
.cores. This representation is based on experimental data according
to which a vortex sheet is not stable and at a comparatively short
distance from the wing rolls up into two parallel vortex cores (see
Fig. 6.4.2).
The basic element of this problem is the fmding of the distance lo
between the free (rolled up) vortices. We proceed here from the fact
that for a wing with a span of I, the vortex pattern of the wing may
be replaced with a single horseshoe vortex with the constant circu-
lation ro corresponding to the root section. We also assume that the
bound vortex (the loaded line) passes through the aerodynamic cen-
Ch. 6. Airfoil and Finite-Span Wing in Incompressible Flow ~7

tre of the wing with the coordinate XFa' The magnitude of this circu-
lation can be determined by a coupling equation according to which
ro = O5c voboV 00 (6.4.18)
where ev o and ho are the lift coefficient and t.he section chord, re-
A similar expression can be compiled for the mean circl1ialion
over the span. the sarue as in the section with t.he chol'd bIn:
(GA. in)

where eVa is the lift coefficient of the wing.

From Eqs. (6.4,18) and (6.4.19), we find the relation between the
(6 ... 20)

As stipulated, the adopted vortex systems rill and r 0 correspond

to the same lift force (Y II = pooroorml = p ... T',.Tolo). hence
rml = rolo. Therefore. by Eq. (6.4.20). we have

now. according to the known arrangement of the horsesho(' \'or-

tex system, we cau use formula (2.7.13) to determine the do\vllwash
angle at each point behind a wing, also taking into l\cconnt the in-
duction of the bound \orlex.
To find the induced drag coefficient by formula (6.4.3). we must

find the mean down wash IlIlgle .., '"

~ (ill) ~ e dz all the IOl\ded linc,
t.aking account onll' of 1\ pltir of free vortices with the aid of formu
la (2.7.13). According to raiculatiolls (sel' (131), this angle is

(6 t,,22)

wbere ro is determined by (6.4.18). Having in view that lIb o =

= A.w (bmlb o). we finally obtain


We can use this downwash angle to estimate the \'aille of the in-
du('ed drag cocffident with the aid of (6.4.3). In a particular case
for an infmite-span wing (Aw- 00). the downwash angle is absent
and, consequently, the induced drag vanishes.
2~8 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodyn"mics of an Airfoil and /I Wing

6.5. Wing with Optimal Planform

COnYW,lon of CoefIkIeIdI
cvand (:c. 1 frOID
One Wing A,pen Ratio
to Another

A finite-span lifting plano having the minimum induced drag is

called a wing with the optimal planform. A glance at formula (6.4.16)
reveals that "t the given values of c Va and Aw , the vallie of C:/:.! wi1l

be minimum when the coefficicnt 6 = 0, or i; nA:IA: = O. It follows

from this equality that all the weflidcnts of the expansion of the
circ.111atioll r into a series (6.4.11), except for AI' equal zero (As =
= A5 = . . . .- 0). Hence, the circulatioll in an arbitrary section is
r (e) ~ 21V ~A, sin e (6.5.1)
For the celltral ::;ection (0 = 1[.'2), the dr{:lIlation is maximum and
equals 1'0 = 2lV ",AI' lIenee, r (0) = rosin S. Inserting into this
formnla sill 0 Vt-{2zll)2, we obtain
1" (,)/f: + z'I(0.51)' =1 (6.5.2)
This equation determines the ~lliptic law of distrib\ltion of the
circulation oyer the span of a wing IHlving the optimal planform
(Fig. 6.5.1). For such a wing, the illdnced rlrag coefficient c",,! =
"..., c;/{nAw), while the mean now downwasl! angle Em = cy/(nA w );
by analysing (6..1.4), we can convince o\lrselves that the quantity
10 m C'xactly equals the downwash angle in an arbitrary section. In
other words. the downwash angle does not change along the span in
a wing with the minimum induced drag.
In accordance with the coupling equ<ltion, for lin arbitrary wing
scction, we have f{z) :-:-: O.5c Ya b (z) F ,." and for a central one, we
have r 0 - O,5c yao b(lV 00' ~ow we ('an usc Eq. (6.5.2) to find the
following expression for the chord in a wing section with the optimal

Let liS consider a wing at tlte angle of attack" having section

profiles that <Ire identical along the span. We shall assume that the-
sections of the wing are arranged at the same local geometric angle-
of Ilttac.k determined by the given vallie of ct. Since the downwasb
augle docs not change from one section to another for a wing witb an
elliptical distribution of the circulation, the true angles of attack
Ch. 6. Airfoil and Finite~Span Wing in Incompressible Flow ~9

'f(;;;- --~-:)!'\\
~\'i:it~!l distribulion of the
::;:' r "a
circulation and a geometric
~n!~jr8tation of the constants i.lf?

are the same: at = CJ. - e, and, therefore, the lift eoefficienl~ of

the profiles are the same. i.e. the ratio c!/a/cYaO = 1. Hence, the local
cliOI'd of the wing is (letermined by the relation
b (,) ~ b. V 1- (,10.51)' (6.3.4)
III accordance with the result obtained, a wing with the minimum
induced drag has all elliplical planform. In the case heing considered,
a cons\.ant coefficient c II c~. at is ensured a~ a result of the con-
stancy along the span ~f the "quantity at an!l the derivatiq" c;a
iuentieal for the same proliles. For a wing with an elliptical plan-
form. the same effert cau he achieved by varying the parameter~ c~a
and at, i.e. by selecting the corresponding prol'tles ill comhination
with gcom(,tric warp (UpOIl which the seetions arc set at different
geometric angles of attack).
I t must be noted that j(]~t. .<;;urh 11 method of varying lhe geometric
/lnd aerodYllamic parameters is used to achieve an elliptical (or dose
to it) distribution of the circulation on modem wing!>. IIere three
factors c.hange in the corresponding way simultaneously. These
factors, namely, c~a (z), at (z), and b (z) characteri?e the circulation
1'(:) --: O.5c~.atbF ox- thal is di~tl"ihllted according to the elliptical
law (u.5.2) ..,
In the simplesl case of a wing wilh a rectangular planform. b '-'"
= const, t.his law of circ.ll1atioll di~trih\ltion il' cnsured by only vary-
ing tlte va\lIes of c~ and at (by selecting the profiles and warping,
rl'sp(!clivcly). It mllst"be horne i~ mind that for wings of a nOllcllip
tical planform, including rectallgular ones, an distribution
of the eirculatiofl can be achieved only at a definite angle of attack,
and the distribution will be different if the value of the angle is
It is intercsting to appraise by how much wings with a difrcrent
planform differ from their elliptical counterparts in their aerodynam-
ic properties. Table 6.5.1 gives the results of e\'a!uating the coefti-
260 Pt. I. Theory. A.rodynemlcs of .In Airfoil end eWing

Table 6.S.1

Piaarorm ot willi

Elliptical o o
Trapezoidal ('1w = 2-3) o o
Rectangular (A. w = 5-8) 0,053 0.179
RectaDgular with rounded tips o 0.14i

eients 15 and T, called corrections for wings of a non-elliptical plan-

form. These coefficients depend mainly on the planform of a wing
and its aspect ratio. A glance at the table reveals that trapezoidal
wings do not virtually differ from elliptical ones. A slight deviation
in the values of 15 and 't is observed in rectangular wings with
straight tips. Rounding of those tips leads to complete analogy
with an elliptical wing as regards the value of 15 and to a smaller
difference in the coefficients 'to
The relations obtained for determining the aerodynamic coeffi-
cients of fmite-span wings make it possible to solve an important
problem associated with the fmding of these coefficients when going
over from one wing aspect ratio AWl to another one Aw2' This solution
appreciably facilitates aerodynamic calculations because it makes it
possible to use the data obtained when testing serial models of
wings with the adopted (standard) value of the aspect ratio in wind
Let us aSS\lme that for a wing with the aspect ratio AWl we know
the coefficients c lla and cx.1 and we have to convert these coefficients
to another aspect ratio A 912 of a wing having the same set of sections,
but differing in its planform. If both of these wings have the same
lift coefficient c Ua ' the mean downwash angles behind them are
gmt = (c"lrrJW1) (1 + 't1)' em2 = (c,/nlw2) (1 + '(2)
Identical values of cr. for wings are determined hy identical true
angles of attack, i.e. au = au, where
au = al - eDll' au :-= a2 - em2
Consequently, for the setting angle of the second wing, we obtain
the expression
<t, = <t. - (c,/n) [(I + <.)/. w - (I + <,)lAw,1 (6.5.5)
According to this formula for converting the lift eoefficient. a
wing with a smaller aspect ratio (Aw2 < AWl) having a larger down-
Ch. 6. Airfoil and Fi"ile-SplI" Wing in Incompressible Flow 261

Flg. Mol
COD version of aerodynamic coef-
ficients of II. wing from one
aspect ratio to another

wash angle (Ew2 > "'WI) must haye an increased setting nngle ('Z:z >
> al) to obtain the same coefficjent c,Ia
The induced drag coefficients for two wings wilh the aspect ratios
AWl and A.w2 and with identical coefficients cYa are determined by
the following formulas, respectively:
cx .11 = (c,/",-AwJ (1 + 61), Cx.12 = (Cy/J1f. ~d (1 + 62)
Accordingly. for a wing with the aspect ratio AwZ. the indllced drag
coefficient is
C;I;,U. = Cx.1l - (c,/<l) [(1 + 61)/Awl - (1 + 6z)/A.w 1
2 (6.5.6)
This formula is used to convert the value of c.", 1 for a wing with
the aspect ratio AWl to its value for the aspect ratio Avo'2' If this new
ratio is smaller than the given one C)"w2 < ~'''l)' a large dowllwash
appears (em:z> eml)' and, consequently, the mduced drag Coofflclent
grows (C x,12 > cx.Ii)'
Figure 6.5.2 shows graphically how the coellicients c,III ant! Cx,1
are converted from the aspect ratio AWl to Aw2 in accordance with
formulas (6.5.5) and (6.5.6). First the curves c'a "" II (al) and CUll =
= Cfl (cx,n) are plotted for a wing with the given aspect ratio AWl'
Next. setting ~ number of values of c,Ia' we lise the plot to determine
the correspondmg values of a 1 and c;.;.Il' and then calculate l.he an-
gles of attack a2 and the coefficients c.~ 12 for the second WHlg by
formulas (6.5.5) and (6.5.6). The corresponding points are laid off,
and the curves C,I. = h. (0:.2) arId c,In -= (f2 (c x.l2) are plotted,
For wings with smaller aspect ratios ().w:z < AWl)' these l'Uf\'eS
will be to the right of those of tile ratio Awl because with the same
true angle of attack, tIle incrcage in the downwash angle w2 [Ol' the
second wing with a smaller A,,2 is compensated by the growth in the
setting angle of attack (a2 > a 1); ill turn, all illcreased coefiici('nt
C.~.12 corresponds to tho greater downwash angle 1:'''''2, and this i:5 ex-
actly what is shown in Fig. 6.5.2.
The plots in Fig. 6.5.2 can be llsed to convert clla and Cx .! to a
wing with an infini tely large aspect ratio (airfoil). For this pt1rpose,
262 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

the second terms in the brackets in formulas (6.5.5) and (6.5.6) must
be taken equal to zero. The converted curves Clla ~-..: 12 (a2) and clla =
= 1"f2 (C~.I2) will occupy a position at the extreme left of the corre-
sponding curves clI , = h (al) and cu, = 'PI (c~.Il).
Mean Aerodynamic ChoM. When performing aerodynamic calcu-
lations of finite-span wings. the mean aerodynamic clIord is selected
as the characteristic geometric dimension of the span. Such a chord
belongs to a conditional wing having a rectangular planform for
which the planform area. the aerodynamic force, and the pitching
moment are the same as for a wing of the given planform. The mean
aerodynamic chord allows us to compare the moment characteris-
tics of various wings with a varying chord along their span. One
of such characteristics is the pitching moment coefticient determined
as mlA = Mz/(bAqSw). where bA is the mean aerodynamic chord.
The quantity mzA is sufficiently stable when the planform of a wing
and its dimensions change.
The value of the chord h. and those of the coordinates of its lead-
ing point XA. YA (relative to coordinate axes passing through the
apex of the given wing), are usually determined approximately
assuming equality of the aerodynamic coefficients (of the moment,
drag, and lift) of a wing as a whole and its individual section (pro-
file). Accordingly. we have

) b2 (z)dz,
YA- L Jo yb('Jd, J
where x, yare the longitudinal and vertical coordinates of the leading
point of a section with the varying chord b (z). Evidently, knowing
XI. and the equation of the leading edge of a given wing, we can de-
termine the lateral coordinate ZA of the mean aerodynamic chord.
Formulas (6.5.7) make it possible to calculate the magnitude of
the chord bA, by numerical or graphical integration and determine
its position. The middle of bA coincides with the centre of gravity
of the wing area.
For a broad range of wings having a trapezoidal planform, we
can find analytical relations for bAr xA. NA' and ZA' For such wings

b(.)-bo[I-(~w-IJ'/~wJ }
Sw-b,l(~w+I)/(2'1w) (6.5.8)
z=ztan"o; y=ztan1p
Ch. 6. Airloil and Finite-Span Wing in Incompressible Flow 263

where f). = bJb A is the taper ratio of the wing, XI' is the sweep
angle of the leading edge. ~: is the dihedral angle. and i""" 2-;11.
Introduction of (6.5.8) inlo (i.5.7) yields
bA =4Sw [1-~"/(tl"+ 1)'[/(31) }
ZA,= 1(f)w+ 2) tan xo/rO (11,,+ 1)1 (U.5.U)
YA=I(~w" 2)1.n~/[6(~ .. -< 1)[
'fhe lateral coordinate of the (.hord bit, is found from the formula
ZA ..." XIt, !tan Xo_ [f 8 wing tla:o; no dihedral, the coordinate YA, is
evidently zero.
An Airfoil
in a Compressible Flow

7.1. Subsonic Flow

over iI Thin Airfoil
LInearization of the Equation
lor the Velocity Potential

The calculation of a subsonic flow over an airfoil i.e; associated with

solution of the equation for the velocity potential of a plane two~
dimensional flow that is obtained from (5.1.8) provided that e = 0
and has the form
(Vi-a 2) ;;~ +2V:rVII a!2:y +(V~-a2) :~ s::::0. (7.1.1)
This partial differential equation of the second order is non-lin-
ear in the unknowll function <p and describes the flow past suffi-
ciently thick airfoih;. The latter cause large disturbances of the gas
upon which the flow velocities V and the .c;peeds of sound a differ
appreciably from the relevant free-stream flow parameters.
II an airfoil i.e; thin and the dislnrbances it produces are small,
Eq. (7.1.1) can be simplified by reducing it to a linear equation
with conslant coefficients of the second partial derivatives. Such
a simplification is called linearization, \"hile the obtained equation
and the nearly uniform now it desc.ribes are called linearized.
For a linearized flow, conditions (6.1.1) for the velocities are sat-
isfied, and equation (6.1.2) holds. Since the disturbance velocities u
and v (6.1.1) are infinitesimal, the equation for the speed of sound
obtained from (3.6.20) can be transformed as follows:
a' ~ a?, + I(k - 1)/21 (V? - V') (7.1.2)
Substituting for 1'Z its value from (6.1.2), we obtain
a Z = a!" - (k - 1) 1'""u (7.1.2')
Inserting into (7.1.1) the value of a2 from (7.1.2'), aud also V" =
= 1'.., -i- u, Vv = v, Vi=J12"" +
21',.,u, V; ~ v 2 , and taking into
account that the total velocity potential of a linearized flow can be
writlen ill the form q> = ((I"" +
cp', where {foo is tile velocity potential
of the oncoming flow, while the additional potential according to
eh. 7. An Airfoil In e Compre~~ible Flow 26a

comlition (6.1.1) is <p' ((l",,, we obtain

[V~-a!.+(k+1)V",ul ~:~' +2(V",+u)v ~~:
+ ru2 -a'!.+ (k-1) V",u] ~~' =0 (7.1.3)
The second partial derivatives of the potential (p' with respect to
the ('.oordinate~ x and Y Ilre f1rstorder inrmitesimals:
o2cp' OIL oZ(p' ilu ill) iI~' ifr;
""Tz2 = Tz ' a;ay = Ty = 8Z t -ays = 8Y
With this in view, ill (i.1.3), \ve ('an determine the gronp of terms
that are second and third-order infmitesimals; disregarding them,
we obtain a linearized equation in the following form:
(a!o-V!o) ~:~' +a!o~-O (7.!.4)
(1-M!,) ~~' ~~. ==0 + (7.1.4')
where M", = V ",/a..,.
Let us consider the expression for the pressure in a linearized Dow.
To do this. we Sh811 use formula (3.6.26), which we shall write in
the form
pip.., = (1 - y2/V:nh) "/(11_1) (1 - v:../l'~a"tll/(~-l)

Inserting the value of V' from (6.1.2), we have

pip"", = [1 - 2V..,u/(Vlssa" - P!..,)lk/(k-lj
Taking into a(',count that by formula (3,G.22)

l"max- V ;,= k':"t a;, = k~t'~

we find
:. :-..:(1_k;1. P"'pv~"'lIr/(lI-l) (7.1.5)

Let us expand the expression Oil the right-hand side into a bino-
mial series and retaiu the second term in the expansion:
p/p~ ~ I - p~V~u/p~ (i.1.5)
Hence we find the excess pressure p - p ... = -!}",V ...rL and the
pressure coe[(icient p- = -2u1V i.e. we obtain the same relations

(6.1.3) and (6.1.5) as for an incompressible fluid. But when using

these relations for Iligh ~ub~onic velocities. one lU\lst take into ac-
count that the disturbance velocity u = iJq//ox is detel'roined with a
view to compressibility.
266 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 an Airfoil and I Wing

hlllllon letween
the Parameters of Clllllpreuible
and InCOlllpresslbi. FIIlId Flow
DVer Thin Airfoil

Tbe flow over a thin airfoil at a small angle of attack in a compres-

sible subsonic Dow is investigated with the aid of Eq. (7.1.4') in
which M. < 1. Let us cb.ange the variables in this equation in
.accordance with the relations
%,=%, y,=yVI-M:', ~;=~'vV...IV_ (7.1.6)
where,.. is an arbitrary parameter. and V.o is the velocity of a con-
ditional Dow (fictitious velocity) that in the general case differs from
the veloci ty V. of a given flow.
By introducing fl.1.6) into (7.1.4'). we obtain the Laplace equation
for determining the veloeHy potential rp~ of an in('".ompressible flow in
the plane Zoo Yo:
8'~;.'az: + a'~;.'art, = 0 (1.1.4")
Hence, the problem of a compressible flow over a given airfoil can
be solved by using the results of solving the problem on an incompres-
sible flow at the fictitious velocity V. o over 8 modified airfoil. Let
us find the relation between the ('.orresponding parameters of flow
over the airfoils and between thoir geomotric characteristics. The
relation between the disturbance velocities U o in the incompressible
and u in the compressible flows is established in accordance with
(7.1.6) as follows:
~= :~ = ~~' V ~:o =uy ~.:o (7.1.7)

Using (6.1.5), we find the pressure coefficients in an incompressible

fluid Pic = -2uolV.o and in a compressible gas p = -2uJV"".
Consequently, with a view to (7.1.7), we obtain

From the formulas cg,JC = ~ Pic dio, mz.l c = ~ FICXO eGo, in

which ;;, = x/b, and expression (7.1.8). we lind the relation between
the corresponding lift and moment coefficients:

C".Jc=.,~pdi='\'C"a; mZatc=y~pzii-ym'a (7.1.9)

where ; = :db.
Let us establish the relation between the configurations of airfoils
and the angles of attack. For this purpose, we shall first determine
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in .. Compressible Flow 261

