The Heritage of Brown Coal

Industry in Saxony/Germany
International Scientific Symposium
The Industrial Heritage of Ptolemaida as a lever
for sustainable development: The case of LIPTOL
Ptolemaida/Greece, 11-12 March 2017

Prof. Dr. phil. habil. Helmuth Albrecht

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Historic Brown Coal Mining Districts in Germany

Deposits in use

Deposits out of use

Main historic deposits:
1. Rheinland (3 open pit mines)
2. Westerwald
3. Wetterau
4. Kassel
5. Helmstedt
6. Mitteldeutschland (3 open pit mines)
7. Niederlausitz (4 open pit mines)
8. Oberlausitz (Poland)
9. Malliß
10. Finkenherd
11. Schwandorf
12. Oberbayern
13. Egertalgraben (Czech Republic)

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
2
D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Brown Coal Mining Districts in Germany today (2015)
Helmstedt-District
1,8 million tons/year
2,9 TWh / 390 MW

Lausitz-District
61,8 million tons/year
55,2 TWh / 7.466 MW
Rheinland-District 4 open pit mines
93,6 million tons/year
77,5 TWh / 11.366 MW Middle German-District
3 open pit mines 20,9 million tons/year
20,2 TWh / 3.344 MW
3 open pit mines

Overall capacity of deposits: 77 billion tons, deposits in use: 4,4 billion tons,
annual coal production: 178 million tons, annual production of electricity: 155,8 TWh,
capacity of power plants: 22.566 MW
TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Brown Coal Mining Districts in Saxony

2
B

1
A

3

1. Leipzig-Halle
Saxony+Sachsen-Anhalt
2. Niederlausitz
Saxony+Brandenburg
3. Oberlausitz
Saxony+Poland
A Power Plant Lippendorf
B Power Plant Boxberg

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
4
D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Brown Coal Mining Districts in East Germany

2 Lausitz brown coal mining district

1 Middle German brown coal mining district

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Brown Coal Mining Districts in Saxony: Leipzig-Borna

City of Leipzig

Open pit mine
Power plant
Profen
Lippendorf

Open pit mine
Vereinigtes Schleenhain

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Brown Coal Mining District in Saxony: Leipzig-Borna
History
1704 First discovery of brown coal → mining started with
small mines
1854 First incorporated enterprise
1864 First stock corporation
1870 Deep mining became dominant
1884 First briquette plant
1889 First miners settlement
1892 First larger open pit mine
1898 First overburden excavator
1912 Open pit mining became dominant
1920 First bucket-wheel excavator
1921 First large open pit
1924 First conveyor bridge
1927 Power plant Böhlen (largest worldwide)
1935 First Lurgi-smoulder plant
1942 Power plant Espenhain
1950 Start of landscape redevelopment
1966 First open pit with belt transportation
1990 Closing of most briquetting plants
1994 Foundation of the restoration company for the middle
German mining district

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Brown Coal Mining District in Saxony: Leipzig-Borna

Open pit mine Vereinigtes Schleenhain

13 open pit mines (operation time)
• Borna-Ost/Bockwitz (1960-1992) • Peres (1963-1991)
• Borna-West (1910-1970) • Profen (1941 until 2035)
• Cospuden (1981-1991) • Schleehain (1949-1994)
• Deutzen (1910-1963) • Vereinigtes Schleenhain (1949 until 2040)
• Espenhain (1937-1994) • Witnitz (1911-1993)
• Groitzscher Dreieck (1974-1991) • Zwenkau (1921-1998)
• Haselbach (1955-1977)

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Open Pit Mines in Saxony: Vereinigtes
Schleenhain

• Annual coal capacity: 9-11 million tons
• Annual waste capacity: 25-30 million tons
• Annual water pumping: 35-40 million m3
• 16 devastated municipalities (since 1949)
TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Brown Coal Power Plants in Saxony: Lippendorf

1926 First power plant at Böhlen
1965 Old power plant Lippendorf (4 x 100 MWel)
1999 New power plant Lippendorf (2 x 933,6 MWel)
TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2 10
D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Brown Coal Mining Districts in Saxony: Niederlausitz

