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A reaction turbine is a type of turbine that develops torque by reacting to the pressure or
weight of a fluid; the operation of reaction turbines is described by Newton's third law of motion
(action and reaction are equal and opposite). In a reaction turbine, the nozzles that discharge the
working fluid are attached to the rotor. The acceleration of the fluid leaving the nozzles produces
a reaction force on the pipes, causing the rotor to move in the opposite direction to that of the
fluid. The pressure of the fluid changes as it passes through the rotor blades.

Based on the experiment that have been conduct, it was started by turning on the
computer, analysis software and interface module. The regulator valve was slightly opened
before switching on the pump. The guide pulley was loosened prior to the experiment, and was
tightened slowly as the experiment was running. The experiment began with adjusting the
regulator valve at the hose connection until the speed reading on the computer reads 2000 RPM
( 200). After obtaining the desired speed value, the START button on the computer screen was
clicked and the guide pulley was slowly tightened, with occasional stops, making intervals of
200-400 between the speed readings. The STOP button was clicked as the speed reaches 0 min -1.
The results were then saved and the experiment was repeated with speeds of 3000 RPM, 4000
RPM and 5000 RPM.

From the graphs of torque against speed that was plotted for 2000rpm, 3000rpm,
4000rpm and 5000rpm respectively, it shows that the value of torque decrease when the speed is
increases. The results achieved for the highest value at speeds 2000rpm, 3000rpm, 4000rpm and
5000rpm was 1.22 Ncm, 1.32 Ncm, 1.53 Ncm, and 2.1 Ncm respectively while the lowest torque
achieved was 0.58 Ncm, 0.56 Ncm, 0.62 Ncm, and 0.58 Ncm respectively. Basically, the torque
value will increases as the speed decreases. Therefore, the value of torque obeyed the theory as it
is increases when the speed decreases. This means that under no load conditions, the water slides
by the impeller surface without transferring any energy because they are moving at nearly the
same speed.

Based on figures of electric power against speed that have plotted for 2000rpm, 3000rpm,
4000rpm and 5000rpm respectively. It shows that the highest value produced for each speed was
94.14 W at 1562.98 rpm, 73.04 W at 3027.34 rpm, 196.09 W at 530.27 rpm and 247.65 W at
3179.19 rpm. The kinetic energy is converted first into mechanical energy as it is then supplied
to the generator to be converted into electrical energy. As the speed increases, the electric power
produced increases. So, the increase in power output against the theory.

From the graphs of efficiency against speed was plotted for 2000rpm, 3000rpm, 4000rpm
and 5000rpm respectively. It shows that an increase manner when the speed increases over time.
The highest efficiency produce was 0.1007% at 1562.98 rpm, 0.16002% at 2541.01 rpm,
0.2084% at 2574.21 rpm and 0.187% at 3179.19 rpm respectively. The efficiency of any turbine
or engine can be defined as its ability to convert the input energy into useful output energy. An
ideal turbine with 100% efficiency is the one which converts all its input energy into output work
without dissipating energy in the form of heat or any other form. Therefore, as the speed
increases, the efficiency increases. Thus it against the theory.

During the experiment, there are errors that affected the result which is the operator
tightens the tensioning bolts too fast and cause radical increase of load applied to rotor part.
Thus, causing the errors in the value obtained. Next, the equipment or machine used in the
experiment has low efficiency due to low maintenance. The computer takes a very long time to
start and this also shows that the equipment need to be updated and causing the errors in result
obtained and did not match the standards.