,---*1 /)' :' ~

Pig. 7.1.1
Airfoils in a nearly unifonn incompressible (a) and compressible (b) flows:
A lind A.-st&lnltlon poln\l

the relation between the vertical velocity components. In accordance

with (7.1.6), we have
vo= aq:o = alp' . t V_o =tI V ,,...G (i.1.10)
ayo ay V1-Jl'!., v_ V 1- M:" v_
In an incompressible fluid by Eq. (3.3.17'), in which the function
~ni!i~~~i~nll~~~~~/(~!: -=!_ f~JxQ) ~y~7ck: ~~,(~:ti::~:;; a~~~:~~~i!~~
Uo <: V"'o, assume that "Ill V ""0 ...: dYo/d:t o. Similarly, we rind for an
airfoil in a compres.'1ible gas that vlV,", '= dyldx. Consequently,
(1,.''/1') (l'""IVooll) = (dYoldy) dl'fdx o Taking (7.1.6) and (7.1.10) into
account, we find dYoldy = I'IV 1 - JP"". Integration ror the condi-
tion that for y = 0 the quantity Yo ...,., 0 yields an equation relating
the vertical coordinates of the fictitious and gh'en airfoils:
Yo ~ yytVl - M:. (7,1.11)
At the same time. as follows from (7.1.6). the horizontal coordi-
nates of the airfoils do not change. With this in view, the angles of
attack can be written in the forlll
0;10 = yJ(b' - x) and 0; = y/(b' - x)
where b' is the distance to the trailing edge of the airfoil, and x is
the horizontal coordinate (Fig. 7.1.1.).
Hencp., b)" (7.1.11), we ha,"e
"" ~"ytVl-M:. (7.1.12)
Let us assume that the arbitrary parameter I' = 1.. Therefore.
p~p,,, Y=YoVI-M~, "~""VI-M:'} (7,1.13)
era = ell_let m,_ = m,.1c
268 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodyn.mic:s of tin Airfoil tlnd tI Wing

Consequently. if the pre!!sure coefficients arc the same at corre-

sponding points of thin airfoils in compressible and incompressible
flows. then in the compressible flow the airfoil is thinner than in the
incompressible one V 1 - M!, time!!. The angle of attack decreases
to the same extent.
Let us consider the case when y = V 1 - M!, and. therefore.
p""'Plc/V1-M!" Y=Yo, cr;=al e }
c" ~ c",,/V 1- M:'. m" ~ m",JV 1- M!. (7.1.14)
According to the results obtained, for two identical airfoils at the
same angle of attack, the pressure coefficients at corresponding points
of the airfoils. and also their overall lift and moment coefficients
in a compressible flow are larger than those in an incompressible one
1N 1 - M!.. times. Hence follows the conclusion that compressibili-
ty leads to an increase in the pressure and lift force. The coefficient
1tV 1 - M!, is known as the PrandtJ-Glauert correction (for the
compressibility eUect). The corresponding relation (7.1.14) for ii is
known as the Prandtl-Glauert formula. It can be considered as a
first approximation when calculating the pressure coefficient ill a
compressible flow according to the relevant value of Pie' More accu-
rate results relating to thickened airfoils and increased angles of
attack are obtained by the Karman-Talen formula
- (V--
1-M!.+ 1+Y1-=-M!. +
M' PI )-' (7.1.15)

The lise of formulas (7.1.14) and (7.1.15) for p leads to quite a

large error when determining the pressure coefficient at the stagna-
tion point where the velocities and, consequently, the local Mach
number, equal zero. For example, for this point. at which POle = 1,
formula (7.1.14) when M .. = 0.8 yields a coefficient Po = 1.67,
and formula (7.1.15), Po = 1.26 instead of the actual value of 1.17.
At the stagnation point, the pressure coefficient Po = 2 (Po -
- pcc)/(kp...M:O) for arbitrary numbers Moo < 1 is evaluated with
the aid of an expression obtained from (3.6.30) provided that M = 1:
Po = ~[( 1+ ";1 h/';;.. Y""-I) -1J (7.1.16)
When M"" < 1, the quantity in parentheses can be written in the
form of a series in which the first three terms are retained:
Po=1+ ~:.. +2;"JU!, (7.1.17)
This relation is suitable for quite a broad runge of values of 0 ~
Ch, 7. An Airfoil in e CompressIble Flow 269

7.2. Khrlsllanovlch MoIhotI

content of 1M Method
If an airfoil or another body in a flow introduces finite disturbances
into it, the linearized equations are not suitable. Non-linear
equations of gas dynamics must be used when studying such a flow.
Many problems on supersonic. flow can be solved by employing,
particularly, the method of characteristics. The number of solvable
problems of supcrsonic. aerodynamics increases still more owing to
the numerical methods of integrating the equations of motion. It is
mll('h more difficult to analyse subsonic flow. This is explained math-
ematically by the different nature of the equations: for snpersonic
flows they are hyperbolic, and for subsonic ones, elliptic.
The lise of imaginary characteristics in the elliptic equations does
not yield appreciable simpli{i('.ations. The more ('.omplicnted nature
of studying sub50nic now~ i~ explained physic,ally by the fact that
disturbances in them propagate into all the regions of motion, where-
as the disturbances in ~npersonic flows are conlined within conkal
~urfaces issuing from the point of disturbance and propagating only
downstream. Owing to the linearized nature of the equations, the
im'esLigation of nearly uniform subsonic flows i~ !!omewhat simpler
than of subsonic. flows with finite disturbances o\"er, for c:'\ample,
thick airfoils.
A meLhod of studying such flows is de5Cribed by Academician
S. Chaplygin [t71. He gives equations forming thc mathematical
basis of the theory- of potential subsonic flows. They are known in
gas dynamics as the Chaplygin equations, Their feature i!'l that they
describe the flow of a gas Ilot in the plane y. x, but in that of the
special ('oordinates 't" and ~ (or '""" V~ is the square of the lotal \"eloc-
itr at a given point in the flo\\,. and ~ is the polar angle determined
from the condition V", ,.,,, V ('os ~). Unlike the (',ollventional e(lua
tions, they are Unear because the coeflicient.<; of the equations are
functions of the independent "ariables"t and ~. Tbese equations were
so!\'ed by Chaplygin lor a nllmber of cases of flow at high subsonic
The Chaplygin equations underlie many other methods in the
field of high-speed aerodynamics. Academician S. Khristiano"ich,
using these equation!'!, dcveloped a method making it possible to
take into account the influence of compressibiJity Oil the subsonic
Dow over aidons of an arbitrary configuration. The theoretical ten-
ets of this method are desc.ribed in detail in [:iJ. We shall consider
the basic content of the method and its application to the !'!ollition
of various problems of a compressible subsonic flow over airfoils.
When considering a compressible flow o\'er an airfoil of a gh'en
configuration. Khristianovich showed that the flow equations c_an be
270 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamic:s of lin Airfoil lind II Wing

(a) y p (b)

Calculation of the pressure on an airfoil in D. compressible now:
a-VUe no_I b_flcUltoll!l flOw; I-given llrfoll; R-i\clltiOUI alrfotl

reduced to e(luatiOn.s of an incompressible flow over an air/oil u:ith a

modified configuration (Fig. 7.2.1). Hcn('e, according to Khristiano-
vich's approach, lirst the relatively simple problem of a conditional
(flCtitious) incompressible flow oeer a fictitious airfoil is solved, and
then the parameters obtained are converted to the conditions of a com-
pressible flow over the given airfoil.
Table 7.2.1

A 1~ 1~::::oo 1::~981 ~:::93 [:;:83 1:~67 [:~;43 [ ~~'"

A [~:i~621 ::~71 ::~" :;~51 ~:;;21 ::~, 1:~:o
1 :;;" 1

, 1::;~;1 ::;!, 1~:;;O681 :;;;71 ::~8~71 :::~ 1:::~:Il 1:::;;3


'I ::24 1:~;, I ::;~ I::;;1 :.7517

This conversion is hased on the usc of a funetional relation between
the true speed ratio A = Vla* of a compressible Dow and the licti-
HOllS speed ratio A = Vola* at the corresponding points of the gi.
ven and flCtitiuus airfoils (Table 7.2.1). The method being consid-
ered makes it possible to reconstrud the given airfoil to the fictitious
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in " Compressible Flow 271

As shown by Khristianovich, for prolate airfoils, the difference

between the configurations of the given and fictitious airfoils may
be disregarded. In this rase, the Khristianovieh method allows olle
to ronvert the parameters of the now over an airfoil (pressure. veloe
ity) to any number M"", > 0, Le. to lake aceount of compressibilitYa-
if the distribution o[ these parameters over the same airfoil is known
for a low-speed flow wh('1I the innnence of compressibility is absent
(M ... ~ 0). In addition, this method allows us to convert the flow
parameters from OIU) number M ~1 > 0 to ,\llother one M <"~ > o.
The Khristianovich method is sllitable provided that- the velocity
is suhsunic o\"er the enlil'tl airfoil. This condition is satisfied if the
Mach number of the oncoming now is les.." thnll the critical value
M cr' Conseqllently, hefore p(>rfol'ming calculations, one mllst find

tlds criticnl value nnd determine the numbf'r M"" < M "-'. er for
whirh calculations are possible. The critical 1lI1l11bN Moo .... , can also
be found by the Khristianovich method.

Conversion of the Pressure CoeHldeni

for an IncompreSJlble FlUid
to the Humber Moo>O

Assume that we know thr {listrilmtiOIl of the pressure coefficient

over an airfoil in Iln incompressible flow, i.e. we know the form of
thC' function Pic c- Pie (x) (Fig. 7.2.2). This fnnction is converted
to the number M"",.er > Moo > 0 n~ follows.
We determine the speed ratio accorciillg to the given number

A"" _= Ikt I M;, (1-1- k-;t .ill;' r!r 2 (7.2.J)

From Tahle 7.2.1, we (ind the i'lflitioH$ speed ralio .\"" of an ill_
eOlllprf'ssible flmv corresponding to the value ;."'" and for tl\{> choSE'Q
value of Pic frolll th(> Bernoulli e(lllation

we determine the local fictitious speed ratio


Kllowing A, we usc Table 7.2.1 to find t.he loeal trlle !<pepd ratio A
of the compressible flow, and we calculatC' the pre~sllrC' Jl by fur
mula (3.6.26) in which it is necessary to aSSIllIl! tha V~/V"ma(
- I(k - 1)/(k+ 1)1 '}..2. \\-'e determine the pressurl' coeniei('lIt by the
:272 pt. I. Thtiory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and fII Wing

Nature of &he pressure distrl
button 011 one side 01 aD airfoil
at diD'erent valun of M ...

formula ii
= 2 (pIp., - 1)/(kM:'). The curve = p(x) converted p
to the given number M., is shown by a dashed line in Fig. 7.2.2.

ConWlnlon of the Pruaur. Coefficient

Irom M ... 1 >0 to lJI...a>'>
Assume that we know the distribution of the pressure coefficient
~f a compressible fluid PI = P; (x) nt a certain number M""1 (where
M -,Cr > M _1 > 0). To COil vert this distribution to the number
M"' 2 > 0, it is necessary to flrst ca!c.ulate the speed ratios J.. ... I and
A"'2 corresponding to the numbers M ""I and M"2 by formula (7.2.1)
and use Table 7.2.1 to lind the speed ratios A ...t and A"' 2 of the ficti
1.i01ls incompressible flow.
After l'I$Signing a value t.o the pressure coefficient PI' from the
formula PI = 2 (PI - poo)/(kM ""IP""I) we rand t.he absolute pressure:
p, ~ p~, I;' (kMl.,t2)+ 11 (7.2.3)
and evaluate the local speed ratio of the given flow:
Af c: {::::! [t - (To r"-I>I"]} 1/2 (7.2.4)
From Table 7.2.1 according to the value of A.h we fand the local
speed ratio of the fictitious incompressible flow, and from the Ber-
noulli equation (i.2.2), we c.a1culate the corresponding pressure coeffi-
Pic = 1 - (A/A""I)2
The pressure ('.oefiicient P2 for the number M ",,2 is determined
according to this value of Pie in the same way as the pressure coeffi
cient of an incompressible now is converted to the number M"" > 0
.according to thE' procedure set nut. previonsly.
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in .. Compressible Flow 273

Determination 01 the Critical Number .V

According to Khristianovich's hypothesis, a local sonic t'elocity,
which the crUical JJach number.u "',er oj lhe ollcomin/f flow corresponds
to, near all air/oil where the ma:J;imum rar~/action. is obsern:d
tn all incompressible flou:. Khri.~t.iallo\"ich establisheu the relation
betweell the minimum coefficiellt PIc, nlln corresponding 10 this ma-
ximum rarefilction and the number Moo. cr'
lIence, to lind the critical \Iach Illimber, it is Ileccssary in some
war or other, for example, by hlowillg air over a model ill ala\\"-
speed willu tnnnel, to determine lhe magnitude of tliC maximum
rarefacLlon PIc, mIll' If us aresult we linclthe distribution of the press-
ure with account taken of the compressibility for Moo, rr > M"" > 0,
we Cllll determine the value of Pte, mIll by the COH\'ersion of Pic. min
to the number Moo = O.
Assume tha~ we know the value of lhe maximullI rarefaction
P1C. IHln' Since}, -""", 1 \ a sonic velocity appears, from Table i .2.1
we can find the corresponding value of the local spe(>.d ratio of the
fictitiouS incompressible flow, i.e. A ~ 0.7577. Gsing the Bernoulli
equation Pic.mIn = 1 - (A/.\",,)2 we can find the speed ratio for
the fktitiollS oncorning flow:

1\00 = A/I ' 1- Pic, mill =. 0.7577 / I '1- Pic, mIll (i .2.5)

while H~illg Table 7.2.1 and the value of .\"" we can deterrnine the
critical speed ratio A",_ cr of the compre~sihle flow. The corresponding
critical Mar-h number is

M",. cr = "00, cr (k-~-1_ 1.:-;-1 A~, er) -1.'2 (i .2.G)

A plot of the critical Mach number "erslls "I~' 111111 con.slructed

ae.cording to the results of the above calculation isshown in Fig. 7.2.3.
An increase in the airfoil thickness is attended hy a decrease in
the IIl1mber M Cr' The explanation i~ that such all inr-rease leads

to contraction of tlte stream lilament and to an increase in the local

flo\\' velocily. Conseqnently, sonie "elocity on a thickened airfoil is
achie"ed at a lower fr('e-~tl"eam velocity. i.e. at a lower value of
M oX 1'1"". cr- This conclusion follows (liree.tly frolll Fig. 7.2.3 in

acconlnnce with which at all illcreased local yelodty lower Yulues of

M",.cr correspond to a lower value of the coeffirient Pte. ml,,' Upon
an inet'ease in the angle of attack, the /lumber M "". cr diminishes,
which is also explained by tlw greater contraction of the streO'l.rn HI-
aments and by the 'ls.sociated increase in the subsonic velocity.

PI. I. Theory. Aerodynemics of en Airfoil end eWing


I .

Flg.7.:U a.5
A Khristianovich curve for
determining .the crHical ~18ch
number M -0.5 -'.'0 -,.~ Jii(.nri~
....rodynamlc Coefficients
Khristianovich's investigations made it possible to obtain more
accurate relations for the lift and moment r.oefticients than relations
(7.1.1'1) found on tlle basis of the Prandtl-Glauert formula for the
pressure coefficient. These relations are as follows:
clIa=cy.lcL/V1-M!o; ml:a=m%alcL2/V1-M!., (7.2.7)
L = 1-f- O.05M;'1 M!." cr
Compressibility changes the position of the centre of pressure of
an airfoil (the coordinate xp of this centre is measnred from the
leading edge along the chord). It follows from (7.2.7) that in a com-
pressible flow, the coefficient of the centre of pressure is
Cp = xplb = -m 2/c!la' c".ie = -m'alc/cYalC
Examination of (7.2.8) reveals that the centre of pressure in a
compreS!>ible flow ill c.omparisoll with an incompressible one is dis-
placed toward the trailing edge. This is explained by the increase in the
aerodynamic load on the tail sections of an airfoil at increased flow
speech; and. as a consequenc.e, by the appearance of an additional
stabilizing effect.

7.3. Flow at Supercrifical Velocity

oYer an Airfoil

Sn bsonic flow over an airfoil can be characterized by two cases.

In the flrsl one, the local velocity of the flow on a surface does not
exceed the speed of sound anywhere. This case is purely subsonic
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in Compressible Flow 271!.

~~\~'~i~ flow over an airfoil at a supercritical ve1ocill':

,,-diagram or H," Row U5('d ror ealculllli("'~ ,,'hN' local norlllal shuck Is p",~nl; b-
di~lrfb"li"n 01 Ilw Jlrcssuro' ov .. r Ihr llirl"iI wb"n II local }.'$hap<'d shock rO""5

flow. It i~ gelle!ral kuowll'dgl' thalH! sur.h II "('Iodt)', 110 shocks ran

form nt alLY point on nn airfoil. while! the lift forre lHul drug ;He
determined with a dcw to tIll' {'ompressibility ami in the gellernl
ca~e depend on Ihe lIormal pressllf(~ <Iud skin fric.tion forces. Such a
drag. including \lUll produced by tlw lIol'mal ~Ires:< (pressul"(,) <lnd
the friction drag is called Ihe profile' drag.
JIl the secOllri cast'. ('all('(1 supf'rcritical now. al. \\'hirh t.he nllmber
M of tllt.- ollcomillg flow is larger llifln llw ('filirai one, i.e. JJt "" >
> M '-'. ("r' the lornl \"Clodl}" a! somE' poilllS ill the vicinily of an
airfoil be("ornes higher tllall Ill(' speed of SOIIll/1, (111(\ a 1. Olle of local
supersonic "elocities Ilppears. IT('re the flow o\"er all airfoil is chm
arleri1.ed hy II\(' flld thai hoth hphilHl it and ahc(ld of t.he leading
edge t.he local \T.]odly is lowm' Ihall I.he speNI of ~ollnd. 11(>lIc(>, local
compression shocks form in the trallsilioll from s upersonir. velocities
10 !'lubsonir oncs in the \'ieini ly of the wing (Fig. 7.3. t) . Such I.-shaped
shorks {'ollsis!.. as it wcre , or two shods: a fronl cllrvp.d (ohlique)
onC! DH and 11 r('ar alnlOsl !'Lraight. allc en (Fig. 7.3 .1h) .
Local shocks Ihol. may form on both tile uppE'r ,IIIIJ hollol1l si<l('s
of nil ilirfoil suhstontinlly l"il.(lngCllhe distribution of thE' pressure and
lend to tile appeManc(> of au ;Iddiliollul wllve drng Xw' IIcnce . I./ic
tolal drag of an "'irfoil X it consi~ts of the profile X pr ami t.he WIH"C
X", drag!' , i.('. Xl. Xpr -i- X w ' or c'~a=-,,:c.'.l'r + c .~.w . where c""
iJ; lilc tot:ll dl:lg ('odTiricllt of Ihe i,lirroil. c",, lor allil c"'.w lire the profile
and wave drag {'oefficiC'llls, Icspcc.tin-ly.
Let llS ('onsider a !'limple method of wave drng proposed
hy Prof. G. Bllrago [161. Let liS assume tlHlt a local supersonic zone
closed hy Hearly uormaJ slio('k IJC is formed on the llpper side of all
airfoil (Fig. 7.:~.1a). Let usscpilrulc a stream IllaJllcnl passing throllgh
this shock in the flo\\'. The paramctC'r.<: of the ga~ in the fllamellt
di1"('ctly alwad of the sllock fll'() i"" Ill' PI' ami ,til> and hehind it are
276 Pt. J. Theory. Aerodyn.!lmics of .!In AirFoil .!Ind .!I Wing

V z, P2, Pz. and M z Let us introduce two control surfaces I-I and
II-I! to the left and right of the airfoil at a sufficiently large distance
from it; let the parameters of tho gas along the left plane be V,oo.
p,,,,, and PI'"'' and along the right plane be Va 00, P2o'" and pzoo.
Using the theorem of the change in the momentum of the mass of
a gas when flowing through the control surfaces, we ohtain

1v,~dm'~-1 v,~dm'-1 (p,~-p,.)dy-Xw (7.3.1)

where PI and Pzcc are the forces acting on the left and "right sur-

faces, X w is the force of the wave drag with which the airfoil acts on
the flow, and dm p " . - p, ..... 1','" dYl""" dm2"" = P2""V2oo dY2"" are
the rates of flow of the gas along the stream filaments that according
to the condition of the constancy of the flow rale are equal, i.e.
p,,,,,V1 dYloo = P2ooV2O dyzoo
o (7.3.2)
Let u::: assume (see [1(1) that levelling out of the velocities occurs
hehind the wing at a l<nge distance from it, i.e. 1'200 - VI"'" Accord-
ingly, and by (7.3.2), we have