Open pit mine
Jänschwalde

Open pit mine
Welzow-Süd

Open pit mine
Nochten

Power plant
Lippendorf
Open pit mine
Reichwalde

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Brown Coal Mining District in Saxony: Niederlausitz

History (Saxony, Brandenburg)
1789 Discovery of the first brown coal deposits
1815 First underground mine (failure)
1851 First mines opened
1872 First briquetting plant
1894 First public power plants
1898 First waist chain dredger
1900 Around 60 briquetting plants
1906 Open pit mine Marga
1907 Garden town Marga (miners settlement, built until 1915)
1908 Briquetting plant Marga I (until 1991)
1912 Briquetting plant Marga II (until 1992)
1913 Open pit mine Werminghoff I (until 1945)
1918 Briquetting plant Werminghoff (until 1993)
1924 First waist conveyor bridge
1926 Power plant Plessa (until 1992)
1934 Open pit mine Werminghoff II (until 1960)
1950 Open pit mine Werminghoff III (until 1968)
1958 BHT-Plant Lauchhammer (high temperature briquetting)

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
12
D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Brown Coal Mining Districts in Saxony: Niederlausitz

30 open pit mines (operation time)
• Bärwalde (1973–1992) • Niemtsch (1938–1966)
• Bluno (1955–1978) • Nochten (1968 until 2045)
• Burghammer (1959–1973) • Reichwalde (1985 until 2045)
• Cottbus-Nord (1978–2015) • Scheibe (1984–1996)
• Dreiweibern (1981–1989) • Schlabendorf-Süd (1975–1991)
• Gräbendorf (1981–1992) • Schlabendorf-Nord (1959–1977)
• Greifenhain (1936–1994) • Sedlitz (1926–1980)
• Jänschwalde (1974 until 2041) • Seese-Ost (1983–1996)
• Kleinleipisch (1946–1980) • Seese-West (1962–1978)
• Klettwitz (1951–1991) • Skado (1939–1977)
• Klettwitz-Nord (1984–1992) • Spreetal/Tagebau Hoffnung III bzw. Brigitta (1908–1983)
• Koschen (1953–1972) • Spreetal-Nordost (1983–1991)
• Laubusch/Grube Erika (1918–1963) • Welzow-Süd (1962 until 2040)
• Lohsa (1950–1984) • Werminghoff I (1913–1945)
• Meuro (1960–1999) • Werminghoff II/Tagebau Glückauf II (1934–1960)
TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2 13
D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Open Pit Mines in Saxony: Nochten

• Annual coal capacity: 19 million tons
TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Open Pit Mines in Saxony: Reichwalde

• Annual coal capacity: 12 million tons
TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Brown Coal Power Plants in Saxony: Boxberg

1966 First power plant Boxberg
1980 Upgrading to 3.520 MWel
2000 Plant IV (900 MWel)
2012 Block R (675 MWel)

Old power plant
(1993-1998 closed)

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2 16
D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Brown Coal Mining Districts in Saxony: Oberlausitz
Berzdorf mining district
1835 Underground mining at Berzdorf
1919 Open pit mining at Berzdorf
Berzdorfer Lake
1927 Flooding of the Berzdorf open pit
(former open pit mine)
1946 Reactivating of the Berzdorf open pit mine
1997 Closing of the Berzdorf open pit mine
2002 Again flooding of the Berzdorf open pit

Hirschfelde Power Plant
1911 Power Plant Hirschfelde I (3.200 KW)
1918 Hirschfelde II
1925 Hirschfelde I and II (110 MW)
Power Plant 1937 Hirschfelde I and II (156 MW)
Historic
Turów (Poland)
Power Plant 1942 Start of the extension of Hirschfelde II
Hirschfelde 1950 Supply of coal by open pit mine Turów in Poland
(until 1968)
Open pit mine 1960 Hirschfelde II (330 MW)
Turów (Poland) 1992 Closing Hirschfelde II → monument protection →
museum
TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Monuments of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony:
Flooded former open pit mines
Leipzig-Borna mining district Oberlausitz mining district
• Cospuden (321 ha) • Berzdorf (679 ha)
• Witznitz (1.875 ha) • Olbersdorf (60 ha)
• Zwenkau (970 ha)

