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0 Introduction

1.1 Background Study

As a measure of a liquid's resistance to flow, viscosity can be thought of as

friction inside the liquid. If, for example, you try to ride your bike with the hand
brakes on (a form of friction), it is difficult to roll the bike forward. The resistance
to motion is high. Likewise, in highly viscous liquids (those with high internal
friction), the resistance to flow is high.

Much as mass (material) is transported within fluids (gases and liquids), linear
momentum is also associated with transport, in this case, due to gradients in

1.2 Research Question

How does the different liquids density affect the viscosity of fluid from selected
liquid in term of resistance to Batu Pahat environment temperature?

1.3 Aim of Study

To investigate the influences of different density of liquids on the selected liquids

to predict how the material will behave in the real world and level of flow rate.

1.3 Significance of Study

Viscosity is the resistance to flow, so higher viscosity fluids flow more slowly at a
given level of force pushing them along. Viscosity has internal friction of fluids,
which causes the fluids to appear thicker when flowing. Knowing a fluid's
viscosity makes its flow rate predictable under certain circumstances.

2.0 Literature review

2.1 Terms and Concepts




Terminal velocity

Reynolds number

Inverse relationship

Direct relationship
2.2 Equation used

2.2.1 Viscosity equation


(the lowercase Greek letter mu, pronounced "mew") is the liquid's

viscosity, in newton-seconds per meter squared (Ns/m 2).

is the difference in density between the sphere and the liquid, in

kilograms per meter cubed (kg/m3). (the capital Greek letter Delta)
means "change" or "difference," and (the lowercase Greek letter rho,
pronounced "row") means density.

g is the acceleration due to gravity, 9.81 meters per second squared


a is the radius of the sphere in meters (m).

v is the average velocity, defined as the distance the sphere falls divided
by the time it takes to fall, in meters per second (m/s).

3.0 Procedure

Experimental Procedure

Preparing Glasses for the Marble Race

1. Measure down about 2 cm from the top of each glass with the ruler, and
mark the 2-cm location with the water-soluble marker.

2. Fill each glass with a different test liquid, all the way up to the 2-cm mark.

Racing Marbles

1. Hold two marbles level with the tops of two glasses. Hold two marbles
level with the tops of two glasses also.
2. Drop your marbles at the same time and see which marble hits the bottom
first and which one hits the bottom last. Record observations in notebook

Marble Retrieval and Cleanup

1. Place the strainer over a bowl or container that you can use to temporarily
store a

2. Pour the contents of a glass (the liquid and the marble) slowly into the

3. Retrieve the marble from the strainer, and wash and dry the marble, glass,
and strainer.

4. Repeat these steps for each of your other liquids, until you have retrieved
all of the marbles.

Preparing the Graduated Cylinder to Measure the Viscosity of Each Liquid

1. Fill the graduated cylinder up with one of the liquids to a level 5 cm below
the top of the cylinder.

2. Measure down at least 2 cm below the surface of the liquid and mark a
starting line on the graduated cylinder with the marker. The starting line
needs to be lower than the surface of the liquid to allow time for marble to
reach its terminal velocity before start taking measurements.

3. Measure up from the bottom of the graduated cylinder, approximately

5 cm, and mark an ending line on the graduated cylinder with the marker.
(ending line not at the bottom)

4. Measure the distance between the starting point and the ending point.
Record this distance in notebook. This is the distance that will use to
calculate the speed of the marble as it travels through the liquid.

Analyzing Data Chart

1. Calculate the average for the five time trials for each liquid and enter it in
data table.

2. Calculate the average velocity for each liquid by dividing the distance,
measured in step 4 of preparing the Graduated Cylinder to Measure the
Viscosity of Each Liquid, by the average time it took to travel that
distance. Record calculation in a second data table

3. From the viscosity equation, Calculate , the difference in densities

between the marble and each liquid, by using the values in Table 2.
Record each calculation in your data table.