_[ V 2""dm 2 . . , - _ [ V loo dm l "" = _[ PI"'Y1oo (V2oo - V loo) dy,oo=O


Xw -1 (p,~ - p,~) dy (7.3.3)

We can assume that for stream filaments not intersecting the shock.
P2<>< = p,oo i.e. the pressure at a large distance from the airfoil be-
hind it is restored to the value of the free-stream pressure. For the
fllaments that pass through the shock, P200 < PlOO' Indeed, since
PI"" = Pu ("1 - VIooIV:nad~J{h-t) }
P2""= p~ ("1 _ V~ooIV~ax)hJ(h-t).= p~ (1- VL"IV~ax)h/(h-l) (7.3.4)
where p~ < Po, we ha\'e
p2~/p,oo = p;lpo"-: Vo < 1 (7.3.5)
According to (7.3.5), formula (7.3,3) can be trans[ormed by taking
inlo account lhe flow ratc equation p,,,,,V,,,, dylO" = Pll'l ds, in
accordance with which
dyl'c ~ dy -= (p,l't/pP,vloo) ds
where s is lhe length of the shock.
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in (I Compressible Flow 277

As a result of transformations, the wave drag force is

Xw=Pt<S> ~ PI~l (1-\'o)d.<; (7.3.G)
and the coefficient of this force is

2X. 2
ex. w = kp..,M!..b = k,V:'b
I' Pl""l',,,,
p,r, (1 - Vo

Let us expand the function '\'0 in (1.3.20) inLo i.I series in powers of
n =M I -1:
'\'0 (n) ~.. "0(0) + ( ~:~ )"=0 n+ {( ~:~~~ )"=0 n Z

In exprel'!sioll (i.a.i). the quantily Vo (0) '""" 1 because at .t11 = 1

(n = 0), thesJlOck lran"forllls inlo a wave of nn illfllllLe!'!iroal stl'ength.
and the preS!;llrC p~ '.; PB'
using (4.;U:J), (1,;U5). IlIld (4.3.20), we (au 111":'0 ~how thilt

(~:o )'I~O = ( g'~1 ).11,,. I= 0 and ( ~:\:n }n._n ~ ( ;~i )_11.=1 = 0

Having in view that for thin airfoil.s al smAll angles of aUlU'k.
the differcllce Ml - 1 is small, we- can limil oHrscives to the [ourln
term in expansion (7.3.7):
yo(n) = 1-:-,*" ( r;; L,.:.I(Mt-l)Z (7.3.7')

Investigations have shown that. for a given airfoil. the quantity

Ml - 1 call be considered approximately proporLional to the diff{'r~
ence M"" - Moo. cr' Designating tho relevant proportionality fact.or
by Al and including it in the overall coefficient A determiocfl in the

ak,":'b dMi .II,~I
0 PI_v1_ (7.3.8)

we obtain an expres.'1ion from (7.3.6') and (7.3.i') for the wave- drag
':r.w = A (Mo<> - M"".cr)3 (7.3.\)
The coefficit'Jlt A in the general case depends on the configuration
of the aidoil, the aJlgle of attack, and the number Ifl_. It may be
considered as approximately constant, however. Tests of modern
airfoils installed at small angles of attack in wiud tunnels show that
278 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodyn.mic5 of an AirFoil and a Wing

C,. r-
0.6 V_(M_)
0.5 I-
Drag o( an airroil in a nearl)"
sonic no",'

o. .. i-'
the coefficient A ~ 11. At t.his nIue, satisfactory results of calcll~

lations by formula (7.3.9) arc obtained if the differenco M co - M .... et

does not exceed 0.15.
It. follows from formula (7.a.B) that the wave drag coellicient
increases with increasing Moo. This is due to the fact that npon a
growth in t.he airspeed, the shocks formed on an airfol I become more
and more intensive and extended. To lower cx. w at a given M .... one
must ollsure an increase in the number M _. cr' whit-.h is achieved
mainly by reducing the thickness or the ail'foil. A similar result
can be obtained when the angle of altaek is made smaller.
}o'igure 7.3.2 shows an experimental (".uT\'e charaeterizing the change
in the drag coefficient c'\"a -,:, c.~, Pr -I- c.~. w in nearly sonic flow. For
values of M Of> < 0.45 -0.5, only profile drag is observed. while at
M Of> > 0.5-0.55 (supercritical flow velo('.ities) a wave drag also ap~
pears that. is due to local shocks.

7.4. Supersonic Flow of a Gas

with Constant Specific Heats
over a Thin Plate
Let us ('ollsidcr a very simple airfoil in the form of an inflllitely
thin plate placed iu a suporsonic flow at the angle of attack (x. The
flow over such a plate is shaWl! scllematically in Fig. 7.4.1. At its
leading edge. the supersonic flow divides into two parts-an upper
one (above the plate) and a bottom one (under it) that do not influ-
ence each ot.hel'. This is wh\' the supersonic flow over each side can be
investigated independently.
Let us consider the upper side of the plate. The flow here is a plane
supersonic flow over a surface forming an angle larger than 18(J<'
with the direction of the undisturbed flow. Such a flow is shown
sc.hematically in }o'ig. 7.4.2, where plane OC corresponds to the upper
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in a Compressible Fiow Jl79


Supersonic flow over a thin platc:
J-uplIJ\$ion ran: ~-8 t1ock

(') 'I ,),-"

":~1j~. ~
Fig. 7.4.1
Prandtl-Meycr no\\':
,,_ph ysieal planl"; b-hmlograph pial"': c-d;agram of ;'\ nl"arl), uniform no\\'; 1- ~ x,,;,\I\
~ Ion ran : t-CI>ic),clo;,1

sillc of thc phill'. II wus rllost illwsligatcd hy L I'nUld11 and T. :\Icyer

aud i!; <"-JlIINI a Prandtl-M(,ycr now.
In aCl'Ql'tlance wilh til(' flow di<lg'ralll in Fig. 7A.:!o , Ih e How panll-
lei to pll'tneOH when passing arollnd anglc 0 grlldLlnll~' IUI'US, expands,
and flCQI1iL'CS a IlCW direction parallel to planc OC. The auglc ~t)c
of inriillatioTl of this plane to lhe \'('!ctor V"" cOI'L'('sponds 10 the angle
of attack cr. of the plnte (sec Fig. 7.4.1). The disturbed regioll of the
l'xpanding fluw is limited flt- the lE'ft-hanrl s ide hy )1ach line OD
indincd to the fI'ee-strc3m vclodty vector V ... aL the flngle ~'"
,... !'iio _I ("liM ... ), whe]'e M:x- is the :\Iach uumhcI' of the undisturbed
flow. TIll.' expansioll proccs~ terminates 011 Milch liul' OE inclined to
280 Pt. I. Theory. AerodynemiC5 of en Airfoil and a Wing

the disturbed velocity vector Voc at the angle ~LOC -...:: sin-I (1/Mod
determined from the Madl number 0 the disturbed now along plane
OC. The change in thc direcLiou of the now betwecn Mach lines OD
and OE can be repre~ented as a consecutive set of deflections of the
streamlines through the small angles A~. A straight Madl line issll-
ing from point 0 corresponds to each of these defloctions iudie-aUng
the formation of an additional disturhance.
Hence, thc turning flow is filled with an infinite multitude of
Mach line.~ forming a "fan" of disturbance lines that ("horacterizes a
centered expansion wave. This r,entered wave, sometimes c.aUed a
Prandtl-Mf"ycr fan, is defmed by straight Mach lincs along each of
whir.h the now parameters arc COllstant, and this is why it belongs to
the closs of simple expan:;ion waves.
The problem on the disturbed molion of a gas ncar an obtuse
angle, which is associated with the formation of a centered expansion
wave, can be solved according to the method of characteristics.
Point F' on an epicycloid-a charar.teristic in tI hodograph of the
same family-corresponds to point F of intersection of a streamline
belonging to the plarc parallel onrQming flow (the inclination of a
streamline at this pomt is ~ _..: 0) with characlcristic OD in a J.hys-.
ical plane. To be specirlc, we ran relate each of these characteristics
to those of the firsl family. The equation ~ ." 0) -:- ~I is used for a
characteristic of this family in Lile hodograph. Sinc.e we have assumed
that ~:-: 0, therollstant ~I :::-: - ( I ) " , (Moo), where the angle (I)"" is
fonnd from (5.3.30) according to the known number Moo. Consequent-
ly, the equation for the characteristic has the form ~ = (I) - 0)"",
By setting the inclination of a streamline on the small angle
~ = A~, we can calculate the corresponding angle co ,..", A~ + w""
and flDd the number M on the ncigIlbouring Mach line inclined to
the new direction of a streamline at the angle j.l. "" sin- I (11M).
The Mach number on plane OC with an inclination of ~ = ~oc "Ct,
i.e. on the upper side of the plate, is determined according to the
_ floc + ..
~ ~
The found vnlue of the local number Moe makes it pos!;ible to de-
termine the Mach angle ~c sin _I (tlMod. A graphical solution
of the problem on the Prandtl-Meyer flow is shown in Fig. 7.4.2h.
The coordinate of point G' of intersection of the epicycloid with
straight line O'G' parallel to plane OC determines the speed ratio
hoc of the disturbed flow near plane OC. The point G of intersection
of a streamline with characteristic OE corresponds to point G' in a
physical plane.
Ch, 7, An Airfoil in II Compressible Flow '281

AC'cordillg to the kl\own numbel' Moe (J.oe), hy using formula

(3.6.30), we ("lln d('t('rmin(' till' pl'es!<l1l'e 011 the upper !<hlc of the plat.e:
Pu= Poe, u=: Poe [( 1+ k;-l M:")! (1 T k-;-1 Mf)C) ]"/(11- I) (7A.3)
and t.he cOfl'esponciiug vtllue of the pressure cocftident.!
1"1 POC,n -, 2 ({Joc, II - poo)/(k.lli.,p",)
At. hypersonic vclocilie~ (Moo: t), thc cllicuhltiou of the Prilluitl-
\Ieyer flow is simplified, bec8u:-tc to detflrmine 01(' funrliOIl W wc call
lise formula (5.3,/11). This allows mILo deL(,I'minf! the lot'lllliumher M
directly. Suhstituting for the Rugles Woe ami 0,1.,.., ill (IA2) their \'1'11-
u('s ill ac('ordan("e wilh (5.3.!11), we oblilin

M,,=Moc=( ,u~ _k-;IPoc)-1 (7A.4)

The t'orresponding preS,'illre cal) be determined by formula (3.6.30).

Lct us (".ollsidel' the Prandtl-\l!'rer now appearing III hypel':-tonic
\'clocitie!> with !.aunli now dellc("lions Poe -" -:t. At \'er~' hu-gc num-
bers M "", the hmun or 'Illch lilies i~"'lIillg fl'om point 0 will be very
nan-ow. We Clln ("Ollsider [0 11 suftidently good appro:'(imatioll that
the beam is ("olllpre:":"Cld into a single line on which [he low imrne-
diat('ly turn:;, wilh cxpansion. This line ('an tlwt'cfore be ("ollliitioll-
ally considered 11:-; Illl "expansion sho('.k" behilld whirh the velodties
(;'\lacll Ilumbers) grow and the pre~s\lt'es lower. The angle ~l;)C of
inclination of this line to the ve("tor V"" is ohtailled if we take "d\'an~
tage of the analogy with II. ("omprcssioll shot'k illld ("alculntc this
angle by Iormuln (4.6.1J) provided that. the angle ~~ ~.:. ~ -" ex in
this formula is negflth'e, Assuming that O. . ~IOC' we lind

I:~i =2(t~6)+V "(1~W +rb- (7,4.5}

where I Poe I ::-. I ex I is the magnitude of the tllming angle of the-
Dow (the angle of attack), ~lIld K~ -:: (M ""~od:.!.
By llsing formula (4.6,11') to ("valnate t.he pressui'e coefficient
with a view to the sign of the lingle ~oc :- a. we obtain

At low numbers Moo aud small angles ~oc '--: -:t, a nearly uniform
Ptandtl~:,\'leyer flow appears lIear the deflected surbce. Fill' such a
f10\V, relation (1.1.2') fOl' the !:\pced of sOllnd holds. If we III)W find a:
formula for the l'.1ach nllmber from (7.1.2), namely,

'H~=f.-=k~1(~-1)+ ~~
.. Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

and introduce the value of a~ fl'om (7.1.2') into t,his formula, we obtain

;.=M2 . . . M;,(1-L e:)r1-(k-1) u~"'rl (7.4.7)

In acC'ordance with this expressioll. we can assume in a first approx-

imation lhat ill a nearly uniform flow M =::: M"" and, C'onsequently,
the equation dy1dx tall (P J.l",,) is used for the cllaracteristics
in a ph~'siC'1l1 pi nne. Since the flow den()('.tion angle P is small and
~ <:: 11.". then dy/dx =::: tan J.l "". COllsequently, the characteristics
are Marh lines inclined to the x-axis at angles of J.l ..... For a Prandtl-
Meyer flow, we hHe a family of characteristics in the form of para[-
lei lilies inclined to the horizontal axis at the angle J.l .... Wig. 7.4.2c).
We obtain dirfl!fenrp. p.quations fOf tile characteristics in the hodo-
:grapll of t\ supersonic Row from (.'}.3.21) and (5.3.22):
dV!V =F tan p..dP -- 0 (704.8)
For a nearly uniform flow, we have
AV - u, V -, V coo. dP ,p, tan J.l:""": tan J.loo -: (iJP... _1)_1/2
ulV ~ ~!V M:, - 1 (7.4.8')
Int<erting the \'aille of u fl'om (7.4.8') into (U.5), we ohtain (he
pres.~urc ('O('ffiricnl

dince we are considering an expanding flow for which < 0 and p
are ha\'ing in "iew that tile magnitude of the angle Ii is being found,
we mll~t take the minus sign in formula (7.4.9). Acc.ordingly, on the
upper side of the plate inclined at a small angle of attack Ii ." a,
the pr~~ure roerriC'ient is
Pu -.': POC.II = -2a.IY M:' - 1 (7.4.10)
Let liS rOllsicier tile botlOin side of the plate. The flow o\'er this
side (see "'ig. 7.4.1) is attended by the formation of shork OF. issuing
from n point on the leading edge and, consequently, by compression
of the now. To ti(!termine the angle e~.OI~ of inclination of the shock,
we shoulll use formula (4.3.25) in which we mll~t a~lIme that MI -~
~.., M ... and ~$ _ a. At"t'_ording to the fOlilld value of 6 s'0l::. we rllld
the ~ta('h number M2 -= MOC b on the bottom side by (4.3.19) or
When determining the nature of the flow in the region behind
point C on Ihe trailing edge. we can proceed from the following
-consiilelatiOlls. On the upper side of the plate, the number Moe.u
ahead of shock CD is larger than the number Moo ahead of shock OE
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in iI Compre~~ibfe Flow '283

formed on the loading o(lgo from below. If we ai'Sll[l)(' that behind

point C the flow does not deflect from the direction of the undisturbed
flow (streamline CF is parallel to the H'ctor V",). the losses in the
upper shock will evidently be greater, and tllcrefDrc Mo,\> <
< iVCF lI The pr(':-;surc in the region abovc line CF will he greater
than in that helow it.
A pressure jump rannol be rehlill('(1 on a houndary i'lll'fac(' in 11
gas flow. althouglt the velodties may remain different. Tllerefore,
itl real conditioll~. the diredion of :o.trPHmlinc CF differ.~ from that
of the free-stream velocity. i.t'. a downwash of thc flow forms behind
the pl<lte. It is clear ft'om phy:o.ical notions that line CF dC\'iales in
the direction of the boltom region. Here turning of the flow behind
-shock CD through a smaller angle is ensured. wllirh is just what
leads to lowf'ring of the pressure.
Inve.<;tigations .'''how that the downwl'Hjh angle is smAll. hefl{'c \.0
11 .<;lIftidently good approximation we CAll proreerl from the as.'mlllp-
tion that at. point C the direclion or the flow ('oinddcs with that of
the free stre<llll. Accordingly. the sho('k angle 0s.ell Oil the upper
5icte i:o. determined by formula (4.:1.25) ill whirh we as."III11E' thul
Ml . Aloc. \I and ~"'- a. The (,Ofl't'spolHling Mach numhcl' hehind
the shork M'l . MU'.n is determined frofU f.'1.:~.Hl) or (4.:U9')
'HW~t~~~gli~~ ~IFe ~'~ll~;~; r~~if~~l l~el?tn(ttl~ltl'Ail~~re~igea.n~1 ~;al~d~t
Meyer flow appears with the ~1acb 1\lllTlher MU.b d'tt'rmi1l(,d with
the aid of the formula WCF.h (')OLl> _,_ a.
The pressure PI' ....., lhX:.\l on the llppe'r side of the phlte is dl'll'r-
milled by forml11a (7.1. :1). white the ("orresponding prpsslIrf> Ph .-
=-: /JOC.b on the bottom side- is ("<llr111<l!td h~' c\prCSSioll (,.. ;1.1;-)) in
which it i!'l a:-;!'Illmed that pz Ph, PI - fl ",. 0., - G"m'. (lnd
p" <P",,<Jlb'
If the length of lhe plAte is / .. and its width i.~ t,ll,ell equ<1\lo unity.
the forre producl'd by the Ilornlal pres~llre l'Ipplied to the plate i~
y . /. (Pb - fl,,), Consequently. the lift force i." j"n . Y ("os a.
while the drag is Xa ." ~ill 'I. The ('Ol'l'(>.~pouding \',ducs of !he
lift and drag ('oefficient~ 'H'e CUa }-,'(q",,/,) :1ud cx" . Xa'(q",).)
Intro<iu('illg the pl'eS~Hrt' coenki('uts r" .-
(fiu - p",)iq ... fo!' tile
llpper allli Ph (Ph - /1:.;)/("", for the lower ~i('es. t'('spedi\cly.
we obtAin the full()willg e\pre",~iolls for t.he (ll.rodynamlx ('oel1icients:
c Ya :-= (j)h - POI) ros a, c:r" '-' (Pb - P\I) .!'ill a (i.4.11)
The force X 3 Hppearillg !lpon supersonic fiow over the plate and
<.:a\l~e(1 by the formation of ~hock waves and ordinary disturban('e
wav!,." is I"all('d the waH' drag. lind the rOfl"esponding quantity
eXa . ex'''' is ('ailed the wave drag coefficient. This drag dot's not
equal zero even in an ideal (in\'iscid) nuid.
284 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 an Airfoil and a Wing

The Jinencss of the plate K = cy/cxa ,..,., cot Ct can be seen to be

a function of only the anglc of aLt.Ack. Owing to Ihe uniform distribu-
tion of the pres:o;nrc ovcr the snrfate of the plate. the centre of
pressure is at ils mhldle. Conseqllenlly, the moment of the pressurE"
forces about the l(lading edge is M: :.." -YU2. and the correspond-
ing moment coefficient is
In: :...~ m:8 = Mz/(q""L'l) = -(.vb - Pu)/2 (7.4.12)
At hypersonic velocities, the pressure c.oefJirient for the upper
side oC the plate is determined approximately by (7.1i.6), and Cor
its lower side, by (4..6.12). With this in view and assuming in (1.6.12)
that ~8 - Ct, we obtain for the differenc.e of the pressure coefficienL<;
Ph - Pn. also known ns the pressure-drop coeffleient, the expression
c,/a.'~4VVI4(1 6J'J+lIK' 17.4.14)
cJ.)a3=4Vlll4.(1 6}2jI1/Kz (7.4.15)
nl z /a.2.= -2Vf/14(1 6)2J+ 11Kz (7.4.16)
Formulas (i.1.1:J)-(7A.16)expre!'s the Jaw of hypersonic simitarity
as applied to the flow oyer a thin plate. This law consists in that
regardle!'s of the values of Moo and ex, but nt identical values of
K = M""ex, the corresponding quantities pla.'I.. cyia. 2 cxa.'tz,:i, and
m:a/a.'I. for plates are identical. The pnrameter K = M ""ex is called
the hypersonic iimilarity criterion.
Examination of formulas (7.4.13)-(7.4.16) reveals that the relations
for the pres.~lIre. lift, and moment coefficients are quadratic, and
for the drag roeffir.ient~-cl1 bie. funclions of the angle of attack ex.
At the limit., when K __ 00, we have
(Pb - pu)/a'!. = cila/a'! = cz/as = 2/(1 - 6) (i.4.17)
m,,!a.' .~ -li(1 - 6) (7.4.18)
"'or a plate in a nearly uniform (linearized) flow, the pressure
coefficicuts are calculated by formula (7.4.9) in which we should
assume that ~ = Ct. The minus sign in this formuJa determines the
pre!r.'!ure coefficient for the upper side, and the pIns sign-for tlle
bottom side. Accordingly, the difference between the pressure coeDi-
cients related to the angle of aitllck is
(P. - p,)Ia. ~ "IV M!. - I (7.4.19)
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in a Compressible Flow 28~

Introducing (i.!L.19) into formllla~ ('iAB) and (7.4.12). we obtain

cy/a = 4/V bl;, -1 (7.1.20)

cx/a'Z == 4/V M!o -1 (;.4.21)
rnz/a= -2/J!M!o-1 (;.4.22)
In the given cuse. the number M", is the similarity criterion.
'Vhcn its valuc is retaincu, and regUl'dless of tllC yullic of the angle
Q[ attack, the rOlre~ponding. values of pia, cy/a, c,/a 2, alld m:/a
are identical. If \\'e ronsider a nearly uniform flow at very large
numbers ~f '" : 1. rormulas similar to (7.1.1n)-(7.1.~2) cnn be wrilten
in the [orlll
{Ph - pu)/a2 '-" cy/a~ :-=; c:r./a:1 '""" 4'K (7.4.2:1)
m:/a2 = -';!JK (;.4.24)
Hence, the h},persouic similarity cl'itcriOIl K M ooa is also
valid for a nearly uniform (linearized) now with large ~Iuch nHllIher~.
It is evident that SUell a now can appear only at very small angles
of attflrk.