Niederlausitz mining district
• Bärwalde (311 ha)
• Bluno (630 ha)
• Burghammer (904 ha)
• Dreiweibern/Lohsa (3.585 ha)
• Koschen (905 ha)
• Scheibe (725 ha)
• Spreetal (3.452 ha)
• Werminghoff I (138 ha)

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Monuments of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony:
Flooded former open pit mines

Leipziger New Lake District (23 lakes)

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Monuments of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony:
Flooded former open pit mines

Lausitzer Lake District (7.000 ha)

IBA Project 11: Swimming Houses

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Monuments of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony:
Buildings and technical structures

Power plants

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Monuments of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony:
Buildings and technical structures

Briquetting
plants

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Monuments of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony:
Buildings and technical structures

Smoulder plant Bio-towers of a coking plant

Railways

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Monuments of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony:
Buildings and technical structures

Excavator Bucket excavator Tool and gear wagon

Conveyor Bridge Stacker
TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Ferropolis (open cast
Middle German pit Golpa-North

Route of Brown
Coal
Great Goitsche lake

ROMONTA refinement

Cosbuden lake

Mining landscape
Dehlitzsch

Geiseltal Lake

Markkleeberg and
Störmthal lake

Zwenkau lake
Open cast pit Profen

Open cast pit Schlehenhain

Mining waste tip Trages

Briquetting plant Zeitz Nature reserve open cast
pit Bockwitz

25
Power station Lippendorf Coal railway Meuselwitz
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

FERROPOLIS – The City of Iron
Open air museum of large brown coal mining machinery at the
former open mine pit Golpa-Nord – founded in 1995

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Mining-Technology-Park at Leipzig New Lake District
Public association founded in 2002 (area of 5,4 ha)

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

IBA – International Building Exhibition
Fürst-Pückler-Land (2000 – 2010)
25 projects for the redevelopment of a former brown coal mining landscape

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

IBA – International Building Exhibition
Fürst-Pückler-Land (2000 – 2010)
25 projects for the redevelopment of a former brown coal mining landscape

IBA Visitors Centre Großräschen Power Plant Plessa Bio-Towers Lauchhammer

Conveyor Bridge F 60 Energy Factory Knappenrode (briquetting plant)

TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Industrial Archaeology Projects of the IWTG (TU Freiberg)
in the Saxon Brown Coal Regions

Documentation of the building and machinery of the Power Plant Hirschfelde (2015)

Documentation of the compactors of the Energy Factory Knappenrode (2016)
TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Challenges, achievements and problems of the redevelopment
of the former brown coal mining landscape in East Germany
Organisation
• National level: Ministry of Economics + Ministry of Environment
• State level: Saxony, Thuringia, Sachsen-Anhalt, Brandenburg
• Local level: Active mining companies (2), LMBV (redevelopment company)
Financing
• Old GDR mining areas: LMBV → area of 120.000 ha, 1992-2017 = 10,67 billion €
• Active mining areas (till 2050): Mining companies
Achievements
• Ecological and economic redevelopment of two large former mining areas (1992 ff.)
• Development of two attractive tourist areas
• Preservation of important technological and industrial heritage (partly)
Problems
• Ecological: Water management, water quality, pollution, stability
• Economic (Lausitz): Deindustrialisation, migration, ageing
• Heritage: Financing, political interest
TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2 31
D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie
Albrecht: Heritage of Brown Coal Industry in Saxony/Germany

Thank you very much
for your attention
TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Institute for Industrial Archaeology, History of Science and Technology (IWTG) | Silbermannstr. 2
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D-09599 Freiberg/Germany | Tel.: 03731 / 39-3406 | www.tu-freiberg.de/fakult6/technikgeschichte-und-industriearchaeologie