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Cornell Notes Topic/Objective: Name: Matthew Hammonds

Class/Period: 4th
Date: 2/12/17
Essential Question: How did Mendel help us to study genetics through hybrid crosses?
Main Idea Key Words Important things
Questions: Notes: Everything that is living has a set of characteristics that are passed down using
asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. Gregor Mendel was an Australian Monk
that oversaw the monastery garden. He then started experimenting on plants. Mendel
How is Mendel? L1 is called the father of genetics where he worked with pea plants. While working with
` his pea plants he created phenotypes and genotypes. Mendel wanted to see what
would happen if he forced different true breeding plants to reproduce sextually. A
phenotype is the physical characteristic of the gene and a genotype is the about the
genetic makeup and the specific alleles of the gene. In every gene, there are only two
alleles. These genes can come in three different way: homozygous dominant,
homozygous recessive, and heterozygous. When going through generations you
would call the original genetics P (parental) generation and the offspring is called F1
and the offspring of F1 is called F2 and it just keeps going on and on. During his
Can you explain experiment, Mendel concluded Principle of Dominance which is that some alleles are
how dominant and others are recessive. An organism with a dormant allele will always
Mendel affected exhibit that form of the trait. An organism with a recessive allele will only exhibit that
Genetics? L2 trait if it has two copies of the recessive allele-one from the mother and one from the
father. In the plants the F1 plants would all have dominant genes and F2 generations
had a lot of recessive phenotypes. This helped with Mendels 3rd conclusion which is
each organism has two copies of gens. Mendel realized that the alleles for each trait
segregated from each other during the formation of gametes which can also be an
independent assortment. This would allow different combinations of dominant and
recessive alleles to come together during fertilization. This is Mendels fourth and
conclusion, the Law of Independent Assortment. Monohybrid Cross are the cross of
How are
the genotypes of your mother and your father. The crosses also use a punnet square.
monohybrid
There are six different monohybrid crosses that can be combined to an extend:
Crosses related to Homozygous recessive and Homozygous recessive that has a ratio of 1:0 that is 100%
Genetics? L3 recessive and 1:0 100% did, Homozygous dominant and Homozygous dominant that
has a ratio of 1:0 and 100% DD, Homozygous Dominant and Heterozygous which for
phenotypes be 1:0 100%dominant and genotype ratio of 2:2 50% DD and 50% Dd,
Heterozygous and Heterozygous which phenotypes are 3:1 with 75% Dominant 25%
recessive Genotype was 1:2:1 25% DD 50% Dd and 25% dd, Homozygous recessive
and Heterozygous which phenotypes 2:2 50% dominant 50% recessive and genotype
is 2:2 50% Dd and 50% dd, and finally homozygous dominant and Homozygous
recessive the phenotype is 1:0 100% dominant and genotype is 1:0 100% Dd.

Summary:
Questions: Notes: There are more types of dominance in genes which can be incomplete
dominance and co-dominance. Incomplete dominance is the blending of different
Can you elaborate
dominant genes. An example of incomplete dominance is a pink flower. A red and
the
white flower work on incomplete dominance where the colors red and white would
Reason of create a pink color. Co-dominance is where both dominance are present. An example
incomplete of co-dominance is a dotted flower where a few petals can be red while another few
Dominance and petals are white. Dihybrid cross is just like a monohybrid cross just has a four by four
Co-dominance? L3 punnet square. Thre are many steps in having a Dihybrid crosses. First a person would
want to find out the genotypes of the parents, then a person would want to foil out the
alleles which were then put on a dihybrid cross that would combine everything. Then a
What information person would show the percentages and ratios of the phenotypes and genotypes of
can the genes.
You gather to
support
Your idea about
Dihybrid crosses?
L4

Summary: Mendel was an Australian monk that experimented on pea plants. Mendel came up with the baseline and
structure for genetics. Mendel would create alleles and genes so that there could be explanations for different
looking generations. To have inheritance the genes would have to have punnet squares and crosses. There would
be six types of monohybrid crosses. Mendel would help others create and see incomplete and co-dominance in the
future.