7.5. Parameters of a Supersonic Flow

over an Airfoil wHh an ArbHrary
Use of the Method of Characteristics
Let us consider a supersonic. flow over a sharp-nosed airfoil with
an arbitrary configuration (Fig. 7.5.1). The upper contour of the
airfoil is given by the equation Yu = fu (x), and the hottom one by
the equation Yb = fll (x). Assume that the angle of attack is larger
than the augle ~o.u formed by a tangent to the airfoil ('~ontollf on its
upper side at point 0 on the leading edge. Consequently, a Prandtl-
Meyer now develops at this point. The flow pa.s!';cs through an expan-
-"'ion fan issuing from point 0 as from a sonrce of disturbances, and
acquires a direction tangent to the contour at thi:-: point. Further
expansion of the flow occurs behind point 0 along the cont.our. Con!'e-
quently, tIle flow near the airfoil can be considered as a consecutit'e
set oj Prandtl-J[eyer flows. Since the turning angle at the points
on the coutour is inlinitely small, indivillnal Mach ljnes issue from
them instead of a fan of expansion lines (Fig. 7.5.1).
We lind the velocit:,>' at point 0 by formula (7.4.2). which we shall
write in the form
w~ '-= Woo -7- CL - Bo... (7.;).1)
where ~o. u -:= tan _l (dy /d.r)o.
286 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics of lin Airfoil lind II Wing

Supersonic Dow over a sharpnosed airfoil:
J-~XpanBi ... n fan; 2_Mach lin~s

Vsing the value of 000, we determine the corresponding number Mf)

from Table 5.3.1. At point C, which is at a small distance from the
nose, the velority of the gas is calculated as for a PrandtlMeyer
flow by the forOlIlJa
We -'. (j)o -+- ~o.u - ~c (7.5.2)
where ~c tan l (dy u1dx)c.
IlIFerting Eq. (7.5.1) into (7.5.2), we obtain
We''='' woc+a-~e (7.5.3)
Hence, by (7.5.3) for any arbitrary point N on the contonr, we
W.'/ Woo -+. a - ~N (7.5.1)
where~:s: =. tall~l (dYu1dx)N is the angle calculat.ed wit.h a view t.()
the sign (for the leading part of the cont.our the signs of the angles
are positive, and for the trailing part, negative).
Let. lIS assume, as for flow over a flat plate, t.hat the flow behind
point H approximately retains the direction of the free stream. There-
fore, at point E, t.he now moving ncar the contour at a velocity corre-
sponding to the number Mn.u turns, and a shock BE appears issuing
from point H. The angle Os.BF. of inclination of the shock and the
parameters behind it are calculated wit.h the aid of the relevant for
Imllas of the shock t.heory according t.o the known valnes of the angle
of attack Ct, the lIl1mber M II u , and the contonr nose angle at point H
on the upper side. The parameters on the upper side of the airfoil
(pressure, velocity, etc.) are determined from the known value of the
local :Mach numlJerwith the aid of the relations for an isentropic now
01 a gas.
If the angle of attack equals the angle ~o. ", we have t.he limiting
ca.~e of a Prandtl-Meyer flow at point 0 where the Mach number i~
AlO.b = M "". Formula (7.5.4) can be written as

Ch. 7. An Airfoil in II Compressible Flow 287

Fig. 7.5..2
Supersonic flow over the bottom side of an airfoil with the fonnation of s shock:
I-s1raight part of UtI' rolllollr of the Rlrfol] in tha flow; ll-cllrvr.ll'ilTt or lhp air/(Illron-
lour; III-curv .. <1 part 01 the shock; IV-slralf:ht part 01 tlw ~hntk

Calculation of thellow OVCl" Ihe bottom ~ide of the airfoil (Fig. 7.S.2)
h('gins with detrrminatioll of the gas parameters at point V-directly
behind the siwek. For this purpose, llsing formula (-'I.:i.25) anti the
\'allies M. . M"" and ~{; - rx -f ~O,b, we calcillate the :<hork angle
as.(J' We rllici the lIlImher Mo. ll " M2 at point 0 from 0.:3.1\1) or
(/1.:3. HI'). \Ve may f1:<Slline that this lIumher L"ellwins cOllslllnt within
a \'ery small ndghhourhood of point 0 on strflight. line element OD
of the ron tour. Straight elemt1]lt OJ of an oblique shock rorr(>sponils
to Of). lis length is determined as the distallc(, hom poinl () 10 pointJ
thatis on the intersection of the shock with'l first fanlily characteris-
tie issuing from point D.
The now hehilld a straight shock is uorteJ-free. cOJlseqlleHtly there
is all isentropir flow over part of the contollr brhilld poinl D. To deter-
mine the velocity of sueh u flow at point F, we shall lise Eq. (i.4..1),
from which we lind WI" . Wn - (~D - ~~,), where (OJ) is the ,'alue
of the angle CD calclilated hy formula (.").3.30) for the numher lJf on
port OD of the contollr. 'fhe "allies of the angles ~[) and ~t' arc deter-
mined with a "ie\\" to the sign (ill the given case the <lllgles r~o and ~~.
arc negotiYe Oil the ImHling parl of the contour).
The flow Ilear part UF of the contour CIIIl bc COll:o;illered as a Prandtl-
).!eyer flow, therefore disturbanre line F-1-8 issnes from point. F as
from a perlnrbalion source. It intersects the l"ollliJlllatioll of the
normal shock at point 3 and r.urves it, flS a result of which the actual
direction of the shork is determined by point,'! of illters(>("\ioll of the
shock and the characteristic.
Downstream. cHrving of the shock is due to its intt'l"<l.clioll with
the r.haracteristics issuing from points G, 11, K, etc. Curving of the
shock causes a /:Oriez flow to form J01" WhORl' calculation we must lise
r('ialions on the characteristirs for a non-isentropic plane flo\\,. The
.288 Pt. J. Theory. Aerodynamics of en Airfoil and eWing

second family characteristic J l/ is the boundary of this vortex flow.

The characterislic is gradually constructed in lhe form of a broken
line according to the known values oCthe number M and the angles Jl
along the straight !lecond family characteristics issuing from contonr
points F. G, etc. At. point II of the c.ontour. which is simultaneously
on ,haracteristic JR, the velocity is found from lhe expression
-(OK "-' Wo - (PD - PH). At. point K adjacent to H. the parameters
are ('alculalcd according to the equations for the characteristks
taking into a('count the vortex nature of the flow behind a shock.
To determine the velocity at this point. it is su(ficient to know the
velocity and its direction (the angle P) at point 7 Ileal' point K on
-element. 7-K of t.hesecond family characteristic. To fllld this velocity.
it is neccs!{ary to c.alculate the curving of the shock behind point J
on element J ...1' and lind t.he parametcl'S on the shock at point 3'.
To do this, we ha\'e tlle following data at our disposal: the number
M = MI = Mp and the angle Jl = JlF of deflection of the now at point
1. and also the parameters M'I. "= MJ and Jls = Ps.J on the shock at
point J. By Ilsing formula (5.4.46) and assuming that I! = O. we
obtain the following expression for the change in the auglo Jl along
-characteristir- 1-3:

~~I=[( ~L-1r' (wt-CU.,- ~~I .n-c.) (7.5.5)

whtlre .I1~I=P3-~1t .I1x1=X'-%I;

!! (S3;,Sl)Z~3S~~I~~I) Cj = ~~32(~:~~~
The derivative (dwldPh is evaluated by (5.4.39) for the values of
the relevant parameters at point 1: the angles CUI and WJ are deter-
mined from (5.3.30) according to the numbers M at points 1 and J,
Point 3 in Fig. 7.5.2 is at the intersection of the normal shocl< and
-characteristic 1-3. Consequently, its coordinates are found as a result
of the simultaneolls solution of the equations
Ys - YI = (X3 XI) tan (PI + Ill)' Y3 = X8 tan (0 0 - a) (7.5.G)
The intersection of the characteristic with the shocl< at point 3'
is diRerenl because of curving of the shock. We shall find the new
shock angle 6 S,J3' on J-3' according to the flow deRection angle behind
the shock ~s = Jl3' = apt + ~I ann the number M; calculated by
means of the expression w; = aWl + WI in which aWl is found from
aWl = cuJ + (dw1dlHJ apl - WI (7.5.7)
Consequently, the equation of the shock element J~3' has the form
Y3' - YJ = (X3' - XJ) tan (6 s,J" - a)
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in II Compumibla Flow 289

Owing Lo deflection of the flow at point 3', tho characteristic on

element 1-3' changes its direction. The equation of the characteristic
on this element has the form
.fIa' - Yl = (xa' - Xl) tan (~~. + !J.3')
By sol ving these two equations simullaneoll::;ly, we rInd the coordi-
nates X a, ann Y3' of point 3'.
LeL us consider point 5 at tlie intersection of characteristic elements
2-5 of the rlrst and 3'-5 of the second family. We determine the coor
dinates Ys and Xs of this point from the solution of the equations for
the clement.'; of the corresponding charac.teristics:
y,_ y. ~ (x, -x,.) tan (~,._~,.)
I (7.5.8)
We determine tIle change in the direction of the flow when passing
from point 2 to point 5 along characteristic element 2-5 from Eq.
(5.4.22) in which we assn me that e = 0:

~~2=t[ k~r' ~! (liX3'l3'+liZtCt)-(~-ro3)-(~t-~3.)J (7.5.!)

where li~2=~~-~~: liX30=XS-Z3';
l'lS (SJ,-S2)MS(~=+"-)eos(~3-,,.d
Tn I:
we assume that
f -::: (xs - X2) sin !la' cos (~2 + )J.~);
e = (xs - x.~,) .~i II ~12 cos (~a' - fla')
We determine the values of C z and t a, by (SA.15). We lind the
number M at point 5 from (5.4.23) llsing l<.~2' Similarly, according
to the known values of the gas parameters al point 5 and at point H
on the wall, we determine the velocity at point fl at the intersection
of the characteristic elemenL.;; II-(j of the fir!;t family and 5-6 of the
second one. We fwd the coordinates Xl[ and YH of point II bv solving
the eqnations of the contour Yu-= III (XH) ano of elemell't 2-H of
the characteristic YH - '12 -:: (XH- X2) tan (~2 - 1-'-2)'
Let us now choose arbi trary point 7 with the coordinates X7 and Y7
on characteristic element fl-6. We shall determine the parameters
at this point by interpola.tion. For example, the angle ~, = ~8 -
- (~6 - BH) la_1Jl"_fl, where l._1 and ie-u are the distances from
point G to point 7 and to point H, respectively. Similarly, we can
find the numher M, and the corresponding Mach angle 1-'7' We choose
point 7 so that characteristic element 7-K drawn from this point
at the angle ~1-fl7 will intersect the contour at point K at a small
distance1from point H. We determine the coordinates XK. YK of this
290 pt. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics of lin Airfoil lind II Wing

Supersonic Isentropic' flow over a curved sharp-nosed airfoil:
I-contour 01 the body In the now; 2-sccond family characteristic

point as a result of solving the equation VK - V7 = (XK - x 7) X

X tan (~7 - 117) for the characteristic clement 7-K and the equation
YK -'" IH (xld of the contour. Since the flow at point K is a vortex
one, Eq. (5.4.27) must be used to calculate the velocity at this point.
Assuming in the equation that e = 0, we obtain


where 6Cil 7 :-:; CilK - Cil 7 and 6~7 = ~K - ~7' the angle ~K =
= tan _1 (dvHldx)K' We determine the parameter t7 from (5.4.28) for the
values 117 and ~7 and evaluate the entropy gradient hy the formula
6S/6n = (S7 - SK) cos (~7 - f!7)/[(XK - x 7) sin /.t71
We flOd the entropy SK at point K as a result of calculating its
value at point 0 directly behind the shock, and the entropy S7 at
point 7 by interpolation between its values at points II and 6.
Similarly, by consecutively solving earh of the three problems
considered in Sec. 5.4, we determine the velocity Iield in the region
between characteristic DJ, the contour. and curved shock J-3'-4'.
We flOd the shape of this shock gradually in the form of a broken
line, and fill the indkated region of the flow with a network of
characteristic curves (characteristics).
We can determine the pressure at tJle nodes of the network of
characteristics according to the Mach number with the aid of formula
(3.6.28). We calculate the corresponding stagnation pressure Po = Po
needed in this formula by interpolation, using formula (5.4.19).
We find the pressure at points on the contour Ilsing the corresponding
Mach numbers and the stagnation pressure Po evaluated by ""0 Po
(4.3.22) for the angle 8 6.0 and the number M "".
Ch. 7. An Air'oil in a Compressible Flow 2m

Calculation of the flow on the bottom side of an airfoil is simplified

when a second family characteristic drawn from point J does not
intersect the contour, and, consequently, this flow can be considered
as an isentropic one (Fig. 7.5.3). We use Eq. (5.3.38) to calculate the
Mach number at arbitrary point [, of the contour:
Here we determine the angle ~L by the formula ~L = tan -l(dYH/lkk
with a view to the sign: at the leading edge of the contonr it is nega-
tive, at the trailing edge, posithe, the angle ~n is negative. We
determine the shape of the shock by its angles as at points 3' and 4'
at the intersection of the strAight characteristics drawn from points F
and G. We find the shock angle Os at point 3' approximately by
formula (4.3.25), using the values of B3' = ~F and 1'd 00' We calculate
the shock angle at point It' ill a similar way.
We have considNed the calculation of the flow at snch angles of
attack Ct > ~o.u when there is an expanding flow all over the upper
side. If this condition is not observed (ex < ~o.,,), the flow oyer the
upper contour occurs with compression of the gas at the leading edge
and the formation of a compression .~hock. Hence, such a' flow should
be calculated in the same way as fol' the bottom surface.)

Hypersonic Flow over a Thin Airfoil

U a thin sharp-nosed airfoil (sec Fig. 7.5.1) is in n hypersonic

flow at such small angles of attack that the local :\.fach numbers on
its upper and bottom surfaces at all points c~onsi<lerably exceed unity
and, in addition, the conditions of is(,lltropic flow O\'er the bottom
contour (Fig. 7.5.3) are retained, we can U!le simplified relations for
the characteristics to ('alculate the disturbance velocity.
1f the angle of attack ex >
~o.\\, to det('rmine the number M at
an arbitrary point N on the upper contour, we mllst use the formula
hlf';:'~[:co _k;1(a_~N)rl (7.5.12)

obtained from (7.4..1).

Since everywhere on the upper contour there is all e:rpanding [Ww,
the number MN > M co.
Flow over the hottom surface is attended by the formation of a
shock and, therefore, by compression 0/ the gas. We c.a1clliato thE!
pressure coefficient at point 0 directly behind the slwck with the
aid of formula (4.6.12) as follow~:
p,/(a-Bo.,)'=I/(1-6)+Vl/(1 6)'-,4IK' (7.5.13)
where K = Mco (a - ~O.b); we take the angle ~O.b with a minus

~ Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of olin Airfoil and a Wing

From the formula Pb=-=: 28~.0 (a - ~O.b)' we can calculate tile

shock angle 8 s.0 , and then lIsing the valuo of Kg = M 008 5.0 we call
find the Mach number at point O. IIsing formula (4.6.16):
M1,.b/M~ ~ K:/(lil + 6) K: - 61 (I - 6 + 6Km (7.5.14)
Behind point O. expansion of the flow occurs, therefore to deter
mine the 'Velocity at an nrbitrar~' point I., we can ;Ise the relation


Hypersonic flow over a thin airfoil call be calculatod approximately

by using the method of tangent wedg(>,S. According to this method,
we calculate the now at an arbitrary point of a contollr by the relevant
formulas for a nat plate assllming that the lauel' is in a flow with
the number Moo at an angle of aUack equal to the angle between tile
vector V 00 and a tangent to the contour at the poillt being considered.
Hence, for a point N on the llpper side, the pressure coeffir.ient by
(7.4.6) i,
PN/("-~N)'~l/(1-6) -VI/(1-6)' +4/K, ;(7.5.10)
where KN = Moo (a. - ~N)'
Foran arbitrary point L on the botto:n side, with a vi!:)w to (7.3.1.:1),
we hav&
pd("-~,)'~ 11(1-6)+ VI/(I 6)'-i-4/Kl. (7.5.17)
where KL = JlI 00 (a - ~Ll.
In formula (7.5.16), the angle ~'" has a pillS sign at tlle leading
edge of the contour and a minus sign at the trailing odge, whereas
in formula (7.5.17) the angle ~L hai a millns sign at the leading edge
and a plus sign at the trailing one.
At the limit, when K _ 00, we have

iN .= 0 (7.5.18)
PL ~ 2 (" - ~Ll'/(I - 6) (7.5.19)
With a zero angle of atla(;k, formulas (7.5.16), (7.5.17), and
(7.5.19) acquire the following form:
p,/~k ~ 1/(1- 6) - V 1"'/('1-6""),"+--'4"1K", (7.5.16')
Pr/~L~I/(I-6)+ VtI(1 6)'+1,[(1. (7.5.17')
~ 2~U11 - 6) (7.5.19')
In formulas (7.5.l6') and (7.5.17'), K", = l"oo~N and KL =
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in ~ Comprenible Flow 293

Nearly Uniform Flow

over a Thin Airfoil
At this case, we consider a flow over a thin airfoil at small angle!
of attack. This flow is featured by shocks of a finite intensity being
absent and by the eharactcristics on the upper and bottom sides
being straight lines with an angle of indin;:ttion of fL = sin _1 (11M",,).

