Phylum Bryophyta

Non- Vascular PlantsMoss
Bryophyta means “mosslike plant”

Bryophytes is a collective term used for the three “amphibious” plant groups:
mosses, liverworts and hornworts. They are considered the first non-vascular land
plants. They do not have the vascular tissues or tubes that facilitate the transport of
substances, which is the reason they are described as non- vascular. This plant
cannot grow tall due to the absence of vascular bundles. They are mostly prostrate
to the ground.
There are 3 Groups of Bryophytes
 Mosses (12,000 species)
 Liverworts (6,500 species)
 Hornworts (100 species)
 Most are 2-5 cm tall and less than 10 cm
 have multicellular sex organs, i.e. the gametes are enclosed by a sterile
jacket of cells
 are parenchymatous, not filamentous
 retain the zygote within the female sex organ and allow it to develop into an
embryo there
 have cutin (a cuticle) on the plant and spores
 Reproduces asexually or vegetative
 Stems, roots and leaves are found on the gametophore

Bryophytes, in contrast,
 have no lignin usually
 are small, low-lying, (generally) moisture-loving plants
 have no roots, only filamentous rhizoids

The Relationship of Bryophytes to Other Groups
 Transitional between the charophycean green algae (charophytes) and plants
( bryophytes and vascular plants)
 Both groups contain chloroplast and well developed grana
 Both have motile cells that are asymmetrical with flagella that extend from
the side rather than the end of the cell
 Like the rest of land Plants, bryophytes produce an embryo- embryophytes
 Evolved from green algae ancestors
 Related to charophytes
 Group of simple land plants
 Moist habitat
 They are widely distributed throughout the world
 Usually thrived in cold and moist habitat

Life Cycle of Moss
Alternation of Generations
• Sporophyte Generation: produces spores (asexual)
• Gametophyte Generation: produces gametes (sexual)
Gametophyte Generation
1. The top of the male gametophyte bears the antheridia which produces sperm
2. The top of the female gametophyte has one or more archegonia which
contains the ova
3. Sperm swim from the antheridia to the archegonia and fertilizes an ovum
Sporophyte Generation
4. Zygote grows into a stalk with a capsule which produces spores
5. When mature the cap comes off and spores disperse
6. Spore grows when environmental conditions are right
7. First grows into a cellular filament called a protonema
8. Protonema then forms the leafy shoots and rhizoids

Benefits of Mosses
• Help to replenish the soil
• Help to prevent soil erosion

• Peat moss or Sphagnum is used by gardeners to pack plants for shipment and in Iceland and other northern regions it is used as fuel • Has been used for surgical dressing Parts of a moss plant Rhizoids Leafy Shoot Life Cycle of Moss Examples of Bryophytes Moss Liverworts Hornworts .