To determine the pressure coefficient for the alrfoil, we shall use

Eq. (7.4.9). According to this equation, for (In arbitrary point N
on the upper side of the airfoil
and for a point L on the bottom side

;;L~2 ("-~cl/YM!"-1 (7.5.20')

r or a zero angle of attack
PN~2~,/VM!"c=j, PL~-~Jl/"M!"-1 (7.5.20")
An increase in the small angles of attack lead~ to a growth in the
error when calculating the pre>,snre on a thin eirfoil in a nearly
uniform flow. The aecuron! of these calculations can be increased
by usillg lhe second-order aerodynamic theory. Ac('ording to the lattPl',
the pressure coeRicient is
C1 = 2(M!, - 1)-I/z. C2 = 0.5 (JU;'" - 1)-~ [(;11;" - 2)2 + kIlI!:.1
The pIllS sign in (7.5.21) relatcs 10 the bottorl1 ..,ide of the plate
CPL; 0 "-~ a - ~iJ, and the minus Sig:ll, to the upper one (PN.; e =
~,,- ~N)'

Aerodynamic Forces
and Their Coetllclents
To determine tile llerodYllflmic prc!;!;urc forcos. we sha! I use formulaa
(1.3.2) and (1.3.3), relating them to the body axes x, y (seo Fig. 7.5.1)
and assuming that c,.x ,--- O. In this condition, formula (1.3.2)
determine.., the 10llgitudinal force X for an airfoil. and (1.3.3), the
normal force Y produced by the pressuro:

X = q",,8 r .~
peos (n",'x) ff-, Y = - q>Sr \
pcos (~:y)--
294 pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 an AIrfoil and eWing

Aerodynamic forces for an airfoil in a body axil and flight path coordinate

Adopting the quantity S r = b X 1 as the characteristic area

and taking into account that dS = dl X 1 (b is the chord of the
airfoil, and dl is an arc element of the contour), we obtain the follow-
ing expressions for tho aerodynamic coefficients:

Cx = XI(q..,Sr) = ~ peas (h,i> dT.

c, ~YI(q~Sc)~ -fiicos (,;','y) dT

where dt = dUb, while the cllrvilinear integrals are taken along the
contour of the airfoil (counterclockwise circumvention of the contour
is usually taken as positi vel.
- - /'-.
Let us introduce into this expression dl = dx/sin (fl,x),
............... - -
cos (n, y) dl -= dx, where dx = dx/b.
Next passing over from curvilinear integrals to ordinary ones, we
1 1

c,~ -.i Pb (*)b dx + Jp" (*)"dx (7.5.23)

o "

C II = j (Pb-pJdz
where Ph and Pu are the pressure coefficients for the bottom and
upper sides of the airfoil, respectively.
Using the formula for con version [see formula (1.2.3) and Table
1.2.11, we obtain the aerodynamic coefficients in a wind (flight path)
coordinate sy.<:tem (Fig. 7.5.1):
(!I'a = Cx cos Ct + CII sin Ct, clla = CII cos a - c'" sin a (7.5.25)
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in e Compressible Flow 298

Determination of Ihe moment
of the forces for an airfoil

With flight angles of auack not exceeding tbe values of Ct ~ 10-12.

we have
For the coeUicient of the moment about the leading edge of the
airfoil due to the pressure force (Fig. 7.5.5), by analogy with (1.3.6),
we deriyc the formula

m,= q:fj1r b = q~rb (~xdY- ~ ydX)

1 {(-' dS ~- ..., dS}
= b .' px cos (n, y) s; - py cos (n, xl s;
(s) (


where Yb '--' Yb'b and II -:; y,/b.
We determine t.he coefficient of the cell Ire of pressure for the
condition that the point or application of the re.<lullant of the aero-
dynamic force..'l is on the chord of the airfoil. H ii,s coordinate is .x p
we have

For thin airfoil:;, we may disregard the second integral on the
right-hand side of (7.5.26) and in the numerator of (7.5.27). Accord-
296 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

mz = - J(ilb-P~)xdx (7.5.26')

cp = J(PIt-Pu)zd.x[l (Pb-Pu)dxf t (7.5.27')

o 0

By comparing the first and second terms on the right-hand side of

(7.5.26), we can estimate the order of the discarded infinitesimals.
It is determined by the value of \
is tbe relative thickness of the airfoil.
,y (dYtdX) dX ~ All, where X = Mb

Ul'ing relation (7.5.21), we ohtain the longitudinal-force coefficient

(7.5.23) corresponding to the second-order aerodynamic theory:
C x = cl K 1 2c"K2<X + (7.5.28)
K. ~
j (~t:
~:) di, K.~ (~,-~:)d;

The normal force coclIicicnt in accordance with (7.5.24) is

cy = 2c1o:. + c'!K'! (7.5.30)
Ac('.ording to the results obtained, the drag and lift coefficients are
c Xn = 2c 1o:.Il 3C2K2<t +
c1K h c lla = 2cta c,!Kz +
In the particular case of a symmetr~c airfoil, ~t '-= ~~ = ~2 =

= {dyldx)2 and, consequently, Kl = 2 I ~2 dx and Kz = O. Accord-


c:ra =2c t a 2
+2c t rI
~2ix, cu.=2c ta (7.5.31')

From these two relat.ion.'l. we find

c:ra =
2c 1 ;-2ctJ ~-d.x
t~- (7.5.32)
Equation (7.5.32) determines the relation between the drag and
lift coefficients-what is called the polar of an airfoil.
Ch, 7, An Airfoil in " Compreuible Flow '297

We find the coefficient of the longitudinal moment abont the

leading edge by inserting (7.5.2t) inlo (7.5.26'):
, ,
A,- o\ (~b'i ~")zd': A.- jo (~b-~") zdz

B'-.i o
(~t-~:)zd' (7.5.35)

For a symmetric airfoil, ~u = -~(I ,...", ~. therefore Al = B1 = 0;

Az = 2 j pi eG. Accordingly,
m%= (4cz ) ~idx-.Ct) ct (7.5.33')
The coefficiclll or the ('entre of prcs~llre. by (7.5.27'), is
cp = -(clA1 - C2Hz + (2cv12 - Cl) o.j/(2c 1o. 'r- czKz) (7.5.36)

For a symmetric airfoil

c p =O.5 (1 -4 pxd:;) (7.5.36')

For a linearized now (low supersonic veiocitie.o;;), lhe cocffident Cz
should be taken equal to 1cro in the abo\'c relations.
With hyper.wnic l.:elocUiea or II thin airfoil. formulas (7.4.6) nnd
(4.6.12) can be used to calculate the pressure coeflicients ill (7.5.2a).
(7.5.21i), (7.5.26')and (7.5.27'). The pre!":~ure ("oeftici('nt 101' the bottom
side in ac("ordance with (li.6.12) i!;
Pb-(ex-~b)'[I/(I-6)+Vl/(1 6)' 41KJ,] (7.5.37)
while for tlle upper side, the \'alue of this coefficient by (7kG) is
p"-(ex-p",'[1!(1-6)-1/1!(1 61'-i-4IK;.1 (7.5.38)
where Kb = M.., let - ~b) and Ku = M_ (ct - ~u).
Let us find the relalions for the aerodynamic coefiicients of a
wedge-shaped Airfoil (Fig. 7.5.G). Since for the bottom contour we
have (dyldx)., = tan ~b. and fOl' the upper one (dyldx)u = tan ~u.
and taking into account that the pressure coeiTicicnts Pb and Pu
are ('onstanl, wo obtain from (7.5.23) and (7.5.24):
c.. = -Pb tan ~b + Pu tan ~u (7.5.39)
clI "" Pb -Pu (7.5.40)

The angle ~b should be considered negative in formula (7.5.39).

We fmd the moment coefficient. from (7.5.26):
mr = -0.5 (Pb - Pu) - 0.5 <Pb tan i ~b - Pu tan 2 Pu) (7.5.41)
while the coefficient of the centre of pressure by (7.5.27) is
cr = 0.511 + (Pb tan! ~b - P. tan2 ~u)i(Pb- Pu)1 (7.5.12)
For a symmelric airfoil, we have

In the above relations, the pressure coefficient Pb

is determined
by accurate relations obtained in the theory of an oblique shock.
We also lise this theory to fmd the pressure coefficient Pu for ex. < ~u'
For ex. > Pu, the rmding of Pu is as..,ociated with calculation of the
Pralldtl-Meyer flow on the upper side of the airfoil.
The relations obtained for the aerodynamic coefficients of the
airfoil relate to arbitrary values of the nose angle (h, ~u) and tho
angle of attack. If these values are not largo, the second-order t.heory
can be IIsed to calculate the coefficients. According to this theory,
in formulas (7.5.31) for c!l.a and c lla ' we must assume that
K, - ~, +~. K, - ~, - ~
When calculating the moment coefficients (7.5.33) and (7.5.36),
wo must proceed from the fact that
A, - 0.5 (~b -;- ~").I A, = 0.5 (~b - ~"). B, = 0.5 (~, - ~:)
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in II Compressible Flow 299

For a symmetric airfoil, we have

c:I;.=2cda;Z~~Z), clIa =2c j a. t
m,=(2cz~-cj)a;, cp=O.5(1-2--2-~) J
where the angle ~ i~ chosen with a minus sign (for the bOltom side).
The use of formulas (7.5.37), (i . .'J.38) allows HS to determine the
aerodynamic coefficients (7.5.39)-(7 . .').43) corresponding to hypcr-
sonic velocities of a thin airfoil at a small angle of attack.

7.6. Sideslipping Wing Airfoil

Definition of II Sideslipping Wing
...... Let 1\S assume that an inlinite-span rectangular wing performs
longitudinal motion at the velocity VI (normal to Lhe leading edge)
and lateral motion aiong lhe spall at tho velocity V 2 The resultant
velocity V = VI + V2 is directed toward the plane of symmetry of
the wing at the sideslip angle ~. A rectangular wing performing such
motion is said to be a sldC!:llipping one_
The flow over a sideslipping wing does 110t change if we consider
inverted now in whicll a rectangular wing encounters a stream of
air at the velocity - Y I perpendicular to the leading edge, and a
stream at the velocity - V 2 in the direction of tbe wing span
(Fig. 7.6.1).
The nature of the l10w is the same if the resultant velocity V""
is parallel to the initial velocity - Vi (soc Fig. 7.6.1) and the reclangu-
lar wing is turned through the angle x = ~ (fig. 7.0.2). Such a
wing, which is also a sideslipping one, is usually called an infmite-
span swept wing. The angle x is determined as the sweep angle rela-
tive to the leading edge.
Let us consider some features of Hie flow over sideslipping wings.
The Dow about such wings can be divided into two nO\Vs: a longi-
tudinal one (along lhe span of the wing) characterilcd by the velocity
V"oo = V 00 sin x parallel to the leading edge, and a lateral ooe
depending on the magnitude of tile normal velocity component to
this edge Vnoo = V 00 cos x.
The distribution of the velocities and pressures along the wing
does not depend on the longiludinal Dow, and is due only to the
lateral Dow at the velocity V n _ = V ... cos )to The nature of this
flow and, therefore, the pressure distribution change depending on
the configuration of the airfoil in a plane normal to tho leading edge,
and on the angle of attack measured in this plane. Accordingly.
the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil are the same as of a
rectangular (unswept) wing airfoil in a Dow with a free-stream
velocity of V n00 at the indicated angle of attack.
300 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of lin Airfoil and a Wing

(') I V, (b~)_ _V'_-----,

c:::=J I
Motion of a wing with sideslippiog:
o-Iongiludlnal motion at an Inflnlte-apan rtctangulaf wins: b-Iatenl motion; _ ...ul-
tant moUon at tbe sldeallp angle,

~:'~:i~p~ing wing:
I-wing 6urtac~: 2-nlrfoU In a Sf'ction along 8 nomal; ,,_alrloilin a eectlon along tbe Oow

This is exactly the content of the sld(>5lip elTed which to a con-

siderable extent determines the aerodynamic properties of finite-
span swept wings. The term swept is conventionally applied to a
wing in which the line connecting the aerodynamic centres (foci)
of the airfoils (the aerodynamic centre line) makes with a normal to
the longitudinal plane of symmetry the angle x (the sweep angle).
In aerodynamic investigations, the sweep angle is often measured
from another characteristic line, for example, from the leading or
trailing edge (Xl' x s), from lines connecting the ends of selected
elements of a chord (XI/4' Xlii' ). from the lines of the maximum
thickness of the airfoils. etc. (Fig. 7.6.3a).
If the leading edges are curved or have sharp bends, the sweep
angle will be variable along the span.
The flow over swept wings in real conditions is distinguished by
its very intricate nature, due primarily to the partial realization
of the sideslip effect. Figure 7.6.3b shows a possible scheme of such
flow over a swept finite-span wing with a sufficiently large aspect
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in III Comprenible Flow 301


Fig. 7.6.3
Finite-span swept wing:
a-dcalgnatloll of the sweep angles: b-sllb8Ol\lo now oYer a swept wing

The middle region of the wing (region I) is characterized by the

mutual influence of neighbouring airfoils reducing the sweep (sideslip)
angle. Here the midspan effect appears that detracts from the aero-
dynamic properties because of the decrease in the sideslip effect.
In region III, the tipeiTect acts. It is due to an appreciable deflection
of the streamlines in comparison with a sideslipping wing. And only
in region II, distinguished by a more uniform flow, is the curvature
of the streamlines relatively small, and the sideslip angles ~ are close
to the sweep angle x. In aerodynamic investigations, this region of
the wing can be represented in the "pure" form as a region of a swept
(sideslipping) infinite-span wing arranged in the flow at the sweep
angle. It will be shown in Chap. 8 that the conclusions relating to
such wings of a small thickness can be used to calculate the flow over
separate parts of swept finite-span wings at supersonic volocities .

...,odynamlc Ch.r.derlsflcs
of stcIullpplng Wing Alrfo[l

When determining such charactoristics, a sideslipping wing is

considered as a straight one turned through the sideslip angle x.
In this case, the airfoil of a sideslipping wing in a normal section
will evidently be the same as that of a straight one.
The airfoil and the angle of attack in a plane normal to the leading
edge differ from the airfoil and anltie of attack in the section along
the flow (see Fig. 7.6.2). The chord in a normal section bn and the
chord b along the flow are related by the expression bn = b cos x.
The angle of attack Ctn in a normal section is determined from the
sin aD = hlbp. = hl(b cos x) = sin Ct/cos x (7.6.1)
302 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynilmics of iln Airfoll ilnd iI Wing

where a is the angle of attack in the plane of the (low. It is evident

that at small angles of attack we have
an = WCOS x (7.6.1')
If at a point on a wing airfoil in flow without sideslipping at the
velocity V"" the pressure coefficient is F, then when the wing is
turned through the angle x the pressure coefficient Pn at thei corre-
sponding point is the same, Le.
2(P. - P .)/(p. 1"'; cos' x) = 2 (p - p .)/(p. 1".)
Accordingly, for the airfoil of a sideslipping wing, the pressure
coefficient calculated from the velocity head q ... = O.5p... V:, is
p" = 2 (P. - P.)/(p.1".) = COS'" P
With a view to (7.6.2) and in accordance with (7.5.23), (7.5.24),
and (7.5.26), the aerodynamic coefficients for the airfoil of a thin
sideslipping wing are
c:r,>< = Cr cos! it, = C",. C,
cos! x, m~,;( = m~ COS" (7.6.3)
Evidently. by (7.5.25'), we have
c~a'" = (c:c + c,a) cos! " = crr, cos 2 x
Since the drag force is determined not in the direction of the
velocity component V"" cos x, but in the direction of the free-stream
velocity V... , the coellicient of this drag is
c:c:;( = c~a" COS" = c:c. cosS " (7.6.4)
All these coellicients arc determined for a velocity head of q"" =
= O.5p""P"". Inspection of formulas (7.6.3) for c,.,. and mz,l< reveals
that the coefficient of the centre of pressure c p = -m,.,./c,.y' corre-
sponding to small angles of attack does not depend on the angle of
attack, i.e. C p = -m~/c/l'
Compressible Flow. According to the linearized theory, the pressure
coefficient for the airfoil of a sideslipping wing in a subsontc compres-
sible flow can be obtained from the corresponding coe1licient for the
same '.... ing in an incompressible flllid by the Prandtl-Glauert formula
(7.1.14), substituting the number Moo cos x for Moo in it:
p,.=P",teIV1-M!.cos2x (7.6.5)
or, with a view to (7.6.2)
p,. = Pic cos 2 xlVi M:" cos2 it (7.6.5')
The relevant aerodynamic coefficients are obtained from (7.5.23).
(7.5.24), and fI.5.26), and are found with the aid of formulas (7.6.3)
Ch. 7. An Airfoil in .. Compressible Flow 303

:~ (M""~~W':~---
i", ~


~i~~:itp'Ping wing with slIhsonic (a) and supersonic (b) leadintt c(lgros

and (7.5.4) whose right-hand sides contain the qnantity

Vi M!o cos2 x in the denominaLor. Particularly. the coerricieillsof
the normal force and the longiludinal moment. are
Cll.~ =cu cos2.xf1/1 M:" cos2.x; m1 , >! = rn; cos2.;;JV 1- M~ cos:! %
It follows from t.hese relations that for thin airfoils, the coeITicient
of the centre or pressure c p = -m 1 ,)I,lcy,)I, depends neither on the
sideslip (sweep) angle nor on tho eomprr.ssihility (the number ill ",,).
The usc of a sideslipping wing produces the same flow efT('ct that
appears when the frcc-stream velocity is lowered from F to <&>

V ... cos x (or the Mnch number from M ... to M"" cos Yo). HC're, Ilalural-
ly. the local velocities on an airfoil or the shlcslipping wing also
decrease, and this, in turn. le8tls to diminishing of tho rarl'r;lction
and. as n result-. to an increase in the critical Milch nnmber. The
Jatter call be dc.termined from its ]mown v31ue JH eo C r for a straight
wing of the same shape and flngle of aLtack as 11m airfoil of Ill('
sideslipping wing in a normal seclion:
Moo cr," = M ... cr/cos'fl. x (i.G.7)
Supersonic Velocities. Let us llSl'umc that aL a ~upcr!'=ollie frce-
stream velocity (V ... > a .... Moo> 1), tbe sweep angle satislips the
inequality )t > n/2 - ..... , according to which cos x < sin 1-1"" and,
consequently. Vn"" < a,., = V"" sin ]l ... , Le. the normal component
to the leading edge is subsonic. lIence. the flow over the seclious of
a sideslipping wing is subsonic in its nature. In the case beiug con-
sidered. the swept edge is called suhsonic (Fig. 7.6.1a).
At increased Dow veloeitie!'=. the normal velocily component may
become higher than the speed of sound (Vn... > a ... = V"" sin 1-1 ....).
so that x < n/2 - 1-' ... and cos x > sin 1-'00' In this case, the Dow
304 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics 01 an Airfoil and a Wing

over the airfoils of a sideslipping wing is supersonic. Accordingly,

the leading edge of such a wing is called supersonic (Fig. 1.6.4b).
Let us consider the calculation of the supersonic Dow over a side-
slipping wing in each of these cases.
Supersonic Leadlng Edge. The Dow over such a wing can be cal-
culated by the formulas obtained for an infinite-span thin plate
provided that the free-stream velocity is V n"" = V"" cos x > a"",
and the corresponding number M 0. "" = M "" cos x > t. The angle of
attack of the plate aD is related to the given angle of attack a of the
Sideslipping wing by expression (7.6.1). or at small angles of attack
by (7.6.1').
Using formula (7.4.9) and substituting aD. = a/cos x for ~ and
MD"" = M "" cos x for M "" in it. we obtain a relation for the pressure
coofficient in a plane perpendicular to the leading edge:
j;-I 2a/(eosjx V M'.eos'x-I)
In this formula. the pressure coefficient Ii is rolated to the velocity
hoad qn = O.5kp....M1D oo. To obtain the value of the pressure coefficiont
rolated to the froe-stream volocity head q"" = O.5kp...,M1"", we must
use formula (7.6.2) according to which
p,. _ 2a eoslxtV M"':'-:Cco:-:s"'.c-'I (7.6.8)
In (7.6.8). the plus sign determines the pressure coefficient for
the bottom sido of a wing. and the minus sign for the upper side.
In accordanco with formulas (7.4.20)-(7.4.22) (replacing a with aD
and M ... with M"" cos x in them). and also with a view to relations
(7.6.3) and (7.6.4). wo find a rolation for the aerodynamic coefficients
of a sideslipping wing airfoil
cll .,.= 4(111 cos2 x/V M!,cos:l.x-1 ')
C=.1C= 4a.~cossx/VM!. cos2 x-1 (7.6.9)
m"a>l= -2a"coszy'/V M!,cos 2 x-1
Upon analysing these relations. we can establish a feature of
swopt wings consisting in that in comparison with straight ones
(x = 0). the lift force and drag coefficients, and also the coelliciont
of the longitudinal moment of airfoils (in tlteir magnitude) are
smaller at identical angles of attack an along a normal to the leading
edge. The physical explanation is that in now over a Sideslipping
wing Dot tho total volocity head g... = 0.5p ... V!. is realized, but only
a part of it. gO. = g ... cos2 x, and flow in the direction of the oncoming
stream occurs at a smallor angle of attack than in the absonce of
sideslip (a < an. aa = a/cos x).
Subsonic Leading Edge. The Dow over sections (',orresponding to
the motion or a straight wing with the number Mn_ < 1 is investi-
Ch, 7. An Airfoil in II Compressible Flow 305

gated with tlle aid of the subsonic or transonic (combined) theory of

flow over an airfoil. The drag and lift forceg arc determined by the
laws of subsonic flows cllar;lcterizcd by interaction of the flows on
the upper and bottom sides of a wing that manifest.s itself in thE!
gas flowing ovcr from a region of lligll pressure into a zone \\'itll
reduced pressure values, V\'U\'C losses may appear olily in sllpcr-
critical flow (Mno<> > M > cr) when shocks form on the surface,
If M" '" < lW 00 c r, then shocks and, therefore, \\'ave drag are absent.
This conclusion relates to an inlinite-span wing, For lillite-span
wings, wave losses are always prescnt because flow O\'er their tips
is allccted by the velocity component V sin %, A result is the

appearance of supersonic flow properties and of a wayc drag, The

three-dimcnsional theory of supersonic flow has to be llsed to study
this drag.
Suction Force
As we have established in Sec. 6.3, a ~mctioll force appears on the
leading edge of an airfoil over which an incompressible fluid is
flowing. The same effect occllrs when an airfoil is in It subsonic flow
of a compressible gas. The magnitude of tile snction force is affected
by the sweep of the leading edge of the wing.
To calculate this force, we shall use expression (, which
by meallS of the corresponding transformations can be made to
cover the more general case of the tlow over an airfoil of a wing \vith
a swept leading edge (Fig. 7.6.5). Let us consider this transformation.
In au iu\'iscid flow, the free-stream velocity component tangent to the
leading edge of a sideslipping wing docs )lot change the Iield of the
disturbed velocitics, and it remains the sume as for a straight wing
in a l10w at the velochY V n "" ,.., V"" cos %. The forces acting on the
wing also remain unchanged.
Therefore, the following suet ion force acts on a wing element
dz o with a straight edge (in the coordinates .1'0' zo):
dl'o = ;tpc! dz o (7.G.1D)
where in accordance with (6.3.28')
c~= lim lu:(xo-x~.eo)l
Xo-Xs .eo

A glance at Fig. 7.6.3 reveals that dT o = dT/cos ~, dz o = dz/cos ~,

Uo = u/cos~, and Xo - Xs.eo = (x- x~.e) cos ~.
Insertion of these values into (7.6.10) yields
dT/dz=npc:z.V1-i- tan:z.x (7.().ll)
c:z.,._", lim fu 2 (x-xs,e}J (7.().12)
Z-X s . r

FIg. 7.6.5
Suction force of a sidellipping

Expressions (7.6.11) and (7.6.12) can be generalized for compres-

sible Dows. For this purpose, we shall use expressions (8.2.4) relating
the geometric characteristics of wings in a compressible and an in-
compressible Dows. It follows from these relations that all the linear
dimensions in the direction of the x-axis for a wing in a compressible
Dow are 'V 1 - M!, limes smaller than the relevant dimensions for
a wing in an incompressible Dow. whereas the thickness of the wing
and its lateral dimensions (in the direction of the z-axis) do not
change. Accordingly. we have
x=xlc'Vl-M!... bdz=b1c dz 1C 'V1-M!,
tanx=tanx!c'V1-M;' (7.6.13)
From the conditions that x = XIC 'V 1 - M~ and <p' = <Pl~' we

'therefore, the pressure coefficient for a compressible Dow is deter-
mined by the Prandtl-Glauert formula:
~he suction force T in its physical nature is a force produced by the
achon ?f the normal stress (pressure) and at low angles of attack is
determmed from the condition T ~ aY a. The corresponding suction
Ch. 7. An Airfoil ill 11 Comp.eS$ible Flow 307

force coefficient is C;(.T = TI(q"S".) = ac y,,' Since the dimensions

of a wing in the direction of tho y-axis do not Ch<lllge ill a compressible
and an incompressible flows, the anglE's of attack for both flows also
do not change, i.e. t;(. = ale' Consequently, C",T/C"',T.IC = cll~IcYalc,
or by (7.1.14)
With a vie\,, to the relations for an airfoil of a sideslipping wing,
Cx,T---y-bdz= VI-,ll!, .~bjc
c,~. T p..r;, V--,
I-Jf;,dz 1e

dT = dT,c
But since dz = dz lc , then
dT/dz = dT1e.tUle (7.6.17)
The right-hand side of Eq. (7.6.17) corresponding to an incompres-
sible flow is determined by formula!; (7.6.11) and (7.6.12):
dT\cldz}c. '-= :tP""CI~ Vi -+- tanl! i(IC
cre= lilll [UTc (.rIC-.Ts,e. Icl]
"Ie-Xs.e. Ie
In accordance with (7.6.17), (7.6.13), and (7.6.14), we obtain
cfc= lim [u2(x-x~.e)lV1-J1~;
x ......s.e
Vl- tan 2 %IC

dTldz = npaoc2V1 + tan:! x M';. (7.6.18)
c~= lim [u:!(x-xs.e)j (J.6.19)

I t follows from the abo .... e formulas that at a given value of the
number JU co, the suction force depends on the sideslip angle and on
the nature of the change in the velocity u within a very small vicinity
of the leading edge. We can assume that a finite-span swept wing is
also characterized by a similar relation for the suction force.
8. t. Linearized Theory
of Supersonic Flow
over a Finite-Span Wing
Llnearlzatfon 01 the Equation
for the Potenflal Fundlon
Let us consider a thin slightly bent fmite-span wing of an arbitrary
planform in a supersonic Oow at a sIllall angle of attack. The dis-
turbances introduced by such a wing into the flow are small. and for
investigation of the Dow we can use the linearized theory as when
studying a nearly unirorm now near a thin airfoil (see Sec. 6.2). The
conditions for such a flow are given for the velocities in the form of
(6.t.t). If we are considering a linearized three-dimensional gas flow.
these conditions are supplemented with a given velocity component
along the z-axis. Accordingly, the following relations hold for a
linearized three-dimensional disturbed Oow:
V. = V lSI + u. V.., = V, V:: = w (S.Li)
where u, v, and UJ are the disturbance velocity components along the
z, y, and, axes, respectively.
In accordance with the property of a linearized flow, we have
"<: V _. v < V _. w < V_ (8.1.2)

Theae conditions make it possible to linearize the equations of

motion and continuity and thus simplify the solution of the problem
on a thin wing in an inviscid steady flow. In the general form. the
equations of motion of such a flow are obtained from system (3.t.t7)
in which .... '.:: 0, aV~/8t = aVlllat = aViat = 0:

V. a;:. +V" a:u. +V:: 8~:c = _+.~

V. 8~: +VII a:; +V:: iJ~u =-f.* (8.i.3)

V. 8Jzr + VII a:,~ -~ 1': ::r = - i-. ~

Ch. 8. A Wing in ill Supersonic Flow 309

We shall adopt the continuiLy equation in the form of (2.4.4).

Calculation of the partial derivatives yields

p(a~% + 8:;, + iJ~2 )~'V:O:~'r'Vv* :"V:*=O (8.1.4)

It was shown in Sec. 5.1 that the equations of continuity and

motion can be combined into a single equation relating the velocity
components to one another. By performing transformations similar
to those made in Sec-. ;i.f, we can write this eqnation in the form

(Vi-a:!) iJ~~x .. (V~-Q:!) ::" . (V~-a:!) o;~.

+V:o:VII(iJ~x + iJ~" ).~.ll'xVt (0;;'( + ~;:?)
+ l-'yV, ((J;:" -7- iJ/~~z ) ... 0 (8.1.5)

Taking into account relations (2.:l.2) for the potential function,

and also the condition of equality of the cross partial derivatives
(a 2fPlox ay = a2ff,'()Y ox, otc.), from (R.i.;'}) we derive an equation
for the velocity potential:

(Vi - a2 ) ::~ -T- (V~ - a:) :~ +(Vi _ a2) 8;:

~-2V:o:V!1 iJ~~:~ -:-2V:o:V: :::: .~2VyV, :;:1 =0 (8.1.6)

Equations (8.1.5) and (8.1.6) are the fundamental d(tjerential
equations of gas dynamics for three-dimensional steady gas flows. The
first of them relates to the more general case of a vortex (non-potential)
now of a gas, while the second is used to investigato only vortex-free
(potential) flows.
Since the flow over thin wings at small angles o[ attack is potential,
we can use Eq. (8.1.6) for the velocity potential to investigate this
ftow. To linearize Eq. (8.1.6), ,... hieh is a non-linear differential
equation, we shall introduce into it expression (7.1.::n for the speed
of sound, and also the values
V z = V"" +u, V!I =V, V l =w
Vi- = l'!. .!- 2V""u, V::::::::: v 2, 'Vl w2 ; =
After analysing the order of magnitude of the terms in the obtained
equation in the same way as we did in Sec. 7.1 when considering a
310 Pt. I. Theory ..... rodynamics of lin Airfoil .nd a Wing

(oJ f!l

Fig. 1.1.1 "

Thin wing In a linearized floVo"

nearly uniform plane flow, we obtain a linearized equation for the

"elocity potential of a three-dimensional di5turbE'd flow in the
following form:

louncllry ConciHlcns
Investigation of the Dow over a thin finite-span wing consists in
solving the linearized partial dHIerential equation (8.1.7) of the
second order for the velocity potential <f' at the given boundary
conditions. Let us consider these boundary conditions.
1. A wing in a linearized Dow (Fig. 8.1.1a, b) causes disturbances
that are concentrated inside the wave zone. This zone is limited by
a surface that is the envelope of Mach cones issuing from points on
the leading edge and having an apex (cone) angle of fl ... =
= sin- 1 (11M ",,). The boundary condition satislied by the solution
of Eq. (S.1.i) for the function <p' has the form
[~ . (x. y. ,)1, ~ 0 (8.1.8)
Acc-ording to this condition, on the wave surface (we shall designate
this surface by 1:) or outside of it, the disturbance velocities are
'Zero .
2. The solution for the additional potential cp' also satisfies the
boundary condition of flow over the wi ng surface S \vithout separation,
in accor dance with which the normal velocity component at each
point is 'Zero. i.e.

(V II)S =" ( :: )s = :: cos (~)

+"*" COs(~)+ :~ C05(i)=O (S.1.9)
Ch. 8. A Wing in " Supenonic Flow 311


The direcLion cosines of an outward normal to the surface are

found by formulas of analytical geometry:
/'-- /'-- /'--
cos (n, x) "'" -A iWtJJ', cos (n. y) A; cos (n, z) = -it araz
in which
,I ~ II ,- (a//8x)' + (8//0,)'1-'1' (8.1.11)
while the fUlIction I is determined by the shape of the wing surface
[the fllIlelion y -= lu (.1'. z) for the upper surface, alld y = Ib (x, z)
for the bottom ollei.
A linearized (nearly uniform) [low is reali~ed provided that the
wing is thin and, consequently, alliJx <: 1 and iJlliJz <: 1. According-
/'-. /'-- /'--
Iy, cos (n, x) = -afax, cos (n, y) = 1, and cos (n, z) = -iJlia:,.
The conditions (Utp':ax) allax <: 1 and (fflp' /iJz) iJ/liJz <t. 1 are also
observed in the flow over a thin wing. With this in view, (8.1.9)
can be written as
- V '"' alliJx ;-lJrf'/iJy = 0;
whence the boundary condition is
iJCf'.'ily = V,., fJ//a.T (8.1.12)
:t Till) low over a wing may he attended uy the developing of a
lift force who~;e total magnitude is determined by integration over
the surface of the values of the lift force acting on all elementary
surface {a part of the wing having a width of dz and a chord length of
b (z) (fig. 8.t.l)1. In accordance with (6.1.8), ami with the fact that
, '\' (x) dx equals tile circulation r in the section z being considered,
the lift coefficient for an elementary surface equals the "alue
= (2/V cob) r (z), whence the circulation in the given section
r (,) ~ O.5c;.V ~b (8.1.13)
According to the conpling equation (8.1.13) Isee (6.4.8)], UpOIl
moving to a neighhouring section with a dillerent lift coefficient.
the velocity circulation also changes. This change is
dr (,) ~ (dr/d,) d, ~ O.5V ~ Id (c;.b)/dzl d, (8.1.14)
In accorclauce with the vortex model of a wing treated in Sec. 6.4.
an elementary bound vortex belonging only to the section being con~
a12 pt. I. Theory. Aerodynomics of on Airfoil ond ., Wing

sidcred passes within the contour enclosing t.he adjacent section.

This vortex turns and is cast off the trailing edge in the form of a
pair of elementary free I)()rtices forming a vorU'x she<!t beJlind the
wing (Fig. 8.1.1). For a thin wing in a flow at a small angle of attack,
we may assume that the width of this sheet equals the span of the
wing, and that the direction of the free vortices coincides with the
free~stream velocity.
Physical notions allow us to establish the following boundary
conditions on a "ortex sheet. The normal component of a particle's
velocity Vn = fJep'/fJn remains continuous on the sheet. Since the
direction of a Ilormal on the vortex sheet differs only slightly from
the direction of the axis Oy, the derivative fJq/lfJn equals the quantity
fJ'P'/fJy. Consequently, we can write the condition
(a~'lay),_+o ~ (aq>'iiiy), __o (8.1.15)
in which the left-hand side corresponds to the velocity Vn directly
above the vortex sheet (y = +0), and the right-hand side, to the
velocity under it (y = -0). Hence, condition (8.1.15) expresses the
continuity of the function orr-'lfJy when passing through a vortex
In addition, the condition of the continuity of the pressure is
satisfied on a vortex sheet. According to (7.1.5'), we obtain the
that also expresses the continuity of the partial derivative fJcp'18x
when passing through a vortex sheet.
Let us consider the fiow over a wing with a symmetric airfoil
(yu = -Yb) at a zero angle of attack. In this case, there is no lift
force and. consequently, no vortex sheet. Owing to the wing being
symmetric, the vertical components of the velocity on its upper and
bottom sides are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign, i.e.
v (x, +y, z) = -v (x, -Y, z). On plane :cOz outside the wing, the
component v = 0, therefore
a~'liiy ~ 0 (8.1.t7)
Let us assume further that we have a zero-thickness wing of the
same planform in a flow at a small angle of attack. The equation of
the wing's surface is y = f (x, z). A glance at (8.1.12) reveals that
the vertical velocity components Vn = 8cp'/oy on the upper and
bottom sides of the wing are identical at corresponding points. Since
we arc dealing with a sufficiently small angle of attack of the wing,
the same condition can be related to the plane y = O. At the same
time, such a condition can be extended to the vortex sheet bebin"
the wing, which is conSidered as a continuation of the vortices in the
plane y = O. Therefore, at points symmetric about this plane, the
Ch. 8, A Wing in <I Supersonic Flow 313.

components Vn are the same, i.e. D<{l' (x, -y, = (hr' (x, +y, z)!
lay. Consequently, the additional polential an odd function
relative to the coordinate y, Le.
'1" (x, -y, ,) ~ - , ' ix, - y, ,) (8,L\8}
Accordingly, the partial derivative uq//Ox on tile bottom side of
the vortex sheet equals the value -chp'lux on the upper side. But
the equality of the derivatives U(v' 'OJ.' \\'as estaLdi.-;IJed from the COD-
dition of pressure continuity. This equality C<l1I be observed only
art' ax = 0 (8,t.19}
on the vortex sheet.
1. To establish the last boundary condition, let us consider the-
disturbed regiolls S rand S J (Fig. 8.1.1) that are cut off from the plane
y = 0 by the ~Iach wave surface and located outside the \\'"ing and
the vortex sheet. Over these regions of the plane y = 0 and within
tho limits of the wave ZOlle, the flow is continuous, therefore the-
potential q/ here is also a continuous fUllction. At the 5..'lme time,
taking illto accouut that by (8.1.18) the function q:.' isodo, we should
adopt the following: ('qual ion for the plane y = 0:
If' (x, 0, z) = 0 (8.L20}

Components 0' the Tol<ll Va'ue5

oflhe VelocIty PotentIals
and AerodynamIc CoeHlcienb
The solution of Eq. (8.1.7) for the lHJditiollal potenlial I.p' must
correspond to the considered bOllnuary condiliOlls. Tlli:> solution
can be obtained for a wing with a given plan form by summation of
two potentials: the first, ((I;, is fOHlld for an idealized flat wing 1
(Fig. 8.1.2) of the same plan form ;1.:; the given on(', but ,yith a sym-
metric air/oil, and at a zero angle of attack (r,l. = 0). The second
potential, ((I~, is evaluated for a different idealiwd cambered wing ::
0/ zero thickness, but for the given angle of attack a.
The surface of nn idealized symmetric airfoil ,\ing can be given by
the equation
and of a zero-thickness airfoil wing, by the 1!(luation of the surface-
of the mean camber lines of the airfoil
y =O.5Uu+/b) (S.L22}
Hence, the total potential of the given wing is
(~' =- q; .r' (I; (8, 1.23}
314 Pt. r. Theory. Aerodynamics of an AirFoil and a Wing

FIg. a.u
Linearized supersonic now over a fmite lhickness airfoil at an angle of attack (I.:
I-a 0= 0, symml'tric alrroil, and givl'n thickness distribution; 2-a =!' 0, u'ro. th.tckne~
(tb" airfoil colncid~s with thp mpan cltmbl.>r line); 3-a 0= 0, z~ro thickncss (the alr'oll coin-
cides wLth the mean cambt'r lm~); 4-a oF 0, zero thicknc$$ (the pl~lc airtoil colncid~s "'ilh
the chord)

The flow past wing 2, in turn, at a; *0 can be represented as a

flow past wing 3 with a uro angle of attack and a surface equation
y = 0.5 (fu + fb) and an additional flow superposed onto this one.
The additional flow is formed near wing 4 in the form of a zero thick-
ness plate coinciding with the chord of the initial wing having an
angle of attack a; (Fig. 8.1.2). In accordance with this flow scheme,
the total potential for the given wing is
~' = ~; + ~; +~; (8.1.24)
We can use this value of the velocity potential to calculate the
-distribution of the pressure coefficient
p = p; + Po + Po (8.1.25)
and then fmd the drag and lift forces. By (8.1.24) and (8.1.25), the
total drag of the given wing is composed of the drags produced by
wings 1, 3, and 4, Le.
Xa = Xl + X3 + X, (8.1.26)
Introducing the notation Xl -T- X 4 = XI and going over from the
forces to the corresponding aerodynamic coefficients, we have

q:'~w = q:;". + ~~~:4 q. .X~". + q:;".


Ch. 8. A Wing in ~ Supersonic Flow 315

In accordance with (8.1.27), the wing drag coefficient c"a consists

of the drag coefficient CliO of a symmetric wing at cVa = 0 and the
additional drag coefficient cx.; due to the lift force and calculated
for a zero-thickness wing at c y " * O. The coefficient C;r.h in turn,
consists of the induc(>d wav(> drag coeffi.cient calculated for the case
when the influence of vortices is absent and an additional induced
,oltex drag cocfficie-nt due to the span being Hnite anel to the for-
maliOIl in this connection of a vortex sheet behind the trailing edge.
By analogy with expression (8.1.2G) for the drag, let us gh'c in
the general form a relation determining the total magnitude of the
lift force of a wing }' a = Y 1 .- }':, I' Y4' A glance at Fig. 8.1.2
reveals that wing I baving 11 symm('tric airfoil and arranged at a
zero angle of attack does not create a lift foree 0'1 =O).Consequent-
iy, the total lift foree of the wing: is
1" a = }r:1 .!. Y'~ (8.1.28)
and the correspollllillg coefficient of this force is
Hence, according to the approximate Iinearizerl theory of Oow,
the thickness of a wing docs not aHect the lirt force. Wing ~ pro{luces
a constant lift force that docs not depend on tiw angle of attack. It
corresponds to the "alue of this forc(> at a zero angle of attack and 11
given concavity of a wing. A lift force due to the angl!' of at.lack is
p~oduced by wing 4- and, therefore, depends on the planform of the
The iindillg of tile pressure distribution, the resultant forces, and
the releyant aerodynamic coefficients with a ,'ie\\, to their possible
resolution into components according to formulas (8.1.27) and
(8.1.29) is the basic problem of the aerodynamiCS o[ a finite-span
wing in a nt'ariy uniform supersonic now.

Features 01 Supersonic
Flow over Wings

When determining the aerodynamic characteristics of wings, we

mnst t.ake acconnl of the features of the supersonic flow over them.
These features are due to the specifiC property of supersonic flo\\'s
in which the disturbancps propagate only downstream and within
tile con(ines of a disturbance (Mach) cone with all apex angle of
f-l "" = sin -l (1/Jl1 00)'
Let us consider a supersonic flow oyer a thin wing having an arbit-
rary plan form (Fig. 8.1.3). Point 0 on the leading edge is a source of
disturbance!' propagating dow.nslream within the conlines of a Mach
cone. The Macll lines OF and OG are both ahead of tile leading edges
318 Pt. I. Theory, Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Supersollic flow over n wing:

G-wlng with subsonic rdgr~; b- wing with sll~l'$onlc cdg\"s

(Fig. 8.1.3a) and behind them Wig. 8.1.3b). The arrangement of the
Mach Jines at a given wing planform depends on the number M ....
In the Jirst case, the nnmbcr M ... is smaller than in the second one,
and the angle of inclination of the Mach line ""OIl > nl2 - x (x is the
sweep angle). The normal velocity component to the leading eelge is
Vn ... =V""cosx. Since cosx<sin 11 ... = 11M"" and V OIl/a ... =
= M ... , the normal component V n... is evidently smaller than the
speed of sound. The flow of a gas in the region of the leading edge of
a swept wing for this case was considered in Sec. 7.6. This flow
corresponds to the sllbsonic flow over an airfoil that is characterized
by interaction between the upper and bottom surfaces occurring
through the Jearling edge. Such a leading edge is called 8ubsonic
(Fig. 8.U.).
Upon an increase in the now velocity, wben the tone of disturbance
propagat.ion narrows and the Mach lines are behind the leading edges
as shown in Fig. 8.1.3b, the normnl velocity component becomes
supersonic. Indeed, examination of Fig. 8.1.3b reveills that the angle
of inclination of the Mach line /1 ... < rr./2 - 1(, bence sin ~ ... =
= 11M ... < cos Y., anti therefore V n_ = V < cos X .> a-. Such a
leading edge ucalled 8uperBonic. The now over airfoils in the region
of the leading edge is of a ~upersonie nature whose feature is the
ab~ence of interaction between the hottom and the \lpper surfaces.
If the l-loch line coincides with the leading edge (x = ';[/2 - ~ ... ),
such an edge is sonic. It is quite evident that in thiscilse the magnitude
of the normal velocity componen t to the edge equall'! the speed of
Let us introduce the leading edge sweep paralllf'!ter n :"'- tan xl
Icot /1 .... For a supersonic. Jeading edge, cot ~l"" > tan x, therefore
Ch. 8. A Wing in a Supersonic Flow 317

n < 1. For suhsonic. and SOllie lending edges. we have n > 1 and
It -= 1. respectively. hecause! in the first rase rot !J."" < tan x and
in the second one rot J.l "" -- tan x.
By analogy with thli' J(lading edges, we can inlrodllce Ihe ronrept
of Sllbsoni('. "'onir. and sllpc>rsollie lips (side edgcs) and trailing edges
of a wing, Tip CD wilh all allale of illclinaion Vt to the direclion of
the free-stream relocity smaller tlutn the Mach anale (Fig. 8.1.3a) ig
called subsonic. The velorilycompollent normal to a lip CInd equal to
"n"" = l' "" sin Vt is lower thnn the speed of SOl1nd ill the giYen case.
Indeed. sincu a x ,V .'>in p"" nnd Pox
0 Vt. we ha\'c Vn < a"".

It is ohvious that the leading edge sweep parameter II > 1. The

part of the wing surface with a sllhsonic tip is inside !.he region cut
()[( by the 1I.-[ach rones is.'<ning from rorners A and C of t.he contour.
Owing 10 a subsonic normal velocity component determining the
flow o\'er this pari of the wing, air i:; ob"'en'ed to OYernOW the tips,
the result heillg II rh<1llge in the pressl1l'e di.'<\.rihntiOlI. Such UII innll-
enc() of the wiug tips 011 the now ovcr the wing as II whole is not oh-
served if the tips aresilpersonic. as when VI> J.l.,., (Fig, Fl,1.:1b), In
this case, t.he normal eomponent V" '" ,_ 1'..., ."in '\\ i.'< hight:'r than
the speed of SOHnd a"" - VoosiJl 1-1"".
Similar reasoning can be related to the trailing crlgc of the wiug.
Fig, X,1.3a shows a ."ubsonir trailing edge ('Vtr < J.1 ""; 1'" < a",,),

alld Fig, R.1.~/)-a supersonir on(' ('Vtr > 11 ... ; 1'" "" > 1I",),
The above analysis allow." one 10 e:-tablish the qnalilati"e differ-
ence between supersonic 8mi stlh:-onlr nnw over wing.". This differ-
ence manifests itself in the diHerl'nt influence of the tips and trailing
edges on the now over thli' entirl' wing surface. If in a ~upersollir
flow. the tips and trailing edges do 1I0t afiect the flow o\'er the wing
(Fig. 8.1.3b), or this innuenr,e i.-;. limited to the part of the surface
adjoining these tips and eugt:'s (Fig. 8.1.3a), in a subsonic. flow the
action of the tips aud trailing edges manifests itself on the entire
surface because the di."turbances can propagate both downstream
and u pstrt:'am.

8.2. Method of Sources

To sol"e the problem on determining the aerodynamic characteris-
tics (Pl' cxo) of a thin symmetric airfoil wing of an arbitrary pI aliform
in a Hearly uniform silper."onic flow at a zero angle of attack (c v -::: 0),
we shall usc the method of sources.
Sources ill an incompressible fluid are treated in Sec, 2,9. The
velocity potential of the incompressible now from a point source at
the origin of eoorriinates of the system Xlc. Ytr. Z(C' aecording to
(2.9.14), is
Ifle = -qte/ (4;r. Yrte + Yfe : zle) (8.2.1)
818 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airloil and a Wing

where qlc is the flow rate of the source, i.e. the volume of fluid flowing
out of the source in unit time.
The method of sources deals not with individual point sources,
but with sources continuously distributed over a part of a plane.
usually the coordinate plane xOz.
Let dqlc be the elementary volume flow rate of the fluid produced
by the sources 011 the small area dalc = d~IC in the plane xOz.
I-Ienc.e the derivative dqlc/dole = QIC' known 8S the density (or
intf'nsity) of !';ource distribution, determines the strength of the
sources per unit area.
If v is the vertical component of the velocity on the area dUIe
(the plus sign signifies that the fluid is discharged upward from the
sources, and the minus sign-downward), the elementary volume
flow rate is evidently dqlc = 2v dalc and, therefore.
QIC = 2v (8.2.2)
The following potential corresponds to an elementary source:
dqJlc= - QIC du,c/(4n V zic -~- yfc + zlc) (8.2.3)
using this expression, we can obtain a relation for the elementary
potential of a source in a subsonic compressible flow. To do lhis, let
us consider Eq. (8.1.7) and introduce the new variables
xlc=xtV1-M~, YJc=Y, Zlc=-Z (8.2.4)
With the aid of these variables, Eq. (8.1.7) is transformed as follows
o21Jl'loxlc + o2rp'loyfc + a2!p'lazfc =-: 0 (8.2.5)
This expression coincides with the continuity equation (2.4.8') for
an incompressible flow. Consequently, the problem on the compres-
sible disturbed flow in the coordinates x. y, and Z can be reduced to
the problem on an incompressible disturbed flow in the coordinates
Zlc' Ylc. alld ZIC. both systems of coordinates being related by con-
ditions (8.2.4).
Accordingly, we ('an go o"er from potential (8.2.3) for an elemen-
tary source of an incompressible fluid to the relevant potential for a
subsonic source of a compressible fluid. To do this, we shall flOd
the relation between the small area dolC on the plane XICOZIC in the
in('ompregsible flow and the area du on a corresponding plane in the
compre5SibJe flow. Using (8.2.4) (with the substitution of ~ for Ilc
and t for ZIP) and lhe expression dolc :-: d~,C dt, C' we fmd that

d, d,
dUlc -= d dt (1/V1 - M!.). whence, taking into account that
~ do, we find

Let us transform the expression for QIC in (8.2.3). Thecomponent
Vic = {)!P'I{)YIC' or with a view to (8.2.4), Vic == {)qJ' /(jy. It thus follows
Ch. 8. A Wing in " Supersonic Flow 319'

Disturbed flow due to a supersonic source:
"t the right-a )lnch (oislurbantf!)c:onl' In a rt'alsupt>rsonic now, at till' lell-an "inverte$
Math ~"olIe"

that in a compressible flow. the vclocity componcnt v the-

component ViC in an incompreflsible flow. TIencc. the density of source-
distribution in a compre.c;sible and incompressible flows is the some,
With account taken of the relations obtained for A ('ompressibJe-
flow. (8.2,~) is transformed to tho following expression:
d~'-Qda/[4n]/'z' ,(1 "l~)(y', z')) (8.2.8)
We can COllvince ourselves by direct substitutioll that the huution
q/ is an integral of Eq. (8,2,5). It does not matter whether the velocity
is subsonic (M ... < 1) or supersonic (M ... > 1). III Ihe latter ca!'le. it
is convenient to write the expression for the elemeutary potential as.
d~'- -Q da/[4n]/,z'--a"(y'c "JJ (8.2.9)
where (Z,'2=M!.-1.
Examination of expression (8.2.9) re\'eals that whell M <to> 1 it
has real values in the region of space where ;r: ~ (1:: (y~ .-:- Z2). This
signifIes that the region of i'lonrce influence, i.e. the region of disturbed
flow experiencing thE'!' actioll of the~e MUf('es, il'l inside the couical
surfaco represented by the equation .1'2 - a.'2 (yZ -;- ZZ). If a poillt is
outside this surface, the sourCE'!'S have un influellce 011 it. Hert' there-
is no disturbed Row from a gh'en source.
Formally, tbe equation x,2 = Ct'Z (yl! + z~) dE'!'lermincs the Sllrfaces
of two aligned cones (Fig. 8.2.1) with their \'ertice!'l at the origin of
coordinates, and. consequently, the strength of a !<ource Q do is
used to produce disturbed flows inside these cones. In a real case,
supersonic disturbance., propagate only downstrf>am aod only inside
one cone (the right-hand one in Fig. 8.2,1).
The disturbed flow in such a cone is determined by a potential
double that given by (8.2.9) because the entire strpngth of the source.
320 Pt. J. Theory. Aerodyn"mics of an Airfoil and a Wing

Fig. 8.2.2
Region of influence of supeI1lonic sources

and not half of it, is realized in the flow confmed within the Mach
cone. Accordingly,
In the considered case, the elementary area da ~ d~ d with the
.sources is at the origin of coordinates. If it is displaced with respect
to tile origin of coordinates to a point with (he coordinates x O.=: Ii
and z ,.", ~, Eq. (8.2.10) has the form
d~' ~ - Q dol (2o< V'(x---,"')"--a'''-''[yO'-+-(,-z----.,=)'1J' (8.2.11)
When studying the flow over a wing, its surface is replaced with
a system of disturbed SOUfCC5. To obtain the potential due to these
sources at arbitrary point A (.:c, y, z) (Fig. 8.2.2), we must integrate
(B.2. "11) over the region a in which only part of the sources are located.
Eacll of these sources inflILen('es point A (x, y, z) if it is inside a !\[ach
COlle with its vertex in the source. Hence, the region affected by the
sources (the region of integration) is in the zone of intersection with
the wing surface of an "inverted Mach cone" with its vertex at point
A (x y, z) being considered.

In a simpler case, point A alld the source are located, as can be

seen from Fig. 8.2.2, in the same plane y ----' O. In this case, the
affected zone coincides with the region of intersection of the wing
and the ~Iaeh lines issuing from point l'vl (x, z), while the region of
integration 0" is on the wing and is the intersection of the wing sur-
face with the im'erted plane Mach wave having its vertex at point
A (.1", z).
Having determined the integration region cr, we evaluate the
total potential at point A (x, y, z):

Ch. 8. /II Wing 'in a Supersonic Flow 321

By t',alculating the parlial ucrh'ative of If' (8.2.-12) with respect to

oX, we fmd the additional axial velocity tomponent:

~-u-~ Q(~, t)(z-ild~d;

QZ - - 2n j).

l/{lz S)l a;':I. (: [II~: ;PW


We use this value to determine the pres~ure coefficient Ii =

= -2u1V_ at the eorresponding point.
Let us introduce the new ("oordinates
In these coordinates. expression (8.2.12) bas the form

,. y,. . ) -
1 -
!)I lit (III ~)'

In a particular case for points on the wing ~urface Wl = 0), the

additional potential bl
~'(z.. O. ")~ _-..!.. r
2tt J0
I ,l Qt<, ')",d,
(rl lO.)t {II QI

where by (8.:L7)
The expressions obtained for the potential fUllction allow us to
calculate the distribution of the velocity Ilud pressure over the
surface of a thin wing if its plnnform. airfoil ("onfiguration, and the
free stream Ilumber M are given .

3, Wing with Symmetric Alrloll

and Trlangu. . P.antorm
(%=.:0. cy .. ~O)
Flow over _ Wing '_nel
wHh Subsonic leading Ed.e
Let us consider a supersonic flow at a zero angle of auack over a
wing panel with a symmetric airfoil that is a triangular surface in
which one of the side edges is directed along the x-axis. while the
trailing edge is removed to infinity (such a panel is also called aD
infinite triangular half-wing, }<'ig. 8.3.1). If such a surface has a
subsonic leading edge, the Mach line issuing from \'ertex 0 is ahead
of this edge.
The now parameters at small angles of attack a; can be determined
by replacing the surface in the now with a system of distributed
sonrces on the plane y = O. Let. us consider arbitrary point P on the
surface and evaluate the velocity potential at this point by arld-
322 Pt. 1. Theory. Aerodynamics of lin Airfoil lind II Wing

Triangular wing with a subsonic leadin, edge

ing up the action of the sources in region OAPIJ conlined by the

leadiugOA aud side DB edges, and also by the Mach linesAP aud BP.
We determine the strength Q (s, ~) of the sources by formula
(8.2.7) in which according to the condition of now \.... ithout separation
we have v AV where J,. = dy/dx is the angular coeflicient of
'0 0<),

the wing surface. lIenee

The velocity potential at point P is determined by formula (8.2.12).

Performing the substitution Q :-: 2J,.V and assuming that y = O~

we obtain
Cf = -~ (I Y(XI' ,)1 o:'l{zp ')~
d,d, (83
. . 1)

where Xl' and Zp arc the coordinates of point P.

This integral takes into account the acHoll on point P of 80111'
located on the area 0 equal to region OAPB that can be represented
as the slim of two sections: OAPJ{ aud HPH. Accordingly, the in-
tegral !fl' (8.3.1) can he written as the sum of two illtegrals:
<p'"" A~~ r II f("
,)d,d,+ II 1. ()d,d,]

II" ')_[(x._')'_~"(z._,)'r'i2 (8.3.3)
On section OAPH, integration with respect to for each value of
~ --= ~1must he performed from S = sc -.
~ tan x to S = SD =
= Xp - ct' (zp - ~), and integration with respe(,t to ~ from 0 to Zp.
On section BPB, integratioll with respect. to S, for which the value
of ~ = ~2' must be performed from S - ~F ;..: ~ tan x to S = SE ""
= Xp - a' (I; - zp), and integration with respect. to ~ from Zp to
Ch, B, A Wing in ~ Supersol'lic Flow 323

Zn = (Xp -+- a'zJ'("X' -J_ tnn x), lienee,

[J d, ) ,)d,
Ip .Tp-tt'(JJ.>-;l
'r'~ - ;.~~ ft!,
o ; t~n )(
'1) .Tp-,;r.'(t-ll'l

-'- Jd, ) 1(" ,)<I'J (8.3.4)

'1' ttl'lnx

Tho indcnrfiLe integral

Jf (s. ~) d~ = J 1/(xl' ~)~ ~fl.'~ (zp ;)i


Using this exprp~sion and introducing the main \'alue of the in-
tegral, we obtain the following formulll for the potential fUllction:

, 1I.l''''%i
II' .-"",~ .. cos I
a'lzp-",1 ...
( ..

By rairulating Ihe partial Ileri\'ali\'c Qlp':OX, we lind t.he com-

ponent of the additional velocity at point P in the dirertion of the


i'lj/ 11.1"... f d; (8.3.7)

1l=7j"i"" c-=~ ~ V(zp ;tany.)S a'l(zp ~)2

Taking into aeroullt t.hal. Lan x > a' (cot !!""), we lind as II result
of integration that
:t V~ CO~h-1 ;r(~~it:;~~:z:) (8.3.8)

To facilitate the ("lirnlations. we shall inLrociure the angle e

del('l'milll"ld from the condition Lau 0 . 41' '.(;>, Clnd the nose lingle
Ilf the leading edge y . ~ ,1(':2 - x (Fig. H.3.2). In addiHon, let. liS
introdurc the Ilotlltion
n - tan Kia' .. " tan I.l ,..,/tan '1.
Zp tan x/,t'p . tan O' l'

With this taken into accounl. we havc

Il= - :ta' ~=z_t cosh-I 1!1I(~-=~) (8.8.0)

and tho presSUl'il coefficicnt is

p= - ~: = :ta' ::3_1 cosh- t 1111(21-=.(1) (8.3.10)

324 pt. I. Theory. Aerodyn"mics of IOn Aidoil "nd " Wing

Now let us consider point N outside of the wing between the Mach
line OK' and the x-axis (.see Fig. 8.3.1) and calclliate for it the
velocity that is induced by the sources distrihuted over the wing
surface. To do this. we shall \l~e fonmlia (S.:1.1) determining the
velocity potential. Taking into a,connt that till.! action of the sources
on point N is confined by the region rJ = O/.!. we obtain the expres-
~'~ - ),~~ ll/(U)d,dc (8.3.11)
where the function f (. s) is determined hy relat.ion (8.3.3). Inte-
gration with respect to; for each value of S .= ~3 lllust he performed
from = R = S tan x to .= T = X;-.1 + Ct' (ZN - s), and in-
tegration "..-ith respert to C, from 0 to ZJ. Hence,
ZJ "'NHt'(lN-t)
~'~ - '~~ Jo d, tunx
J I (;, c) d, (8.3.12)

where ZJ = (XN +a'zN)/(a.' + tan x).

By integrating and using the main value of the integral, we obtain
cp'= ),V"" r cosh-1 .t;;-ttanK d s
n ~ a IZl'>-~1

This expression i~ similar to (8.3.6) with the djfference that the

coordinate zJ is taken as the upper limit of the integraL By cal-
culating tlte derivative UIfJ'/ux and integraLillg, we obtain relation
(8.3.9) for the component of the additional velocity. We must assume
in it that cr < 0 because the coordinatezN is negath. e. In calculations,
the coordinate ZN may be assumed to be positive, and, consequently,
0> O. If we take the magnitudGS of tan x, then to determine the
Ch. 8. A Wing in oBI Supersonic Flow S2ij

f~'riu~~~ of sources on the velocity oulside a wing

induced ... clority we may use Eq. (H.3J) in whidl 0 ~hoilltl he taken
with the opposite sign. The \vorking relalion 1I0W be('ome;<:

u,..,. -- .,'X' ~,72_'1 cosh- l ~1;1~;~cr) (8.3.13)

Thc IlreSSlll'C roefficicllt ill the region being (~onsiderell is


The sources (listl'ibuled o,'E'r the wing also induce n \'t'Jorily in

the region between the "Iar.h line OK and the leading subsonic edge
(Fig. B.3.a). Tht! magnitude of this velority at a point L is deter-
mined by the sources distributed on region DUG. We fllld the corre-
sponding potential fUII('tion by ('xpres.o;ioll (8.3.12) in which we must
iJllrodllce the ('oorilillatc %\. instead of ZJ. and replace the quantity
IX ~ ex' (:1" -~) with Ihe valut xL - -:L' (ZL - ;) equal to the
longitlldinal coorllinate or point R (Fig. 8.3.:i). lIence.
~? XL -O\'(:L-~)

q.' --' - A~"" 1(l~ J l (s. ;) ds (8.3.15)

11 t tan K

where :e ~ (XI. - cx'zd:'(tan x - -x').

Integration yieJds

'f' .," ~ ;~ cosh-l .t'L -;;. tan K dt

., J ,=,' \~I.-~I ~

By evaluntillg the del'i ,athe d'F' ;{).x and then perforUling inte-
grnt.ion pro\'ided that 0 ::"" ZI. tnn x/xp > 1, we obtain the following
326 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of oSn Airfoil and a Wing

FIg.. I.U
Pressure field for a trianllular
wing with a subsonic learling

formnla similar to (8.3.9) for the additional vclor.ity component:

u= - :la' ~~ cosh- t n"(:-=-G1) (8.3.16)

where n>o.
We lISC thc value of this vclocity to fllld the pressurc coeflidcnt:

p= - ;: = ;1'];' :~ cosh- t (8.3.17)

Figurc 8.3.4 shows the ficld of pressur('.<; for a \\ing witll a trianglllar
planform having a sub!;()nic Icading edge. The pr('ssure roefficient
along the Mach lines is zero. On the leading edge, the theoretical
pressure coefficient equals infinity. The physically possible pressure
can be considered to be sufficiently high, corresponding Lo the stag-
nation pressllreatasubsonic vclocity whose directioll roincides wilh
a normal to the Icading edge.

Triangular Wing Symmetric

about the .xAlls
with SubsonIc Leading Edges
The velocitr at POtut l' of a triangular wing symmelric aDout the
,x-axis and having snbsonic leading edges (Fig. 8.;~.5) is determined
by snmmating the action of ::'OUf(',CS ill region OHPA' confmed by
leading edge::. Oil' and ON and hy Mach linesPA' and PB. The \'Bloc-
ity induced by t.he sourccs distributed on section OAPE is detel
mined by formula (13.3.9). Tile sourccs distributed in region OilA'
produce (tt point P a \'elocity tllat is ('alcuialed by exprcssion (8.3.13).
The total Yalue of tile velocity is

u= - :1(:1;' ~~:2_1 [cosh- J :It;~_aG) -i-cosh- I nll(zl~.GG) J

Ch. 8. A Wing in a Supersoni(; Flow 927

Fig. L15
Triangular wing s~'mmetric about the z-axis with subsonic leading edges

This upre.!=sion can be transformed a$ follows:

It= _~('OSh-l1/ II~-(f~ (8.3.18)
na.'~ r t-o~
Formula (8.:1.18) is suitable for tlte rOTldition~ 11 > 1 > o.
We C(I;Il determine the pressur(! cocllident with the aid of (6.1.5)
according to thc .known Y(I;luc of the additional velocity component:
p~_' _~= 41. cosh-t'l / 1/
2 __ a2 (8.3.19)
VOO 1IU' yn~-1 V i-a!
Point /. located bet.ween the leading edge and the Mach wave
(Fig. 8.3.5) is inl1uence(l by t.he sources distributed on section OUG'
of the wiug. The ,'clodty induced by these !'OlilTes ran be calculated
as tll(l slim of the velocities induced by the sources in region aUG
(formula (8.:1.16)1 and by the sources distributed in triangle 000'
[formula (8.3.13)[.
U= - 111];' ~=2_1 [cosh-I ,;,~~(1) +cosh- I 1:1;~~~(f) J
or nfter transformations
u= _ 211.... 00sh-11/ tI~-1 (8.3.20)
Ita' yal-I 0 2 _1

The corresponding pressure coefficient is

p= U.
eosh- 1 1/r 1I~-1
r 0 1 -1
where n > a> L
328 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynllmics 01 lin Airfoil lind II Wing

SemllnfinPe Wing
with Supersonic Edge
For such a wing (Fig. 8.3.6), Mach line OK issuing from a vertex
is on its surface. Consequently,
n/2-x>ll.." taox<a.', n=tanx/a.'<i (a'=cottl""=V.M',,,,-i)
Let us consider the velocity at point L on the \ving between the
leading edge and :;\-Iach line OK. Since the side edge (tip) of the
wingcoiocidingwith the x-axis is outside the Marh line drawn through
point L, no influence of the side edge is observed on the flow at this
point. This flow is the same as over (I' f1(1t plate in a flow directed
along II. normal to its leading edge nt. the supersonic velocity 1'n"" =
= V "" cos x > a"". By expression (i.G.S) and the formula p =
= -2u/V"'" the additional velocity component is
U = -AI'"" cos xiV.lI!, ros 2 iC

M!,. = a.'z +1 and 1 - L'cos z x = -tan 2 x
we have
u = -AV""IV a.'2 - tanz)(
" ~ -/-V ~/(a' Vl=n') (8.3.22)
The relevant value of the pressure coefficient is
p= -2uIV"" = 2A/(a' Vi _ nZ) (8.3.23)
Formulas (8.3.22) and (8.3.23) may be applied for n < 1 and
Let us calculate the \'elocity and pressure at point P between
Mach line OK and the side edge. If we assume that this point belongs
to a wing whose vertex is at point C (Fig. 8.3.6), the velocity would
be calculated with account taken of the influence of only the leading
edge and, consequently, of the sources distributed in region PCH.
By (8.3.22), this velocity is
"PCII ~ -)'V~/(a' VI - n') (8.3.24)
To find the actual velocity at point P belonging to the wing with
its vertex at point 0, we must subtract from (8.3.24) t.he velocity
induced by sources distributed in triangle ACO and having a strength
of the opposite sign. The magnitude of this \'elocity is determined
by means of formula (8.3.i). Substituting Zc = (xp - a'zp)/(tan iC-(t')
Ch. 8. A Wing in II Supersonic Flow 329-


TriaDgular wing with a supersonic edge

for the upper limit ZB of the integral, aftI'I" integriltioll we obtaill.

M'... '~ d;
UAOC=~ ~ V;2(tan2x_a'2) 2~(Jptanr. :t'tZI'J . .c!' a'2=i,

:t va~:~tan2x COS-I ::~:: ::~:~:) (8.3.25)

Taking into account that n = tall x:-x' and 0 = Zp tau x/xI', we


The total value of the additional velocity at point P is

u=UPCH-UAOC":: - ,=,' V';-n 2 [1- + COS-I II(J(~-~:J ] lS.3.27)-

and the pressure coelTicient is

p=- ~: =:t' ~f.l_!!2 [1-+co.,,-1 "o(;-:~) I (8.3.28}'

where 0 < n < l.

The indu('ed \'clol'ily at point .V, bl'\we('l1 :\111("11 \\il\(' OK' and
the side edge is determill('d b~' 51l1nmatiOll (If thl' adioll of the :<OIlf('(,S
distributed on sllrfa('e ~ection OEF con filled by leculing edge OF,
side edg~ OF:, and \Iach line RF drawn throll~h point .Y.
To calrulate thl:' wlodly. WE' ~hall use formula (8.3.2;)). in wlli("h
we 5hatl rl:'placl' t.he upper limit Zc of till' inlegra1 with the qllantity
Zp = (IN .:. 'J:'Z,,). (Ifill Y. :- a.'). alll1 Ill(> ("ooJ"(linl1l's Xl' and z""
.330 Pt. r. Theory. Aerodynamiu 01 an Air/oil and a Wing

Pig. 1.3.7
Pressure Held for a semi-infinite
triangular wing with a super-
sonic lending edge

witll the rele"ant "alues Xx and ZN' Inlegration yiclds

uOEF~ - ., l/::~':tan:)( cos- j ~:\~.~n_:~~~:::J (8.3.29)

Introducing the symbols (J and n, we have
UOEF = - :la' \';7'_11 2 cos- j IInt,~.(J(J) (8.3.30)
where (J < 0, n < 1. and I a I < n.
If we adopt positive values of Z:-; /lnll (J -'" ZN tall x/xt-> and take
absolute values for n, the additional \'clocity is
u= - :let' ~~; __ II: COS-I l"t,"':"'..(JO) (8.3.3!)

and the pressure coefficient is

p= - ~: = na' ~ cos- J :'tl_':_(J(J) (8.3.32)

The pressure field for a semi-infinite triangular wing with a super-

sonic leading edge is shown ill Fig. 8.3.7. Between the leading edge
and the internal Mach line, the pressure is constant, then it lowers,
and on the external l\-lach line reaches the value of the free-stream
pressure (jj = 0).

TrlaJtlulu WIng 5,......rfc

about the ,x.AliI
with Supenonlc LeitClllJtl Edges
The velocity and the pressure coefficient at point L (Fig. 8.3.8)
between !\lach wave OK and the leading edge are determined by
formulas (8.3.22) and (8.3.23), respectively, because the now at
this point is affected only by edge OR. These formulas may be applied
for the conditiolls n < 1 and 1 > (J > n.
Ch. 8. A Wing in " Supersonic Flow 331

Fig. 8.].8
Triangular winq symmetric about thl' .r-axis with Supl,!f$onic leading etlges:
J-/lfacll hrw: 2-mnximuln thickness I",,,

The v('locity <It point P Ihal i~ within the ~lach augle is affcdcd not
only by Ihe leading edge. hUI al:o;o b~' the trailing nnt! :;ide edges of
thE' wing. The n,loritr due to lhe iutlnem'e of the leading E.'dge and
pRrt OA of the maximum tltickllC!<S lilll! (Fig. R.~.H) is determined
br fol'tlwlll (8.:t27), whilc tllc \('Iodt~ ilulm'etl tlr the source!'! di!o'-
tribllted ovel' region 0-1 'A is ('\'aluilled by p;,>:prcssion Ui.:J :11). Adding
(8.3.27) and (fLLH). we oblain the total n']orit.\ (It point ') of a .~ylll
metric wing:

It'-_ - 0;' ~:~~ "~__ r1 +cos- J "n(l JI~) ++co_~-! 1I1\'I-~<J(J) J

or after Iransfonnlltiolls,

u .. -' - ct' ::};~J'~ (1 - -+ sin-! 1 (8.:U3)

The c.orresponding Ilt'CS):il\l'f.-' cocf[icirnt is

p= - ~.:. _ ~. ';~_II~ (1 - -+ "in-! 1/ - ';l~a~') (H.3.o1)

8.4. Flow over a Tetragonal Symmetric

Airfoil Wing with Subsonic Edges
at OJ Zero Angle of Attack

By u:o;ing the formulas for dell'rmining the yclodtr And pressure

on the surface of a II'iangular willg, we {"an Cah'\llate the now at a
z(,ro angle of .. Ilark O\'cr willg:-; with II symml'trir ail'foil and nn arbi-
332 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamic$ of an Airfoil and a Wing

FI,. B.4.t
Tetragooal wing with a symmetric airfoil nod subsonic edges

trary planform. Let 115 cOllsider the tetragonal wing shown in Fig. 8.4.1.
A left-hand s1'stem of coordinates has been adopted here and in some
other fIgures to facilitate the spatial depicting of the ,.... ing and the
arrangement of both the sections being considered and the reqnired
notation. We shall assume that for SItch 11 wing the leading aud trailing
edges, and also Tntlximum thickness line CBC' are subsonic. Acr.ording-
11', the sweep angles Xl' Xa of Ihe leading and trailing cdgc!> and the
anglc X2 of the maximum thickness line nre larger than 11./'2 - fLoo.
The distributioll of the vclodtr and pressure O\'er an airfoil depends
on where the latter is along thc wing span. i.e. on the laterAl C,OOf-
dinate z of the section.
Airfoil FL (z = z,). Four Dow regions, namely, FG, GH, HJ,
and J L, should be considered all thc airfoil. Region FG is confined
by point F Oil the lcading edge and point G at thc intersectioll of a
Mach Jine with the coordinate plane % --' %1' Point G is considered
to be on plane zOx and is determined, cOllseqll('ntly. as th(' point of
intersedion of the :'tIach line issuing from the projection fl' of point
Jj onto plane zOx and of the straight line z . %1 (Fig. 8.4.1). The
"elocity and pressure eoefficient in region FC behind !\Iach line OKo
on the sllrfa('c of the wing are dE'termined wilh the aid of the distri-
hution of Ihesources in IriangieOCC' hy the relevant formulas (8.3.18)
and (8.3.10).
Ch. 8. A Wing in o!I Supersonic Flow aaa
Since the inclination of the sUl'fact:" is "1 in accordance with (8.3.19)
we h.\\(\

PPG= :ta;' ~~COSh-1 V' ~f~o~r (8.4.1)

where lit ~ tan x, '''-' . O't .-c z. tan x, .1"1' and It is the l'unning coor-
dinate of the point.
The drag coefficient of the airfoil corresponding to region FC is
cx. ~'G = ~ ) (Pu.L Pb) d.l.'1 (8.4.2)
where b is the local chord of the profile.
pu.+Pb=2PFG. 0',,..; :\I:~)tl,

dO', = _ z\ l:~ . :, dJ.', == - =1 ::~ . :\ cri

we have

where O'IP = Zl tan XI/XF --,:: Land O'IG ".---= :::1 tan x.JxG
Region Gil is acted upon by the di:;:tl'i\.Jution of the source:;: in
triangle OCC' with a strenglll of Q = ::!t'll".", alHl in triangle BCC'
where the strength of the sources Q = 2 (A.~ - I-I) 1-coo (the sign of
the angle 1.,2 is opposite to that of I_I)'
Since region GH is hehino ;'o,Iach line OKa within the limits of the
wing, the pressure coefficient due to tllC distrilliited sources in region
OCC' must be calculated with the aid of formula (8.3.19). The in-
fluence of the distribution of sonrces in triangle BCC' on the pressure
coefficient should be taken into acconnt with the aid of relation
(8.3.21) because region GH is outside triangle BCC' between Mach
wave B' KB and edge nc. Hence,
PoH= __4_A'__ cosh-t' I nl-oi
;ta;'~ V t-ol
-1- 4 (A.s-).t) COSh-I' I nl-1 (8.4.4)
mx' Vn~-t V 01-1

where n2 = tan X2/a.'; O'~ = z. tan y.~Ix~, and X2 is the coordinate

measured from point B nllo equal to X2 = Xl - XB.
334 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil <'Ind <'I Wing

Using formulas (8.4.2) and (8.4.4), let ItS oe-termine the drag coeffi-
cient corresponding t.o region Glf:
O,lI __

C,.;. OH = b:~,z';:'~i ~\ I J cosh-

J V/ '~i~:l . do?
(lzil __

80';:~\~A,:;~~n ~2 ) CO.~h-1 V :~=! . ~~2 (8.4.5)

where 0"2H and 02G are cvaluated relative to point II.
Slimming (8.4.3) and (S.Ll) and tnking into account that
0IP'"""' z, ~~~x' c-,-, L om _~ III t;:X\ == X:~~:~l~'XI
02G = :, 1;(: %2 "-' tan 11.", tan )(2 -= I";.XB =~, (J~H""" z. ;; x~ = 1
we obt~in
Cx, }'H -= Cx, Fe: rex. all
II tlln)(l

'V '~i-=-;.f
.Tn+71 tlln )(2

8Jfz, tall XI r coc;h-I

b:ta' Ylli--l ~
, --
Xd:r, 8(A:.'1-:~!~n)(1) casICt}/'" :~=~ .~~z (8.4.6)

Let us a~<;urne
that part of cho;;; HL (wc presume that point H
is 011 line JJC) equals rb. where r is a dimensionlegg coefficient of
proportionality determined from the condition T = B'Dib o (here /Yo
is the central chord). Therefore. for Sllrface ORe, the part of chord
FH will be (1 r) b.
Since a part of centrlll dlOrd R'D {'l]uals Til". the remaining part
OR' equals (1 - r) boo The angle.<; arc
"-I = 'X/2 (1 - r). "-2 -;1.'(2T) (R.4.7)
WhCrC X ~ IJ./b o is the relative thid;ness of the airfoil.
Taking int.o tlcc()unt the values of AI and "-2 we elln write formula
(S.1.6) a.<;:
Ch. S. A Wing in '" Super~onic Flow 335

The velocity on line HJ is induced hy :-OllfC('S of the strength Q =

= 2~1 V"" distributed in triangle 0('(" flnd by :-:ollrces of the ."trength
Q '-' 2 (~2 - "1) V"" distributed over region /ICC'. Tile lir:-t di.~tri
bution of the !'ollrces gi"es risc to tllf' pres.'illrC {'oeffident nt\clliated
by formula (a.3.H.I) in which we 11111,-.t aSRHHle thill iI. ;"1,1/ =- 11\.
and (1 -~ (11' The pressure coefficient (lue to the inOIlt'IKe of the sprond
distribtltion of the ~otlrces is 1'1150 found with thr aid of fOl'tnula
(8,3.HI) ill which we musL as!'>llllle lilat I. ;"2 - i'l' II f/2, alld
(J '"'" 0"2' Summation of the pressun' ('oeJ1iriellls yie\(ls

- _ 4AI I _I .. / nl-of
['HJ- na.'V ni- 1 COSI V I-('f[

-i :t::A0J~~) 1 COSh-I V r
lit ~~; (8.4.9}
C!'>illg forJllllla (8.4,5) in which w() mllst replace the "alne of A}
with I.: and taking into account that
A] = 6./12 {1 - T)I, 1..2 - I.] = - K~1I2r (1 - r)1. 1..2 = - ~(2r)
n l = tan x/a', n2 = tan x.ja'. 0'1 = %1 tan xlixi
Oz = 22 tan xz!J-~, J'H ~ Xl .:&; .t'.l> x; = Xl - J'u
we obtain
__ 24tzl [tanxi Gj1J cosh-I / JJi-o.r il(1,
"r(l- r):l'x' Jll-'!
V 1-0, --or-
(J~.J __

- ~ j eo~h-1 V nl~-:l' dO~2 ] {8,4_10~


where (12 i!' C,'"llIlILcri l'ellllivc to poillt /l_

On J/. we take inlo UCCCIHlll lhe illfillC'nce of 1II1'l'e di5trilHlliOIl,~
or the SOlll'('(!S, lIamely, 011 trillngular Sllrf,l('CS OCC' _ flCC' ali(I neG',
The Hr5l. two distl'ihl1l.iolls give ri~0 10 111(' pre:-:slll'C' coefficienl deter-
milled with the aid of formula (8.".~J) ill which (1\ (';\Iell'
lflted relative to points () and n.
n_~rectiHI~'. TII(' (-ueffi
rienl of pl'essII1'c iuilu('cd by the ~ollrces II istri hlllpd 0\'('1' l'I'g-iOll DCC'
with a ~LL'el1gth of -A2 I!'> fOlllH1 wilh till,' nid of rurlllllill (S.:t:!t)
in which we 1Il11."l aSSIIIII(> that ;,' A~. u "3' illHI (1 (1:1'
Silmmilig 1I1(' pre:-sllrc coefficients due to all three soul'ce disll'i-
blltiolls, we obtnill
Poll =, 4AI cosh-! V" 1'1- (Iii -t ~ ().,~-).,1)
:w;' y'1I~-1 1- (11 "o;t' ~

V n~-fJi .!i).,l 1-1"'/"'iii'=T
t_()'I-l'1a,~cosl V 0:-1
( )
336 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynlmics of an Airfoil and a Wing